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Sample records for alaska satellite facility

  1. Routine Ocean Monitoring With Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Obtained From the Alaska Satellite Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, W. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, X.; Friedman, K.; Monaldo, F.; Thompson, D.; Wackerman, C.; Scott, C.; Jackson, C.; Beal, R.; McGuire, J.; Nicoll, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has been processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for research and for near-real-time applications demonstrations since shortly after the launch of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite in 1991. The long coastline of Alaska, the vast extent of ocean adjacent to Alaska, a scarcity of in-situ observations, and the persistence of cloud cover all contribute to the need for all-weather ocean observations in the Alaska region. Extensive experience with SAR product processing algorithms and SAR data analysis techniques, and a growing sophistication on the part of SAR data and product users have amply demonstrated the value of SAR instruments in providing this all-weather ocean observation capability. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting a near-real-time applications demonstration of SAR ocean and hydrologic products in Alaska since September 1999. This Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) has shown the value of SAR-derived, high-resolution (sub kilometer) ocean surface winds to coastal weather forecasting and the understanding of coastal wind phenomena such as gap winds, barrier jets, vortex streets, and lee waves. Vessel positions and ice information derived from SAR imagery have been used for management of fisheries, protection of the fishing fleet, enforcement of fisheries regulations, and protection of endangered marine mammals. Other ocean measurements, with potentially valuable applications, include measurement of wave state (significant wave height, dominant wave direction and wavelength, and wave spectra), mapping of oil spills, and detection of shallow-water bathymetric features. In addition to the AKDEMO, ASF-processed SAR imagery is being used: (1) in the Gulf of Mexico for hurricane wind studies, and post-hurricane oil-spill and oil-platform analyses (the latter employing ship-detection algorithms for detection of changes in oil-platform locations); (2) in the North Pacific

  2. Near-Real-Time, Global Radar Data at the Alaska Satellite Facility DAAC from NASA's SMAP Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, S. A.; Allen, A. R.; Dixon, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission, which launches in January 2015. SMAP will measure global soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state every 3 days using an L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometer. ASF, along with the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC and NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS), is identifying and developing tools and technologies to facilitate use of global, near-real-time data by the SMAP user community. ASF will host the SMAP Level 1 radar data and make them available for download through ASF's data discovery interface, Vertex, and the ASF Application Programming Interface. Vertex allows a user to search, visualize and download SAR data, browse images and relevant metadata, and will offer the complete SMAP L1 radar archive to the public. The entire SMAP archive consisting of level 1-4 data can be accessed via Reverb, the NASA EOSDIS metadata and service discovery tool. In anticipation of the SMAP launch and data release, ASF has developed and released a new website (https://www.asf.alaska.edu/smap/) and a suite of web resources, including interactive media, technical information, a product guide, related publications, and tools for working with the HDF5 data format. The ASF SMAP team is exploring OPeNDAP and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Webification technologies for enhancing in-browser data visualization and analysis. These technologies, and tools developed with them, represent opportunities for exposing this valuable dataset to areas with limited bandwidth or understanding of radar data. This presentation will highlight the enabling technologies and techniques ASF is employing to bring these data to new scientific and applications users and respond to ever-changing user needs.

  3. Sentinel-1 Data System at the Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC) has a long history of supporting international collaborations between NASA and foreign flight agencies to promote access to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for US science research. Based on the agreement between the US and the EC, data from the Sentinel missions will be distributed by NASA through archives that mirror those established by ESA. The ASF DAAC is the designated archive and distributor for Sentinel-1 data. The data will be copied from the ESA archive to a rolling archive at the NASA Goddard center, and then pushed to a landing area at the ASF DAAC. The system at ASF DAAC will take the files as they arrive and put them through an ingest process. Ingest will populate the database with the information required to enable search and download of the data through Vertex, the ASF DAAC user interface. Metadata will be pushed to the NASA Common Metadata Repository, enabling data discovery through clients that utilize the repository. Visual metadata will be pushed to the NASA GIBS system for visualization through clients linked to that system. Data files will be archived in the DataDirect Networks (DDN) device that is the primary storage device for the ASF DAAC. A backup copy of the data will be placed in a second DDN device that serves as the disaster recovery solution for the ASF DAAC.

  4. Alaska Satellite Facility: The Quest to Stay Ahead of the Big Data Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labelle-Hamer, A. L.; Nicoll, J.; Munk, S.

    2014-12-01

    Big Data is getting bigger. Fast enough is getting faster. The number and type of products produced is growing. The ideas on how to handle the day-to-day management of data and data systems need to scale with the data and the demand. We have seen the effects of rapid growth spurts at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and anticipate we are not done yet. Looking back, ASF was conceived in 1982 to be a single-purpose imaging radar receiving station supporting a science team focused on geophysical processes. The primary construction at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) was completed in 1988 and full operational status achieved in 1991. The expected supports were estimated at 10 minutes per day and quickly grew to 70 minutes per day. In 1994, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between NASA and UAF formed the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) complementing, the existing agreement for ASF. The demand for the use of ASF as a receiving station and as a data center grew as fast as, and at times faster, than the capabilities. Looking forward, as demand drives the system larger just adding on more of the same often complicates rather than simplifies the system. A growing percentage of efforts and resources spent on dealing with problems that originate from a legacy system can creep up on an organization. This in turn limits the ability to keep the overall sustaining costs under control and leads to a crisis. Such growth means more-of-the-same philosophy has to shift into change-or-die philosophy in order to boot strap up to the next level. In this talk, we review how ASF has faced this several times in the past as the volume and demand of data grew along with the technology to acquire and disseminate it. We will look at what is coming for ASF as a data center and what we think are the next steps to stay ahead of the Big Data wave.

  5. Back to the Future: The Modernization of the Alaska Satellite Facility Data Access Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garron, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) downlinks, archives, and distributes remote-sensing data, specializing in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data access. People interested in ASF data access the data holdings through the User Remote Sensing Access interface, or URSA. URSA is a user-friendly, relatively intuitive, data search and order interface designed for on-demand processing of the SAR data holdings at ASF. URSA remains a popular interface with the SAR data community, however lessons learned and technological advancements since the release of URSA in 2006 have indicated that the next generation of user interface for these data is warranted. In addition, ASF is creating a new paradigm of accessing ASF data products through an online archive. The next generation user access interface, known internally as URSA 2.0, will bring the user experience in line with this new paradigm. The new release of URSA will support expedited user access to ASF’s restructured data archive to registered users in a single click download procedure for individual granules, or an entire set of search results. A single login for the ASF Web sites will ease information management for both the user and the ASF staff, creating the framework for future integration with the proposed Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) profile authentication systems. Additional features will include full and swift metadata exchange with Earth Observing System Clearinghouse (ECHO), resulting in links for the non-geospatial aspects of individual projects that have been defined by area and discipline. In support of new missions and newly available data sets, ASF is developing a generic data ingest mechanism that will be able to deliver data from disparate sources into the ASF archive. This presentation will define the practicable breadth of each of these components and provide an opportunity for feedback to the team supporting the development of the URSA 2.0.

  6. Radiometrically Terrain Corrected ALOS PALSAR Data Available from the Alaska Satellite Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, T. A.; Nicoll, J.; Laurencelle, J.; Hogenson, K.; Gens, R.; Buechler, B.; Barton, B.; Shreve, W.; Stern, T.; Drew, L.; Guritz, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Data Center (ASF DAAC) now offers a suite of geometrically and radiometrically terrain corrected data products derived from ALOS PALSAR, processed using the Gamma Remote Sensing software package. Radiometric terrain correction (RTC) addresses two aspects of the effects of side-looking geometry of SAR imagery. First, the geometric distortions are corrected using the best digital elevation model available for a given region. Second, the radiometry is adjusted in the affected foreshortening and layover regions using the pixel-area integration approach for radiometric normalization. The RTC process provides improved backscatter estimates that can be used as input for applications such as the monitoring of deforestation, land-cover classification, and delineation of wet snow covered areas. RTC products are distributed at two resolutions. RT1 products with a pixel size of 12.5 m are generated from high-resolution and mid-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). RT2 products are generated at a 30 m level for all available DEMs. Layover and shadow masks as well as incidence angle maps are available for both product resolutions. Products cover landmasses generally from 60 degrees northern latitude to 59 degrees southern latitude. An exception to the rule is the inclusion of all of North America. Excluded landmasses are Greenland, Iceland, Antarctica, and northern Eurasia. Since scientists are generally interested in quantitative measurements that are referenced to the ground, products are distributed in σ0 power. All RTC products are geocoded to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, provided in GIS ready GeoTIFF format and downloadable from the ASF DAAC.

  7. Science plan for the Alaska SAR facility program. Phase 1: Data from the first European sensing satellite, ERS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, Frank D.

    1989-01-01

    Science objectives, opportunities and requirements are discussed for the utilization of data from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the European First Remote Sensing Satellite, to be flown by the European Space Agency in the early 1990s. The principal applications of the imaging data are in studies of geophysical processes taking place within the direct-reception area of the Alaska SAR Facility in Fairbanks, Alaska, essentially the area within 2000 km of the receiver. The primary research that will be supported by these data include studies of the oceanography and sea ice phenomena of Alaskan and adjacent polar waters and the geology, glaciology, hydrology, and ecology of the region. These studies focus on the area within the reception mask of ASF, and numerous connections are made to global processes and thus to the observation and understanding of global change. Processes within the station reception area both affect and are affected by global phenomena, in some cases quite critically. Requirements for data processing and archiving systems, prelaunch research, and image processing for geophysical product generation are discussed.

  8. Alaska's giant satellite network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, A.

    1983-07-01

    The evolution and features of the Alaskan telecommunications network are described, with emphasis on the satellite links. The Alaskan terrain is rugged and largely unpopulated. Satcom V provides C-band (6/4 GHz) transmission with 24 transponders, each having a 40 MHz bandwidth. The Alascom company operated 105 4.5 m earth-based antennas for remote villages, which receive both telephone and television services. There are also 27 10-m dishes for regional and military applications and a 30 m dish, one of three dishes for links to the centerminous U.S. Currently, half the villages have private and business telephone communications facilities and 200 villages have access to two television stations, one educational, one entertainment. Teleconferencing is possible for government and educational purposes, and discussions are underway with NASA to establish a mobile radio communications capacity.

  9. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  10. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zhang, X.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    A case study and monthly statistical analysis using sounder data assimilation to improve the Alaska regional weather forecast model are presented. Weather forecast in Alaska faces challenges as well as opportunities. Alaska has a large land with multiple types of topography and coastal area. Weather forecast models must be finely tuned in order to accurately predict weather in Alaska. Being in the high-latitudes provides Alaska greater coverage of polar orbiting satellites for integration into forecasting models than the lower 48. Forecasting marine low stratus clouds is critical to the Alaska aviation and oil industry and is the current focus of the case study. NASA AIRS/CrIS sounder profiles data are used to do data assimilation for the Alaska regional weather forecast model to improve Arctic marine stratus clouds forecast. Choosing physical options for the WRF model is discussed. Preprocess of AIRS/CrIS sounder data for data assimilation is described. Local observation data, satellite data, and global data assimilation data are used to verify and/or evaluate the forecast results by the MET tools Model Evaluation Tools (MET).

  11. Geographic Information Network of Alaska: Real-Time Synoptic Satellite Data for Alaska and the High Arctic, Best Available DEMs, and Highest Available Resolution Imagery for Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, T. A.; Sharpton, V. L.; Engle, K. E.; Ledlow, L. L.; Seman, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    In support of the International Polar Year, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) intends to make available to researchers three important Arctic data sets. The first is near-real-time synoptic scale data from GINA and NOAA/NESDIS satellite ground stations. GINA operates ground stations that receive direct readout from the AVHRR (1.1-km per pixel resolution) and MODIS (250- to 1000-meter) sensors carried on NOAA and NASA satellites. GINA works in partnership with NOAA/NESDIS's Fairbanks Command and Data Acquisition Station (FCDAS) to distribute real-time data captured by FCDAS facilities in Fairbanks and Barrow, Alaska. AVHRR and Feng Yun 1D (1.1-km) sensors are captured in Fairbanks by FCDAS and distributed by GINA. AVHRR data is captured by FCDAS in Barrow and distributed by GINA. Due to its high latitude, the station mask of the Barrow station extends well beyond the Pole, showing the status in real-time of Arctic basin cloud and sea ice conditions. Second, digital elevation models (DEM) for Alaska vary greatly in quality and availability. The best available DEMs for Alaska will be combined and served through a GINA gateway. Third, the best available imagery for more than three quarters of Alaska is 15-meter pan-sharpened Landsat data. Less than a quarter of the state is covered by 5-meter or better data. The best available imagery for Alaska will be combined and served through a GINA gateway. In accordance with the IPY Subcommittee on Data Policy and Management recommendations, all data will be made available via Open Geospatial Consortium protocols, including Web Mapping, Feature, and Coverage Services. Data will also be made available for download in georeferenced formats such as GeoTIFF, MrSID, or GRID. Metadata will be available though the National Spatial Data Infrastructure via Z39.50 GEO protocols and through evolving web-based metadata standards.

  12. Alaska School Facilities Preventive Maintenance Handbook. 1997 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearig, Tim; Crittenden, Edwin; Morgan, Michael

    The State of Alaska has issued preventive maintenance guidelines for educational facilities designed to prevent premature failure, or to maximize or extend the useful life of a facility and its components, including roofing inspections, repainting, and door hardware adjustments. The handbook examines preventive maintenance state legislation, and…

  13. (abstract) The Evolving Spaceborne Radar Data Support to Earth Science and Operations at the Alaska SAR Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) has been receiving, processing, archiving, and distributing data for Earth scientists and operations since it began receiving data in 1991. Four radar satellites are now being handled. Recent developments have served to increase the level of services of ASF to the Earth science community considerably. These developments are discussed.

  14. Satellite remote sensing facility for oceanograhic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. H.; Kent, S. S.; Seidman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The project organization, design process, and construction of a Remote Sensing Facility at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at LaJolla, California are described. The facility is capable of receiving, processing, and displaying oceanographic data received from satellites. Data are primarily imaging data representing the multispectral ocean emissions and reflectances, and are accumulated during 8 to 10 minute satellite passes over the California coast. The most important feature of the facility is the reception and processing of satellite data in real time, allowing investigators to direct ships to areas of interest for on-site verifications and experiments.

  15. Studies of volcanoes of Alaska by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.; Thatcher, W.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has provided a new imaging geodesy technique to measure the deformation of volcanoes at tens-of-meter horizontal resolution with centimeter to subcentimeter vertical precision. The two-dimensional surface deformation data enables the construction of detailed numerical models allowing the study of magmatic and tectonic processes beneath volcanoes. This paper summarizes our recent: InSAR studies over the Alaska-Aleutian volcanoes, which include New Trident, Okmok, Akutan, Augustine, Shishaldin, and Westdahl volcanoes. The first InSAR surface deformation over the Alaska volcanoes was applied to New Trident. Preliminary InSAR study suggested that New Trident volcano experienced several centimeters inflation from 1993 to 1995. Using the InSAR technique, we studied the 1997 eruption of Okmok. We have measured ???1.4 m deflation during the eruption, ???20 cm pre-eruptive inflation during 1992 to 1995, and >10 cm post-eruptive inflation within a year after the eruption, and modeled the deformations using Mogi sources. We imaged the ground surface deformation associated with the 1996 seismic crisis over Akutan volcano. Although seismic swarm did not result in an eruption, we found that the western part of the volcano uplifted ???60 cm while the eastern part of the island subsided. The majority of the complex deformation field at the Akutan volcano was modeled by dike intrusion and Mogi inflation sources. Our InSAR results also indicate that the pyroclastic flows from last the last eruption have been undergoing contraction/subsidence at a rate of about 3 cm per year since 1992. InSAR measured no surface deformation before and during the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin and suggested the eruption may be a type of open system. Finally, we applied satellite radar interferometry to Westdahl volcano which erupted 1991 and has been quiet since. We discovered this volcano had inflated about 15 cm from 1993 to 1998. In summary, satellite

  16. Telemedicine in Alaska: The ATS-6 Satellite Biomedical Demonstration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Dennis; And Others

    A demonstration project explored the potential of satellite video consulation to improve the quality of rural health care in Alaska. Satellite ground stations permitting both transmission and reception of black and white television were installed at clinics in Fairbanks, Fort Yukon, Galena, and Tanana. Receive-only television capability was…

  17. AMF-3 (ARM Mobile Facility 3) at Oliktok Point Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsel, F.; Lucero, D. A.; Cook, R.; Zirzow, J.; Yellowhorse, L.; Sparks, V.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides scientific infrastructure and data archives to the international Arctic research community through a national user facility. (www.arm.gov). A New ARM Climate Research Facility AMF-3 (ARM Mobile Facility 3) is located on the North Slope of Alaska, at Oliktok Point. The infrastructure at Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF-3 instruments include: scanning precipitation radar, scanning cloud radar, Raman lidar, eddy correlation flux systems, upgraded ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, AERI, micropulse lidar, millimeter cloud radar along with all the standard metrological measurements. Unmanned Aerial Systems operations and tethered balloons in the Oliktok area will also be supported. Data from these instruments will be placed in the ARM data archives and available to the international research community.

  18. Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility science data processing architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Bicknell, Thomas; Miller, Carol L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at Fairbanks, being developed to generate science data products for supporting research in sea ice motion, ice classification, sea-ice-ocean interaction, glacier behavior, ocean waves, and hydrological and geological study areas. Special attention is given to the individual substructures of the ASF: the Receiving Ground Station (RGS), the SAR Processor System, and the Interactive Image Analysis System. The SAR data will be linked to the RGS by the ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2, the Japanese ERS-1, and the Canadian Radarsat.

  19. AMF3 ARM's Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsel, F.; Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science And Aerosol Science For The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF-3 instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at AMF3 and the challenges of powering an Arctic site without the use of grid power.

  20. An ice-motion tracking system at the Alaska SAR facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S.; Mcconnell, Ross

    1990-01-01

    An operational system for extracting ice-motion information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is being developed as part of the Alaska SAR Facility. This geophysical processing system (GPS) will derive ice-motion information by automated analysis of image sequences acquired by radars on the European ERS-1, Japanese ERS-1, and Canadian RADARSAT remote sensing satellites. The algorithm consists of a novel combination of feature-based and area-based techniques for the tracking of ice floes that undergo translation and rotation between imaging passes. The system performs automatic selection of the image pairs for input to the matching routines using an ice-motion estimator. It is designed to have a daily throughput of ten image pairs. A description is given of the GPS system, including an overview of the ice-motion-tracking algorithm, the system architecture, and the ice-motion products that will be available for distribution to geophysical data users.

  1. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  2. Relative Sea Level Change in Western Alaska As Constructed from Satellite Altimetry and Repeat GPS Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrandpre, K. G.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kinsman, N.

    2014-12-01

    Western Alaska is a remote region populated by small communities situated in low-lying coastal environments that are sensitive to variations in local relative sea level (RSL). RSL is the measurement of sea level relative to the local ground surface. Quantification of RSL variation requires measuring vertical velocities for both tectonic motion (onshore component) and the ocean surface (offshore component). Tide gauges in conjunction with tidal benchmarks record RSL, but in Western Alaska these datums are of short duration and too sparsely distributed both temporally and spatially to be able to accurately project RSL trends. Satellite altimetry is not suited for near shore estimates, but is used in this study because of the limited tide gauge coverage both spatially and temporally. During the summers of 2013 and 2014, campaign GPS surveys of geodetic benchmarks were undertaken to produce statistically significant velocity measurements of the tectonic component of sea level change for the Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Alaska Peninsula. Occupations of tidal benchmarks were also collected to compare historic tidal records from the mid-1900s to more recent data. Preliminary results from the GPS survey suggest regional subsidence of approximately 1-2 mm/yr of the Seward Peninsula, which supports one of the current glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models available for Western Alaska. The vertical velocity of the tectonic component and the satellite derived mean sea level trend will be coupled to produce a model of RSL change in Western Alaska that will be used to aid local communities in the development of adaptation strategies for changing coastal environments.

  3. Characterization of effluent water qualities from satellite membrane bioreactor facilities.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Zakir M; Bukhari, Zia; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jjemba, Patrick; LeChevallier, Mark W; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2013-09-15

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are often a preferred treatment technology for satellite water recycling facilities since they produce consistent effluent water quality with a small footprint and require little or no supervision. While the water quality produced from centralized MBRs has been widely reported, there is no study in the literature addressing the effluent quality from a broad range of satellite facilities. Thus, a study was conducted to characterize effluent water qualities produced by satellite MBRs with respect to organic, inorganic, physical and microbial parameters. Results from sampling 38 satellite MBR facilities across the U.S. demonstrated that 90% of these facilities produced nitrified (NH4-N <0.4 mg/L-N) effluents that have low organic carbon (TOC <8.1 mg/L), turbidities of <0.7 NTU, total coliform bacterial concentrations <100 CFU/100 mL and indigenous MS-2 bacteriophage concentrations <21 PFU/100 mL. Multiple sampling events from selected satellite facilities demonstrated process capability to consistently produce effluent with low concentrations of ammonia, TOC and turbidity. UV-254 transmittance values varied substantially during multiple sampling events indicating a need for attention in designing downstream UV disinfection systems. Although enteroviruses, rotaviruses and hepatitis A viruses (HAV) were absent in all samples, adenoviruses were detected in effluents of all nine MBR facilities sampled. The presence of Giardia cysts in filtrate samples of two of nine MBR facilities sampled demonstrated the need for an appropriate disinfection process at these facilities. PMID:23871258

  4. Satellite Observations of Volcanic Clouds from the Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, K. G.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano began erupting on 23 March 2009 (UTC) and consisted of 19 events over a 14 day period. The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula, 175 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The previous eruption was in 1989/1990 and seriously disrupted air traffic in the region, including the near catastrophic engine failure of a passenger airliner. Plumes and ash clouds from the recent eruption were observed on a variety of satellite data (AVHRR, MODIS and GOES). The eruption produced volcanic clouds up to 19 km which are some of the highest detected in recent times in the North Pacific region. The ash clouds primarily drifted north and east of the volcano, had a weak ash signal in the split window data and resulted in light ash falls in the Cook Inlet basin and northward into Alaska’s Interior. Volcanic cloud heights were measured using ground-based radar, and plume temperature and wind shear methods but each of the techniques resulted in significant variations in the estimates. Even though radar showed the greatest heights, satellite data and wind shears suggest that the largest concentrations of ash may be at lower altitudes in some cases. Sulfur dioxide clouds were also observed on satellite data (OMI, AIRS and Calipso) and they primarily drifted to the east and were detected at several locations across North America, thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Here, we show time series data collected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, illustrating the different eruptive events and ash clouds that developed over the subsequent days.

  5. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  7. Satellite observations of mesoscale features in lower Cook Inlet and Shelikof Strait, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, James D.; Barber, Willard E.; Holt, Benjamin; Liu, Antony K.

    1991-01-01

    The Seasat satellite launched in Summer 1978 carried a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Although Seasat failed after 105 days in orbit, it provided observations that demonstrate the potential to examine and monitor upper oceanic processes. Seasat made five passes over lower Cook Inlet and Shelikof Strait, Alaska, during Summer 1978. SAR images from the passes show oceanographic features, including a meander in a front, a pair of mesoscale eddies, and internal waves. These features are compared with contemporary and representative images from a satellite-borne Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), with water property data, and with current observations from moored instruments. The results indicate that SAR data can be used to monitor mesoscale oceanographic features.

  8. The natural satellites ephemerides facility MULTI-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanov, N. V.; Arlot, J.-E.

    2008-08-01

    Context: There is a need in some research facilities for deriving ephemerides, controlling observations, verifying various models of motion, and calculating the coordinates in space of natural planetary satellites. Aims: The goal of our work is to elaborate the ephemerides of all natural satellites based upon all observations available to date and readily accessible for any user via the Internet. Methods: For all outer planetary satellites, original numerical models of motion are used that are based on all published observations. For other satellites, the theoretical models of the motion are taken from publications that are as recent as possible. Complete collection of the theories and models of motion is realized as a software for the ephemerides of natural satellites available on the web pages of the so-called server MULTI-SAT. Results: A new facility for producing ephemerides of all natural satellites of planets (except the Moon) has been created at IMCCE and SAI. Special features of the ephemerides are realized, such as predicting the phenomena and providing configurations useful for the observers. The server MULTI-SAT is accessible through the Internet. The URL addresses are http://www.imcce.fr/sat (English and French versions at IMCCE) and http://www.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/index.htm (English, French, and Russian versions at SAI). This paper includes a complete review of the most precise theories of motion of all natural satellites that we used and an analysis of the precision of the proposed ephemerides.

  9. Satellite Interconnection and Distance Delivery in Alaska: Toward the 21st Century. Summary and Recommendations of the Satellite Interconnection Project under the Direction of the Telecommunications Information Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Public Broadcasting Commission, Juneau.

    The Satellite Interconnection Project was created for the purpose of investigating the interest and need for improved interconnection, faster and of greater capacity than the capability of present systems, especially among Alaska state-supported users of video and audio transmissions. The intent was to explore the cost-benefit and the potential…

  10. Automated Generation of the Alaska Coastline Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G.; Porter, C. C.; Cloutier, M. D.; Clementz, M. E.; Reim, C.; Morin, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Previous campaigns to map Alaska's coast at high resolution have relied on airborne, marine, or ground-based surveying and manual digitization. The coarse temporal resolution, inability to scale geographically, and high cost of field data acquisition in these campaigns is inadequate for the scale and speed of recent coastal change in Alaska. Here, we leverage the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) archive of DigitalGlobe, Inc. satellite imagery to produce a state-wide coastline at 2 meter resolution. We first select multispectral imagery based on time and quality criteria. We then extract the near-infrared (NIR) band from each processed image, and classify each pixel as water or land with a pre-determined NIR threshold value. Processing continues with vectorizing the water-land boundary, removing extraneous data, and attaching metadata. Final coastline raster and vector products maintain the original accuracy of the orthorectified satellite data, which is often within the local tidal range. The repeat frequency of coastline production can range from 1 month to 3 years, depending on factors such as satellite capacity, cloud cover, and floating ice. Shadows from trees or structures complicate the output and merit further data cleaning. The PGC's imagery archive, unique expertise, and computing resources enabled us to map the Alaskan coastline in a few months. The DigitalGlobe archive allows us to update this coastline as new imagery is acquired, and facilitates baseline data for studies of coastal change and improvement of topographic datasets. Our results are not simply a one-time coastline, but rather a system for producing multi-temporal, automated coastlines. Workflows and tools produced with this project can be freely distributed and utilized globally. Researchers and government agencies must now consider how they can incorporate and quality-control this high-frequency, high-resolution data to meet their mapping standards and research objectives.

  11. Satellite microwave detection of boreal forest recovery from the extreme 2004 wildfires in Alaska and Canada.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew O; Kimball, John S; Jones, Lucas A

    2013-10-01

    The rate of vegetation recovery from boreal wildfire influences terrestrial carbon cycle processes and climate feedbacks by affecting the surface energy budget and land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Previous forest recovery assessments using satellite optical-infrared normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tower CO(2) eddy covariance techniques indicate rapid vegetation recovery within 5-10 years, but these techniques are not directly sensitive to changes in vegetation biomass. Alternatively, the vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameter from satellite passive microwave remote sensing can detect changes in canopy biomass structure and may provide a useful metric of post-fire vegetation response to inform regional recovery assessments. We analyzed a multi-year (2003-2010) satellite VOD record from the NASA AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS) sensor to estimate forest recovery trajectories for 14 large boreal fires from 2004 in Alaska and Canada. The VOD record indicated initial post-fire canopy biomass recovery within 3-7 years, lagging NDVI recovery by 1-5 years. The VOD lag was attributed to slower non-photosynthetic (woody) and photosynthetic (foliar) canopy biomass recovery, relative to the faster canopy greenness response indicated from the NDVI. The duration of VOD recovery to pre-burn conditions was also directly proportional (P < 0.01) to satellite (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) estimated tree cover loss used as a metric of fire severity. Our results indicate that vegetation biomass recovery from boreal fire disturbance is generally slower than reported from previous assessments based solely on satellite optical-infrared remote sensing, while the VOD parameter enables more comprehensive assessments of boreal forest recovery. PMID:23749682

  12. An Earth Orbiting Satellite Service and Repair Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Andrew; Cardoza, Mike; Chen, John; Daley, Gunter; Frizzell, Andy; Linton, Richard; Rast, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design was produced for the Geosynchronous Satellite Servicing Platform (GSSP), an orbital facility capable of repairing and servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The GSSP is a man-tended platform, which consists of a habitation module, operations module, service bay and truss assembly. This design review includes an analysis of life support systems, thermal and power requirements, robotic and automated systems, control methods and navigation, and communications systems. The GSSP will utilize existing technology available at the time of construction, focusing mainly on modifying and integrating existing systems. The entire facility, along with two satellite retrieval vehicles (SRV), will be placed in geosynchronous orbit by the Advanced Launch System. The SRV will be used to ferry satellites to and from the GSSP. Technicians will be transferred from Earth to the GSSP and back in an Apollo-derived Crew Transfer Capsule (CTC). These missions will use advanced telerobotic equipment to inspect and service satellites. Four of these missions are tentatively scheduled per year. At this rate, the GSSP will service over 650 satelites during the projected 25 year lifespan.

