Science.gov

Sample records for alaska shallow-water species

  1. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... under Sec. 679.21(d)(7)(i) on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54290, September 7, 2010). NMFS has determined... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to...

  2. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... FR 55726, September 7, 2011). As of September 12, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately 149... comprise the shallow-water species fishery are pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead...

  3. 76 FR 39794 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), and as posted as the Catcher/Processor... species fishery for the sideboard limit are shallow-water flatfish and flathead sole. After the...

  4. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), and as posted as the Catcher/Processor... species fishery for the sideboard limit are shallow-water flatfish and flathead sole. After the...

  5. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2010, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, and ``other...

  6. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 11, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2011, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, and ``other...

  7. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 1... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, squids,...

  8. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2012, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, squids,...

  9. Shallow-water habitat use by Bering Sea flatfishes along the central Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Flatfishes support a number of important fisheries in Alaskan waters and represent major pathways of energy flow through the ecosystem. Despite their economic and ecological importance, little is known about the use of habitat by juvenile flatfishes in the eastern Bering Sea. This study describes the habitat characteristics of juvenile flatfishes in coastal waters along the Alaska Peninsula and within the Port Moller-Herendeen Bay system, the largest marine embayment in the southern Bering Sea. The two most abundant species, northern rock sole and yellowfin sole, differed slightly in habitat use with the latter occupying slightly muddier substrates. Both were more common along the open coastline than they were within the bay, whereas juvenile Alaska plaice were more abundant within the bay than along the coast and used shallow waters with muddy, high organic content sediments. Juvenile Pacific halibut showed the greatest shift in distribution between age classes: age-0 fish were found in deeper waters (~ 30 m) along the coast, whereas older juveniles were found in the warmer, shallow waters within the bay, possibly due to increased thermal opportunities for growth in this temperature-sensitive species. Three other species, starry flounder, flathead sole, and arrowtooth flounder, were also present, but at much lower densities. In addition, the habitat use patterns of spring-spawning flatfishes (northern rock sole, Pacific halibut, and Alaska plaice) in this region appear to be strongly influenced by oceanographic processes that influence delivery of larvae to coastal habitats. Overall, use of the coastal embayment habitats appears to be less important to juvenile flatfishes in the Bering Sea than in the Gulf of Alaska.

  10. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    PubMed

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images. PMID:25781763

  11. Studies of ambient noise in shallow water environments off Mexico and Alaska: characteristics, metrics and time-synchronization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Melania

    Sound in the ocean originates from multiple mechanisms, both natural and anthropogenic. Collectively, underwater ambient noise accumulates valuable information about both its sources and the oceanic environment that propagates this noise. Characterizing the features of ambient noise source mechanisms is challenging, but essential, for properly describing an acoustic environment. Disturbances to a local acoustic environment may affect many aquatic species that have adapted to be heavily dependent on this particular sense for survival functions. In the case of marine mammals, which are federally protected, demand exists for understanding such potential impacts, which drives important scientific efforts that utilize passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tools to inform regulatory decisions. This dissertation presents two independent studies that use PAM data to investigate the characteristics of source mechanisms that dominate ambient noise in two diverse shallow water environments. The study in Chapter 2 directly addresses the concern of how anthropogenic activities can degrade the effectiveness of PAM. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, an environment where ambient noise is normally dominated by natural causes, seismic surveys create impulsive sounds to map the composition of the bottom. By inspecting single-sensor PAM data, the spectral characteristics of seismic survey airgun reverberation are measured, and their contribution to the overall ambient noise is quantified. This work is relevant to multiple ongoing mitigation protocols that rely on PAM to acoustically detect marine mammal presence during industrial operations. Meanwhile, Chapter 3 demonstrates that by analyzing data from multiple PAM sensors, features embedded in both directional and omnidirectional ambient noise can be used to develop new time-synchronization processing techniques for aligning autonomous elements of an acoustic array, a tool commonly used in PAM for detecting and tracking marine mammals. Using

  12. Taxonomic review of tropical western Atlantic shallow water Drilliidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea) including descriptions of 100 new species.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Phillip J Jr

    2016-01-01

    A review of the literature and examination of over 3,200 specimens of shallow water (<200 m) tropical western Atlantic (TWA) Drilliidae Olson, 1964 in museum and private collections has resulted in the recognition of numerous previously undescribed species, 100 of which are proposed here for the first time. A total of 65 names were found in the literature. Of these, 48 are considered valid, 16 synonyms, and one nomen dubium. In addition, characteristics that distinguish each genus currently in use for TWA shallow water species have indicated the need for reassignment (new combinations within Drilliidae) of 15 species. Some nomenclatural actions have come about from the literature review and include one taxon placed in junior synonymy (under an older name recently re-discovered) and one new name for a junior homonym. Two neotypes, five lectotype designations, and one new name are also proposed. Altogether, nomenclatural actions on 17% of valid previously described taxa are proposed. The 100 proposed names are placed in 12 available and one new genus: Agladrillia Woodring, 1928 (2), Bellaspira Conrad, 1868 (7), Calliclava McLean, 1971 (3), Cerodrillia Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 (11), Clathrodrillia Dall, 1918 (6), Decoradrillia, new genus (4), Douglassia Bartsch, 1934 (4), Fenimorea Bartsch, 1934 (15), Leptadrillia Woodring, 1928 (12), Lissodrillia Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 (8), Neodrillia Bartsch, 1943 (2), Splendrillia Hedley, 1922 (13), and Syntomodrillia Woodring, 1928 (13). These are the first reports of Calliclava in the western Atlantic, previously known only from the eastern Pacific. The new genus, Decoradrillia, is proposed