  13. Aseismic inflation of Westdahl volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C.; Dzurisin, D.; Thatcher, W.; Freymueller, J.T.; McNutt, S.R.; Mann, Dorte

    2000-01-01

    Westdahl volcano, located at the west end of Unimak Island in the central Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, is a broad shield that produced moderate-sized eruptions in 1964, 1978-79, and 1991-92. Satellite radar interferometry detected about 17 cm of volcano-wide inflation from September 1993 to October 1998. Multiple independent interferograms reveal that the deformation rate has not been steady; more inflation occurred from 1993 to 1995 than from 1995 to 1998. Numerical modeling indicates that a source located about 9 km beneath the center of the volcano inflated by about 0.05 km3 from 1993 to 1998. On the basis of the timing and volume of recent eruptions at Westdahl and the fact that it has been inflating for more than 5 years, the next eruption can be expected within the next several years.

  14. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  15. River Ice and Flood Detection Products Derived from Suomi NPP VIIRS Satellite Data to Support Hydrologic Forecast Operations in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Plumb, E. W.; Li, S.; Holloway, E.; Stevens, E.

    2015-12-01

    A lack of river ice data during spring break-up in Alaska creates many forecast challenges for National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters. Limited and infrequent ice conditions and flood observations are provided by river observers, community officials, and pilots. Although these observations are invaluable, there are extensive spatial and temporal data gaps across Alaska during spring break-up. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite imagery has proved to be an extremely beneficial situational awareness and decision support tool for NWS forecast operations. In particular, the VIIRS satellite imagery became highly effective in identifying extensive flooding of many Alaskan rivers due to ice jams during the 2013 spring breakup season. A devastating ice jam flood in the Yukon River community of Galena prompted the development of river ice and flood detection products derived from the VIIRS satellite imagery with the support of the Joint Polar Satellite System/Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (JPSS/PGRR) Program. The two new products from S-NPP/VIIRS imagery provided critical decision making information to NWS forecasters responsible for issuing flood warnings for the region. Since 2013, the NWS continues to evaluate the use of these products in an operational forecast setting, and has expanded the evaluation period to include summertime flooding. There are limitations of these products due to cloud cover, sun zenith angles, product validation, and other issues unique to Alaska. The NWS will continue to provide feedback to the JPSS/PGRR Program in order to further refine and improve the algorithms used to create the river ice and flood detection products. This presentation will demonstrate how these products have been integrated into the NWS forecast process for several types of flood events in Alaska.

  16. Health Care and Satellite Radio Communication in Village Alaska. Final Report of the ATS-1 Biomedical Satellite: Experiment Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreimer, Osvaldo; And Others

    The executive summary is the first section of this final report of the evaluation of the ATS-1 medical communication system in Alaska. The second section introduces the background of these studies and the sociogeographic setting and health situation of the Alaska natives. The third section presents the main research findings about both the…

  17. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  19. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  20. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  1. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  2. Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, Timothy; Dzurisin, D.; Rykhus, Russ; Wicks, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A group of satellite radar interferograms that span the time period from 1991 to 2000 shows that Westdahl volcano, Alaska, deflated during its 1991-1992 eruption and is reinflating at a rate that could produce another eruption within the next several years. The rates of inflation and deflation are approximated by exponential decay functions having time constants of about 6 years and a few days, respectively. This behavior is consistent with a deep, constant-pressure magma source connected to a shallow reservoir by a magma-filled conduit. An elastic deformation model indicates that the reservoir is located about 6 km below sea level and beneath Westdahl Peak. We propose that the magma flow rate through the conduit is governed by the pressure gradient between the deep source and the reservoir. The pressure gradient, and hence the flow rate, are greatest immediately after eruptions. Pressurization of the reservoir decreases both the pressure gradient and the flow rate, but eventually the reservoir ruptures and an eruption or intrusion ensues. The eruption rate is controlled partly by the pressure gradient between the reservoir and surface, and therefore it, too, decreases with time. When the supply of eruptible magma is exhausted, the eruption stops, the reservoir begins to repressurize at a high rate, and the cycle repeats. This model might also be appropriate for other frequently active volcanoes with stable magma sources and relatively simple magma storage systems.

  3. Feasibility study for locating archaeological village sites by satellite remote sensing techniques. [multispectral photography of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Stringer, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The objective is to determine the feasibility of detecting large Alaskan archaeological sites by satellite remote sensing techniques and mapping such sites. The approach used is to develop digital multispectral signatures of dominant surface features including vegetation, exposed soils and rock, hydrological patterns and known archaeological sites. ERTS-1 scenes are then printed out digitally in a map-like array with a letter reflecting the most appropriate classification representing each pixel. Preliminary signatures were developed and tested. It was determined that there was a need to tighten up the archaeological site signature by developing accurate signatures for all naturally-occurring vegetation and surface conditions in the vicinity of the test area. These second generation signatures have been tested by means of computer printouts and classified tape displays on the University of Alaska CDU-200 and by comparison with aerial photography. It has been concluded that the archaeological signatures now in use are as good as can be developed. Plans are to print out signatures for the entire test area and locate on topographic maps the likely locations of archaeological sites within the test area.

  4. Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M.; Nicholls, A.K.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.

  5. Department of Energy Arm Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska and Plans for a North Slope "Mega-Site"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Verlinde, J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. The DOE ARM Program has operated an atmospheric measurement facility in Barrow, Alaska, since 1998. Major upgrades to this facility, including scanning radars, were added in 2010. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska were established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used in the near future to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is implementing "mega-sites" at the Southern Great Plains and North Slope of Alaska sites. Two workshops were held to gather input from the scientific community on these mega-sites. The NSA workshop was held September 10 and 11 in the Washington DC area. The workshops included discussions of additional profiling remote sensors, detailed measurements of the land-atmosphere interface, aerial operations to link the Barrow and Oliktok sites, unmanned aerial system measurements, and routine large eddy simulation model runs. The "mega-sites" represent a significant new scientific and infrastructure investment by DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. This poster will present information on plans for a North Slope "Megasite" as well as new opportunities for members of the arctic research community to make atmospheric measurements using unmanned aerial systems or tethered balloons in conjunction with the DOE ARM facilities on the North Slope of Alaska.

  6. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Tethered Balloons and U.S. Department of Energy Arm Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Verlinde, J.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska will be established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. This poster will present information on opportunities for members of the arctic research community to make atmospheric measurements using unmanned aerial systems or tethered balloons.

  8. Post-fledging movements of juvenile Common Mergansers (mergus merganser) in Alaska as inferred by satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Petersen, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We implanted satellite transmitters into eight juvenile Common Mergansers to investigate post-fledging movements from their natal river in southcentral Alaska. Subsequently, they moved widely throughout portions of western and southcentral Alaska up to 750 km from their natal areas during fall and winter months. Transmitters of two birds (one male and one female) continued to send location data into their second year and allowed us to determine the location and timing of the flightless molt period for each bird. Overall, our data suggest that juvenile Common Mergansers range widely immediately after fledging, that second year males and females may differ in their movement patterns, and that these movements have implications for population genetic structure of this species.

  9. Stable isotope analysis and satellite tracking reveal interspecific resource partitioning of nonbreeding albatrosses off Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, R.M.; Fischer, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Albatrosses (Diomedeidae) are the most threatened family of birds globally. The three North Pacific species (Phoebastria Reichenbach, 1853) are listed as either endangered or vulnerable, with the population of Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus (Pallas, 1769)) less than 1% of its historical size. All North Pacific albatross species do not currently breed sympatrically, yet they do co-occur at-sea during the nonbreeding season. We incorporated stable isotope analysis with the first simultaneous satellite-tracking study of all three North Pacific albatross species while sympatric on summer (nonbreeding season) foraging grounds off Alaska. Carbon isotope ratios and tracking data identify differences in primary foraging domains of continental shelf and slope waters for Short-tailed Albatrosses and Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes (Audubon, 1839)) versus oceanic waters for Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis (Roths-child, 1893)). Short-tailed and Black-footed albatrosses also fed at higher trophic levels than Laysan Albatrosses. The relative trophic position of Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses, however, appears to differ between nonbreeding and breeding seasons. Spatial segregation also occurred at a broader geographic scale, with Short-tailed Albatrosses ranging more north into the Bering Sea than Black-footed Albatrosses, which ranged more to the southeast, and Laysan Albatrosses more to the southwest. Differences in carbon isotope ratios among North Pacific albatross species during the nonbreeding season likely reflect the relative proportion of neritic (more carbon enriched) versus oceanic (carbon depleted) derived nutrients, and possible differential use of fishery discards, rather than latitudinal differences in distribution.

  10. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-05-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of Swarm, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. Scientific users will also benefit significantly from derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products by combination of data from the three satellites, and of the various instruments. A number of Level-2 data products will be offered by this consortium, including various models of the core and lithospheric field, as well as of the ionospheric and magnetospheric field. In addition, derived parameters like mantle conductivity, thermospheric mass density and winds, field-aligned currents, an ionospheric plasma bubble index, the ionospheric total electron content and the dayside equatorial zonal electrical field will be calculated. This service is expected to be operational for a period of at least 5 years. The present paper describes the Swarm input data products (Level-1b and auxiliary data) used by SCARF, the various processing chains of SCARF, and the Level-2 output data products determined by SCARF.

  11. GhostNet marine debris survey in the Gulf of Alaska--satellite guidance and aircraft observations.

    PubMed

    Pichel, William G; Veenstra, Timothy S; Churnside, James H; Arabini, Elena; Friedman, Karen S; Foley, David G; Brainard, Russell E; Kiefer, Dale; Ogle, Simeon; Clemente-Colón, Pablo; Li, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris, particularly debris that is composed of lost or abandoned fishing gear, is recognized as a serious threat to marine life, vessels, and coral reefs. The goal of the GhostNet project is the detection of derelict nets at sea through the use of weather and ocean models, drifting buoys and satellite imagery to locate convergent areas where nets are likely to collect, followed by airborne surveys with trained observers and remote sensing instruments to spot individual derelict nets. These components of GhostNet were first tested together in the field during a 14-day marine debris survey of the Gulf of Alaska in July and August 2003. Model, buoy, and satellite data were used in flight planning. A manned aircraft survey with visible and IR cameras and a LIDAR instrument located debris in the targeted locations, including 102 individual pieces of debris of anthropogenic or terrestrial origin. PMID:22088492

  12. Integrating satellite observations and modern climate measurements with the recent sedimentary record: An example from Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, Jason A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Jaeger, John M.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Norris, Richard D.; Hangsterfer, Alexandra

    2013-07-01

    Assessments of climate change over time scales that exceed the last 100 years require robust integration of high-quality instrument records with high-resolution paleoclimate proxy data. In this study, we show that the recent biogenic sediments accumulating in two temperate ice-free fjords in Southeast Alaska preserve evidence of North Pacific Ocean climate variability as recorded by both instrument networks and satellite observations. Multicore samples EW0408-32MC and EW0408-43MC were investigated with 137Cs and excess 210Pb geochronometry, three-dimensional computed tomography, high-resolution scanning XRF geochemistry, and organic stable isotope analyses. EW0408-32MC (57.162°N, 135.357°W, 146 m depth) is a moderately bioturbated continuous record that spans AD ˜1930-2004. EW0408-43MC (56.965°N, 135.268°W, 91 m depth) is composed of laminated diatom oozes, a turbidite, and a hypopycnal plume (river flood) deposit. A discontinuous event-based varve chronology indicates 43MC spans AD ˜1940-1981. Decadal-scale fluctuations in sedimentary Br/Cl ratios accurately reflect changes in marine organic matter accumulation that display the same temporal pattern as that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. An estimated Sitka summer productivity parameter calibrated using SeaWiFS satellite observations support these relationships. The correlation of North Pacific climate regime states, primary productivity, and sediment geochemistry indicate the accumulation of biogenic sediment in Southeast Alaska temperate fjords can be used as a sensitive recorder of past productivity variability, and by inference, past climate conditions in the high-latitude Gulf of Alaska.

  13. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, N.; Alken, P.; Beggan, C.; Chulliat, A.; Doornbos, E.; Floberghagen, R.; Friis-Christensen, E. A.; Hamilton, B.; Hulot, G.; van den IJssel, J.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Lesur, V.; Luhr, H.; Macmillan, S.; Maus, S.; Olsen, P. H.; Park, J.; Plank, G.; Ritter, P.; Rother, M.; Sabaka, T. J.; Stolle, C.; Thebault, E.; Thomson, A. W.; Tøffner-Clausen, L.; Velimsky, J.; Visser, P. N.

    2011-12-01

    In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of the Swarm mission, considerably advanced data analysis tools will need to be developed. Scientific use of data from the Swarm mission will also benefit significantly from derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. For this reason ESA has established a "Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility" (SCARF), in the form of a consortium of several research institutions. A number of Level-2 data products will be offered by this consortium, including various models of the core and lithospheric field, as well as of the ionospheric and magnetospheric field. In addition, derived parameters like mantle conductivity, thermospheric mass density and winds, field-aligned currents, an ionospheric plasma bubble index, the ionospheric total electron content and the dayside equatorial zonal electrical field will be calculated. Following the end of the currently running 30-month development phase, this service is expected to be operational for a period of 5 years after the launch of the Swarm Mission, which is scheduled for summer 2012. All of the derived products will be available through the Swarm Payload Data Ground Segment (PDGS), located at ESRIN, the ESA Centre for Earth Observation in Frascati, Italy.

  14. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M. D.; Verlinde, J.; Richardson, S.; Zak, B.; Zirzow, J.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides scientific infrastructure and data archives to the international Arctic research community through a national user facility, the ARM Climate Research Facilities (ACRF). One of three fixed ARM Climate Research Facilities is located on the North Slope of Alaska. Since 1998, these facilities near the communities of Barrow and Atqasuk have provided data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are used to refine models and parameterizations related to the Arctic. Data records from the instruments at these facilities and data products are available through web- accessible archives. The ACRF's role is to provide infrastructure support for climate research, including Arctic research, to the global scientific community. DOE's climate research programs, with a focus on clouds and aerosols and their impact on the radiative budget, define the research scope supported by the Facility. In addition to a set of baseline instruments at the two fixed North Slope ACRF locations, temporary or guest instruments are operated as required to support field campaigns. Recent field campaigns have included over-flights by aircraft with cloud and aerosol-sampling instrumentation. To support proposed deployments of unmanned aerial vehicle and unmanned aerial systems on the North Slope of Alaska and over the Arctic Ocean, permissions are being obtained and access arranged for use of a runway and nearby ground support facilities at Oliktok Point, Alaska. In addition to the fixed facilities, ARM Mobile Facilities may be used for high-latitude deployments. Deployments for the ARM Mobile Facilities are selected through a formal process that includes peer review of science-focused proposals. The first ARM Mobile Facility is nearing the end of a deployment in China. Design and development of a second ARM Mobile Facility will begin in late calendar year 2008. This paper discusses the scientific infrastructure, data streams and

  15. Unmanned Aerial Systems, Moored Balloons, and the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Facilities in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Mark; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska were established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used in the near future to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. The DOE ARM Program has operated an atmospheric measurement facility in Barrow, Alaska, since 1998. Major upgrades to this facility, including scanning radars, were added in 2010. Arctic Observing Networks are essential to meet growing policy, social, commercial, and scientific needs. Calibrated, high-quality arctic geophysical datasets that span ten years or longer are especially important for climate studies, climate model initializations and validations, and for related climate policy activities. For example, atmospheric data and derived atmospheric forcing estimates are critical for sea-ice simulations. International requirements for well-coordinated, long-term, and sustained Arctic Observing Networks and easily-accessible data sets collected by those networks have been recognized by many high-level workshops and reports (Arctic Council Meetings and workshops, National Research Council reports, NSF workshops and others). The recent Sustaining Arctic Observation Network (SAON) initiative sponsored a series of workshops to "develop a set of recommendations on how to achieve long-term Arctic-wide observing activities that provide free, open, and timely access to high-quality data that will realize pan-Arctic and global value-added services and provide societal benefits." This poster will present information on opportunities for members of the

  16. Alaska ecosystem carbon fluxes estimated from MODIS satellite data inputs from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trends in Alaska ecosystem carbon fluxes were predicted from inputs of monthly MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index time-series combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model over the past decade. CASA simulates monthly net ecosystem production (NEP) as the difference in carbon fluxes between net primary production (NPP) and soil microbial respiration (Rh). Results Model results showed that NEP on a unit area basis was estimated to be highest (> +10 g C m-2 yr-1) on average over the period 2000 to 2010 within the Major Land Resource Areas (MRLAs) of the Interior Brooks Range Mountains, the Arctic Foothills, and the Western Brooks Range Mountains. The lowest (as negative land C source fluxes) mean NEP fluxes were predicted for the MLRAs of the Cook Inlet Lowlands, the Ahklun Mountains, and Bristol Bay-Northern Alaska Peninsula Lowlands. High levels of interannual variation in NEP were predicted for most MLRAs of Alaska. Conclusions The relatively warm and wet years of 2004 and 2007 resulted in the highest positive NEP flux totals across MLRAs in the northern and western coastal locations in the state (i.e., the Brooks Range Mountains and Arctic Foothills). The relatively cold and dry years of 2001 and 2006 were predicted with the lowest (negative) NEP flux totals for these MLRAs, and likewise across the Ahklun Mountains and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Highlands. PMID:24261829

  17. IPY to Mark Expansion of Research Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, B. D.; Eicken, H.; Sheehan, G. W.; Glenn, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Barrow Global Climate Change Research Facility will open to researchers on the North Slope of Alaska during the 2007-08 anniversary of the first IPY. Between 1949 and 1980, arctic researchers were very active on the North Slope and in nearby waters largely because of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) at Barrow. NARL provided easy access, laboratories and logistical support. NARL was closed in 1981, but particularly during this past decade, Barrow-based arctic research projects have been back on the upswing. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) Barrow station was founded during the 1970s, and continues as part of NOAA's five station global network for monitoring atmospheric composition. The North Slope Borough's Department of Wildlife Management (DWM) has for the past 20 years conducted its own research. The DWM also served as logistical provider for growing numbers of arctic researchers without other logistical support. In the late 1990s, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM: DOE's principal climate change research effort) created a Cloud and Radiation Testbed on the North Slope with atmospheric instrumentation at Barrow and Atqasuk. It is now part of the ARM Climate Research Facility, a National User Facility. In response to growing researcher needs, the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC) was formed in the late 1990s as a non-profit logistical support and community coordinating organization, and received the endorsement of Ukpeagvik Inupiat Corporation (UIC), NSB and the local community college. BASC provides logistical support to National Science Foundation (NSF) researchers through a cooperative agreement, and to others on a fee for service basis. UIC also dedicated 11 square miles of its land as the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), and charged BASC with management of the BEO. This land that has been used for research for more

  18. Satellite Power System (SPS). State and local regulations as applied to satellite power system microwave receiving antenna facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    State and local regulation of power plant construction and operation of solar power satellite (SPS) receiving stations is presented. Each receiving antenna station occupies a land area 100-200 km square, receives microwave transmissions from the solar power satellite, and converts them into electricity for transmission to the power grid. The long lead time associated with the SPS and the changing status of state and local regulation dictated emphasis on: generic classification of the types of regulation, and identification of regulatory vectors which affect rectenna facilities.

  19. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities; Operations and Maintenance, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, Thornhollow and Pendleton satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam and South Fork Walla Walla facilities are used for holding and spawning chinook salmon. In some years, Three Mile Dam may also be used for holding and spawning coho salmon. In the spring of 2002, summer steelhead were acclimated and released at Bonifer Pond (54,917), Minthorn Springs (47,521), and Pendleton (54,366). Yearling coho (1,621,857) were also acclimated and released at Pendleton. Yearling spring chinook salmon (876,121) were acclimated and released at Imeques C-mem-ini-kem. At Thornhollow, 520,564 yearling fall chinook and 307,194 subyearling fall chinook were acclimated. In addition, 104,908 spring chinook were transported to Imeques C-mem-ini-kem in November for release in the spring of 2003. CTUIR and ODFW personnel monitored the progress of outmigration for juvenile releases at the Westland Canal juvenile facility. Nearly all juveniles released in the spring migrated downstream prior to the trap being opened in early July. A total of 100 unmarked and 10 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from September 21, 2001, through April 2, 2002. An estimated 180,955 green eggs were taken from 36 females and were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation and rearing. A total of 560 adult and 26 jack spring chinook salmon were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from April 22 through June 12, 2002

  20. Detection of surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost area after wildfire by using satellite images, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Narita, K.; Saito, K.; Iwahana, G.; Sawada, Y.; Fukuda, M.

    2013-12-01

    In 1971 and 2002, large tundra fires burned a wide area that is underlain by discontinuous permafrost near the Kougarok River on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. Both fires destroyed the vegetation and altered the ground surface thermal conditions. The objective of this study is to understand the characteristics of the post-fire variations in the distribution and condition of the permafrost and of the changes attributed to the wildfire in the thermal and water conditions in the active layer. Especially, we tried to detect thaw depth, surface and subsurface conditions by using satellite images. Summer field observations were conducted at both burned and unburned sites in the area beginning in 2005. The average thaw depth at the burned sites in 2012 was 30% deeper than the depths at the unburned sites. The differences in thaw depth have decreased over time. Boring surveys up to a depth of 2 m conducted in 2012 confirm the presence of massive ice at both sites, which implies the possibility of thermokarst development caused by the thawing of the permafrost after wildfires. The visible satellite image for the burned site detected white-colored areas, corresponding to Clamagrostis canadensis growing areas, surrounded by green-colored areas. The thaw depth at the white-colored areas was deeper by 60% than at the surrounding burned areas. The surface roughness values were also high at these white-colored areas. There was a significant difference in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) between the white-colored areas and the other areas. Thus, satellite images of areas after wildfires may help detect low NDVI areas that have a deeper thaw depth with the possibility of thermokarst development.

  1. Scientific Infrastructure To Support Manned And Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, And Related Aerial Activities At Doe Arm Facilities On The North Slope Of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facilities, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. DOE has recently invested in improvements to facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska. A new ground facility, the Third ARM Mobile Facility, was installed at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons were used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. A new Special Use Airspace was granted to DOE in 2015 to support science missions in international airspace in the Arctic. Warning Area W-220 is managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. W-220 was successfully used for the first time in July 2015 in conjunction with Restricted Area R-2204 and a connecting Altitude Reservation Corridor (ALTRV) to permit unmanned aircraft to operate north of Oliktok Point. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were flown at Oliktok during the summer and fall of 2015. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The printed poster will include the standard DOE funding statement.

  2. Operational modes for a wave injection facility aboard spacelab and a sub-satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    Various modes of operation are described for an orbiting wave injection facility planned to measure the properties of waves propagating in space plasma. Such a facility would cover a wide frequency range including MF and HF. Phase shift and Doppler shift measurements will yield more accurate measurements of echo time delay and the angle of arrival. Because Spacelab will involve some sub-satellites, some consideration is given to propagation between two vehicles both at HF and VHF.

  3. In situ and satellite-derived ablation season temperature and surface characteristics of clean and debris-covered ice at Matanuska glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, K.

    2012-12-01

    Outside of the ice sheets and the Himalayas, Alaska contains one of the largest masses of ice on Earth. The rapid loss of ice in Alaska in recent decades is the subject of intense investigation (Berthier et al., 2010). An under quantified factor in the understanding of ice mass loss is the role in which different surface glacier dust and debris types and thicknesses play on the ablation process. Ground-based measurements of surface temperature of several glacier debris types were collected in July 2012 at Matanuska glacier in Alaska. Wet, dry, moderately covered and cleaner ice sites were observed over a two week period. Temperatures were recorded every 20 minutes. Significant diurnal and debris type temperature variability were observed. Satellite-based shortwave and thermal infrared analysis of debris covered ice is used to estimate surface debris mineralogy. Thermal satellite data is further used to derive entire glacier surface temperatures. Terminal glacier in situ temperature observations are compared with satellite derived surface temperatures. In situ measurements are also evaluated with respect to Foster et al. (2012) physically based method for estimating surface glacier debris thickness. E. Berthier, E. Schiefer, G.K.C. Clarke, B. Menounos, F. Rémy, 2010, Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea-level rise derived from satellite imagery, Nature Geoscience, 3, 92-95. L.A. Foster, B.W. Brock, M.E.J. Cutler, F. Diotri, 2012, Instruments and Methods: A physically based method for estimating supraglacial debris thickness from thermal band remote-sensing data, Journal of Glaciology, 58, 210, 677-691.

  4. Satellite and slow-scan-television observations of the rise and dispersion of ash-rich eruption clouds from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kienle, J.; Woods, A.W.; Estes, S.A.; Ahlnaes, K.

    1992-03-01

    Polar-orbiting NOAA 10 and 11 weather satellites with their Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imaging sensors and the Landsat 4 and 5 satellites have provided over 30 images of the 1989/90 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. Between December 14 and April 21, about 20 major explosive eruptions occurred with ash plumes rising to heights of 10 km or more, most of them penetrating the tropopause. The ash severely impacted domestic and international air traffic in Alaska with a near disaster on December 15, 1989, when a KLM 747-400 jet aircraft with 247 people aboard intercepted an ash plume and temporarily lost all four engines. Fortunately, the engines were eventually restarted after several attempts and the plane landed safely in Anchorage. The authors have used satellite and also slow-scan television (TV) observations to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of rising eruption plumes in order to better understand plume dispersal.

  5. Design of a video teleconference facility for a synchronous satellite communications link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    The system requirements, design tradeoffs, and final design of a video teleconference facility are discussed, including proper lighting, graphics transmission, and picture aesthetics. Methods currently accepted in the television broadcast industry are used in the design. The unique problems associated with using an audio channel with a synchronous satellite communications link are discussed, and a final audio system design is presented.

  6. Passive microwave (SSM/I) satellite predictions of valley glacier hydrology, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopczynski, S.E.; Ramage, J.; Lawson, D.; Goetz, S.; Evenson, E.; Denner, J.; Larson, G.

    2008-01-01

    We advance an approach to use satellite passive microwave observations to track valley glacier snowmelt and predict timing of spring snowmelt-induced floods at the terminus. Using 37 V GHz brightness temperatures (Tb) from the Special Sensor Microwave hnager (SSM/I), we monitor snowmelt onset when both Tb and the difference between the ascending and descending overpasses exceed fixed thresholds established for Matanuska Glacier. Melt is confirmed by ground-measured air temperature and snow-wetness, while glacier hydrologic responses are monitored by a stream gauge, suspended-sediment sensors and terminus ice velocity measurements. Accumulation area snowmelt timing is correlated (R2 = 0.61) to timing of the annual snowmelt flood peak and can be predicted within ??5 days. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Analysis on the Utility of Satellite Imagery for Detection of Agricultural Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.-M.; Baek, S.-H.; Jung, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    Now that the agricultural facilities are being increase owing to development of technology and diversification of agriculture and the ratio of garden crops that are imported a lot and the crops cultivated in facilities are raised in Korea, the number of vinyl greenhouses is tending upward. So, it is important to grasp the distribution of vinyl greenhouses as much as that of rice fields, dry fields and orchards, but it is difficult to collect the information of wide areas economically and correctly. Remote sensing using satellite imagery is able to obtain data of wide area at the same time, quickly and cost-effectively collect, monitor and analyze information from every object on earth. In this study, in order to analyze the utilization of satellite imagery at detection of agricultural facility, image classification was performed about the agricultural facility, vinyl greenhouse using Formosat-2 satellite imagery. The training set of sea, vegetation, building, bare ground and vinyl greenhouse was set to monitor the agricultural facilities of the object area and the training set for the vinyl greenhouses that are main monitoring object was classified and set again into 3 types according the spectral characteristics. The image classification using 4 kinds of supervise classification methods applied by the same training set were carried out to grasp the image classification method which is effective for monitoring agricultural facilities. And, in order to minimize the misclassification appeared in the classification using the spectral information, the accuracy of classification was intended to be raised by adding texture information. The results of classification were analyzed regarding the accuracy comparing with that of naked-eyed detection. As the results of classification, the method of Mahalanobis distance was shown as more efficient than other methods and the accuracy of classification was higher when adding texture information. Hence the more effective

  8. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  9. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1996-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservoir (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and coho salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla river releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries.

  10. Mapping recent lava flows at Westdahl Volcano, Alaska, using radar and optical satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Rykhus, Russ; Masterlark, Timothy; Dean, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    Field mapping of young lava flows at Aleutian volcanoes is logistically difficult, and the utility of optical images from aircraft or satellites for this purpose is greatly reduced by persistent cloud cover. These factors have hampered earlier estimates of the areas and volumes of three young lava flows at Westdahl Volcano, including its most recent (1991-1992) flow. We combined information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with multispectral Landsat-7 data to differentiate the 1991-1992 flow from the 1964 flow and a pre-1964 flow, and to calculate the flow areas (8.4, 9.2, and 7.3 km 2, respectively). By differencing a digital elevation model (DEM) from the 1970-1980s with a DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000, we estimated the average thickness of the 1991-1992 flow to be 13 m, which reasonably agrees with field observations (5-10 m). Lava-flow maps produced in this way can be used to facilitate field mapping and flow-hazards assessment, and to study magma-supply dynamics and thus to anticipate future eruptive activity. Based on the recurrence interval of recent eruptions and the results of this study, the next eruption at Westdahl may occur before the end of this decade. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite /SMS/ system. [subsystems and ground facilities design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, D. V.; Wirth, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the fundamental design criteria and operational features of the spacecraft subsystems and ground facilities comprising the SMS program. The main objectives of the program are to provide day and night information on the earth's weather by means of earth imaging, retransmission of imaged data, data collection, data relay, and space environment monitoring. Attention is given to the launch and orbital station-keeping functions, onboard sensors used to provide remote imagery, data transmission from the satellite to command and regional ground stations, and examples of meteorological services resulting from use of this satellite.

  12. Coordination and establishment of centralized facilities and services of the University of Alaska ERTS survey of the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E. (Principal Investigator); Miller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The objective of this project is to provide a focus for the entire University of Alaska ERTS-1 effort (12 projects covering 10 disciplines and involving 8 research institutes and science departments). Activities have been concentrated on the implementation of the project's three primary functions: (1) coordination and management of the U of A ERTS-1 program, including management of the flow of data and data products; (2) acquisition, installation, test, operation, and maintanence of centralized facilities for processing ERTS-1, aircraft, and ground truth data; and (3) development of photographic and digital techniques for processing and interpreting ERTS-1 and aircraft data. With minor exceptions these three functions are now well-established and working smoothly.

  13. Stable Isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) Analysis and Satellite Telemetry Depict the Complexity of Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Diets in Southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, A.; Watts, D. E.; Cohn, B. R.; Spencer, P.; Mangipane, B.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Alaska, gray wolves (Canis lupus) are a top predator of large ungulates. While they primarily rely on ungulates such as moose (Alces alces) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) as food, they are opportunistic and use alternative resources. The variation and supplemental protein sources in wolf diet has not been studied extensively on live animals currently using the landscape. With large seasonal influxes of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) into Alaska, terrestrial carnivore use of marine species is of particular interest. Using stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) analysis of wolf guard hair and blood, this study aims to determine the proportion of marine derived nutrients (MDN) in the diet of wolf packs within and surrounding Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges in Southwest Alaska. Satellite telemetry from the animals sampled facilitates quantification of landscape use patterns in correspondence with isotopic traits. Wolf pack territories within and surrounding the Lake Clark region appear to vary in spatial extent and in availability of MDN, such as salmon. Initial analysis shows that two packs with smaller home ranges, centrally located around areas with greater salmon availability, have enriched δ15N values compared to packs that have larger home ranges not centralized around salmon spawning waters. This pattern of isotopic enrichment is found in red blood cells, blood serum and hair, representing diets over different time scales. The enrichment in both blood and hair indicates a sustained use of MDN over the previous six to nine months. In the Lake Clark region, simple mixing model estimates suggest that up to 30% of wolf pack diets may be from marine sources. In contrast, packs with larger home ranges and less access to salmon have stable isotope values representative of a terrestrial diet.

  14. Post-breeding season distribution of black-footed and Laysan albatrosses satellite-tagged in Alaska: Inter-specific differences in spatial overlap with North Pacific fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, K.N.; Suryan, R.M.; Roby, D.D.; Balogh, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    We integrated satellite-tracking data from black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 7) and Laysan albatrosses captured in Alaska (Phoebastria immutabilis; n = 18) with data on fishing effort and distribution from commercial fisheries in the North Pacific in order to assess potential risk from bycatch. Albatrosses were satellite-tagged at-sea in the Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and tracked during the post-breeding season, July-October 2005 and 2006. In Alaskan waters, fishing effort occurred almost exclusively within continental shelf and slope waters. Potential fishery interaction for black-footed albatrosses, which most often frequented shelf-slope waters, was greatest with sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) longline and pot fisheries and with the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) longline fishery. In contrast, Laysan albatrosses spent as much time over oceanic waters beyond the continental shelf and slope, thereby overlapping less with fisheries in Alaska than black-footed albatrosses. Regionally, Laysan albatrosses had the greatest potential fishery interaction with the Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) trawl fishery in the Western Aleutian Islands and the sablefish pot fishery in the Central Aleutian Islands. Black-footed albatrosses ranged further beyond Alaskan waters than Laysan albatrosses, overlapping west coast Canada fisheries and pelagic longline fisheries in the subarctic transition domain; Laysan albatrosses remained north of these pelagic fisheries. Due to inter-specific differences in oceanic distribution and habitat use, the overlap of fisheries with the post-breeding distribution of black-footed albatrosses is greater than that for Laysan albatrosses, highlighting inter-specific differences in potential vulnerability to bycatch and risk of population-level impacts from fisheries. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An Overview of the GOLD Experiment Between the ETS-6 Satellite and the Table Mountain Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration is a demonstration of optical communications between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-VI) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain Facility in Wrightwood, California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed for approximately 4 hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain. The experiment requires the coordination of resources at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), JPL, the National Aeronautics and Space Development Agency (NASDA) Tsukuba tracking station, and NASA's Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California, to generate and transmit real-time commands and receive telemetry from the ETS-VI. Transmissions to the ETS-VI began in November 1995 and are scheduled to last into the middle of January 1996, when the satellite is expected to be eclipsed by the Earth's shadow for a major part of its orbit. The eclipse is expected to last for about 2 months, and during this period there will be limited electrical power available on board the satellite. NASDA plans to restrict experiments with the ETS-VI during this period, and no laser transmissions are planned. Posteclipse experiments are currently being negotiated. GOLD is a joint NASA-CRL experiment that is being conducted by JPL in coordination with CRL and NASDA.

  16. An overview of the GOLD experiment between the ETS-6 satellite and the table mountain facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) is a demonstration of optical communications between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-VI) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain Facility in Wrightwood, California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed for approximately 4 hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain. The experiment requires the coordination of resources at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), JPL, the National Aeronautics and Space Development Agency (NASDA) Tsukuba tracking station, and NASA's Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California, to generate and transmit real-time commands and receive telemetry from the ETS-VI. Transmissions to the ETS-VI began in November 1995 and are scheduled to last into the middle of January 1996, when the satellite is expected to be eclipsed by the Earth's shadow for a major part of its orbit. The eclipse is expected to last for about 2 months, and during this period there will be limited electrical power available on board the satellite. NASDA plans to restrict experiments with the ETS-VI during this period, and no laser transmissions are planned. Posteclipse experiments are currently being negotiated. GOLD is a joint NASA-CRL experiment that is being conducted by JPL in coordination with CRL and NASDA.

  17. Satellite Applications for Public Service: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffer, Sandra; And Others

    Summaries of 18 different projects involving the use of satellite communications are presented in this report, including PEACESAT Education and Communication Experiments, USP Network Satellite Communication Project, Project Satellite, Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Appalachian Education Satellite Program, Alaska Education…

  18. Study of plasmasphere dynamics using incoherent scatter data from Chatanika, Alaska radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the study of Chatanika incoherent scatter radar data and Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory satellite data are reported. Specific topics covered include: determination of the effective recombination coefficient in the auroral E region; determination of the location of the auroral oval; auroral boundary characteristics; and the relationship of auroral current systems, particle precipitation, visual aurora, and radar aurora.

  19. A 16-year time series of 1 km AVHRR satellite data of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldenshink, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a 16-year time series of vegetation condition information for the conterminous United States and, Alaska using 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The AVHRR data have been processed using consistent methods that account for radiometric variability due to calibration uncertainty, the effects of the atmosphere on surface radiometric measurements obtained from wide field-of-view observations, and the geometric registration accuracy. The conterminous United States and Alaska data sets have an atmospheric correction for water vapor, ozone, and Rayleigh scattering and include a cloud mask derived using the Clouds from AVHRR (CLAVR) algorithm. In comparison with other AVHRR time series data sets, the conterminous United States and Alaska data are processed using similar techniques. The primary difference is that the conterminous United States and Alaska data are at 1 km resolution, while others are at 8 km resolution. The time series consists of weekly and biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  20. Derivation of soil moisture and snow wetness from satellite SAR images over a permafrost region in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adewuyi, Adeniyi Abiodun

    The empirically adopted integral equation model (EA-IEM) was implemented for soil moisture and snow wetness derivations from active microwave data under bare soil or pure snow cover and sparsely vegetated conditions in the permafrost region. Since the permafrost region consists of land mixed with snow cover, MODIS image was used as a reference to separate the original backscattering coefficient radar image into soil and snow backscattering coefficient subimages. The EA-IEM provides simplified mathematical expressions to calculate the soil and snow dielectric constants. A sensitivity analysis was performed and then the range of model parameters for snow wetness retrieval was determined. The Newton-Rhapson iteration was used to generate the calibrated surface root-mean-square (rms) height and calibrated correlation length by using the absolute difference between the retrieved volumetric soil moisture from the backscattering coefficient of RADARSAT-1 (a Canadian satellite radar sensor) and the measured volumetric soil moisture. The absolute difference is less than the threshold value set to be 106. In this study, two empirical roughness models were developed that allow for the parameterization of the soil surface roughness. The first empirical roughness model was established between the calibrated correlation length values and the backscattering coefficient observations, while the second model was implemented between the calibrated surface RMS height values and the backscattering coefficient values. Further incorporating these two empirical roughness models into the EA-IEM provides a robust way of retrieving volumetric liquid water content (LWC) over a large area. Liquid water content is then calculated from the radar backscattering coefficient without iteration. Four strategies were adopted to calibrate and validate the derived volumetric liquid water content data at two NCRS-SCAN sites: Nenana and Ward Farm in Alaska, USA. The first strategy combined the two data

  1. Study on Landscape Freeze/Thaw Classification and its Spatial Scale Effects using Satellite L-band radar observations over Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Kimball, J. S.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Dunbar, R.; Moghaddam, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in landscape freeze-thaw (FT) status at higher latitudes and elevations significantly impacts land surface water mobility and surface energy partitioning, with major consequences for regional climate, hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical processes. With the development of new generation space-borne remote sensing instruments, future L-band missions including the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission will provide new operational retrievals of landscape FT state dynamics at relatively fine (3 km) spatial resolution. We applied theoretical simulations of L-band radar backscatter using first-order radiative transfer models with two-layer and three-layer modeling schemes to develop a modified seasonal threshold algorithm (STA) and FT classification over Alaska using finer scale (100 m resolution) satellite Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) observations. An Alaska FT map for April, 2007 was generated from PALSAR observations and showed a regionally consistent, but finer FT spatial pattern than an alternative surface air temperature based classification derived from global reanalysis data. Validation of the STA based FT classification against regional soil climate stations indicated approximately 80% and 70% spatial classification accuracy in relation to respective in situ station air temperature and soil temperature measurement based FT estimates. The STA FT classification method is found to be reliable for most of the major Alaska land cover types except for barren land. An investigation of relative spatial scale effects on FT classification accuracy indicates that the relationship between pixel size and relative FT spatial classification error follows a general logarithmic function. The optimum resolution for accurate FT classification is expected to depend on the landscape FT spatial heterogeneity. However, our results indicate that the regional FT spatial scaling error is less than 12.8% and

  2. Passive three-axis stabilization of the Long Duration Exposure Facility. [gravity gradient stabilized satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckins, E. K., III; Breedlove, W. J., Jr.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the attitude dynamics of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF is a large cylindrical gravity gradient stabilized earth satellite which is planned to be delivered to a 270-n mi circular orbit by the space shuttle. The fundamental linear stability, capture requirements, and pitch bias constraints generated by the Garber instability are discussed. Numerical simulations, based on the full nonlinear equations for the coupled orbital and attitude motion of the vehicle and the viscous magnetic damper, show stable behavior of the spacecraft and a damping time constant of 30 to 70 orbits.

  3. Detection of facilities in satellite imagery using semi-supervised image classification and auxiliary contextual observables

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Neal R; Ruggiero, Christy E; Pawley, Norma H; Brumby, Steven P; Macdonald, Brian; Balick, Lee; Oyer, Alden

    2009-01-01

    Detecting complex targets, such as facilities, in commercially available satellite imagery is a difficult problem that human analysts try to solve by applying world knowledge. Often there are known observables that can be extracted by pixel-level feature detectors that can assist in the facility detection process. Individually, each of these observables is not sufficient for an accurate and reliable detection, but in combination, these auxiliary observables may provide sufficient context for detection by a machine learning algorithm. We describe an approach for automatic detection of facilities that uses an automated feature extraction algorithm to extract auxiliary observables, and a semi-supervised assisted target recognition algorithm to then identify facilities of interest. We illustrate the approach using an example of finding schools in Quickbird image data of Albuquerque, New Mexico. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory's Genie Pro automated feature extraction algorithm to find a set of auxiliary features that should be useful in the search for schools, such as parking lots, large buildings, sports fields and residential areas and then combine these features using Genie Pro's assisted target recognition algorithm to learn a classifier that finds schools in the image data.

  4. Detection of facilities in satellite imagery using semi-supervized image classification and auxiliary contextual observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Neal R.; Ruggiero, C.; Pawley, N. H.; MacDonald, B.; Oyer, A.; Balick, L.; Brumby, S. P.

    2009-05-01

    Detecting complex targets, such as facilities, in commercially available satellite imagery is a difficult problem that human analysts try to solve by applying world knowledge. Often there are known observables that can be extracted by pixel-level feature detectors that can assist in the facility detection process. Individually, each of these observables is not sufficient for an accurate and reliable detection, but in combination, these auxiliary observables may provide sufficient context for detection by a machine learning algorithm. We describe an approach for automatic detection of facilities that uses an automated feature extraction algorithm to extract auxiliary observables, and a semi-supervised assisted target recognition algorithm to then identify facilities of interest. We illustrate the approach using an example of finding schools in Quickbird image data of Albuquerque, New Mexico. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory's Genie Pro automated feature extraction algorithm to find a set of auxiliary features that should be useful in the search for schools, such as parking lots, large buildings, sports fields and residential areas and then combine these features using Genie Pro's assisted target recognition algorithm to learn a classifier that finds schools in the image data.

  5. The ASTROMAG superconducting magnet facility configured for a free flying satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smoot, G.F.

    1991-06-01

    ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled using superfluid helium. The task of resizing the facility so that it will fly in a satellite in a high angle of inclination orbit is driven by the launch weight capability of the launch rocket and the desire to be able to do nearly the same physics as the Space Station version of ASTROMAG. In order to reduce the launch weight, the magnet and its cryogenic system had to be downsized, yet the integrated field generated by the magnet in the particle detectors has to match the Space Station version of the magnet. The use of aluminum matrix superconductor and oriented composite materials in the magnet insulation permits one to achieve this goal. The net magnetic dipole moment from the ASTROMAG magnet must be small to minimize the torque due to interaction with the earth's magnetic field. The ASTROMAG magnet consists of identical two coils 1.67 meters apart. The two coils are connected in series in persistent mode. Each coil is designed to carry 2.34 million ampere turns. Both coils are mounted on the same magnetic axis and they operate at opposite polarity. This reduces the dipole moment by a factor of more than 1000. This is tolerable for the Space Station version of the magnet. A magnet operating on a free flying satellite requires additional compensation. This report presents the magnet parameters of a free flying version of ASTROMAG and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  6. The Astromag Superconducting Magnet Facility Configured for a FreeFlying Satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smoot, George F.

    1991-06-01

    ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled using superfluid helium. The task of resizing the facility so that it will fly in a satellite in. a high angle of inclination orbit is driven by the launch weight capability of the launch rocket and the desire to be able to do nearly the same physics as the Space Station version of ASTROMAG. In order to reduce the launch weight, the magnet and its cryogenic system had to be downsized, yet the integrated field generated by the magnet in the particle detectors has to match the Space Station version of the magnet. The use of aluminum matrix superconductor and oriented composite materials in the magnet insulation permits one to achieve this goal. The net magnetic dipole moment from the ASTROMAG magnet must be small to minimize the torque due to interaction with the earth's magnetic field. The ASTROMAG magnet consists of identical two coils 1.67 meters apart. The two coils are connected in series in persistent mode. Each coil is designed to carry 2.34 million ampere turns. Both coils are mounted on the same magnetic axis and they operate at opposite polarity. This reduces the dipole moment by a factor of more than 1000. This is tolerable for the Space Station version of the magnet. A magnet operating on a free flying satellite requires additional compensation. This report presents the magnet parameters of a free flying version of ASTROMAG and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet.

  7. Sea ice type maps from Alaska synthetic aperture radar facility imagery: An assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterer, Florence M.; Gineris, Denise; Kwok, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery received at the Alaskan SAR Facility is routinely and automatically classified on the Geophysical Processor System (GPS) to create ice type maps. We evaluated the wintertime performance of the GPS classification algorithm by comparing ice type percentages from supervised classification with percentages from the algorithm. The root mean square (RMS) difference for multiyear ice is about 6%, while the inconsistency in supervised classification is about 3%. The algorithm separates first-year from multiyear ice well, although it sometimes fails to correctly classify new ice and open water owing to the wide distribution of backscatter for these classes. Our results imply a high degree of accuracy and consistency in the growing archive of multiyear and first-year ice distribution maps. These results have implications for heat and mass balance studies which are furthered by the ability to accurately characterize ice type distributions over a large part of the Arctic.

  8. Preeruptive inflation and surface interferometric coherence characteristics revealed by satellite radar interferometry at Makushin Volcano, Alaska: 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Power, J.A.; McConnell, V.S.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot reports in January 1995 and geologic field observations from the summer of 1996 indicate that a relatively small explosive eruption of Makushin, one of the more frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc of Alaska, occured on 30 January 1995. Several independent radar interferograms that each span the time period from October 1993 to September 1995 show evidence of ???7 cm of uplift centered on the volcano's east flank, which we interpret as preeruptive inflation of a ???7-km-deep magma source (??V = 0.022 km3). Subsequent interferograms for 1995-2000, a period that included no reported eruptive activity, show no evidence of additional ground deformation. Interferometric coherence at C band is found to persist for 3 years or more on lava flow and other rocky surfaces covered with short grass and sparsely distributed tall grass and for at least 1 year on most pyroclastic deposits. On lava flow and rocky surfaces with dense tall grass and on alluvium, coherence lasts for a few months. Snow and ice surfaces lose coherence within a few days. This extended timeframe of coherence over a variety of surface materials makes C band radar interferometry an effective tool for studying volcano deformation in Alaska and other similar high-latitude regions.

  9. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  10. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-06-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  11. Volcanic ash plume identification using polarization lidar: Augustine eruption, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Webley, Peter W.; Dean, K.; Cobb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    During mid January to early February 2006, a series of explosive eruptions occurred at the Augustine volcanic island off the southern coast of Alaska. By early February a plume of volcanic ash was transported northward into the interior of Alaska. Satellite imagery and Puff volcanic ash transport model predictions confirm that the aerosol plume passed over a polarization lidar (0.694 mm wavelength) site at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. For the first time, lidar linear depolarization ratios of 0.10 – 0.15 were measured in a fresh tropospheric volcanic plume, demonstrating that the nonspherical glass and mineral particles typical of volcanic eruptions generate strong laser depolarization. Thus, polarization lidars can identify the volcanic ash plumes that pose a threat to jet air traffic from the ground, aircraft, or potentially from Earth orbit.

  12. The Alaska SAR processor - Operations and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    The Alaska SAR (synthetic-aperture radar) Facility (ASF) will be capable of receiving, processing, archiving, and producing a variety of SAR image products from three satellite-borne SARs: E-ERS-1 (ESA), J-ERS-1 (NASDA) and Radarsat (Canada). Crucial to the success of the ASF is the Alaska SAR processor (ASP), which will be capable of processing over 200 100-km x 100-km (Seasat-like) frames per day from the raw SAR data, at a ground resolution of about 30 m x 30 m. The processed imagery is of high geometric and radiometric accuracy, and is geolocated to within 500 m. Special-purpose hardware has been designed to execute a SAR processing algorithm to achieve this performance. This hardware is currently undergoing acceptance testing for delivery to the University of Alaska. Particular attention has been devoted to making the operations semi-automated and to providing a friendly operator interface via a computer workstation. The operations and control of the Alaska SAR processor are described.

  13. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  14. Assessing the uncertainty of biomass change estimates obtained using multi-temporal field, lidar sampling, and satellite imagery on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, H.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of statistical sampling designs for aboveground biomass (and carbon) inventory and monitoring programs that can make efficient use of a variety of available data sources, including field plots, airborne lidar sampling, and satellite imagery. While the use of multiple sources, or levels, of remote sensing data can significantly increase the precision of biomass change estimates, especially in remote areas (such as interior Alaska) where it is extremely expensive to establish field plots, it can be challenging to accurately characterize the uncertainty (i.e. variance and bias) of the estimates obtained from these complex multi-level designs. In this study we evaluate a model-based approach to estimate changes in biomass over the western lowlands of the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska during the period 2004-2009 using a combination of field plots, lidar sampling, and satellite imagery. The model-based approach -- where all inferences are conditioned on the model relating the remote-sensing measurements to the inventory parameter of interest (e.g. biomass) - is appropriate for cases where it is cost-prohibitive, or infeasible, to establish a probability sample of field plots that are both spatially and temporally coincident with each remote sensing data set. For example, a model-based approach can be used to obtain biomass estimates over a period of time, even when field data is only available for the current time period. In this study, lidar data were collected in 2004 and 2009 over single swaths that covered 130 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots distributed on a regular grid over the entire western Kenai. Field measurements on FIA plots were initially acquired over the period 1999-2003 and fifty-percent of these plots were remeasured in the period 2004-2009. In addition, high-accuracy coordinates (< 1 meter error) were obtained for these FIA plots using survey-grade GLONASS-enabled GPS equipment. Changes in biomass

  15. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  16. Developing a Validated Long-Term Satellite-Based Albedo Record in the Central Alaska Range to Improve Regional Hydroclimate Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Godaire, T. P.; Burakowski, E. A.; Winski, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Hamilton, G. S.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Schaaf, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world, particularly in Alaska, are experiencing significant surface mass loss from rapid climatic shifts and constitute a large proportion of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Surface albedo acts as a primary control on a glacier's mass balance, yet it is difficult to measure and quantify spatially and temporally in steep, mountainous settings. During our 2013 field campaign in Denali National Park to recover two surface to bedrock ice cores, we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec4 Standard Resolution spectroradiometer to measure incoming solar radiation, outgoing surface reflectance and optical grain size on the Kahiltna Glacier and at the Kahiltna Base Camp. A Campbell Scientific automatic weather station was installed on Mount Hunter (3900m) in June 2013, complementing a longer-term (2008-present) station installed at Kahiltna Base Camp (2100m). Use of our in situ data aids in the validation of surface albedo values derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat satellite imagery. Comparisons are made between ASD FieldSpec4 ground measurements and 500m MODIS imagery to assess the ability of MODIS to capture the variability of surface albedo across the glacier surface. The MODIS MCD43A3 BRDF/Albedo Product performs well at Kahiltna Base Camp (<5% difference from ASD shortwave broadband data), but low biases in MODIS albedo (10-28% relative to ASD data) appear to occur along the Kahiltna Glacier due to the snow-free valley walls being captured in the 500m MODIS footprint. Incorporating Landsat imagery will strengthen our interpretations and has the potential to produce a long-term (1982-present) validated satellite albedo record for steep and mountainous terrain. Once validation is complete, we will compare the satellite-derived albedo record to the Denali ice core accumulation rate, aerosol records (i.e. volcanics and biomass burning), and glacier mass balance data. This

  17. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    . , Romanovsky, V. , Cable, W. and Kholodov, A. (2015) Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 through 2014. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (1), 12-41. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61002.

  18. Ground deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1996 an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (???3000 felt by local residents, Mmax = 5.1, cumulative moment of 2.7 ??1018 N m) beneath Akutan Island in the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, produced extensive ground cracks but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Synthetic aperture radar interferograms that span the time of the swarm reveal complex island-wide deformation: the western part of the island including Akutan volcano moved upward, while the eastern part moved downward. The axis of the deformation approximately aligns with new ground cracks on the western part of the island and with Holocene normal faults that were reactivated during the swarm on the eastern part of the island. The axis is also roughly parallel to the direction of greatest compressional stress in the region. No ground movements greater than 2.83 cm were observed outside the volcano's summit caldera for periods of 4 years before or 2 years after the swarm. We modeled the deformation primarily as the emplacement of a shallow, east-west trending, north dipping dike plus inflation of a deep, Mogi-type magma body beneath the volcano. The pattern of subsidence on the eastern part of the island is poorly constrained. It might have been produced by extensional tectonic strain that both reactivated preexisting faults on the eastern part of the island and facilitated magma movement beneath the western part. Alternatively, magma intrusion beneath the volcano might have been the cause of extension and subsidence in the eastern part of the island. We attribute localized subsidence in an area of active fumaroles within the Akutan caldera, by as much as 10 cm during 1992-1993 and 1996-1998, to fluid withdrawal or depressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. High-resolution satellite and airborne thermal infrared imaging of precursory unrest and 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessels, Rick L.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Patrick, Matthew R.; Coombs, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of satellite and airborne high-resolution visible and thermal infrared (TIR) image data detected and measured changes at Redoubt Volcano during the 2008–2009 unrest and eruption. The TIR sensors detected persistent elevated temperatures at summit ice-melt holes as seismicity and gas emissions increased in late 2008 to March 2009. A phreatic explosion on 15 March was followed by more than 19 magmatic explosive events from 23 March to 4 April that produced high-altitude ash clouds and large lahars. Two (or three) lava domes extruded and were destroyed between 23 March and 4 April. After 4 April, the eruption extruded a large lava dome that continued to grow until at least early July 2009.

  20. High-resolution satellite and airborne thermal infrared imaging of precursory unrest and 2009 eruption at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Rick L.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Patrick, Matthew R.; Coombs, Michelle L.

    2013-06-01

    A combination of satellite and airborne high-resolution visible and thermal infrared (TIR) image data detected and measured changes at Redoubt Volcano during the 2008-2009 unrest and eruption. The TIR sensors detected persistent elevated temperatures at summit ice-melt holes as seismicity and gas emissions increased in late 2008 to March 2009. A phreatic explosion on 15 March was followed by more than 19 magmatic explosive events from 23 March to 4 April that produced high-altitude ash clouds and large lahars. Two (or three) lava domes extruded and were destroyed between 23 March and 4 April. After 4 April, the eruption extruded a large lava dome that continued to grow until at least early July 2009.

  1. Glacier Basal Sliding in Two-Dimensions Quantified from Correlation of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study on Kennicott Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. H., Jr.; Anderson, R. S.; Allen, J.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The coupling of glacial hydrology and sliding is a source of uncertainty for both ice flow modeling and prediction of future sea level rise. As basal sliding is required for a glacier to erode its bed, the spatial pattern of glacier sliding is also important for understanding alpine landscape evolution. We use multi-temporal WorldView satellite imagery (0.5 m pixel) to monitor the seasonal progression of glacier velocity across the terminal ~50 km2of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska. We employ the free image correlation software COSI-Corr to construct multiple velocity maps, using 2013 imagery with repeat times from 15 to 38 days. These short intervals between images allow us to analyze variations in glacier velocity over weekly to monthly timescales associated with hydrologically-induced basal sliding. By assuming that spring (March-April) glacier velocity results solely from viscous deformation, we produce spatially distributed maps of glacier sliding speed by differencing summer and spring ice surface speeds. For a given time, a large portion of our study reach slides with roughly uniform speed, despite significant variation in deformation speed. This suggests that glacier flow models in which basal sliding is taken simply to scale as ice surface velocity are unfounded. The upglacier end of our study reach slides at speeds that vary through the summer, whereas the terminal reach slides at a steady speed. The proportion of glacier motion due to sliding increases dramatically moving downglacier, making basal sliding especially important in the terminal region. Many formulations express glacier sliding as a function of effective pressure (ice pressure minus water pressure). If such formulations are correct, effective pressure varies little over large areas or is averaged over lengthscales equivalent to ~10 glacier thicknesses. Also, effective pressure is steady in the terminal region through the summer. We explore existing sliding laws to find which best describes the

  2. ESCD/Alaska: An Educational Demonstration -- The Far North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orvik, James M.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluates the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration in Alaska project in educational television within the context of the rapid social change in land ownership, employment, and schooling. (JMF)

  3. Magmatic inflation at a dormant stratovolcano: 1996-1998 activity at Mount Peulik volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Thatcher, W.

    2002-01-01

    A series of ERS radar interferograms that collectively span the time interval from July 1992 to August 2000 reveal that a presumed magma body located 6.6 ??? 0.5 km beneath the southwest flank of the Mount Peulik volcano inflated 0.051 ??? 0.005 km3 between October 1996 and September 1998. Peulik has been active only twice during historical time, in 1814 and 1852, and the volcano was otherwise quiescent during the 1990s. The inflation episode spanned at least several months because separate interferograms show that the associated ground deformation was progressive. The average inflation rate of the magma body was ???0.003 km3/month from October 1996 to September 1997, peaked at 0.005 km3/month from 26 June to 9 October 1997, and dropped to ???0.001 km3/month from October 1997 to September 1998. An intense earthquake swarm, including three ML 4.8 - 5.2 events, began on 8 May 1998 near Becharof Lake, ???30 km northwest of Peulik. More than 400 earthquakes with a cumulative moment of 7.15 ?? 1017 N m were recorded in the area through 19 October 1998. Although the inflation and earthquake swarm occured at about the same time, the static stress changes that we calculated in the epicentral area due to inflation beneath Peulik appear too small to provide a causal link. The 1996-1998 inflation episode at Peulik confirms that satellite radar interferometry can be used to detect magma accumulation beneath dormant volcanoes at least several months before other signs of unrest are apparent. This application represents a first step toward understanding the eruption cycle at Peulik and other stratovolcanoes with characteristically long repose periods.

  4. Coordination and establishment of centralized facilities and services for the University of Alaska ERTS survey of the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E. (Principal Investigator); Miller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Scene 1072-21173 of the Anaktuvuk Pass region of the Brooks Range, Alaska, was studied from the point of view of a resource survey for purposes of land use planning as part of the effort to develop ERTS data processing and interpretation techniques. Other data sources and surface observations were utilized to produce a resource survey of a remote and undeveloped region of Alaska. Three vegetative types are apparent: moist tundra, low brush, and high brush. Watersheds are easily defined on the multispectral imagery. Features related indirectly to economic minerals are discernible from ERTS-1 imagery supported by ground truth data. These include mountains, outwash plains and alluvial deposits, drainage patterns, lineaments and probable bedding planes. This region falls within present land class categories which are not inconsistent with the imperatives of the resources. These land class categories include native village withdrawals, regional deficiency area, national interest study area for possible inclusion in a national system, public interest areas, utility corridor, and state land selection.

  5. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  6. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  7. Foodstuff Survey Around a Major Nuclear Facility with Test of Satellite Image Application

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-07-16

    'A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken SC. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of SRS center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined in two ways: by the usual process of assuming uniform crop distribution in each county on the basis of agricultural statistics reported by state agencies, and by analysis of two LANDSAT TM images obtained in May and September. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the Site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption. For four food crops, the amounts per section based on county agricultural statistics prorated by area were compared with the amounts per section based on satellite image analysis. The median ratios of the former to the latter were 0.6 - 0.7, suggesting that the two approaches are comparable but that satellite image analysis gave consistently higher amounts. Use of satellite image analysis is recommended on the basis of these findings to obtain site-specific, as compared to area-averaged, information on crop locations in conjunction with radionuclide pathway modelling. Some improvements in technique are suggested for satellite image application to characterize additional crops.'

  8. Qualification of the Magnetic Field Simulation Facility MFSA for Satellites with Large Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, H.

    2012-05-01

    Within the AIT-process the verification of magnetic cleanliness requirements is an essential pre- equisite to ensure mission success, especially for satellites with dedicated magnetic mission requirements i.e. SOLAR ORBITER. Magnetic cleanliness verification usually comprises a combination of analytical and experimental methods. Based on magnetic measurements performed on equipment level, the magnetic behaviour on system level may be assessed by applying analytical and numerical methods and models and then verified during a magnetic system test as a highly recommended end to end check. The experience from many space projects such as CLUSTER, HUYGENS, ODIN, CHAMP and LISA PATHFINDER, SWARM has proven that the MFSA allows to obtain high-precision magnetic measurements. By the measurements of the projects during the last years, it became obvious that the size and weight of scientific satellites is increasing dramatically. In addition the shape of some satellites has changed from a compact cylinder or cube form to a quite elongated one. From this fact it can derived that several methods typically applied during testing have to be adapted to take the bigger size and different forms of the test objects into account.

  9. UAS measurements of ice fog and diamond dust in the Arctic at the DOE ARM mobile facility of Oliktok Point, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; Stuefer, M.; Heymsfield, A.

    2013-12-01

    We report on our planned airborne studies of ice fog and diamond dust at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Measurements are proposed with a newly developed small version of a Video-Ice Particle Sampler (VIPS) as well as ice crystal replicators; the instruments will be flown aboard a hexacopter type unmanned aerial system (UAS). The UAS will operate at favorable low wind situations within an altitude range of approximate 3000 feet from the surface. Ice fog and diamond dust have been observed up to 50% of all winter days at selected locations in the Arctic. Strong surface-based temperature inversions form during the Arctic winter months from November to May as an effect of the low solar energy received at the surface. The cold and very stable boundary layer inhibits vertical aerosol exchange processes with the free atmosphere, which leads to continuous formation and accumulation of atmospheric ice crystals. Vertical changes in particle numbers, type, and size distribution will provide a wealth of new information about the properties and variability of low level Arctic ice aerosol. Additional continuous ground based cloud particle measurements will allow evaluation of temporal changes of the ice crystals. A goal of the study is to evaluate regional anthropogenic and natural effects on ice fog microphysics. Oliktok Point is located along the typical short-range trajectories of industrial pollutants (~30 miles northwest of the Prudhoe Bay Oilfields). Differences in ice particle microphysics and nuclei characteristics will allow evaluation of regional anthropogenic effects.

  10. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  11. Preparing for a Semiannual IACUC Inspection of a Satellite Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Facility

    PubMed Central

    Koerber, Amy S; Kalishman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Institutions worldwide have experienced a rapid growth in the use of zebrafish as a research model for a variety of molecular and genetic studies of vertebrate development. This expansion in zebrafish research essentially has outpaced the establishment of specific recommendations for the care and use of fish in research. In some cases, this situation has created a dilemma where an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, which is responsible for oversight of vertebrate animal research, is not fully prepared to undertake this role for a decentralized zebrafish facility. IACUC inspectors will be more equipped to ask pertinent questions by understanding the basic principles of zebrafish health and facility management. Concurrently, zebrafish facility managers can contribute to the progress of a semiannual facility inspection by maintaining fully accessible operating records. In the context of presenting a well-established and useful model of zebrafish management and recordkeeping to the zebrafish facility operator, the information we present here also prepares a potential IACUC inspector to conduct a constructive and positive inspection. PMID:19245754

  12. Gaining Influence: Alaska Natives Assert Economic Clout amid Cultural Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Kake Tribal Corporation's purchase of a seafood cold storage facility in southeast Alaska is an example of the growing economic clout of Alaska's tribal corporations. However, many claim that the pro-development forces of corporations are weakening the subsistence economy and culture of Alaska Natives. Conflicts involve Native hunting and fishing…

  13. Alaska SAR processor implementation of E-ERS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddy, David; Chen, Ming-Je; Bicknell, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing algorithm used by the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) for the European Space Agency's first Remote-Sensing Satellite (E-ERS-1) SAR data are examined. Preprocessing highlights two features: signal measurement, which includes signal-to-noise ratio, replica measurement, and noise measurement; and Doppler measurement, which includes clutter lock and autofocus. The custom pipeline architecture performs the main processing with controls at the input interface, range correlator, corner-turn memory, azimuth correlator, and multi-look memory. The control software employs a flexible control scheme. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) format encapsulates the ASF products. System performance for SAR image processing of E-ERS-1 data is reviewed.

  14. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  15. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    There were 2 acclimation periods at the Catherine Creek Acclimation Facility (CCAF) in 2005. During the early acclimation period, 130,748 smolts were delivered from Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on 7 March. This group contained progeny of both the captive (53%) and conventional broodstock programs. The size of the fish at delivery was 23.9 fish/lb. Volitional releases began 14 March 2005 and ended 27 March with an estimated total (based on PIT tag detections of 3,187) of 29,402 fish leaving the raceways. This was 22.5% of the total fish delivered. Fish remaining in the raceways after volitional release were forced out. Hourly detections of PIT-tagged fish showed that most of the fish left around 1900 hours. The size of the fish just before the volitional release was 23.9 and the size of the fish remaining just before the forced release was 23.2 fish/lb. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 204 (0.16%). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the early period was 130,544. During the second acclimation period 59,100 smolts were delivered from LGH on 28 March. This group was comprised entirely of progeny from the conventional broodstock program. The size of the fish at delivery was 21.8 fish/lb. Volitional releases began 3 April 2005 and ended with a force out emergency release on 7 April. The size of the fish just before the volitional release was 21.8. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 64 (0.11 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 59,036. There was only 1 planned acclimation period at the Upper Grande Ronde Acclimation Facility (UGRAF) in 2005. During the early acclimation period 105,418 smolts were delivered from LGH on 8 March. This group was comprised entirely of progeny from the conventional broodstock program. The size of the fish at delivery was 21.0 fish/lb. There was no volitional release in 2005 due to freezing air and water conditions

  16. Performance of the Satellite Test Assistant Robot in JPL's Space Simulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaffee, Douglas; Long, Mark; Johnson, Ken; Siebes, Georg

    1995-01-01

    An innovative new telerobotic inspection system called STAR (the Satellite Test Assistant Robot) has been developed to assist engineers as they test new spacecraft designs in simulated space environments. STAR operates inside the ultra-cold, high-vacuum, test chambers and provides engineers seated at a remote Operator Control Station (OCS) with high resolution video and infrared (IR) images of the flight articles under test. STAR was successfully proof tested in JPL's 25-ft (7.6-m) Space Simulation Chamber where temperatures ranged from +85 C to -190 C and vacuum levels reached 5.1 x 10(exp -6) torr. STAR's IR Camera was used to thermally map the entire interior of the chamber for the first time. STAR also made several unexpected and important discoveries about the thermal processes occurring within the chamber. Using a calibrated test fixture arrayed with ten sample spacecraft materials, the IR camera was shown to produce highly accurate surface temperature data. This paper outlines STAR's design and reports on significant results from the thermal vacuum chamber test.

  17. Foodstuff survey around a major nuclear facility with test of satellite images application

    SciTech Connect

    Twining, S.; Strydom, J.; Rosson, R.; Koffman, L.; Fledderman, P.; Kahn, B.

    2000-05-01

    A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of the Savannah River Site center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined by the usual process of applying county agricultural statistics reported by state agencies. This process was compared to crop analysis of two LANDSAT Thematic Mapper images. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. The median areas per section devoted to each of four food crops based on county agricultural statistics were about two-thirds of those based on satellite image analysis. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption.

  18. The Astromag superconducting magnet facility configured for a free-flying satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Smoot, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    The magnet parameters of a free-flying version of Astromag and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet are presented. Consideration is given to the free-flyer version of the Astromag magnet. The diameter of the magnet, its cryostat, the satellite and the two instruments is limited by the 4.27-m shroud diameter of the Atlas IIa. The magnet coil must use a stable reliable superconductor which can carry the full magnet current at 4.2 K at a peak induction in the coil of 7.5 T. The magnet must operate in the persistent mode. The changes in the overall design and operating requirements for the free-flying-design Astromag suggest that the coils, the cryogenic system, and the charging system can be simplified without a loss of required magnet function. Attention is given to switches, trim coils, and plumbing in the low field region between the coils; the magnet charging system and the quench protection system; and cooled helium supply to the magnet gas-cooled electrical leads.

  19. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western Pacific, and North Slope of Alaska Sky Radiation, Ground Radiation, and MET Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M.T.; Holdridge, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    2005-03-18

    Aging systems and technological advances mandated changes to the data collection systems at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites. Key reasons for the upgrade include the following: achieve consistency across all ACRF sites for easy data use and operational maintenance; minimize the need for a single mentor requiring specialized knowledge and training; provide local access to real-time data for operational support, intensive operational period (IOP) support, and public relations; eliminate problems with physical packaging (condensation, connectors, etc.); and increase flexibility in programming and control of the data logger.

  20. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) calibration of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) responsibilities for calibration of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) sensors included alignment calibration of the fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and the fine Sun sensor (FSS), determination of misalignments and scale factors for the inertial reference units (IRU's), determination of biases for the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) and Earth sensor assemblies (ESA's), determination of gimbal misalignments of the Solar/Stellar Pointing Platform (SSPP), and field-of-view calibration for the FSS's mounted both on the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS) and on the SSPP. The calibrations, which used a combination of new and established algorithms, gave excellent results. Alignment calibration results markedly improved the accuracy of both ground and onboard Computer (OBC) attitude determination. SSPP calibration results allowed UARS to identify stars in the period immediately after yaw maneuvers, removing the delay required for the OBC to reacquire its fine pointing attitude mode. SSPP calibration considerably improved the pointing accuracy of the attached science instrument package. This paper presents a summary of the methods used and the results of all FDF UARS sensor calibration.

  1. Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ and Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility /SIRTF/ - Implications of scientific objectives on focal plane sensitivity requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Walker, R. G.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The full potential of infrared astronomy can be realized only through observations made with space-based telescopes cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The paper outlines the scientific mission, system description, and focal plane requirements for two cryogenic telescopes: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). IRAS, a 60-cm superfluid-helium-cooled telescope system, will perform a one-year 8-120-micron IR sky survey; it will provide results of high reliability and sensitivity, produce the first complete survey data for the 30-120-micron region, and fill in missing portions (spectrally and spatially) of previous surveys short of 30 microns; its focal plane assembly is being designed to approach background-limited performance with an array of 62 discrete detectors. The SIRTF design will allow detailed follow-up studies in the 1-1000-micron range with a 116-160-cm observatory-class instrument. The Shuttle sortie capability introduces the unique SIRTF concept of an easily refurbishable or replaceable focal plane instrument complement in an orbiting cryogenic telescope.

  2. Usefulness of ERTS-1 satellite imagery as a data-gathering tool by resource managers in the Bureau of Land Management. [Arizona, California, Oregon, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery can be an effective data-gathering tool for resource managers. Techniques are developed which allow managers to visually analyze simulated color infrared composite images to map perennial and ephemeral (annual) plant communities. Tentative results indicate that ephemeral plant growth and development and potential to produce forage can be monitored.

  3. Alaska Volcano Observatory's KML Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcic, L.; Webley, P. W.; Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are now giving the scientific community a new medium to present data, which is compatible across multiple disciplines. They also provide scientists the ability to display their data in real-time, a critical factor in hazard assessment. The Alaska Volcano Observatory remote sensing group has developed Keyhole Markup Language (KML) tools that are used to display satellite data for volcano monitoring and forecast ash cloud movement. The KML tools allow an analyst to view the satellite data in a user-friendly web based environment, without a reliance on non-transportable, proprietary software packages. Here, we show how the tools are used operationally for thermal monitoring of volcanic activity, volcanic ash cloud detection and dispersion modeling, using the Puff model. animate.images.alaska.edu/

  4. Operational Derivation of Surface Albedo and Down-Welling Short-Wave Radiation in the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, B.; Carrer, D.; Meurey, C.; Roujean, J.-L.

    2006-08-01

    The Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Anal- ysis hosted by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute in Lisbon generates and distributes value added satellite products for numerical weather prediction and environ- mental applications in near-real time. Within the project consortium M´et´eo-France is responsible for the land sur- face albedo and down-welling short-wave radiation flux products. Since the beginning of the year 2005 Meteosat Second Generation data are routinely processed by the Land-SAF operational system. In general the validation studies carried out so far show a good consistency with in-situ observations or equivalent products derived from other satellites. After one year of operations a summary of the product characteristics and performances is given. Key words: Surface Albedo; Down-welling Radiation; Land-SAF.

  5. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  6. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.

    2015-01-01

    The USGS has compiled a continuous, cloud-free 12.5-meter resolution radar mosaic of SAR data of approximately 212,000 square kilometers to examine the suitability of this technology for geologic mapping. This mosaic was created from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data collected from 2007 to 2010 spanning the Kahiltna terrane and the surrounding area. Interpretation of these data may help geologists understand past geologic processes and identify areas with potential for near-surface mineral resources for further ground-based geological and geochemical investigations.

  7. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  8. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Seasonal evolution of glacier velocity and portraits of basal motion across southeast Alaska via cross-correlation of optical satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. H., Jr.; Anderson, R. S.; Moon, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how glacier geometry and geographic setting govern a glacier's response to meltwater and precipitation inputs. Does the up-glacier limit of enhanced summer basal motion vary across glaciers? Do non-surge glaciers show consistent spatial patterns of basal motion from year to year? We investigate such questions by documenting the seasonal-to-annual evolution of surface velocity for over 25 surge- and non-surge type glaciers in the Wrangell-St Elias ranges of southeast Alaska, USA, during 2013-2015. We use the Python-implemented PYCORR image cross-correlation software to estimate ice surface velocity fields over ~35,000 km2 covered by four Landsat-8 (L8) scenes. PYCORR is an optimized version of IMCORR, and takes less than 5 minutes to process a full L8 scene. This computational efficiency allows us to calculate dozens of velocity fields for each scene to provide high temporal resolution. We automate the extraction of velocity profiles along longitudinal glacier profiles to document their temporal evolution over timespans ranging from 16 days to greater than one year at spatial resolution of several tens to several hundred meters. This method provides much greater spatial coverage than GPS-derived velocities, and succeeds in terrain of rough surface texture and significant temporal elevation change, both of which present substantial challenges for deriving InSAR velocities. Preliminary data on Kennicott Glacier (Figure 1) resolve the annual velocity cycle in which speeds are lowest over winter and highest in summer reflecting meltwater-induced basal motion. We find notable seasonal velocity fluctuations at distances of more than 30 km from the glacier terminus. While longitudinal stress gradient coupling may explain a portion of these velocity variations, local basal motion must contribute, as the relatively thin (~500 m) ice cannot transmit longitudinal stresses over such distances. Regions downstream of tributary junctions show consistently

  10. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is a vital physical parameter of the active-layer in permafrost environments, and associated biological and geophysical processes operative at the microscopic to hemispheric spatial scales and at hourly to multidecadal time scales. While in-situ measurements can give the highest quality of information on a site-specific basis, the vast permafrost terrains of North America and Eurasia require space-based techniques for assessments of cause and effect and long-term changes and impacts from the changes of permafrost and the active-layer. Satellite-based 6.925 and 10.65 GHz sensor algorithmic retrievals of soil moisture by Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA-Aqua and follow-on AMSR2 onboard JAXA-Global Change Observation Mission - Water-1 are ongoing since July 2002. Accurate land-surface temperature and vegetation parameters are critical to the success of passive microwave algorithmic retrieval schemes. Strategically located soil moisture measurements are needed for spatial and temporal co-location evaluation and validation of the space-based algorithmic estimates. We compare on a daily basis ground-based (subsurface-probe) 50- and 70-MHz radio-frequency soil moisture measurements with NASA- and JAXA-algorithmic retrieval passive microwave retrievals. We find improvements in performance of the JAXA-algorithm (AMSR-E reprocessed and AMSR2 ongoing) relative to the earlier NASA-algorithm version. In the boreal forest regions accurate land-surface temperatures and vegetation parameters are still needed for algorithmic retrieval success. Over the period of AMSR-E retrievals we find evidence of at the high northern latitudes of growing terrestrial radio-frequency interference in the 10.65 GHz channel soil moisture content. This is an important error source for satellite-based active and passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture retrievals in Arctic regions that must be addressed. Ref: International

  11. FASTSAT is a Different Kind of Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite -- FASTSAT -- is a microsatellite in the 200 to 400 pound class range will launch from Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska, on Nov. 1...

  12. Analysis of impactor residues in tray clamps from the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Part 1: Clamps from Bay A of the satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bernhard, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) in 1984 and was recovered 5.7 years later. The LDEF was host to several individual experiments that were specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in LEO. It was realized from the beginning, however, that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to examine the entire surface of the Earth for impact features. In this regard, particular interest has centered on common exposed materials that faced in all LDEF pointing directions. Among the most important of these materials is the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to understand the nature of particulates in LEO and their effects on spacecraft hardware better, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This catalog presents all data from clamps from Bay A of the LDEF. Subsequent catalogs will include clamps from succeeding bays of the satellite.

  13. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Kholodov, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is a vital physical parameter of the active-layer in permafrost environments, and associated biological and geophysical processes operative at the microscopic to hemispheric spatial scales and at hourly to multidecadal time scales. While in-situ measurements can give the highest quality of information on a site-specific basis, the vast permafrost terrains of North America and Eurasia require space-based techniques for assessments of cause and effect and long-term changes and impacts from the changes of permafrost and the active-layer. Satellite-based 6.925 and 10.65 GHz sensor algorithmic retrievals of soil moisture by Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA-Aqua and follow-on AMSR2 onboard JAXA-Global Change Observation Mission - Water-1 are ongoing since July 2002. Accurate land-surface temperature and vegetation parameters are critical to the success of passive microwave algorithmic retrieval schemes. Strategically located soil moisture measurements are needed for spatial and temporal co-location evaluation and validation of the space-based algorithmic estimates. We compare on a daily basis ground-based (subsurface-probe) 50- and 70-MHz radio-frequency soil moisture measurements with NASA- and JAXA-algorithmic retrieval passive microwave retrievals. We find improvements in performance of the JAXA-algorithm (AMSR-E reprocessed and AMSR2 ongoing) relative to the earlier NASA-algorithm version. In the boreal forest regions accurate land-surface temperatures and vegetation parameters are still needed for algorithmic retrieval success. Over the period of AMSR-E retrievals we find evidence of at the high northern latitudes of growing terrestrial radio-frequency interference in the 10.65 GHz channel soil moisture content. This is an important error source for satellite-based active and passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture retrievals in Arctic regions that must be addressed. Ref: Muskett, R

  14. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 6: Specification for EOS Central Data Processing Facility (CDPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The specifications and functions of the Central Data Processing (CDPF) Facility which supports the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are discussed. The CDPF will receive the EOS sensor data and spacecraft data through the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) and the Operations Control Center (OCC). The CDPF will process the data and produce high density digital tapes, computer compatible tapes, film and paper print images, and other data products. The specific aspects of data inputs and data processing are identified. A block diagram of the CDPF to show the data flow and interfaces of the subsystems is provided.

  15. WATER RELATED UTILITIES FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES IN RURAL ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 'Alaska Village Demonstration Projects' were authorized by Section 113, P.O. 92-500 (86 STAT 816), for the purpose of demonstrating methods to improve sanitary conditions in native villages of Alaska. Central community facilities have been constructed in the native villages o...

  16. Satellite Data Support for the ARM Climate Research Facility, 8/01/2009 - 7/31/2015

    SciTech Connect

    Minnis, Patrick; Khaiyer, Mandana M

    2015-10-06

    This report summarizes the support provided by NASA Langley Research for the DOE ARM Program in the form of cloud and radiation products derived from satellite imager data for the period between 8/01/09 through 7/31/15. Cloud properties such as cloud amount, height, and optical depth as well as outgoing longwave and shortwave broadband radiative fluxes were derived from geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellite imager radiance measurements for domains encompassing ARM permanent sites and field campaigns during the performance period. Datasets provided and documents produced are listed.

  17. Compendium of Applications Technology Satellite user experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Strange, J. D.; Hein, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    The achievements of the user experiments performed with ATS satellites from 1967 to 1973 are summarized. Included are fixed and mobile point to point communications experiments involving voice, teletype and facsimile transmissions. Particular emphasis is given to the Alaska and Hawaii satellite communications experiments. The use of the ATS satellites for ranging and position fixing of ships and aircraft is also covered. The structure and operating characteristics of the various ATS satellite are briefly described.

  18. Seasonal variabilty of surface velocities and ice discharge of Columbia Glacier, Alaska using high-resolution TanDEM-X satellite time series and NASA IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Columbia Glacier is a grounded tidewater glacier located on the south coast of Alaska. It has lost half of its volume during 1957-2007, more rapidly after 1980. It is now split into two branches, known as Main/East and West branch due to the dramatic retreat of ~ 23 km and calving of iceberg from its terminus in past few decades. In Alaska, a majority of the mass loss from glaciers is due to rapid ice flow and calving icebergs into tidewater and lacustrine environments. In addition, submarine melting and change in the frontal position can accelerate the ice flow and calving rate. We use time series of high-resolution TanDEM-X stripmap satellite imagery during 2011-2013. The active image of the bistatic TanDEM-X acquisitions, acquired over 11 or 22 day repeat intervals, are utilized to derive surface velocity fields using SAR intensity offset tracking. Due to the short temporal baselines, the precise orbit control and the high-resolution of the data, the accuracies of the velocity products are high. We observe a pronounce seasonal signal in flow velocities close to the glacier front of East/Main branch of Columbia Glacier. Maximum values at the glacier front reach up to 14 m/day were recorded in May 2012 and 12 m/day in June 2013. Minimum velocities at the glacier front are generally observed in September and October with lowest values below 2 m/day in October 2012. Months in between those dates show corresponding increase or deceleration resulting a kind of sinusoidal annual course of the surface velocity at the glacier front. The seasonal signal is consistently decreasing with the distance from the glacier front. At a distance of 17.5 km from the ice front, velocities are reduced to 2 m/day and almost no seasonal variability can be observed. We attribute these temporal and spatial variability to changes in the basal hydrology and lubrification of the glacier bed. Closure of the basal drainage system in early winter leads to maximum speeds while during a fully

  19. Telecommunication in Alaska. Papers in Support of the Alaska Case Study Presentation to the 1982 Pacific Telecommunications Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, January 17-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walp, Robert M., Ed.

    The 26 papers in this collection present the history and organization, system components and techniques, social aspects, and economics of telecommunications development in Alaska, with special emphasis on the growth and use of satellite systems. The first five papers cover developments beginning when Alaska was still Russian-owned, and also…

  20. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  1. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  2. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  3. Regional Observations of Alaska Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska glaciers contribute more to sea level rise than any other glacierized mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex glacier flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many glaciers throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure glacier surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard Glaciers and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "melt-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent glacier mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.

  4. Analysis of impactor residues in tray clamps from the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Part 2: Clamps from Bay B of the satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was placed in low-Earth orbit (LEO) in 1984 and recovered 5.7 years later. The LDEF was host to several individual experiments specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in LEO. However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to examine the entire surface for impact features. In this regard, particular interest centered on common exposed materials that faced in all LDEF pointing directions. Among the most important of these materials was the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature of particulates in LEO and their effects on spacecraft hardware, residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces are being analyzed. This catalog presents all data from clamps from Bay B of the LDEF. NASA Technical Memorandum 104759 has cataloged impacts that occurred on Bay B (published March 1993). Subsequent catalogs will include clamps from succeeding bays of the satellite.

  5. Impedances of Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF satellite) and comparison with cells stored terrestrially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-11-01

    Impedances were measured on several Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. These cells were used to power instruments and recorders and had all been partially or fully discharged. Impedances were also measured on several cells that were stored in cold storage since manufacture. Unfortunately, none of the cells stored terrestrially had undergone any discharge, whereas all of the cells on the satellite were at least partially discharged early in the mission and then remained on orbit for about 5 years further. It has been observed by others that storage of an Li/SO2 cell after partial discharge, increases the resistance and thickness of the passive film on the Li electrode, as indicated by an increase in the time for recovery of voltage when a load is applied (voltage lag), or in some cases by an inability of a cell to sustain a normal current after such storage. Since the cells stored terrestrially were not discharged in the same manner as the LDEF cells, a direct comparison cannot be made. Thus, the effects of the space environment cannot be separated from the effects of storage after partial discharge. It is believed that the increases in impedance in the LDEF cells are largely due to the storage upon partial discharge rather than the effects of the space environment.

  6. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.

  7. Building Systems on the Campus, Part II. The University of Alaska. BSIC/EFL Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BSIC/EFL Newsletter, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This newsletter details the efforts of the University of Alaska to develop a systems approach that will provide facilities for higher education in a State with an area more than three and one half times that of New Jersey, Florida, and Oregon combined. The problem involved in providing appropriate facilities in a State such as Alaska are…

  8. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Alaska. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Alaska Public Utilities Commission is a subagency of the Department of Commerce and Economic Development Department. The Department has general authority to enforce state laws regulating public utilities. The Commission (formerly called the Public Service Commission) was created in 1959. It is made up of five members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the legislature. One of the members is designated by the governor as chairman of the Commission. Members serve six-year terms with the exception of the chairman who serves a four-year term. Members must be qualified as follows: one must be an attorney, one must be an engineer, one must be a graduate of an accredited university with a major in finance, accounting, or business administration, and two must be consumers. The role of local governments in regulating public utilities subject to Commission jurisdiction is limited to the imposition of reasonable fees and conditions for the use of streets and other public property. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  9. Use of SAR data to study active volcanoes in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, K.G.; Engle, K.; Lu, Zhiming; Eichelberger, J.; Near, T.; Doukas, M.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of the Westdahl, Veniaminof, and Novarupta volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska were analysed to investigate recent surface volcanic processes. These studies support ongoing monitoring and research by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) in the North Pacific Ocean Region. Landforms and possible crustal deformation before, during, or after eruptions were detected and analysed using data from the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) and the US Seasat platforms. Field observations collected by scientists from the AVO were used to verify the results from the analysis of SAR data.

  10. Use of SAR data to study active volcanoes in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, K.G.; Engle, K.; Lu, Zhiming; Eichelberger, J.; Neal, T.; Doukas, M.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of Westdahl, Veniaminof, and Novarupta volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska were analyzed to investigate recent surface volcanic processes. These studies support ongoing monitoring and research by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) in the North Pacific Ocean Region. Landforms and possible crustal deformation before, during, or after eruptions were detected and analyzed using data from the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) and the U. S. Seasat platforms. Field observations collected by scientists from the AVO were used to verify the results from the analysis of SAR data.

  11. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  12. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  13. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  14. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  15. 1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.

  16. Stratospheric ozone interannual variability (1995-2011) as observed by lidar and satellite at Mauna Loa Observatory, HI and Table Mountain Facility, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirgis, G.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Walsh, T. D.

    2013-05-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidars, at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (MLO, 19.5° N, 155.6° W) and the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF, California, 34.5° N, 117.7° W), have been measuring vertical profiles of stratospheric ozone routinely since the early 1990's and late-1980s respectively. Interannual variability of ozone above these two sites was investigated using a multi-linear regression analysis on the deseasonalised monthly mean lidar and satellite time-series at 1 km intervals between 20 and 45 km from January 1995 to April 2011, a period of low volcanic aerosol loading. Explanatory variables representing the 11 yr solar cycle, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, the Eliassen-Palm flux, and horizontal and vertical transport were used. A new proxy, the mid-latitude Ozone Depleting Gas Index, which shows a decrease with time as an outcome of the Montreal Protocol, was introduced and compared to the more commonly used linear trend method. The analysis also compares the lidar time-series and a merged time-series obtained from the space-borne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and Aura-Microwave Limb Sounder instruments. The results from both lidar and satellite measurements are consistent with recent model simulations which propose changes in tropical upwelling. Additionally, at TMF the Ozone Depleting Gas Index explains as much variance as the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in the upper stratosphere. Over the past 17 yr a diminishing downward trend in ozone was observed before 2000 and a net increase, and sign of ozone recovery, is observed after 2005. Our results which include dynamical proxies suggest possible coupling between horizontal transport and the 11 yr solar cycle response, although a dataset spanning a period longer than one solar cycle is needed to confirm this result.

  17. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  18. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  19. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of

  20. Cloud Occurrence Frequency at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Third Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    M Jensen; K Johnson; JH Mather

    2009-07-14

    Clouds represent a critical component of the Earth’s atmospheric energy balance as a result of their interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and a redistribution of heat through convective processes and latent heating. Despite their importance, clouds and the processes that control their development, evolution and lifecycle remain poorly understood. Consequently, the simulation of clouds and their associated feedbacks is a primary source of inter-model differences in equilibrium climate sensitivity. An important step in improving the representation of cloud process simulations is an improved high-resolution observational data set of the cloud systems including their time evolution. The first order quantity needed to understand the important role of clouds is the height of cloud occurrence and how it changes as a function of time. To this end, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) suite of instrumentation has been developed to make the observations required to improve the representation of cloud systems in atmospheric models.

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  2. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  3. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  4. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  5. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  6. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  7. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  8. Establishment of a satellite rearing facility to support the release of sterile Aedes albopictus males. I. Optimization of mass rearing parameters.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Mert; Gunay, Filiz; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Oncu, Ceren; Alten, Bulent; Bellini, Romeo

    2016-07-01

    The vector species Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was recorded in Turkey for the first time, near the Greek border, in 2011 and a high risk of expansion towards Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey was estimated. A preliminary study was planned to evaluate the possibility of creating a satellite mass rearing facility for this species and manage a larval rearing procedure by using the new mass-rearing technology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For this purpose, the effects of different larval densities (1, 2, 3 and 4 larvae per ml) on the preimaginal development were evaluated by observing pupal, adult and male productivity using life cycle trials. Geometric morphometric analyses were also performed to define all phenotypic differences that occurred on the wing size and shape morphology of adult stage at the four different rearing conditions tested. A high pupation productivity was obtained with a larval density of 2 larvae/ml while adult emergence ratio was not affected by the densities tested. No significant difference was observed in shape of the wings among different densities in males and females. Nevertheless, a significant difference in female's centroid sizes was observed between the treatment groups 1-2 and 3-4 larvae/ml and in males centroid size reared at 1 larvae/ml versus the other densities. PMID:27021270

  9. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance: the Trans-Alaska pipeline, industrial facilities in Valdez, and typical residential wood buildings in Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau.

  10. The eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, December 14,1989-August 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, S.R.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on explosive volcanic activity at Redoubt Volcano, 177 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, which generated numerous tephra plumes that disrupted air traffic above southern Alaska, damaged aircraft, and caused locally heavy tephra fall. Pyroclastic flows triggered debris flows that inundated part of an oil-tanker facility, temporarily suspending oil production in Cook Inlet. The newly established Alaska Volcano Observatory increased its monitoring effort and disseminated volcanic hazard information to government agencies, industry, and the public.

  11. GeoEarthScope Airborne LiDAR and Satellite InSAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Meertens, C.

    2008-12-01

    UNAVCO has successfully acquired a significant volume of aerial and satellite geodetic imagery as part of GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility project funded by the National Science Foundation. All GeoEarthScope acquisition activities are now complete. Airborne LiDAR data acquisitions took place in 2007 and 2008 and cover a total area of more than 5000 square kilometers. The primary LiDAR survey regions cover features in Northern California, Southern/Eastern California, the Pacific Northwest, the Intermountain Seismic Belt (including the Wasatch and Teton faults and Yellowstone), and Alaska. We have ordered and archived more than 28,000 scenes (more than 81,000 frames) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data suitable for interferometric analyses covering most of the western U.S. and parts of Alaska and Hawaii from several satellite platforms, including ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT. In addition to ordering data from existing archives, we also tasked the ESA ENVISAT satellite to acquire new SAR data in 2007 and 2008. GeoEarthScope activities were led by UNAVCO, guided by the community and conducted in partnership with the USGS and NASA. Processed imagery products, in addition to formats intended for use in standard research software, can also be viewed using general purpose tools such as Google Earth. We present a summary of these vast geodetic imagery datasets, totaling tens of terabytes, which are freely available to the community.

  12. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…

  13. Forest Fires Produce Dense Smoke over Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On August 14, 2005, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this stunning image of forest fires raging across the width of Alaska. Smoke from scores of fires (marked in red) filled the state's broad central valley and poured out to sea. Hemmed in by mountains to the north and the south, the smoke spreads westward and spills out over the Bering and Chukchi Seas (image left). More than a hundred fires were burning across the state as of August 14. Air quality warnings have been issued for about 90 percent of the Interior, according to the August 12 report from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation's Division of Air Quality. Conditions have ranged from 'very unhealthy' to 'hazardous' over the weekend in many locations, including Fairbanks. A large area of high atmospheric pressure spread over much of the state, keeping temperatures high and reducing winds that would clear the air.

  14. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  15. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  16. Report on the Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska, 1914-15. Bulletin, 1916, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1917

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin documents the personnel, activities and conditions at the schools, medical facilities and cooperative stores in Alaska, and legislation pertaining to the work of the Bureau of Education in Alaska. Part I, General Summary, presents: (1) The Alaska field force; (2) Medical Relief; (3) Cooperative stores; (4) Reservations; (5)…

  17. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  18. Meteosat SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) - Part 1: Algorithms, product contents and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Roberts, G.; Freeborn, P. H.; Xu, W.; Govaerts, Y.; Beeby, R.; He, J.; Lattanzio, A.; Mullen, R.

    2015-06-01

    Characterising changes in landscape scale fire activity at very high temporal resolution is best achieved using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth observation (EO) satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from these types of geostationary observations, often with the aim of supporting the generation of data related to biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission fields. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from data collected by the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are one such set of products, and are freely available in both near real-time and archived form. Every 15 min, the algorithms used to generate these products identify and map the location of new SEVIRI observations containing actively burning fires, and characterise their individual rates of radiative energy release (fire radiative power; FRP) that is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial resolution FRP dataset, delivered for all of Europe, northern and southern Africa, and part of South America at a spatial resolution of 3 km (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point) at the full 15 min temporal resolution. The FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary of the FRP-PIXEL data, produced at a 5° grid cell size and including simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and for the regional underestimation of FRP caused, primarily, by the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels at SEVIRI's relatively coarse pixel size. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) algorithm used to detect the SEVIRI active fire pixels, and detail methods used to deliver atmospherically corrected FRP information

  19. Indicators of recent environmental change in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Juday, G.

    1997-12-31

    Climate models predict that global warming due to the effects of increasing trace gases will be amplified in northern high latitude regions, including Alaska. Several environmental indicators, including tree-ring based temperature reconstructions, borcal forest growth measurements and observations of glacial retreat all indicate that the general warming of the past century has been significant relative to prior centuries to millenia. The tree-ring records for central and northern Alaska indicate that annual temperature increased over the past century, peaked in the 1940s, and are still near the highest level for the past three centuries (Jacoby and D`Arrigo 1995). The tree-ring analyses also suggest that drought stress may now be a factor limiting growth at many northern sites. The recent warming combined with drier years may be altering the response of tree growth to climate and raising the likelihood of forest changes in Alaska and other boreal forests. Other tree-ring and forest data from southern and interior Alaska provide indices of the response of vegetation to extreme events (e.g., insect outbreaks, snow events) in Alaska (Juday and marler 1996). Historical maps, field measurements and satellite imagery indicate that Alaskan glaciers have receded over the past century (e.g., Hall and Benson 1996). Severe outbreaks of bark beetles may be on the increase due to warming, which can shorten their reproductive cycle. Such data and understanding of causes are useful for policy makers and others interested in evaluation of possible impacts of trace-gas induced warming and environmental change in the United States.

  20. 25 CFR 142.3 - Who is responsible for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Alaska Resupply Operation, including the management of all facilities and equipment, personnel, and... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.3 Section 142.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL...

  1. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  2. The Production and Operational Use of Day-Night Band Imagery in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, E.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the High Latitude Proving Ground, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) receives data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite via direct broadcast antennas in Fairbanks, including data from the SNPP's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. These data are processed by GINA, and the resulting imagery is delivered in near real-time to the National Weather Service (NWS) in Alaska for use in weather analysis and forecasting. The VIIRS' Day-Night Band (DNB) produces what is functionally visible imagery at night and has been used extensively by operational meteorologists in Alaska, especially during the prolonged darkness of the arctic winter. The DNB has proven to be a powerful tool when combined with other observational and model data sets and has offered NWS meteorologists a more complete picture of weather processes in a region where coverage from surface-based observations is generally poor. Thanks to its high latitude, Alaska benefits from much more frequent coverage in time by polar orbiting satellites such as SNPP and its DNB channel. Also, the sparse population of Alaska and the vast stretches of ocean that surround Alaska on three sides allow meteorological and topographical signatures to be detected by the DNB with minimal interference from anthropogenic sources of light. Examples of how the DNB contributes to the NWS' forecast process in Alaska will be presented and discussed.

  3. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    of Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale (Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 1994), using the 1,000-m digital elevation data set referred to below. An important difference between our image and these previous ones is the method of reproduction: like the Thelin and Pike (1991) image, our image is a composite of halftone images that yields sharp resolution and preserves contrast. Indeed, the first impression of many viewers is that the Alaskan image and the Thelin and Pike image are composites of satellite-generated photographs rather than an artificial rendering of a digital elevation model. A shaded-relief image represents landforms in a natural fashion; that is, a viewer perceives the image as a rendering of reality. Thus a shaded-relief image is intrinsically appealing, especially in areas of spectacular relief. In addition, even subtle physiographic features that reflect geologic structures or the type of bedrock are visible. To our knowledge, some of these Alaskan features have not been depicted before and so the image should provide earth scientists with a new 'look' at fundamental geologic features of Alaska.

  4. Time-Zone-Pattern Satellite Broadcasting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Victor; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Imbriale, William A.; Cohen, Herb; Cagnon, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-broadcast satellite antenna designs provide contoured beams to match four time zones in 48 contiguous states and spot beams for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico presented in 29-page report. Includes descriptions of procedures used to arrive at optimized designs. Arrangements, amplitudes, and phases of antenna feeds presented in tables. Gain contours shown graphically. Additional tables of performance data given for cities in service area of Eastern satellite.

  5. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  6. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  7. Alaska Broad Scale Orthoimagery and Elevation Mapping - Current Statewide Project Progress and Historic Work in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, T. A.; Broderson, D.; Johnson, A.; Slife, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes the overall program goals and current status of broad scale, statewide orthoimagery and digital elevation model (DEM) projects currently underway in Alaska. As context, it will also describe the history and successes of previous statewide Alaska mapping efforts over the preceding 75 years. A new statewide orthomosaic imagery baselayer at 1:24,000 NMAS accuracy (12.2-meters CE90) is nearing completion. The entire state (1.56 million square kilometers) has been imaged with the SPOT 5 satellite, and a 2.5-meter spatial resolution, multi-spectral, nearly cloud-free, pan-sharpened orthoimage will be produced by mid-2015. A second major project is collection of an improved accuracy DEM statewide. Airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data has been collected for about half of the state of Alaska and completion of the rest of the state is anticipated within a few years. A 5-meter post spacing, 20-foot contour interval accuracy equivalent (3-meter vertical LE90) DEM and radar backscatter intensity image is being delivered. Historic projects to be described include the 1950's USGS Alaska topographic mapping program, one of the largest and most pioneering, challenging, and successful ever undertaken in North America. These historic and current mapping programs have served as both a baselayer framework and as feedstock for science for virtually every geologic, geophysical, and terrestrial natural science project in the state.

  8. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  9. On vegetation mapping in Alaska using LANDSAT imagery with primary concerns for method and purpose in satellite image-based vegetation and land-use mapping and the visual interpretation of imagery in photographic format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A simulated color infrared LANDSAT image covering the western Seward Peninsula was used for identifying and mapping vegetation by direct visual examination. The 1:1,083,400 scale print used was prepared by a color additive process using positive transparencies from MSS bands 4, 5, and 7. Seven color classes were recognized. A vegetation map of 3200 sq km area just west of Fairbanks, Alaska was made. Five colors were recognized on the image and identified to vegetation types roughly equivalent to formations in the UNESCO classification: orange - broadleaf deciduous forest; gray - needleleaf evergreen forest; light violet - subarctic alpine tundra vegetation; violet - broadleaf deciduous shrub thicket; and dull violet - bog vegetation.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1701 - Port Valdez, Valdez, Alaska-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety zone—The area within 200 yards of any waterfront facility at the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Valdez... area within 200 yards of any tank vessel maneuvering to approach, moor, unmoor, or depart the...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1701 - Port Valdez, Valdez, Alaska-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... safety zone—The area within 200 yards of any waterfront facility at the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Valdez... area within 200 yards of any tank vessel maneuvering to approach, moor, unmoor, or depart the...

  12. Elastic and Raman Lidar Temperature Measurements from Poker Flat, Alaska During February 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burka, Michael; Dao, Phan; Davidson, Gilbert; Farley, Robert; Meriwether, John; Wilson, Alex

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based lidar observations are increasingly used to elucidate the dynamical structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. Observations made from Poker Flat, Alaska during Feb. 1992 using the Phillips Laboratory Mobile Lidar Facility are reported.

  13. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  14. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  15. Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.; Whorton, M.

    1999-03-08

    The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that had acquired historical value in the context of the Cold War. In response, the US Department of Defense in 1991 initiated a broad effort to inventory properties of this era. US Air Force installations in Alaska were in the forefront of these evaluations because of the role of the Cold War in the state's development and history and the high interest on the part of the Alaska State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in these properties. The 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) owns many of Alaska's early Cold War properties, most were associated with strategic air defense. The 611 ASG determined that three systems it operates, which were all part of the integrated defense against Soviet nuclear strategic bomber threat, were eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and would require treatment as historic properties. These systems include the Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W) System, the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, and Forward Operating Bases (FOBs). As part of a massive cleanup operation, Clean Sweep, the 611 ASG plans to demolish many of the properties associated with these systems. To mitigate the effects of demolition, the 611 ASG negotiated agreements on the system level (e.g., the DEW Line) with the Alaska SHPO to document the history and architectural/engineering features associated with these properties. This system approach allowed the US Air Force to mitigate effects on many individual properties in a more cost-effective and efficient manner.

  16. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Philip A.

    A review of the economic and technological status of the satellite communications industry is presented. The history of satellite communications is outlined, focusing on the launching of Syncom III in 1963. The basic operation of communication satellites is explained. The differences between C and Ku frequency bands are examined. Economic issues related to satellite communications are discussed in detail.

  17. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, M. K.

    1982-11-01

    The paper describes the basic principles and the historial development of satellite communications. Various satellite systems for global communications are discused and compared. Some typical operational communication satellite systems summary including geostationary systems are presented. Considerations leading to the system design including the link design for various multiple access techniques and the future trends in satellite communications systems are also discussed.

  18. First Regional Super ESPC: Success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-05-16

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Coast Guard at Kodiak Island, Alaska, established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities.

  19. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  20. Climate Change Implications to Vegetation Production in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigh, Christopher S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of long-term meteorological satellite data revealed statistically significant vegetation response to climate drivers of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation with exclusion of fire disturbance in Alaska. Abiotic trends were correlated to satellite remote sensing observations of normalized difference vegetation index to understand biophysical processes that could impact ecosystem carbon storage. Warming resulted in disparate trajectories for vegetation growth due to precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation variation. Interior spruce forest low lands in late summer through winter had precipitation deficit which resulted in extensive fire disturbance and browning of undisturbed vegetation with reduced post-fire recovery while Northern slope moist alpine tundra had increased production due to warmer-wetter conditions during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Coupled investigation of Alaska s vegetation response to warming climate found spatially dynamic abiotic processes with vegetation browning not a result from increased fire disturbance.

  1. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  2. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  3. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  4. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  5. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  6. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  7. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  8. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  9. Data Management Facility Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, Nicole N

    2014-06-30

    The Data Management Facility (DMF) is the data center that houses several critical Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility services, including first-level data processing for the ARM Mobile Facilities (AMFs), Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Southern Great Plains (SGP), and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, as well as Value-Added Product (VAP) processing, development systems, and other network services.

  10. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  11. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  12. A Comparison of Satellite and Aircraft-Mounted Thermal Observations of Freeze/Thaw Cycling of the Alaska Tundra and Boreal Forests during the Carbon in the Arctic Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Freeze/thaw (F/T) related surface processes in the Arctic are important as they bracket negative and positive modes in the flux of CO2 and CH4 between the surface and atmosphere. The Carbon in the Arctic Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) monitors carbon gas cycling in Alaskan using aircraft-deployed gas sampling instruments along with remote sensing observations of the land surface condition. A nadir-pointed, forward looking infrared (FLIR) imager mounted on the CARVE aircraft is used to measure upwelling mid-infrared spectral radiance at 3-5 microns. The FLIR instrument was operated during the spring, summer and fall seasons of 2013 and 2014 during clear sky conditions and targeting ecosystem components affecting the carbon cycle. The instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the FLIR instrument allows for a resolution of ~36 cm from a height of 500 m. This high resolution data allow for the discrimination of individual landscape components such as soil, vegetation and surface water features in the image footprint. We assess the effectiveness of the FLIR thermal images in monitoring thawing and inundation processes of individual ecosystem components of importance in biogeochemical cycling. We also observe how these individual components scale using coarse resolution satellite observations of land surface temperature (LST) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Freeze/thaw state determined from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR2) on JAXA's Shizuku (GCOM-W1) satellite. Portions of the work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautic and Space Administration.

  13. Photogrammetrically Derived Estimates of Glacier Mass Loss in the Upper Susitna Drainage Basin, Alaska Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolken, G. J.; Whorton, E.; Murphy, N.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in Alaska are currently experiencing some of the highest rates of mass loss on Earth, with mass wastage rates accelerating during the last several decades. Glaciers, and other components of the hydrologic cycle, are expected to continue to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming, thus, affecting the quantity and timing of river runoff. This study uses sequential digital elevation model (DEM) analysis to estimate the mass loss of glaciers in the upper Susitna drainage basin, Alaska Range, for the purpose of validating model simulations of past runoff changes. We use mainly stereo optical airborne and satellite data for several epochs between 1949 and 2014, and employ traditional stereo-photogrammetric and structure from motion processing techniques to derive DEMs of the upper Susitna basin glaciers. This work aims to improve the record of glacier change in the central Alaska Range, and serves as a critical validation dataset for a hydrological model that simulates the potential effects of future glacier mass loss on changes in river runoff over the lifespan of the proposed Susitna-Watana Hydroelectric Project.

  14. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  15. 2013 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2013. Beginning with the 2013 AVO Summary of Events, the annual description of the AVO seismograph network and activity, once a stand-alone publication, is now part of this report. Because of this change, the annual summary now contains an expanded description of seismic activity at Alaskan volcanoes. Eruptions occurred at three volcanic centers in 2013: Pavlof Volcano in May and June, Mount Veniaminof Volcano in June through December, and Cleveland Volcano throughout the year. None of these three eruptive events resulted in 24-hour staffing at AVO facilities in Anchorage or Fairbanks.

  16. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  18. Techniques for analyzing and utilizing the rain gauges at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. [Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System ground station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalagher, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Ten tipping bucket rain gauges have been installed at the NASA WSTF for the purpose of determining rainfall characteristics in this area which may affect the performance of the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. A plan is presented for analyzing and utilizing the data which will be obtained during the course of this experiment. Also included is a description of a computer program which has been written to aid in the analysis.

  19. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  20. Catalog of geological and geophysical data for the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ikelman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), a unit of the US Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is one of several data centers that collectively represent the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. NGDC stores terrestrial and marine data collected from around the world. This catalog contains geophysical and geological data available for the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Data includes reflection and refraction seismology, gravity, magnetics, topography, well logs, and geothermics. This catalog is for those interested in the development of Alaska's National Petroleum Reserve. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska is located on the Alaskan North Slope. The National Petroleum Reserve program was established in February 1923 by President Warren Harding, who recognized the need for potential domestic sources of oil in the event of a national emergency. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was originally called the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4. The Reserve covers about 24 million acres, about the size of Indiana.

  1. Alaska's Children, 2000. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…

  2. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  3. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA. PMID:26551994

  4. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  5. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  6. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  7. Integrated Ground-Based LiDAR and Global Fiducials Program Satellite Imagery Time Series Analysis of the Terminus of Bering Glacier, Alaska During the 2008-2011 Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Molnia, B. F.; Howle, J.; Bond, S.; Angeli, K.; Shuchman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program (GFP: classified satellite imagery released to the general public for science use: http://gfl.usgs.gov) tracked the 2008-2011 surge of the Bering Glacier, the largest and longest glacier in North America. The terminus displacement began in late 2010, with maximum velocities of greater than 20 meters per day by late January 2011, as measured using feature tracking with GFP imagery. By July, the velocities had decreased to less than 10 m/d. We used the GFP imagery to locate three helicopter accessible targets on the terminus of the Bering Glacier to collect high-resolution (0.5-4 cm spot spacing) 4D time-series tripod/terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data. During the week of July 24, 2011 we collected hourly and daily T-LiDAR data to resolve spatially and temporally varied advancement rates at each of the sites. The first site was located on the west side of Tashalich arm on the western side of the Bering Lobe terminus proximal to the region where the maximum GFP velocities had previously been measured. Using the T-LiDAR data, we found that the terminus advanced 5.4 m over 76 hours of observation. The hourly advancement rates for the same location are a very consistent 4.2 cm/h during our daylight hours of observation (0900-1800 local) and when daily rate are extrapolated to the full 76 hours, we should have measured 3.2 m of horizontal displacement: this is a discrepancy between the total and hourly measured displacements of an additional 2.2 m of motion during the night and early morning hours (1800-0900 local). The additional motion may be explained by accelerated terminus velocity associated with daily thermal heating and resulting melt. Motion may also be explained by rain on the second day of the survey that "lubricated" the glacier bed thereby allowing it to advance at a faster velocity. The second site was on Arrowhead Island, located on the eastern side of the terminus where the vertical relieve of the glacier

  8. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  9. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  10. Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina A.; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  11. From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-Year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Earth observing satellites provide a 21st century capability to detect unrecorded archeological sites that are often invisible to the naked eye. This information can be used to understand issues in human settlement, environmental interaction, and the impact of climate change to past cultures. Archeologists want to know how ancient people successfully adapted to their environment and what factors may have led to their collapse or disappearance. Some cultures overextended the capacity of their landscape, causing destructive environmental effects which led to their demise. To avoid repeating mistakes of the past and adapt to challenges today, NASA and the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-- in partnership with leading regional organizations around the world--have implemented SERVIR. SERVIR is a joint development initiative to help countries use information provided by Earth observing satellites and geospatial technologies for managing climate risks and land use. SERVIR is improving awareness, increasing access to information, and supporting analysis to help people in Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya, Lower Mekong, and Mesoamerica manage challenges in the areas of food security, water resources, land use change, and natural disasters.

  12. Project RavenCare: global multimedia telemedicine in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohme, Walid G.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Mun, Seong K.; Vastola, David J.

    1995-05-01

    Project RavenCare is a testbed for assessing the utility of teleradiology, telemedicine and electronic patient records systems for delivering health care to Native Alaskans in remote villages. It is being established as a joint project between the department of radiology at Georgetown University Medical Center and the Southeast Alaska Regional Health Corporation (SEARHC) in Sitka, Alaska. This initiative will establish a sustained routine clinical multimedia telemedicine support for a village clinic in Hoonah, Alaska and a regional hospital in Sitka. It will link the village clinic in Hoonah to Mt. Edgecumbe Hospital in Sitka. This regional hospital will in turn be linked to Georgetown University Hospital through the T1- VSAT (very small aperture terminal) of the NASA-ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite). Regional physicians in Hoonah lack support in providing relatively routine care in areas such as radiology and pathology. This project is an initial step in a general plan to upgrade telecommunications in the health care system of the Southeast Alaska region and will address aspects of two problems; limited communication between the village health clinics and the hospital and lack of subspecialty support for hospital-based physicians in Sitka.

  13. Break-up characteristics of the Chena River watershed, central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Wendler, G.; Kane, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The snow melt for a small watershed (5130 sq km) in Central Alaska was successfully monitored with ERTS-1 imagery. Aerial photography was used as supporting data for periods without satellite coverage. Comparison both with actual measurements and with a computer model showed good agreement.

  14. NASA's DESDynI in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J. M.; Hofton, M. A.; Bruhn, R. L.; Forster, R. R.; Burgess, E. W.; Cotton, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007 the National Research Council Earth Science Decadal Survey, Earth Science Applications from Space, recommended an integrated L-band InSAR and multibeam Lidar mission called DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) and it is scheduled for launch in 2017. The NASA InSAR and Lidar mission is optimized for studying geohazards and global environmental change. The complex plate boundary in southern coastal Alaska provides an excellent setting for testing DESDynI capabilities to recover fundamental parameters of glacio-seismotectonic processes. Also, aircraft and satellites acquisitions of Lidar and L-band SAR have been made in this region in the last decade that can be used for DESDynI performance simulations. Since the Lidar observations would penetrate most vegetation, the accurate bald Earth elevation profiles will give new elevation information beyond the standard 30-m digital elevation models (DEM) and the Lidar-derived elevations will provide an accurate georeferenced surface for local and regional scale studies. In an earlier study we demonstrated how the Lidar observations could be used in combination with SAR to generate an improved InSAR derived DEM in the Barrow, Alaska region [Atwood et al., 2007]; here we discuss how Lidar could be fused with L-band SAR in more rugged, vegetated terrane. Based on simulations of multi-beam Lidar instrument performance over uplifted marine terraces, active faults and folds, uplift associated with the 1899 Yakataga seismic event (M=8), and elevation change on the glaciers in southern, coastal Alaska, we report on the significance of the DESDynI Lidar contiguous 25 m footprint elevation profiles for EarthScope related studies in Alaska. We are using the morphology and dynamics of glaciers derived from L-band SAR ice velocities to infer the large scale sub-ice structures that form the structural framework of the Seward-Bagley Basins. Using primarily winter acquisitions of L-band SAR data from ALOS

  15. Communications Satellites in Health Education and Health Care Delivery: Operation Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor, John L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews user-related pitfalls which occurred during 222 satellite-mediated broadcasts which were related to medical education and health care delivery, and directed to Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Specific consideration is given to those problems which need to be remedied for a user-acceptable system of satellite communication. (FM)

  16. The National Institute of Education's Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration: Lessons Learned and Their Federal Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Steven

    During 1975, the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD) used the Applications Technology Satellite #6 (ATS-6) for three distinct demonstrations in Appalachia, Alaska, and the Rocky Mountain area. The most common use of the technology was to broadcast an uninterrupted program followed by a short interaction period. Other…

  17. ARRA additions to the north slope of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Scott; Cherry, Jessica; Stuefer, Martin; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Ivey, Mark D.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides scientific infrastructure and data archives to the international Arctic research community through a national user facility, the ARM Climate Research Facility, located on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARM sites at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska have been collecting and archiving atmospheric data for more than 10 years. These data have been used for scientific investigation as well as remote sensing validations. Funding from the Recovery Act (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009) will be used to install new instruments and upgrade existing instruments at the North Slope sites. These instruments include: scanning precipitation radar; scanning cloud radar; automatic balloon launcher; high spectral resolution lidar; eddy correlation flux systems; and upgraded ceilometer, AERI, micropulse lidar, and millimeter cloud radar. Information on these planned additions and upgrades will be provided in our poster. An update on activities planned at Oliktok Point will also be provided.

  18. Ephemeris representations for communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proulx, R. J.; Cefola, P. J.; McClain, W. D.

    1984-08-01

    Large orbit determination (OD) centers are the primary source of artificial satellite ephemeris data. The ephemeris message of the OD facility contains implicitly the predicted satellite trajectory. The user can recover ephemeris data on the basis of two conceptual approaches. The current investigation is concerned with an alternative solution to the ephemeris representation problem. According to the procedure employed in this case, the mean equinoctial element time histories corresponding to the predicted satellite trajectory generated by the OD facility are approximated by low degree Legendre polynomials to represent their secular behavior and by trigonometric terms to represent their mean periodic behavior. This approach provides a simple, low cost, and accurate ephemeris representation, which satisfies the potential autonomy requirements for Military Satellite Communications.

  19. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  20. Distribution and character of naleds in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah; Barnes, Peter W.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the distribution of river naleds seen in Landsat satellite imagery and high- and low-altitude aerial photography of Alaska's North Slope indicates that these features are widespread east of the Colville River and less abundant to the west. Where naleds occur, stream channels are wide and often form braided channels. Their distribution can be related to changes in stream gradient and to the occurrence of springs. Large naleds, such as on the Kongakut River, often remain through the summer melt season to form the nucleus of icing in the succeeding winter. Major naleds also are likely to significantly influence the nature of permafrost in their immediate vicinity. The map of naleds may serve as a guide to the occurrence of year-round flowing water, a sparse commodity in northern Alaska.

  1. Domestic satellite communication system to be established in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.; Yucheng, B.

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of a domestic satellite communication system for China is discussed. To experiment, China built miniaturized ground stations and used the idle transponders of two INTELSAT satellites. The experiment was divided into three phases: verification and test of ground facilities; test of channel operations; and functional test of the Chinese built ground facilities. From a technical and economic point of view, developing China's domestic satellite communication system by leasing foreign satellites and building China's own ground stations is both efficient and effective.

  2. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  3. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  4. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  5. Satellite Videoconferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is helping thousands of teachers to learn more about aerospace matters, improve their classroom skills, and expand significantly the content of their aerospace education curricula by means of live educational satellite videoconferences. The 1 1/2 hour 'Update for Teachers' programs originate at Oklahoma State University (OSU) Telecommunications Center. The television signals are transmitted to the WESTAR IV communications satellite, which remits them to participating schools across the U.S. and in parts of Mexico and Canada. The schools are equipped with small home style satellite reception dishes. Education Satellite Videoconference programs are conducted four times yearly, covering a variety of aerospace subjects. Teachers can call toll-free and have questions answered after the speaker's presentations. Information about NASA educational resources and how to obtain them will be provided.

  6. Satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    In 1982 and 1983, six scientific satellites were operated successfully. Two of them, JIKIKEN and ISS-b, performed observations of the Earth's plasma environment. HINOTORI, the solar maximum satellite, observed a number of solar flares. HAKUCHO and newly launched TENMA conducted various observations of cosmic X-ray sources. HIMAWARI-2 is a meteorological satellite but its payload includes a solar particle monitor. EXOS-C was successfully launched in February, 1983, and participants in the MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program). Following these missions, the PLANET-A project comprising two missions, MS-T5 and PLANET-A, is under preparation for the participation in the international cooperative exploration of Comet P/Halley. The third X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-C is currently scheduled for 1987 launch.

  7. Satellite myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  8. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  9. Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility. Part 1; Technique, Validation, and Comparison to Satellite-derived Diagnostic Quantities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Sonntag, Karen L.; Kato, Seiji; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Twohy, Cynthia H.; Poellot, Michael; Dong, Xiquan; Long, Charles; Zhang, Qiuqing; Doelling, David R.

    2006-01-01

    line. In addition to a case study where we examine the cloud radiative effects at the TOA, surface and atmosphere by a middle latitude synoptic-scale cyclone, we examine the cloud top pressure and optical depth retrievals of ISCCP and LBTM over a period of 1 year. Using overcast period from the year 2000, we find that the satellite algorithms tend to bias cloud tops into the middle troposphere and underestimate optical depth in high optical depth events (greater than 100) by as much as a factor of 2.

  10. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  11. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence... subsistence uses on Federal public lands and waters in Alaska. The Federal Subsistence Board, which includes... the subsistence management of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands in Alaska. The Board...

  12. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…

  13. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  14. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  15. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface... Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 44 W., Secs. 27 to 34,...

  16. NASA Successfully Launches Three Smartphone Satellites

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three smartphones destined to become low-cost satellites rode to space Sunday aboard the maiden flight of Orbital Science Corp.'s Antares rocket from NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility in Virgin...

  17. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  18. Centriolar Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiharu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yuba-Kubo, Akiko; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    1999-01-01

    We identified Xenopus pericentriolar material-1 (PCM-1), which had been reported to constitute pericentriolar material, cloned its cDNA, and generated a specific pAb against this molecule. Immunolabeling revealed that PCM-1 was not a pericentriolar material protein, but a specific component of centriolar satellites, morphologically characterized as electron-dense granules, ∼70–100 nm in diameter, scattered around centrosomes. Using a GFP fusion protein with PCM-1, we found that PCM-1–containing centriolar satellites moved along microtubules toward their minus ends, i.e., toward centrosomes, in live cells, as well as in vitro reconstituted asters. These findings defined centriolar satellites at the molecular level, and explained their pericentriolar localization. Next, to understand the relationship between centriolar satellites and centriolar replication, we examined the expression and subcellular localization of PCM-1 in ciliated epithelial cells during ciliogenesis. When ciliogenesis was induced in mouse nasal respiratory epithelial cells, PCM-1 immunofluorescence was markedly elevated at the apical cytoplasm. At the electron microscopic level, anti–PCM-1 pAb exclusively labeled fibrous granules, but not deuterosomes, both of which have been suggested to play central roles in centriolar replication in ciliogenesis. These findings suggested that centriolar satellites and fibrous granules are identical novel nonmembranous organelles containing PCM-1, which may play some important role(s) in centriolar replication. PMID:10579718

  19. Education Via Satellite: A Trinational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Willard D.

    The Rural Satellite Program of the U.S. Agency for International Development was a 6-year effort (1981-87) to explore the potential uses of two way telecommunications facilities, particularly satellite-mediated, telephone-based technologies--to support Third World Development educational endeavors. This program created three audioconferencing…

  20. A second-generation mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.; Park, Y. H.

    1986-01-01

    A design for a low-user-cost, 9000 channel capacity second generation mobile satellite system (Msat-2) for continental U.S., Alaska and Canada using two geostationary satellites at 90 and 130 deg west longitude, is presented. The increased capacity over the first generation system is obtained by use of a 20 m deployable antenna with an offset-fed antenna configuration, a high-power satellite bus, and by relaxing the north-south stationkeeping requirement to + or - 2 deg and the eclipse capability to 50 percent. Efficient frequency utilization is achieved for uplink and downlink spectra by a 7-frequency reuse scheme with 285 5-kHz channels per subband, and subband reuse of up to four times. Problems of interbeam interference and multipath fading contributed to the choice of a nonoverlapping feed for the Msat-2, and a proper modulation scheme using Gaussian baseband filtered minimum-shift-keying with differential detection.

  1. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS8-39386 from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center entitled LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses. The basic objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of present models and computational methods for defining the ionizing radiation environment for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by making comparisons with radiation measurements made on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The emphasis of the work here is on predictions and comparisons with LDEF measurements of induced radioactivity and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) measurements. These model/data comparisons have been used to evaluate the accuracy of current models for predicting the flux and directionality of trapped protons for LEO missions.

  2. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  3. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific...

  4. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska. 32.21 Section 32.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to...

  5. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This publication is an annotated listing of 143 books about Alaska or the Arctic, received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries in 1986. Most of the material is current or published in recent years, with the exception of government publications. Categories are juvenile, adult non-fiction, adult fiction, and reference. A few Alaska state and…

  6. 33 CFR 80.1705 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alaska. 80.1705 Section 80.1705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Alaska § 80.1705 Alaska. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all the sounds,...

  7. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  8. Video Teleconferencing: Learning via Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Mike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of one-way video, two-way audio teleconferencing as a teaching medium. Describes the teleconference facilities of Tulsa Junior College, the College Satellite Network and National University Teleconference Network, and the roles played by various people and groups in teleconferencing. Considers the cognitive aspects of video…

  9. Data distribution satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Grady H.

    1992-01-01

    The Data Distribution Satellite (DDS), operating in conjunction with the planned space network, the National Research and Education Network and its commercial derivatives, would play a key role in networking the emerging supercomputing facilities, national archives, academic, industrial, and government institutions. Centrally located over the United States in geostationary orbit, DDS would carry sophisticated on-board switching and make use of advanced antennas to provide an array of special services. Institutions needing continuous high data rate service would be networked together by use of a microwave switching matrix and electronically steered hopping beams. Simultaneously, DDS would use other beams and on board processing to interconnect other institutions with lesser, low rate, intermittent needs. Dedicated links to White Sands and other facilities would enable direct access to space payloads and sensor data. Intersatellite links to a second generation ATDRS, called Advanced Space Data Acquisition and Communications System (ASDACS), would eliminate one satellite hop and enhance controllability of experimental payloads by reducing path delay. Similarly, direct access would be available to the supercomputing facilities and national data archives. Economies with DDS would be derived from its ability to switch high rate facilities amongst users needed. At the same time, having a CONUS view, DDS would interconnect with any institution regardless of how remote. Whether one needed high rate service or low rate service would be immaterial. With the capability to assign resources on demand, DDS will need only carry a portion of the resources needed if dedicated facilities were used. Efficiently switching resources to users as needed, DDS would become a very feasible spacecraft, even though it would tie together the space network, the terrestrial network, remote sites, 1000's of small users, and those few who need very large data links intermittently.

  10. Satellite broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, D.; Rainger, P.; Harvey, R. V.; Jennings, A.

    Questions related to direct broadcasting satellites are addressed with attention given to celestial mechanics, synchronous orbits, propagation, international plans, domestic installation, related laws and system costs. The role of the World Administrative Planning Conference (WARC) organization is discussed and contrasted with that of the regional administrative radio conference. Topics related to the field of law include coverage and overspill, regulation and control, copyrights and international organizations. Alternative ways of estimating direct broadcasting system costs are presented with consideration given to satellite costs as a function of mass, launch costs and system costs as a function of power.

  11. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  13. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  14. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  15. Status of EarthScope's Transportable Array in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, K.; Busby, R. W.; Enders, M.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope's Transportable Array has completed its first year of operations in Alaska. The proposed station grid uses 85 km spacing & consists of ~290 locations in Alaska and Western Canada. About 60 of the grid locations will be at existing seismic stations operated by the AEC, AVO & ATWC and are being upgraded with shallow borehole installations or higher quality sensors as appropriate. About 10 new stations will be collocated with PBO GPS stations. At the end of July 2014, 90% of the site reconnaissance has been completed, & 25 sites have been permitted with private landowners or the State of Alaska. 11 new TA stations have been installed, & 7 existing stations (AK network code) have been upgraded. Data from these stations is flowing to the Array Network Facility (ANF) and being archived at the IRIS DMC. As the Transportable Array has moved to Alaska, IRIS has experimented with different portable drills and drilling techniques to create shallow holes (1-5 m deep, 15-20 cm in diameter) in permafrost and rock outcrops for seismometer installation. The goal of these new methods is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint & the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design & the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, & permafrost underlies much of the region. IRIS contracted with a drilling specialist to create a prototype Transportable Drill (less than 1300 lbs with tooling) that is capable of augering to 5 m in unconsolidated materials and permafrost, downhole hammering to 2.5 m in bedrock with a steel casing following the bit and diamond coring in solid rock to 2 m. This drill has been successfully deployed by helicopter to create a hole 2.7 m deep and 15 cm diameter in bedrock. The auger mode was used successfully to install a

  16. Digital Dead Ends along Alaska's Information Highway: Broadband Access for Students and Teachers in Alaska's High School One-to-One Laptop Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Pamela Jo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the potential impact community broadband availability has on personal and classroom levels of technology adoption for high school students and teachers in Alaska. Community broadband availability was defined as, (a) terrestrial broadband availability; (b) satellite broadband availability; and (c) no broadband available.…

  17. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  18. Satellite description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, F. C.; Clegg, P. E.; Neugebauer, G.; Langford, D.; Pouw, A.; Irace, W.; Houck, J.

    The onboard computers and their associated software, the attitude control system, and data recording and the communication links of the infrared astronomy satellite (TRAS) are discussed. The IRAS telescope system is considered in detail. Attention is directed towards the cryogenics, thermal control, optics, focal plane assembly, and electronics associated with the telescope system.

  19. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  20. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  1. Movements of juvenile Gyrfalcons from western and interior Alaska following departure from their natal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, C.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Adams, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile raptors often travel thousands of kilometers from the time they leave their natal areas to the time they enter a breeding population. Documenting movements and identifying areas used by raptors before they enter a breeding population is important for understanding the factors that influence their survival. In North America, juvenile Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) are routinely observed outside the species' breeding range during the nonbreeding season, but the natal origins of these birds are rarely known. We used satellite telemetry to track the movements of juvenile Gyrfalcons during their first months of independence. We instrumented nestlings with lightweight satellite transmitters within 10 d of estimated fledging dates on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska and in Denali National Park (Denali) in interior Alaska. Gyrfalcons spent an average of 41.4 ?? 6.1 d (range = 30-50 d) in their natal areas after fledging. The mean departure date from natal areas was 27 August ?? 6.4 d. We tracked 15 individuals for an average of 70.5 ?? 28.1 d post-departure; Gyrfalcons moved from 105 to 4299 km during this period and tended to move greater distances earlier in the tracking period than later in the tracking period. Gyrfalcons did not establish temporary winter ranges within the tracking period. We identified several movement patterns among Gyrfalcons, including unidirectional long-distance movements, multidirectional long-and shortdistance movements, and shorter movements within a local region. Gyrfalcons from the Seward Peninsula remained in western Alaska or flew to eastern Russia with no movements into interior Alaska. In contrast, Gyrfalcons from Denali remained in interior Alaska, flew to northern and western Alaska, or flew to northern Alberta. Gyrfalcons from both study areas tended to move to coastal, riparian, and wetland areas during autumn and early winter. Because juvenile Gyrfalcons dispersed over a large geographic area and across three

  2. 14 CFR 142.17 - Satellite training centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Satellite training centers. 142.17 Section...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.17 Satellite training centers. (a... training program at a satellite training center if— (1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and...

  3. 14 CFR 142.17 - Satellite training centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Satellite training centers. 142.17 Section...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.17 Satellite training centers. (a... training program at a satellite training center if— (1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and...

  4. 14 CFR 142.17 - Satellite training centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Satellite training centers. 142.17 Section...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.17 Satellite training centers. (a... training program at a satellite training center if— (1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and...

  5. 14 CFR 142.17 - Satellite training centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Satellite training centers. 142.17 Section...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.17 Satellite training centers. (a... training program at a satellite training center if— (1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and...

  6. 14 CFR 142.17 - Satellite training centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite training centers. 142.17 Section...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.17 Satellite training centers. (a... training program at a satellite training center if— (1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and...

  7. Climate Change Implications to Vegetation Production in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neigh, C. S.

    2008-12-01

    Investigation of long-term NOAA series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from 1982 through 2005 revealed statistically significant vegetation response to climate drivers of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation with exclusion of fire disturbance. Abiotic trends were calculated and correlated to satellite remote sensing observations of vegetation productivity to understand biophysical processes that could impact ecosystem carbon storage. Warming throughout Alaska resulted in disparate trajectories for vegetation growth due to precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation variation. Interior spruce forest low lands in late summer had precipitation deficit which resulted in extensive fire disturbance and browning of undisturbed vegetation with reduced post-fire recovery in burned sites; while Northern slope alpine and moist tundra had increased production due to warmer-wetter conditions during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Coupled investigation of vegetation's response to warming climate in Alaska found spatially dynamic processes with and without fire disturbance observed from coarse resolution satellite instruments. Future effort will simulate carbon cycle process with fire disturbance to understand spatially variant source-sink distribution of Alaskan ecosystems.

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. 75 FR 67695 - Notice of Intent To Expand Implementation of the TRICARE Program in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Prime Service Areas in the state of Alaska. Eligible TRICARE beneficiaries will be permitted to enroll in Prime with assignment to Military Treatment Facility (MTF) Primary Care Managers (PCMs) consistent... civilian preferred provider network. The program will be offered to the Prime Service Areas around the...

  10. 76 FR 80903 - Notice of Intent To Expand Implementation of the TRICARE® Program in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... the Anchorage Prime Service Area of Alaska. Eligible TRICARE beneficiaries will be permitted to enroll in Prime with assignment to Military Treatment Facility (MTF) Primary Care Managers (PCMs) consistent... civilian preferred provider network. The initial expansion included the Prime Service Areas around...

  11. Small satellite space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith

    1994-01-01

    CTA Space Systems has played a premier role in the development of the 'lightsat' programs of the 80's and 90's. The high costs and development times associated with conventional LEO satellite design, fabrication, launch, and operations continue to motivate the development of new methodologies, techniques, and generally low cost and less stringently regulated satellites. These spacecraft employ low power 'lightsat' communications (versus TDRSS for NASA's LEO's) and typically fly missions with payload/experiment suites that can succeed, for example, without heavily redundant backup systems and large infrastructures of personnel and ground support systems. Such small yet adaptable satellites are also typified by their very short contract-to-launch times (often one to two years). This paper reflects several of the methodologies and perspectives of our successful involvement in these innovative programs and suggests how they might relieve NASA's mounting pressures to reduce the cost of both the spacecraft and their companion mission operations. It focuses on the use of adaptable, sufficiently powerful yet inexpensive PC-based ground systems for wide ranging user terminal (UT) applications and master control facilities for mission operations. These systems proved themselves in successfully controlling more than two dozen USAF, USN, and ARPA satellites at CTA/SS. UT versions have linked with both GEO and LEO satellites and functioned autonomously in relay roles often in remote parts of the world. LEO applications particularly illustrate the efficacy of these concepts since a user can easily mount a lightweight antenna, usually an omni or helix with light duty rotors and PC-based drivers. A few feet of coax connected to a small transceiver module (the size of a small PC) and a serial line to an associated PC establishes a communications link and together with the PC constitute a viable ground station. Applications included geomagnetic mapping; spaceborne solid state

  12. Migration and wintering areas of glaucous-winged Gulls from south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  13. Migration And wintering areas Of Glaucous-winged Gulls From south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter.

  14. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  15. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  16. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  17. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  18. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  19. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  20. Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

  1. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  3. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  4. ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

  5. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  6. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Moses Point, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Ayres, R.P.; Sisco, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration facility at Moses Point is located at the mouth of the Kwiniuk River on the Seward Peninsula in northwestern Alaska. This area has long cold winters and short summers which affect the hydrology of the area. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airport support facilities at the Moses Point site and wishes to consider the subsistence lifestyles of area residents and the quality of the current environment when evaluating options for remediation of environmental contamination at their facilities. Currently no operating wells are in the area, but the vulnerability of the aquifer and other alternative water supplies are being evaluated because the Federal Aviation Administration has a potential liability for the storage and use of hazardous materials in the area.

  7. Estimating the Impact of the 2004 Alaskan Forest Fires on Episodic Particulate Matter Pollution over the Eastern United States through Assimilation of Satellite Derived Aerosol Optical Depths in a Regional Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 2004, extensive wildfires burned in Alaska and western Canada; the fires were the largest on record for Alaska. Smoke from these fires was observed over the continental United States in satellite images. Recent studies have quantified the impacts of the long-...

  8. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  9. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  10. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  11. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  12. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  13. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  14. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: I. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The...

  15. Satellite Bioclimatology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    1989-07-01

    Satellite-acquired, remotely sensed observations of the earth's land areas are substatially advancing knowledge of global vegetation patterns. Recognition that combined visible/near infrared spectral reflectance observations are a general indicator of the presence, condition and magnitude of vegetation foliage provides a basis for explanation. This information is of considerable value in climatic research because of the links between climate variables and vegetation foliage. Presence of vegetation foliage is predominantly determined by a combination of local beat and moisture conditions. In turn, foliar presence determines local rates of photosynthesis, affects surface albedo, and influences local rates of evapotranspiration as well as other elements of surface energy/mass balance. Availability of these remotely sensed data provides, for the first time, a consistent, global means to directly study interactions between climate and vegetation. This understanding is now being incorporated in climatological research and should improve understanding of macroscale bioclimatology. Remote sensing technology and understanding of this technology are continuing to develop rapidly and further major advances in this new field of `satellite bioclimatology' can be expected in the near future.

  16. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  17. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  18. USGS releases Alaska oil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Congress gearing up for a House-Senate conference committee battle about whether to open the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil drilling, a new assessment of the amount of oil in the federal portion of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NRPA) is influencing the debate.The U.S. Geological Survey has found that the NPRA holds "significantly greater" petroleum resources than had been estimated previously This finding was disclosed in a 16 May report. The assessment estimated that technically recoverable oil on NPRA federal lands are between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels of oil; a 1980 assessment estimated between 0.3 and 5.4 billion barrels.

  19. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  20. Mechanically-Steered, Mobile Satellite-Tracking Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. J.; Berner, J. B.; Jamnejad, V.; Woo, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    Signal from satellite tracked in moving vehicle. L-band, mechanically-steered, medium-gain antenna part of prototype radio equipment mounted in vehicle to demonstrate concept of land-mobile/satellite communication system. Provides such services as mobile telephone, voice or alphanumeric dispatch, paging, position-location information, and low-rate data transmission, for users within continental United States and Alaska. Antenna rotated mechanically until it finds direction from which maximum signal comes. Rate sensors provide inertial frame of reference during acquisition, so antenna locks onto signal even when vehicle turning.

  1. Automated system for smoke dispersion prediction due to wild fires in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A.; Stuefer, M.; Higbie, L.; Newby, G.

    2007-12-01

    Community climate models have enabled development of specific environmental forecast systems. The University of Alaska (UAF) smoke group was created to adapt a smoke forecast system to the Alaska region. The US Forest Service (USFS) Missoula Fire Science Lab had developed a smoke forecast system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model including chemistry (WRF/Chem). Following the successful experience of USFS, which runs their model operationally for the contiguous U.S., we develop a similar system for Alaska in collaboration with scientists from the USFS Missoula Fire Science Lab. Wildfires are a significant source of air pollution in Alaska because the climate and vegetation favor annual summer fires that burn huge areas. Extreme cases occurred in 2004, when an area larger than Maryland (more than 25000~km2) burned. Small smoke particles with a diameter less than 10~μm can penetrate deep into lungs causing health problems. Smoke also creates a severe restriction to air transport and has tremendous economical effect. The smoke dispersion and forecast system for Alaska was developed at the Geophysical Institute (GI) and the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC), both at University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). They will help the public and plan activities a few days in advance to avoid dangerous smoke exposure. The availability of modern high performance supercomputers at ARSC allows us to create and run high-resolution, WRF-based smoke dispersion forecast for the entire State of Alaska. The core of the system is a Python program that manages the independent pieces. Our adapted Alaska system performs the following steps \\begin{itemize} Calculate the medium-resolution weather forecast using WRF/Met. Adapt the near real-time satellite-derived wildfire location and extent data that are received via direct broadcast from UAF's "Geographic Information Network of Alaska" (GINA) Calculate fuel moisture using WRF forecasts and National Fire Danger

  2. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  3. Bering Strait, Alaska, United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer run off from the Yukon River, the source of which is hidden by clouds on image right, is filling the Norton Sound (image center) with brownish sediment. The Bering Sea (image left) appears to be supporting a large phytoplankton population, as blue-green swirls are evident from north to south in this true-color MODIS image of Alaska. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  4. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  5. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  6. Mapping Hazardous River Ice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Kielland, K.; Prakash, A.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    In interior Alaska, frozen river systems are important transportation corridors, due to the very limited road network. Long-time Alaskan residents report that winter travel conditions on Interior rivers have become more dangerous in recent memory. Field experience suggested that visual clues may provide experienced river travelers with clues of ice conditions. We explored the utility of airborne or satellite imagery as useful tools to map dangerous ice conditions on rivers in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high-resolution satellite imagery was used to identify and map open water and degraded ice conditions on the Tanana River. An accuracy assessment indicated that snow, degraded ice, and open water were mapped with an overall accuracy of 73%, producer's accuracies between (82 and 100%), and user's accuracy ranging from (62 to 86%). Over 95% of the errors were caused by shadowing of trees or topographic features in the snow. The classification system performed well for a variety of satellite images and across different satellite platforms. With further development, these types of satellite remote sensing tools could prove to be very useful across a range of disciplines and industry in northern climates.

  7. Satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

  8. Trade-off between land vehicle antenna cost and gain for satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Trade-offs between antenna cost and gain made for nine antennas as a feasibility study for the experimental land mobile satellite system, M-SAT(X) reported. This system is under development by JPL-NASA for a mobile telephone system to be used throughout the continental USA and Alaska. The mobile antenna is a key element in the development of this system.

  9. A Follow-Up Report on the Appalachian Education Satellite Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In May of 1974, the Applied Technology Satellite Number 6 (ATS-6) was launched. Among the jobs planned for ATS-6 was the large-scale delivery of educational and health services. Sponsored by the National Institute of Education, education projects were developed for Alaska, Appalachia and the Rocky Mountain Region.

  10. Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E., Jr.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

    2007-01-01

    We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000–2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ≥20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ≥28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted.

  11. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  12. Satellites in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes the methods and materials used to obtain satellite pictures from weather satellites. Discusses possible physics lessons which can be done using this equipment including orbital mechanics, and how the satellite works. (CW)

  13. The Western European Union Satellite Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasani, Bhupendra; Mara, Simon

    1993-06-01

    In January 1993, the FALCON consortium of 13 European companies, led by Cray Systems, won the contract to supply a turnkey satellite image processing facility to the Western European Union. The project started immediately and will be installed at WEU's Data Center in Torrejon near Madrid in December 1993. This paper discusses the development of an idea for a Regional Satellite Monitioring Agency (RSMA) which will be realized in December 1993 when the Center becomes fully operational.

  14. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 276 Renewable Resource Development on Department of Defense Bases in Alaska: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    The potential to increase utilization of renewable energy sources among military facilities in Alaska through coordinated development and operation is the premise of this task. The US Army Pacific Command requested assistance from PNNL to help develop a more complete understanding of the context for wheeling power within Alaska, including legal and regulatory barriers that may prohibit the DOD facilities from wheeling power among various locations to optimize the development and use of renewable resources.

  16. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Barrow, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    To assist the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in evaluating the potential effects of environmental contamination at their facility in Barrow, Alaska, a general assessment was made of the hydrologic system is the vicinity of the installation. The City of Barrow is located approximately 16 kilometers southwest of Point Barrow, the northernmost point in Alaska, and therefore lies within the region of continuous permafrost. Migration of surface or shallow- subsurface chemical releases in this environ- ment would be largely restricted by near-surface permafrost to surface water and the upper, suprapermafrost zone of the subsurface. In the arctic climate and tundra terrain of the Barrow area, this shallow environment has a limited capacity to attenuate the effects of either physical disturbances or chemical contamination and is therefore highly susceptible to degradation. Esatkuat Lagoon, the present drink- ing water supply for the City of Barrow, is located approximately 2 kilometers from the FAA facility. This lagoon is the only practical source of drinking water available to the City of Barrow because alternative sources of water in the area are (1) frozen throughout most of the year, (2) insufficient in volume, (3) of poor quality, or (4) too costly to develop and distribute.

  17. CASSIOPE Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Small Satellite Mission: Space Plasma Observations and International Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.

    2009-06-01

    In-situ observation of the micro-scale characteristics of plasma acceleration and related outflow processes is a primary scientific target of the Canadian Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) small satellite mission. The e-POP instrument payload will include imaging plasma and neutral particle sensors, magnetometers, dual-frequency GPS receivers, CCD cameras, a radio wave receiver and a beacon transmitter. The imaging plasma sensors will measure particle distributions and the magnetometers will measure field-aligned currents on the time scale of 10 ms and spatial scale of ~100 m. The CCD cameras will perform auroral imaging on the time scale of 100 ms and at spatial (pixel) resolution up to 0.4 km. The GPS and radio-wave receivers will perform near real-time imaging studies of the ionosphere in conjunction with ground-based radars, and the beacon transmitter in conjunction with ground receiving stations. The e-POP payload will be flown on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite, which is scheduled for launch in late 2008 into a polar orbit (325×1500 km, 80° inclination). International collaboration is an important and integral part of the e-POP mission strategy. Two of the 8 e-POP science instruments will be contributed by JAXA/ISAS, Japan, and Naval Research Laboratory, USA, respectively. Many of the planned e-POP investigations will entail coordinated observations using Canadian as well as foreign ground facilities, including magnetic and optical observatories, radars and heaters, such as the HAARP facility in Alaska, the EISCAT radar, and the NSF Antarctic facility. International collaboration in these investigations is expected to significantly enhance the science returns of the e-POP mission.

  18. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This annual bibliography of Alaska- and Arctic-related publications received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries is divided into three categories. There are 26 titles in the "Juvenile Fiction" section, 122 in the "Adult Non-Fiction" section, and 19 in the "Adult Fiction" section. Government publications are generally not included, although a…

  19. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This is the 1987 edition of an annual annotated listing of Alaska-Arctic related publications received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries. Divided into four sections, this bibliography describes each book, identifies the publisher and price per copy, and includes ISBN numbers. Some of the entries also include the Library of Congress numbers…

  20. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska…

  1. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  2. Viewpoints: Reflections on the Principalship in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David A., Ed.

    In this collection, 32 Alaskan principals, retired principals, assistant principals, and principals-to-be share their experiences as administrators and reflect on their feelings about the nature of the work and about schooling issues in Alaska. Nine of the writings were selected from "Totem Tales," the newsletter of Alaska's Association of…

  3. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  4. 40 CFR 81.302 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alaska. 81.302 Section 81.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.302 Alaska. Alaska—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  5. 78 FR 7807 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  6. 78 FR 42543 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  7. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  8. 78 FR 7807 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... decision may be obtained from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State......

  9. Culturally Responsive Guidelines for Alaska Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    These guidelines are predicated on the belief that culturally appropriate service to indigenous peoples is a fundamental principle of Alaska public libraries. While the impetus for developing the guidelines was service to the Alaska Native community, they can also be applied to other cultural groups. A culturally responsive library environment is…

  10. Distance Learning in Alaska's Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The distance education and instructional technology projects that have been undertaken in Alaska over the last decade are detailed in this paper. The basic services offered by the "Learn Alaska Network" are described in relation to three user groups: K-12 education; postsecondary education; and general public education and information. The audio…

  11. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Galena, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakanishi, Allan S.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The remote Native village of Galena along the Yukon River in west-central Alaska has long cold winters and short summers that affects the hydrology of the area. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airport support facilities in Galena and wishes to consider the subsistence lifestyle of the residents and the quality of the current environment when evaluating options for remediation of environmental contamination at these facilities. Galena is located on the flood plain of the Yukon River and obtains its drinking water from a shallow aquifer located in the thick alluvium underlying the village. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials combined with annual flooding of the Yukon River may affect the quality of the ground water. Alternative drinking-water sources are available but at significantly greater cost than existing supplies.

  12. Exposing Middle School Students to Remote Sensing in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.

    2003-12-01

    The need for attracting young minds to scientific research at an early stage is already recognized. Efforts are underway by major organizations to inspire the next generation of scientists. To be effective, there is a need to exploit the potential of the World Wide Web and bring it to a status that printed media have already reached. We find series of theme oriented books for children but websites with such stories are few and scattered. NASA's efforts in generating remote sensing based web stories such as the 'Adventures of Amelia the Pigeon' and 'Echo the Bat' are very good examples and starting points for generating more theme based material for children. 'Alaska: A Bird's Eye View' is a web-based story, specifically designed for grade 5-8 students. The story that is told by a Canada Goose exposes children to the truths of the remote State of Alaska and to the potential of satellite remote sensing. Examples on use remote sensing for monitoring volcanoes and sea ice edge dynamics are related to children in simple and effective ways. The topic of global climate change and its effect on marine animals has also been introduced to children.

  13. Nimbus IV View of the Major Structural Features of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lathram, E H

    1972-03-31

    Notwithstanding the relatively low degree of ground resolution, many of the major structural features of Alaska can be identified on the Nimbus IV IDCS image, exposed at an altitude of 600 nautical miles (1100 km). In addition, linears of regional extent that may be structurally controlled can be seen, many of which have not yet been recognized in surface mapping. The synoptic view provided by the image brings into focus an orthogonal set of fractures trending north-northeast and east-south-east and not heretofore apparent in regional maps of Alaska. This orthogonal fracture set may reflect a conjugate set of fractures within the crust, which has exerted significant control over the geologic history of the state. Increased resolution in other images from space platforms, such as the resolution of 200 to 650 feet (60 to 200 m) planned for the satellite television cameras of the ERTS program (20), will permit the discernment of finer detail and a greater accuracy in identifying and locating geologic features. PMID:17842275

  14. Airborne Gravity Data Enhances NGS Experimental Gravimetric Geoid in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Geodetic Survey [NGS], through their Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum [GRAV-D] program, continues to update its gravimetry holdings by flying new airborne gravity surveys over a large fraction of the USA and its territories. By 2022, NGS intends that all orthometric heights in the USA will be determined in the field by using a reliable national gravimetric geoid model to transform from geodetic heights obtained from GPS. Several airborne campaigns have already been flown over Alaska and its coastline. Some of this Alaskan coastal data have been incorporated into a new NGS experimental geoid model - xGEOID14. The xGEOID14 model is the first in a series of annual experimental geoid models that will incorporate NGS GRAV-D airborne data. This series provides a useful benchmark for assessing and improving current techniques by which the airborne and land-survey data are filtered and cleaned, and then combined with satellite gravity models, elevation data (etc.) with the ultimate aim of computing a geoid model that can support a national physical height system by 2022. Here we will examine the NGS GRAV-D airborne data in Alaska, and assess its contribution to xGEOID14. Future prospects for xGEOID15 will also be considered.

  15. 1997 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Wallace, Kristi L.

    1999-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors over 40 historically active volcanoes along the Aleutian Arc. Twenty are seismically monitored and for the rest, the AVO monitoring program relies mainly on pilot reports, observations of local residents and ship crews, and daily analysis of satellite images. In 1997, AVO responded to eruptive activity or suspect volcanic activity at 11 volcanic centers: Wrangell, Sanford, Shrub mud volcano, Iliamna, the Katmai group (Martin, Mageik, Snowy, and Kukak volcanoes), Chiginagak, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Okmok, Cleveland, and Amukta. Of these, AVO has real-time, continuously recording seismic networks at Iliamna, the Katmai group, and Pavlof. The phrase “suspect volcanic activity” (SVA), used to characterize several responses, is an eruption report or report of unusual activity that is subsequently determined to be normal or enhanced fumarolic activity, weather-related phenomena, or a non-volcanic event. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) about the 1997 activity of 5 Russian volcanoes--Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Karymsky, and Alaid (SVA). This report summarizes volcanic activity and SVA in Alaska during 1997 and the AVO response, as well as information on the reported activity at the Russian volcanoes. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a “significant” investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of reports throughout the year of steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1997 response record.

  16. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  17. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  18. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  19. Multiple dipole eddies in the Alaska Coastal Current detected with Landsat thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlnas, Kristina; Royer, Thomas C.; George, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen dipole eddies, including five large, well-formed ones, three second-generation eddies, and two double eddies, were observed in the Alaska Coastal Current near Kayak Island in one single scene of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) on April 22, l985. The digital Landsat TM satellite data were computer analyzed to extract details in the near coastal circulation in the northern Gulf of Alaska. Enhancement techniques were applied to the visible and thermal IR bands. The features are evident only in the visible bands because of the ability of these bands to detect the distribution of sediments in the near surface. These eddies did not have a significant thermal signature.The sources of these sediments are the glacial streams found throughout the Gulf of Alaska coast. Eddies of this configuration and frequency have never been observed here previously. However, the oceanographic and meteorological conditions are typical for this time of year. These eddies should be important to the cross-shelf mixing processes in the Alaska Coastal Current and are an indicator that the flow here can be unstable at certain times of the year.

  20. 76 FR 45217 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program; Amendment 88 AGENCY: National Marine... submitted Amendment 88 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) for review... gains realized under the Rockfish Pilot Program and viability of the Gulf of Alaska fisheries....

  1. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  2. Alaska - Russian Far East connection in volcano research and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program

  3. Natural Satellite Ephemerides at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert Arthur; Brozovic, Marina

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 176 known natural planetary satellites in the solar system; 150 are officially recognized by the IAU and 26 have IAU provisional designations. We maintain ephemerides for all of the satellites at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and make them available electronically through the On-Line Solar System Data Service known as Horizons(http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons) and in the form of generic Spice Kernels (SPK files) from NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif). General satellite information such as physical constants and descriptive orbital elements can be found on the JPL Solar System Dynamics Website (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov). JPL's ephemerides directly support planetary spacecraft missions both in navigation and science data analysis. They are also used in general scientific investigations of planetary systems. We produce the ephemerides by fitting numerically integrated orbits to observational data. Our model for the satellite dynamics accounts for the gravitational interactions within a planetary system and the external gravitational perturbations from the Sun and planets. We rely on an extensive data set to determine the parameters in our dynamical models. The majority of the observations are visual, photographic, and CCD astrometry acquired from Earthbased observatories worldwide and the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional observations include optical and photoelectric transits, eclipses, occultations, Earthbased radar ranging, spacecraft imaging,and spacecraft radiometric tracking. The latter data provide information on the planet and satellite gravity fields as well as the satellite position at the times of spacecraft close encounters. In this paper we report on the status of the ephemerides and our plan for future development, specifically that in support of NASA's Juno, Cassini, and New Horizons missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto, respectively.

  4. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-01-01

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  5. Reconnaissance of intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Young, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Southeast Alaska, was performed May 20-22, 1986. The specific objectives were to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and plant resources, and to identify potential herring spawning sites. This effort was designed to supplement the existing ecological data base for Back Island that would be used during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation process. A NEPA document will be prepared that describes the site environment and assesses impacts from the proposed construction and operation of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). Nine diver transects were established around Back Island. Particular attention was devoted to proposed locations for the pier and float facilities and range-operations and shore-power cable run-ups.

  6. Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska, USA, are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Trust, K.A.; Matz, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds.

  7. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  8. Servicing communication satellites in geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Paul K.; Price, Kent M.

    1990-01-01

    The econmic benefits of a LEO space station are quantified by identifying alternative operating scenarios utilizing the space station's transportation facilities and assembly and repair facilities. Particular consideration is given to the analysis of the impact of on-orbit assembly and servicing on a typical communications satellite is analyzed. The results of this study show that on-orbit servicing can increase the internal rate of return by as much as 30 percent.

  9. Asteroid Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  10. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  11. Germany's Option for a Moon Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Moon. The developed Moon orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • slewable HDTV camera combined with a high gain antenna that allows receiving lunar television using a commercially available satellite TV dish on Earth • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of lunar silicates and lunar surface temperature measurements • camera for detection and monitoring of impact flashes in visible light (VIS) on lunar night side caused by meteoroid impact events • camera technology test for interplanetary navigation and planetary approach navigation. This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. Due to the fact, that the satellite would be built by the private sector, the mission costs would remain low. Otherwise the scientific and public output would be high using that satellite bus for the instruments

  12. COMMENTS, AND LEGAL BRIEF AND COMMENTS, BEFORE THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION, IN THE MATTER OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DOMESTIC NON-COMMON CARRIER COMMUNICATIONS-SATELLITE FACILITIES BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES, DOCKET 16495.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    VOLUME I OF THE FORD FOUNDATION SUBMISSION TO THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION STATES THE FOUNDATION'S COMMITMENT TO EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING, DESCRIBES THE SCOPE, SERVICES, COMPONENTS, AND COST OF A PROPOSED NATIONAL BROADCASTERS' NON-PROFIT SATELLITE SERVICE (BNS), ASSERTS THE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND OPERATIONAL BENEFITS OF SUCH A SYSTEM, AND…

  13. Marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic and Sub-arctic in the course of towering industrial activity: ability of the management with using documentation facilities of satellite ecological criminalistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, Vladimir; Vladimirovich Melentyev, Konstantin; Petterssen, Lasse Herbert; Andreevna Zakharova, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    In our studies we are following for the classification of the marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic that was suggested by prof. Ye.S. Korotkevich who had provided summarizing results of the long-term in situ field experiments and airborne studies that was fulfilled by scientists of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) under his leadership in Russian Arctic after the 2-nd World War. But satellite multispectral observations show significant temporal and spatial modification of the suggested scheme especially for Arctic ice landscapes that had occurred in nowadays due to the climate change and anthropogenic press. Design main principle and rules of satellite ecological criminalistics - science of crime detection of ecocatastrophe and incidents on sea and fresh waters with using aerospace survey as well for the control, for the management and the preventing of ecological instability of the marine and lakes ecosystems was done by Academician Kirill Kondratiev together with his apprentices and follower in 1970-s. In frame proposed paper we shall present results of our comprehensive satellite-airborne studies of the marine and ice landscapes as well discuss the incidents that happened in Arctic inside the inland and international waters in past and present days and were revealed with using multispectral remote sensing. But for all that we need to mention that our contemporary investigations are based on the all-weather satellite ERS-1/2 - Envisat - RADARSAT SAR survey archived since 1990-s by SUAI and NERSC/NIERSC.

  14. PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES, REPLY LEGAL BRIEF, AND TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC DATA, BEFORE THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION, IN THE MATTER OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DOMESTIC COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE FACILITIES BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES, DOCKET 16495.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    THE THREE PARTS OF THIS FORD FUNDATION SUBMISSION PROVIDE INFORMATION ON BROAD ISSUES OF ORGANIZATION AND PUBLIC POLICY AS THEY RELATE TO SATELLITE MODEL SYSTEMS BNS-3 AND BNS-4, ON LEGAL PROBLEMS OF AUTHORIZATION AND CONTROL, AND ON THE TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS, COSTS, AND BROADCAST SPECTRUM LIMITATIONS OF EACH SYSTEM. VOLUME I OUTLINES…

  15. Coupled terrestrial-glacier-fjord-ocean processes in the Gulf of Alaska and Greenland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, P.; Truffer, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present coupled terrestrial-glacier-fjord-ocean system response to changes in forcing from the Gulf of Alaska focusing on the role of glacier runoff on the Alaska Coastal Current. These highly coupled systems remain severely under sampled in time and space, and point to the need for improved sampling techniques of the nearshore environment. We also present detailed measurements from western Greenland consisting of ice-strengthened satellite-tracked surface drifters equipped with CTDs covering the upper 15 m of the ocean deployed in concert with SST surface drifters, ADCPs and shipboard CTD data. This unique data set highlight the complexity of circulation and upper ocean heat and salt content in narrow glacially-dominated fjords.

  16. Melt water input from the Bering Glacier watershed into the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Jenkins, Liza K.; Arthur Endsley, K.

    2014-02-01

    The annual runoff from the melting of large glaciers and snow fields along the northern perimeter of the Gulf of Alaska is a critical component of marine physical and biological systems; yet, most of this freshwater is not measured. Here we show estimates of melt for the watershed that contains the largest and longest glacier in North America, the Bering Glacier. The procedure combines in situ observations of snow and ice melt acquired by a long-term monitoring program, multispectral satellite observations, and nearby temperature measurements. The estimated melt is 40 km3 per melt season, ± 3.0 km3, observed over the decadal period, 2002-2012. As a result of climate change, these estimates could increase to 60 km3/yr by 2050. This technique and the derived melt coefficients can be applied to estimate melt from Alaska to Washington glaciers.

  17. Scientific and economic potential of the SEASAT Program. [satellite system for global oceanographic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    The SEASAT satellite system is planned as a user-oriented system for timely monitoring of global ocean dynamics and mapping the global ocean geoid. The satellite instrumentation and modular concept are discussed. Operational data capabilities will include oceanographic data services, direct satellite read-out to users, and conversational retrieval and analysis of stored data. A case-study technique, generalized through physical and econometric modeling, indicates potential economic benefit from SEASAT to users in the following areas: ship routing, iceberg reconnaissance, arctic operations, Alaska pipeline ship link, and off-shore oil production.

  18. Digital release of the Alaska Quaternary fault and fold database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Burns, P.; Combellick, R. A.; Weakland, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has designed a Quaternary fault and fold database for Alaska in conformance with standards defined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Quaternary fault and fold database. Alaska is the most seismically active region of the United States, however little information exists on the location, style of deformation, and slip rates of Quaternary faults. Thus, to provide an accurate, user-friendly, reference-based fault inventory to the public, we are producing a digital GIS shapefile of Quaternary fault traces and compiling summary information on each fault. Here, we present relevant information pertaining to the digital GIS shape file and online access and availability of the Alaska database. This database will be useful for engineering geologic studies, geologic, geodetic, and seismic research, and policy planning. The data will also contribute to the fault source database being constructed by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), Faulted Earth project, which is developing tools to better assess earthquake risk. We derived the initial list of Quaternary active structures from The Neotectonic Map of Alaska (Plafker et al., 1994) and supplemented it with more recent data where available. Due to the limited level of knowledge on Quaternary faults in Alaska, pre-Quaternary fault traces from the Plafker map are shown as a layer in our digital database so users may view a more accurate distribution of mapped faults and to suggest the possibility that some older traces may be active yet un-studied. The database will be updated as new information is developed. We selected each fault by reviewing the literature and georegistered the faults from 1:250,000-scale paper maps contained in 1970's vintage and earlier bedrock maps. However, paper map scales range from 1:20,000 to 1:500,000. Fault parameters in our GIS fault attribute tables include fault name, age, slip rate, slip sense, dip direction, fault line type

  19. Science and common sense in Port Valdez, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.; Bridgman, J.; Kitagawa, J.; Dickason, G.; Dailey, A.

    1995-12-31

    Valdez, Alaska achieved worldwide attention with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This exacerbated an already polarized situation (industry, government, citizens, environmental groups) regarding the Valdez Terminal of the Trans Alaska Pipeline System. Other than spills, the major focus of environmental concern was and remains the Terminal`s Ballast Water Treatment Plant (BWTP) which discharges into Port Valdez. The previous NPDES wastewater discharge permits for this facility have been contentious for almost the entire period of pipeline operation. The draft NPDES permit is scheduled to be proposed for reissuance this year. However, a significant change has been initiated which so far is resulting in cooperation rather than confrontation between the various primary stakeholders. This presentation will explain how this change was initiated, how it is being maintained, and how what is happening could be a model for progress through cooperation. Although EPA and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) remain the final decision makers, key ingredients to this change and to the resulting progress include: (1) EPA opening up public discussion on the permit early in the permit development process; (2) willingness of involved parties to listen and explore non-traditional approaches; (3) a subsequent non-binding Scientific Meeting to discuss the permit, attended only by scientific representatives, with set Ground-Rules and Agenda and a nonstakeholder moderator, which resulted in eight general points of agreement; (4) use of these points of agreement to discuss what environmental monitoring should be in the permit, what should comprise separate studies, and what should not be done; (5) continuing cross-stakeholder communication and discussion; (6) an open and highly visible process.

  20. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  1. Communication satellites for STS-5 being readied for loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Two commercial communication satellites scheduled for flight on STS-5 are pictured as they are being readied for loading into a special canister that will transport them to the launch pad. Telsat Canada's Anik C-3 (at bottom) is seen in its blanket covered cradle assemble. Satellite Business System's SBS-3 is at top. This photo was taken inside the vertical processing facility (VPF).

  2. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2; Site Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Carles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance

    1993-01-01

    Volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia.

  3. Aeronautical mobile satellite service: Air traffic control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Canada's history both in aviation and in satellite communications development spans several decades. The introduction of aeronautical mobile satellite communications will serve our requirements for airspace management in areas not served by line-of-sight radio and radar facilities. The ensuing improvements in air safety and operating efficiency are eagerly awaited by the aviation community.

  4. 78 FR 54481 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    .... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Dina L. Torres, Land Transfer Resolution Specialist..., Alaska T. 25 N., R. 18 W., Sec. 20. Containing 639.92 acres. Notice of the decision will also...

  5. 78 FR 35047 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    .... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Ralph L. Eluska, Sr., Land Transfer Resolution...: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 45 W., Secs. 30 and 31. Containing 1,254.64 acres. Notice of...

  6. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  7. Alaska Simulator - A Journey to Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Barbara; Pinggera, Jakob; Zugal, Stefan; Wild, Werner

    The Alaska Simulator is an interactive software tool developed at the University of Innsbruck which allows people to test, analyze and improve their own planning behavior. In addition, the Alaska Simulator can be used for studying research questions in the context of software project management and other related fields. Thereby, the Alaska Simulator uses a journey as a metaphor for planning a software project. In the context of software project management the simulator can be used to compare traditional rather plan-driven project management methods with more agile approaches. Instead of pre-planning everything in advance agile approaches spread planning activities throughout the project and provide mechanisms for effectively dealing with uncertainty. The biggest challenge thereby is to find the right balance between pre-planning activities and keeping options open. The Alaska Simulator allows to explore how much planning is needed under different circumstances.

  8. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  9. Pacific Northwest and Alaska bioenergy program glossary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    A glossary of terms for the bioenergy program of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska is presented. A table with physical constants for individual gases most frequently found in fuel gases is also presented in this publication.

  10. 78 FR 10634 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...) to Huna Totem Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for... Huna Totem Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hoonah, Alaska, and are located in:...

  11. 77 FR 35998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Nunapiglluraq Corporation (Native Village of Hamilton). The decision approves the surface estate in the lands... is conveyed to Nunapiglluraq Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hamilton, Alaska, and...

  12. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1986-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is one of many vanishing around the world. Glacier retreat is one of the most direct and understandable effects of climate change. The consequences of the decline in ...

  13. 77 FR 59220 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    .... Survey No. 9993, Alaska. Containing 129.97 acres. Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 5 S., R. 24 W., Tract A. Containing 1,242.28 acres. T. 6 S., R. 24 W., Secs. 6, 21, 22, 28, and 33. Containing 3,164.08 acres. T. 6 S., R. 25 W., Tracts Q, R, and S; Tracts T, X, and Z. Containing approximately 1,683...

  14. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  15. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  16. Propagation measurements in Alaska using ACTS beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The placement of an ACTS propagation terminal in Alaska has several distinct advantages. First is the inclusion of a new and important climatic zone to the global propagation model. Second is the low elevation look angle from Alaska to ACTS. These two unique opportunities also present problems unique to the location, such as extreme temperatures and lower power levels. These problems are examined and compensatory solutions are presented.

  17. 75 FR 13296 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management will issue an appealable decision approving the conveyance of surface and subsurface estates in certain lands pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act to Bristol Bay Native Corporation for 2.72 acres located southeast of the Native village of Koliganek, Alaska. Notice of the decision will also......

  18. MABEL photon-counting laser altimetry data in Alaska for ICESat-2 simulations and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Amundson, Jason M.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Walsh, Kaitlin M.; Cook, William B.; Markus, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is scheduled to launch in late 2017 and will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), which is a photon-counting laser altimeter and represents a new approach to satellite determination of surface elevation. Given the new technology of ATLAS, an airborne instrument, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was developed to provide data needed for satellite-algorithm development and ICESat-2 error analysis. MABEL was deployed out of Fairbanks, Alaska, in July 2014 to provide a test dataset for algorithm development in summer conditions with water-saturated snow and ice surfaces. Here we compare MABEL lidar data to in situ observations in Southeast Alaska to assess instrument performance in summer conditions and in the presence of glacier surface melt ponds and a wet snowpack. Results indicate the following: (1) based on MABEL and in situ data comparisons, the ATLAS 90 m beam-spacing strategy will provide a valid assessment of across-track slope that is consistent with shallow slopes (< 1°) of an ice-sheet interior over 50 to 150 m length scales; (2) the dense along-track sampling strategy of photon counting systems can provide crevasse detail; and (3) MABEL 532 nm wavelength light may sample both the surface and subsurface of shallow (approximately 2 m deep) supraglacial melt ponds. The data associated with crevasses and melt ponds indicate the potential ICESat-2 will have for the study of mountain and other small glaciers.

  19. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  20. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  1. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  2. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  3. Future large broadband switched satellite communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Critical technical, market, and policy issues relevant to future large broadband switched satellite networks are summarized. Our market projections for the period 1980 to 2000 are compared. Clusters of switched satellites, in lieu of large platforms, etc., are shown to have significant advantages. Analysis of an optimum terrestrial network architecture suggests the proper densities of ground stations and that link reliabilities 99.99% may entail less than a 10% cost premium for diversity protection at 20/30 GHz. These analyses suggest that system costs increase as the 0.6 power of traffic. Cost estimates for nominal 20/30 GHz satellite and ground facilities suggest optimum system configurations might employ satellites with 285 beams, multiple TDMA bands each carrying 256 Mbps, and 16 ft ground station antennas. A nominal development program is outlined.

  4. Satellite orbit determination from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, M. M.; Foshee, J. J.

    This paper describes the requirements, approach, and problems associated with autonomous satellite orbit determination from an airborne platform. The ability to perform orbit determination from an airborne platform removes the reliance on ground control facilities. Aircraft orbit determination offers a more robust system in that it is less susceptible to direct attack, sabotage, or nuclear disaster. Ranging on a satellite and the processing of range/range-rate data along with INS inputs to produce a set of orbital parameters to be transmitted to user terminals are discussed. Several algorithms that could be utilized by the user terminal to recover the satellite position/velocity data from the transmitted message are presented. The ability to compress the ephemeris message to a small size while remaining autonomous for a long period of time, as would be needed in future military communication satellites, is discussed.

  5. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    PubMed

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere. PMID:23789506

  6. Spatially Distributing a GRACE Mascon Solution Across Gulf of Alaska Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. C.; Arendt, A. A.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers of Alaska and Northwestern Canada are losing mass at one of the highest rates of any mountain glacier system globally. High-precision measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have revealed changes in the local gravitational field along the Gulf of Alaska due to changes in these ice masses since 2003. Previous efforts have spatially resolved these mass changes to 100 x 100 km grid cells or mass concentrations (mascons) as part of a global GRACE solution. While mass change estimates at the scale of entire mountain ranges (i.e. several geographically-grouped mascons) show strong temporal correlation to surface mass balance and air temperature, and while ice loss magnitudes for all Gulf of Alaska glaciers agree closely with geodetic estimates from ICESat, most GRACE-derived glacier mass loss magnitudes do not match ground observations at the level of individual mascons. In this study, we examine several approaches for partitioning the most recent GRACE mascon solution for glacier mass change along the Gulf of Alaska to individual mascons. We derive sets of scaling coefficients for every mascon, representing the local averages of different topographic or climatological characteristics, which essentially serve as different measures of continentality. These characteristics include mean ice elevation and distance from the coast, derived from the Randolph Glacier Inventory, and mean monthly temperature and precipitation, derived from the gridded climate product PRISM. Each set of scaling coefficients (representing each continentality index) is evaluated by comparing our derived timeseries' of mass change to independent estimates from available ground and remote sensing datasets. We focus our preliminary validation on mascons within the Juneau Icefield area in Southeast Alaska, for which we have independent constraints on mass change from hydrological models and laser altimetry, and which acts as a test case for future

  7. Alaska

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... This image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye. It may help to darken the room lights when viewing the image on a computer screen. The Yukon River is ...

  8. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  9. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Toksook Bay, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Toksook Bay, Alaska. Data provided for this project include community load data, average wind turbine output, average diesel plant output, thermal load data, average net capacity factor, optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, average net wind penetration, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  10. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  11. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Register on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60228), to propose migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  12. 77 FR 2972 - City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission...

  13. New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

  14. 2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

  15. Selected 1970 Census Data for Alaska Communities. Part 6 - Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau. Div. of Community Planning.

    As 1 of 6 regional reports supplying statistical information on Alaska's incorporated and unincorporated communities (those of 25 or more people), this report on Southeast Alaska presents data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census first-count microfilm. Organized via the 9 Southeast census divisions, data are presented for the 40 communities of the…

  16. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in Alaska for the 2014 season. These regulations would enable the continuation of customary and traditional subsistence uses of migratory birds in Alaska and prescribe regional information on when and where the harvesting of birds may occur. These regulations were developed under a......

  17. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  18. Using Satellite Technology to Increase Professional Communications Among Teachers: a Report of Experiments Conducted by the National Education Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    The National Education Association (NEA) in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Library of Medicine, The Alaska Broadcasting Commission, and the Pacific PEACESAT Network, conducted four satellite experiments designed to improve professional communication among teachers. These programs were the Satellite…

  19. Satellite broadcasting in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1984-05-01

    Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

  20. Stereo Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

  1. Range expansion of nonindigenous caribou in the Aleutianarchipelago of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Duarte, Adam; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are nonindigenous to all but the eastern-most island of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. In 1958–1959, caribou were intentionally introduced to Adak Island in the central archipelago, and the population has at least tripled in recent years subsequent to the closure of a naval air facility. Although dispersal of caribou to adjacent islands has been suspected, no historical documentation has occurred to date. Herein, we report consistent detections of caribou sign on the adjacent island of Kagalaska over 2 summer field seasons (2010–2011), and visual detection of caribou on that island during the summer of 2011. Ecological impacts of caribou on Kagalaska are not strongly apparent at the present time and we do not know how many animals permanently occupy the island. However, establishment of a reproductively viable resident population on Kagalaska is worrisome and could set the stage for a step-wise invasion of additional nearby islands.

  2. Science program for an imaging radar receiving station in Alaska. Report of the science working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that there would be broad scientific benefit in establishing in Alaska an imaging radar receiving station that would collect data from the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. This station would acquire imagery of the ice cover from the American territorial waters of the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. This station, in conjunction with similar stations proposed for Kiruna, Sweden, and Prince Albert, Canada would provide synoptic coverage of nearly the entire Arctic. The value of such coverage to aspects of oceanography, geology, glaciology, and botany is considered.

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 3: Reference system description, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the solar power satellite system is presented. The satellite solar energy conversion and microwave power transmission systems are discussed including the structure, power distribution, thermal control, and energy storage. Space construction and support systems are described including the work support facilities and construction equipment. An assessment of the space transportation system for the satellite and the ground receiving station is presented.

  4. Satellite Boreal Measurements over Alaska and Canada During June-July 2004: Simultaneous Measurements of Upper Tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4, C2H2, CH2OH, HCOOH, OCS, and SF6 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Dufour, Gaelle; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Chiou, Linda; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Turquety, Solene; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) upper tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4 , C2H2 , CH30H, HCOOH, and OCS measurements show plumes up to 185 ppbv (10 (exp -9) per unit volume) for CO, 1.36 ppbv for C2H6, 755 pptv (10(exp -12) per unit volume) for HCN, 1.12 ppbv for CH3C1, 1.82 ppmv, (10(exp -6) per unit volume) for CH4, 0.178 ppbv for C2H2, 3.89 ppbv for CH30H, 0.843 ppbv for HCOOH, and 0.48 ppbv for OCS in western Canada and Alaska at 50 deg N-68 deg N latitude between 29 June and 23 July 2004. Enhancement ratios and emission factors for HCOOH, CH30H, HCN, C2H6, and OCS relative to CO at 250-350 hPa are inferred from measurements of young plumes compared with lower mixing ratios assumed to represent background conditions based on a CO emission factor derived from boreal measurements. Results are generally consistent with the limited data reported for various vegetative types and emission phases measured in extratropical forests including boreal forests. The low correlation between fire product emission mixing ratios and the S176 mixing ratio is consistent with no significant SF6 emissions from the biomass fires.

  5. Magnetospheres: Jupiter, Satellite Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, F.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Most of the satellites of Jupiter, notably the large Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (see JUPITER: SATELLITES), orbit deep inside the magnetosphere of Jupiter (see JUPITER: MAGNETOSPHERE) and are therefore immersed in the flow of magnetospheric plasma (made of a mixture of electrons and ions) and subjected to an interaction with the strong Jovian magnetic field. These intera...

  6. [Theme Issue: Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    One section of this journal is devoted to issues involving broadcast satellites. Separate articles discuss the need for international planning of satellite broadcasting, decisions made at the 1971 World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications, potential problems in satellite broadcasting, a series of proposals drawn up by the…

  7. Educational Facilities for Aniak, Emmonak and Mountain Village Area High Schools. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Vivian R.; Berry, Franklin L.

    Local high school programs represent a major change in Alaska's rural secondary school policy. This report examines the type of local high school program desired by the residents of three rural villages as a basis for designing village high school facilities. Each village is described by location, climate, population, housing, health facilities,…

  8. 43 CFR 2091.9-1 - Alaska Native selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and... selection and selected by Alaska Natives under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, as amended (43...

  9. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  10. Remote Sensing of Spring Streams on Alaska's North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, A. W.; Huryn, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    Spring-fed headwater streams are thought to dramatically affect local aquatic food-web dynamics by providing continual ice-free refugia for species unable to tolerate freezing. Accurate locations of these streams on Alaska's North Slope are needed to investigate associated hypotheses. Thermal springs on Alaska's North Slope are spread over vast, roadless areas and are difficult to identify in summer by aerial survey. Pre-existing data on spring locations are incomplete, largely anecdotal and of insufficient accuracy for use in field sampling. Satellite remote sensing provides capabilities for measuring, monitoring and querying large tracts of remote landscape in an efficient, synoptic manner. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper(ETM) imagery was used to reconnoiter a region of the North Slope using winter scenes, when the contrast between ambient conditions and the springs' thermal signal is easiest to detect. Scenes from February 9, 2002 were selected from the available archive based on cloud cover (<10%), and the lowest ambient temperature for dates with adequate archived imagery. Analytical methods were two tiered. A manual examination and interpretation of the imagery detected obvious linear features of relatively high temperature in logical locations for springs. A second examination, using masking and ratio techniques with tabular query, suppressed confounding factors and identified a second set of likely thermal spring locations. A subset coordinate list of candidate sites was developed from these findings, and drove sampling/ground truthing activity in the summer of 2004. All sites visited were confirmed springs and are part of ongoing aquatic food-web research based at Toolik Field Station.

  11. Digital satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, T. T.

    1986-06-01

    The use of satellite communications in point-to-multipoint transmission of data is studied. The theory, systems, and equipment for satellite communications are described. The topics of satellite orbits, satellite construction, earth station equipment, and the analysis of the satellite link are discussed. Different types of digital modulation for carrier transmission, and techniques for enhancing the transmission capacity, such as digital speech interpolation and demand assignment, are examined. Techniques and equipment for performing the multiple access-broadcasting functions including FDMA, TDMA, DAMA, CDMA, and random access are considered.

  12. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  13. TSS Satellite Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manarini, G.

    1985-01-01

    The responsibilities of NASA and PSN/CNR in the tethered satellite system cooperative program are listed and PSN/CNR-AIT system support and technologies studies are summarized. Results are given for investigations of active vs. passive satellite trade offs; analysis of alternative maneuvers; satellite attitude and position determination analysis failure modes analysis; moveable boom dynamic analysis; double tethered satellite system; and thermo/dynamic analysis for 100 km to 120 km altitude range. Objectives for the space plasma science mission and its applications are outlined and the TSS satellite configuration is highlighted. Programmatic aspects are included.

  14. GOES satellite time code dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The GOES time code system, the performance achieved to date, and some potential improvements in the future are discussed. The disseminated time code is originated from a triply redundant set of atomic standards, time code generators and related equipment maintained by NBS at NOAA's Wallops Island, VA satellite control facility. It is relayed by two GOES satellites located at 75 W and 135 W longitude on a continuous basis to users within North and South America (with overlapping coverage) and well out into the Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas. Downlink frequencies are near 468 MHz. The signals from both satellites are monitored and controlled from the NBS labs at Boulder, CO with additional monitoring input from geographically separated receivers in Washington, D.C. and Hawaii. Performance experience with the received time codes for periods ranging from several years to one day is discussed. Results are also presented for simultaneous, common-view reception by co-located receivers and by receivers separated by several thousand kilometers.

  15. 77 FR 4581 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... National Park Service Visitor's Center, Port Alsworth, Alaska, (907) 781-2218, on Wednesday, February 22... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  16. Alaska Native Population and Manpower: 1975. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    Numbering approximately 62,005 and representing 15.3% of the total Alaska population in 1975, Alaska Natives are a finite and predominately rural subpopulation. However, a significant portion of the Alaska Native Work Force (estimated at 13,854) now resides in the major urban areas and is available to the Statewide Work Force. Statistics from May,…

  17. Anchorage Kindergarten Profile: Implementing the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This paper discusses the development of the Anchorage Kindergarten Developmental Profile in the context of the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile and presents some evaluation results from studies of the Anchorage measure. Alaska mandated the completion of an Alaska Developmental Profile (ADP) on each kindergarten student and each student…

  18. 77 FR 4578 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's... management issues. The NPS SRC program is authorized under Title VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska...

  19. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  20. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  1. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  2. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  3. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  4. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  5. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  6. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  7. 43 CFR 2627.2 - Grant for University of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant for University of Alaska. 2627.2 Section 2627.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Alaska § 2627.2 Grant for University of Alaska. (a)...

  8. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3...

  9. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3...

  10. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3...

  11. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties are discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite. GEOS-C will be tracked by a number of the conventional satellite tracking systems, as well as by two advanced systems; a satellite-to-satellite tracking system and lasers capable of decimeter accuracies which are being developed in connection with the Goddard Earth and Ocean Dynamics Applications program. The discussion is organized in terms of a specific type of GEOS-C orbit which would satisfy a number of scientific objectives including the study of the gravitational field by means of both the altimeter and the satellite-to-satellite tracking system, studies of tides, and the Gulf Stream meanders.

  12. Atmospheric Rivers in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia: The Bella Coola Event of 2010 and Alaska Events of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, D. A.; Ralph, F. M.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Scott, C. A.; McCollor, D.; White, T.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are a recurring natural hazard responsible for large socioeconomic losses globally. In mid-latitude locations, such as Western North America and Europe, heavy precipitation and floods, are connected to intense water vapor transport in extra-tropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). This AR region is narrow (on the order of 300-500 km wide) and transports the majority of the poleward moisture flux. Given the strong link between ARs and floods on the west coast of North America, it is the aim of this research to determine if ARs are responsible for hydrohazards in British Columbia and Alaska.Using satellite measurements, atmospheric reanalyses, and in-situ observations we undertake a hydrometeorological analysis on two major flood events, namely the Bella Coola flood in British Columbia in September 2010 in which 10 inches (250mm) of rain fell in 36 hours, and an Alaskan event that produced over 50 inches (1250 mm) of precipitation in the month of September 2012 (mostly in two landfalling ARs), and led to record river stage heights. Furthermore, the Alaskan event resulted in one fatality and $35M in damages to buildings, homes, and infrastructure.Preliminary results suggest that AR conditions were present during these events, and are therefore likely to be important for hydrohazards more generally in British Columbia and Alaska. As the enhanced water vapor transport in the ARs encountered the steep terrain in these regions orographic enhancement of rainfall occurred resulting in record rainfall totals and floods. The occurrence of these events in September (earlier than noteworthy AR events in the U.S. West Coast farther south) may also relate to the earlier nascence of the winter circulation pattern in northern latitudes.

  13. Alaska's Arctic Landscapes: Land cover, Monitoring and Assessing Arctic Ecosystems and their Change Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    The challenge for agencies who manage the 89,000 square miles constituting Alaska's arctic ecoregion is in understanding what, where and to what extent important ecosystems exist. How do each of these ecosystems function? What are the key components of these ecosystems? How are they affected by the changing climate, fire, permafrost changes and development? Answers to these management questions come not from one specific project or program but from a series of data gathering efforts. Landcover mapping of Alaska's arctic using satellite imagery began in the mid 1990's. Over the past three years the land cover has been updated using additional ground truth data and the most up to date image processing software. In 2012, the updated map was used for the first time to select sites for an inventory and monitoring pilot project. The project established a baseline of information for long-term monitoring of regional ecological components. That same year the Bureau of Land Management began a Rapid Ecoregional Assessment across the North Slope of Alaska. This effort will utilize the known environments established by the land cover map and will model the effects of climate change, fire, permafrost change and development. The assessment and modeling effort will show how the effect of these change agents would shape long term conservation, restoration and development efforts. These interactions together will advance the understanding of the arctic ecoregion its values, processes and functions and how the agents of change will shape the future.

  14. Southeastern Alaska tectonostratigraphic terranes revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    The presence of only three major tectonostratigraphic terranes (TSTs) in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (Chugach, Wrangell, and Alexander) is indicated by critical analysis of available age, stratigraphic, and structural data. A possible fourth TST (Stikine) is probably an equivalent of part or all of the Alexander. The Yakutat block belongs to the Chugach TST, and both are closely linked to the Wrangell and Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs; the Gravina TST is an overlap assemblage. THe Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs is subdivided on the basis of age and facies. The subterranes within it share common substrates and represent large-scale facies changes in a long-lived island-arc environment. The Taku TSTs is the metamorphic equivalent of the upper part (Permian and Upper Triassic) of the Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs with some fossil evidence preserved that indicates the age of protoliths. Similarly, the Tracy Arm TST is the metamorphic equivalent of (1) the lower (Ordovician to Carboniferous) Alexander TST without any such fossil evidence and (2) the upper (Permian to Triassic) Alexander(-Stikine) with some newly discovered fossil evidence. Evidence for the ages of juxtaposition of the TSTs is limited. The Chugach TST deformed against the Wrangell and Alexander TSTs in late Cretaceous. Gravina rocks were deformed at the time and also earlier. The Wrangell TST was stitched to the Alexander(-Stikine) by middle Cretaceous plutons but may have arrived before its Late Jurassic plutons were emplaced. The Alexander(-Stikine) and Cache Creek TSTs were juxtaposed before Late Triassic.

  15. Chariot, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-16

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. This region is about 125 miles north of (inside) the Arctic Circle and is bounded on the southwest by the Chukchi Sea. The closest populated areas are the Inupiat villages of Point Hope, 32 miles northwest of the site, and Kivalina,41 miles to the southeast. The site is accessible from Point Hope by ATV in the summer and by snowmobile in the winter. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site was cancelled because of strong public opposition. No nuclear explosions were conducted at the site.

  16. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation.

  17. Scaling approach of terrestrial carbon cycle over Alaska's black spruce forests: a synthesis of field observation, remote sensing, and ecosystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Date, T.; Harazono, Y.; Ichii, K.

    2007-12-01

    Spatio-temporal scale up of the eddy covariance data is an important challenge especially in the northern high latitude ecosystems, since continuous ground observations are rarely conducted. In this study, we measured the carbon fluxes at a black spruce forest in interior Alaska, and then scale up the eddy covariance data to spatio- temporal variations in regional carbon budget by using satellite remote sensing data and a process based ecosystem model, Biome-BGC. At point scale, both satellite-based empirical model and Biome-BGC could reproduce seasonal and interannual variations in GPP/RE/NEE. The magnitude of GPP/RE is also consistent among the models. However, spatial patterns in GPP/RE are something different among the models; high productivity in low elevation area is estimated by the satellite-based model whereas insignificant relationship is simulated by Biome-BGC. Long- term satellite records, AVHRR and MODIS, show the gradual decline of NDVI in Alaska's black spruce forests between 1981 and 2006, resulting in a general trend of decreasing GPP/RE for Alaska's black spruce forests. These trends are consistent with the Biome-BGC simulation. The trend of carbon budget is also consistent among the models, where the carbon budget of black spruce forests did not significantly change in the period. The simulated results suggest that the carbon fluxes in black spruce forests could be more sensitive to water availability than air temperature.

  18. 77 FR 4290 - TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Planned Alaska Pipeline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the... cancelled on January 4, 2012, because TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC (TC Alaska) had not filed its...

  19. Alaska Native Languages: A Bibliographical Catalogue. Part One: Indian Languages. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.; McGary, Mary Jane

    This catalogue describes Alaska native language materials at the research library and archive of the Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The volume covers the sections of the library devoted to Indian languages as well as the general and bibliography sections. Since the collection is almost exhaustive, the catalogue is…

  20. 76 FR 78642 - TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Planned Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings... would transport gas produced on the Alaska North Slope to the Alaska-Canada border to connect with a pipeline system in Canada for onward delivery to markets in North America. The APP is being...

  1. ERS-1 SAR backscatter changes associated with ice growing on shallow lakes in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Wakabayashi, H.; Weeks, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial and temporal backscatter intensity (sigma(sup o)) variations from ice growing on shallow lakes during winter 1991-92 near Barrow, NW Alaska, have been quantified for the first time using ERS-I C-band SAR data acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility. A field and laboratory validation program, including measurements of the thickness and structure-stratigraphy of the ice, indicates that sigma(sup o) values are strongly dependent on whether the ice freezes to the lake bottom, or remains afloat. Backscatter intensity decreases significantly when the ice grounds on the bottom. Strong backscatter from floating ice is attributed to a specular ice-water interface and vertically oriented tubular bubbles. During the spring thaw, backscatter undergoes a reversal; sigma(sup o) values from ice that was grounded increase, while sigma(sup o) values from ice that was afloat decrease. This phenomenon has not previously been reported.

  2. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  3. The Alaska experience using store-and-forward telemedicine for ENT care in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kokesh, John; Ferguson, A Stewart; Patricoski, Chris

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses the development, evaluation, and growth of telemedicine in Alaska. Store-and-forward telemedicine has been used to deliver ear, nose, and throat (ENT) care to rural Alaska since 2002. It has proved valuable in the treatment of many conditions of the head and neck, and it is particularly well suited for the diagnosis and treatment of ear disease. Usage has grown steadily as telemedicine has become widely accepted. Store-and-forward telemedicine has been shown within the Alaska Native Health System to improve access for care and reduce wait times, as well as decrease travel-associated costs for patients. PMID:22032488

  4. Concept definition study for recovery of tumbling satellites. Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, D. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Cathcart, J. A.; Keeley, M. G.; Madayev, L.; Nguyen, T. K.; Preese, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of areas of research and laboratory experiments were identified which could lead to development of a cost efficient remote, disable satellite recovery system. Estimates were planned of disabled satellite motion. A concept is defined as a Tumbling Satellite Recovery kit which includes a modular system, composed of a number of subsystem mechanisms that can be readily integrated into varying combinations. This would enable the user to quickly configure a tailored remote, disabled satellite recovery kit to meet a broad spectrum of potential scenarios. The capability was determined of U.S. Earth based satellite tracking facilities to adequately determine the orientation and motion rates of disabled satellites.

  5. Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

  6. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  7. Analysis of Alaska hydro power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    1983-12-01

    Alaska leads the world in terms of total potential for hydropower development, yet Alaska is 91% dependent on fossil fuels. A mix of gas, diesel and coal-fired power plants generate all but 9% of its electricity. This dependence on fossil fuels stems from the abundance of cheap gas, coal and oil-nonrenewable resources that are becoming more costly. Hydro power is also costly; however, most hydro projects are justified by long term returns. Once the water hits the turbine in a hydro project, the operating and maintenance cost is practically nil. The successful completion of two complex thin-arch concrete dams and several other hydro projects are discussed in order to meet Alaska's power demand.

  8. Paleoindians in beringia: evidence from arctic alaska.

    PubMed

    Kunz, M L; Reanier, R E

    1994-02-01

    Excavations at the Mesa site in arctic Alaska provide evidence for a Paleoindian occupation of Beringia, the region adjacent to the Bering Strait. Eleven carbon-14 dates on hearths associated with Paleoindian projectile points place humans at the site between 9,730 and 11,660 radiocarbon years before present (years B.P.). The presence of Paleoindians in Beringia at these times challenges the notion that Paleoindian cultures arose exclusively in mid-continental North America. The age span of Paleoindians at the Mesa site overlaps with dates from two other cultural complexes in interior Alaska. A hiatus in the record of human occupation occurs between 10,300 and 11,000 years B.P. Late Glacial climatic fluctuations may have made northern Alaska temporarily unfavorable for humans and spurred their southward dispersal. PMID:17747660

  9. A 15 year legacy of cloud and atmosphere observations in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.

    2012-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has operated the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory in Barrow, Alaska. Barrow offers many valuable perspectives on the Arctic environment that complement observations at lower latitudes. Unique features of the Arctic region include cold and dry atmospheric conditions, strong annual variability in sun light, a seasonally high-reflective surface, and persistent clouds that involve mixed-phase processes. ARM's ultimate objective with its flagship observatory at the northernmost point in U.S. territory is to provide measurements that can be used to improve the understanding of these atmospheric physical and radiative properties and processes such that they can be better represented in climate models. The NSA is the most detailed and long-lasting cloud-radiation-atmosphere observatory in the Arctic, providing continuous, sophisticated measurements of climate-relevant parameters. Instrument suites include active radars and lidars at various frequencies, passive radiometers monitoring radiation in microwave, infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, meteorological towers, and sounding systems. Together these measurements are used to characterize many of the important properties of clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the surface. The coordinated nature of these measurements offers important multi-dimensional insight into many fundamental processes linking these different elements of the climate system. Moreover, the continuous operations of the facility support these observations over the full diurnal cycle and in all seasons of the year. This presentation will highlight a number of important studies and key findings that have been facilitated by the NSA observations during the first 15 years in operation. Some of these include: a thorough documentation of clouds, their occurrence frequency, phase, microphysical

  10. SPHERES Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Benavides, Jose Victor; Ormsby, Steve L.; GuarnerosLuna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized satellites that provide a test bed for development and research into multi-body formation flying, multi-spacecraft control algorithms, and free-flying physical and material science investigations. Up to three self-contained free-flying satellites can fly within the cabin of the International Space Station (ISS), performing flight formations, testing of control algorithms or as a platform for investigations requiring this unique free-flying test environment. Each satellite is a self-contained unit with power, propulsion, computers, navigation equipment, and provides physical and electrical connections (via standardized expansion ports) for Principal Investigator (PI) provided hardware and sensors.

  11. Satellites for distress alerting and locating: Report by Interagency Committee for Search and Rescue Ad Hoc Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, E.

    1976-01-01

    The background behind the congressional legislation that led to the requirement for the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) and the Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) to be installed on certain types of aircraft and inspected marine vessels respectively is discussed. The DAL problem is discussed for existing ELT and EPIRB equipped aircraft and ships. It is recognized that the DAL requirement for CONUS and Alaska and the maritime regions are not identical. In order to address the serious DAL problem which currently exists in CONUS and Alaska, a low orbiting satellite system evolves as the most viable and cost effective alternative that satisfies the overall SAR system design requirements. A satellite system designed to meet the needs of the maritime regions could be either low orbiting or geostationary. The conclusions drawn from this report support the recommendation to proceed with the implementation of a SAR orbiting satellite system.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  13. An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design employing multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design is described which employs multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas coupled to a TDMA transponder. It is shown that the satellite employs solid state GaAs FET power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers while signal processing and switching takes place on-board the spacecraft. The proposed areas to be served by this satellite would be the continental U.S. plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as southern Canada and Mexico City. Finally, attention is given to the earth stations which are designed to be low cost.

  14. Communication satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  15. Alaska Natives assessing the health of their environment.

    PubMed

    Garza, D

    2001-11-01

    The changes in Alaska's ecosystems caused by pollution, contaminants and global climate change are negatively impacting Alaska Natives and rural residents who rely on natural resources for food, culture and community identity. While Alaska commerce has contributed little to these global changes and impacts, Alaska and its resources are nonetheless affected by the changes. While Alaska Natives have historically relied on Alaska's land, water and animals for survival and cultural identity, today their faith in the safety and quality of these resources has decreased. Alaska Natives no longer believe that these wild resources are the best and many are turning to alternative store-bought foods. Such a change in diet and activity may be contributing to a decline in traditional activities and a decline in general health. Contaminants are showing up in the animals, fish and waters that Alaska Natives use. Efforts need to be expanded to empower Alaska Native Tribes to collect and analyze local wild foods for various contaminants. In addition existing information on contaminants and pollution should be made readily available to Alaska residents. Armed with this type of information Alaska Native residents will be better prepared to make informed decisions on using wild foods and materials. PMID:11768422

  16. Phenology Monitoring in Alaska with GLOBE Data, AVHRR NDVI and the CLAVR Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, J.; Dubayah, R.; Sparrow, E.; Levine, E.

    2005-12-01

    Since 1999, GLOBE students have made over 75,000 phenology measurements at or near their schools and have reported annual dates for bud burst, green-up, leaf growth, and green-down for selected trees, shrubs, and grasses. Students in Alaska have collected nearly half the phenology data. This data set, largely untapped for scientific purposes, provides an exceptional means to validate satellite-derived phenology for Alaska. In this research we analyze the efficacy of phenology monitoring using maximum AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites, both 7 and 14 day, with the CLAVR (Clouds from AVHRR) cloud detection algorithm. Phenology metrics for Anchorage and Fairbanks were calculated from AVHRR. Metrics included start, end, and length of growing seasons for 2001 through 2004. Corresponding field measurements and observations made by GLOBE students in or near Anchorage and Fairbanks were used to validate the derived phenology metrics. Overall, the students' data showed that budburst occurred earlier in 2003 and 2004 while the derived AVHRR phenology metrics showed earlier budburst for 2002 and 2004. This research provides important lessons regarding how well maximum NDVI compositing of AVHRR data and the CLAVR algorithm perform in northern regions (latitudes 60 degrees and greater). These results are applicable to the future National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) monthly gridded NDVI product from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the AVHRR NDVI product successor.

  17. Search for Asteroid Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, W. J.; Close, L. M.; Menard, F.; Dumas, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Slater, D. C.

    2001-11-01

    We report on the recent progress of our comprehensive search for satellites of asteroids. In 1998, we began our survey using newly newly developed technologies in adaptive optics to explore the close environs of several hundred main-belt asteroids. Adaptive optics (AO) removes the blurring caused by the Earth's atmosphere and allows diffraction-limited imaging in the near-IR (J-,H-,K'-bands) at the world's largest telescopes. Angular resolutions as high as 0.04 arcsec are possible. We have employed the excellent facilities at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the W.M. Keck II telescope, and the new Gemini North 8m telescope. Each of these facilities provides unique capabilities and are each complementary to the other. So far we have discovered or recovered a half-dozen small moons or double asteroids by this AO-assisted direct-imaging technique. Our sample now exceeds 300 main-belt targets, and we have expanded the survey to include near-Earth and Trojan asteroids. Other groups are using AO, direct HST imaging, direct ground-based imaging, advanced lightcurve analysis, and radar techniques to further sample these populations, as well as the Kuiper Belt. Our results show that the frequency of binary asteroids (at least to our detection limits) is rather small in the main belt, possibly a few percent. Frequencies among other populations, such as the NEAs, are seen to be much higher. We also find that although there are similarities among the detected systems, there are also significant differences. Thus, it is likely that several different formation mechanisms will be required to explain the observed systems. All of the proposed mechanisms for formation involve collisions of one type or another (physical or gravitational). Study of these systems will provide significant insight to the collisional history and evolution of these asteroid populations. Further, the presence of a companion allows accurate determination of the density of the primary, and thus yields

  18. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  19. Training augmentation device for the Air Force satellite Control Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoates, Keith B.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1960's and into the early 1980's satellite operations and control were conducted by Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), now Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), out of the Satellite Control Facility at Onizuka AFB, CA. AFSC was responsible for acquiring satellite command and control systems and conducting routine satellite operations. The daily operations, consisting of satellite health and status contacts and station keeping activities, were performed for AFSC by a Mission Control Team (MCT) staffed by civilian contractors who were responsible for providing their own technically 'qualified' personnel as satellite operators. An MCT consists of five positions: mission planner, ground controller, planner analyst, orbit analyst, and ranger controller. Most of the training consisted of On-the-Job-Training (OJT) with junior personnel apprenticed to senior personnel until they could demonstrate job proficiency. With most of the satellite operators having 15 to 25 years of experience, there was minimal risk to the mission. In the mid 1980's Air Force Space Command (AFSPACOM) assumed operational responsibility for a newly established control node at Falcon AFB (FAFB) in CO. The satellites and ground system program offices (SPO's) are organized under AFSC's Space and Missiles Systems Center (SMC) to function as a systems engineering and acquisition agency for AFSPACECOM. The collection of the satellite control nodes, ground tracking stations, computer processing equipment, and connecting communications links is referred to as the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN).

  20. Estimation of gross primary production over burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, M.; Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.; Iwata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Black spruce forests, which are distributed widely in Alaska and Canada, have been reported to be sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the current climate. However, an increasing trend of wildfire occurrence, and its magnitude, in interior Alaska, may alter the future CO2 budget in regional scale. The goal of this study is to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) in burned area using the light-use efficiency model with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Accuracy of GPP estimation was improved by explicitly treating burned area with a new parameterization of light-use efficiency and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). To parameterize the model, we started a CO2flux observation at a burned black spruce site (65°07N, 147°26W) in interior Alaska in 2008. At this site, a severe wildfire occurred in late June 2004, and almost all vegetation were burned. The vegetation is recovering and saplings of deciduous tree are currently starting to dominate. In order to parameterize the light-use efficiency for burned area, we observed absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with the CO2flux. The obtained maximum light-use efficiency gradually increased over 2009-2011 with the vegetation recovery. In calculating spatial distribution of GPP with satellite data, we estimated PAR distribution using a model developed by Nishida (2006, SOLA). FPAR and the maximum light-use efficiency were estimated from the relationships with satellite NDVI data. A comparison with GPP calculated using MOD15, total GPP can be over estimated by 7% if the burned areas are not considered. This overestimation will lead to a significant error in regional GPP estimation in severe fire years.

  1. Birds and Wetlands of Alaska. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Alaska Sea Grant Report 88-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James G.; King, Mary Lou

    This curriculum guide is the fourth (Series V) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. Twelve units contain 45 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) bird lists and field guides; (2) definitions of a bird; (3) parts of a bird; (4) bird watching; (5) bird migration; (6) wetland…

  2. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  3. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  4. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  5. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  6. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  7. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  8. A photographic search for satellites of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, D. W.; Jackson, C.; Zytkow, A. N.; Irwin, M.; Webster, R.; Tremaine, S.

    1994-02-01

    We have searched for satellites of Neptune to a limiting magnitude of BJ approximately = 20.5 in a 3 x 3 deg square region centered on the planet. This region is large enough to contain all potential satellites orbiting within the Jacobi limit rJ = (MP/3 solar mass)1/3a, where MP and solar mass are the planetary and solar masses and a is the planet's semimajor axis; for Neptune rJ/a = 1.48 deg. The search used sky-limited IIIaJ plates taken at the UK Schmidt Telescope, digitized using the APM facility in Cambridge and analyzed independently in Cambridge and Toronto. Nereid was recovered easily but no new satellites were found.

  9. The 2013 Eruptions of Pavlof and Mount Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K.; Haney, M. M.; Fee, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Read, C.

    2013-12-01

    Pavlof Volcano and Mount Veniaminof on the Alaska Peninsula erupted during the summer of 2013 and were monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) using seismic data, satellite and web camera images, a regional infrasound array and observer reports. An overview of the work of the entire AVO staff is presented here. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano began on May 13 after a brief and subtle period of precursory seismicity. Two volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at depths of 6-8 km on April 24 preceded the onset of the eruption by 3 weeks. Given the low background seismicity at Pavlof, the VTs were likely linked to the ascent of magma. The onset of the eruption was marked by subtle pulsating tremor that coincided with elevated surface temperatures in satellite images. Activity during May and June was characterized by lava fountaining and effusion from a vent near the summit. Seismicity consisted of fluctuating tremor and numerous explosions that were detected on an infrasound array (450 km NE) and as ground-coupled airwaves at local and distant seismic stations (up to 650 km). Emissions of ash and sulfur dioxide were observed in satellite data extending as far as 300 km downwind at altitudes of 5-7 km above sea level. Ash collected in Sand Point (90 km E) were well sorted, 60-150 micron diameter juvenile glass shards, many of which had fluidal forms. Automated objective ash cloud detection and cloud height retrievals from the NOAA volcanic cloud alerting system were used to evaluate the hazard to aviation. A brief reconnaissance of Pavlof in July found that lava flows on the NW flank consist of rubbly, clast rich, 'a'a flows composed of angular blocks of agglutinate and rheomorphic lava. There are at least three overlapping flows, the longest of which extends about 5 km from the vent. Eruptive activity continued through early July, and has since paused or stopped. Historical eruptions of Mount Veniaminof volcano have been from an intracaldera cone within a 10

  10. The Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1921, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    The work of the Bureau of Education for the natives of Alaska includes the Alaska school service, the Alaska medical service, and the Alaska reindeer service, with a field force in Alaska, in 1920, of 6 superintendents, 133 teachers, 9 physicians, and 13 nurses. This bulletin provides details on the following topics: (1) Extent of territory; (2)…

  11. Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the National Science Foundation funded the Alaska Rural System Initiative (RSI), a joint effort of the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Among its goals, the RSI aims to increase the presence of Alaska Native knowledge and perspectives in all areas of science and education in rural Alaska, develop…

  12. Esrange activities: Sounding rockets, balloons and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helger, A.

    1980-06-01

    The range facilities are described in detail for the prospective user, including instrumentation launch capabilities, support facilities, and costs. High performance sounding rockets such as Aries and Nike BB can now, thanks to guidance systems, be launched above 500 km allowing the exploration of higher regions and longer observation time. Microgravity experiments using sounding rockets are successfully carried out from the range. Land recovery is necessary in this case. Since 1978 Esrange has been operating a Landsat remote sensing satellite receiving station as part of ESA's ground station network, Earthnet. Additional installations for reception and processing of SPOT and Landsat (D) data are planned. A satellite tracking and control station is envisaged in the near future.

  13. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  14. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous

  15. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  16. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry in developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, 'bent pipe' transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km.

  17. Control of Bird Vetch in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird vetch is a perennial Eurasian plant which, unlike many exotic weed species, can invade low fertility areas that have not been disturbed. It also is found in pastures, woodland, and tall forb communities. Bird vetch is expanding along Alaska roadsides, in urbanized areas, and in low density aspe...

  18. 76 FR 54787 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... efforts have been expended to locate, parties who fail or refuse to sign their return receipt, and parties who receive a copy of the decision by regular mail which is not certified, return receipt requested... seq.). The lands are in the vicinity of Point Hope, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River...

  19. 76 FR 45604 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... sign their return receipt, and parties who receive a copy of the decision by regular mail which is not certified, return receipt requested, shall have until August 29, 2011 to file an appeal. 2. Parties... Sheldon Point, Alaska, and contain 20.55 acres. Notice of the decision will also be published four...

  20. 76 FR 16805 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... expended to locate, parties who fail or refuse to sign their return receipt, and parties who receive a copy of the decision by regular mail which is not certified, return receipt requested, shall have until... Interest Lands Conservation Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Clarks Point, Alaska, and are located...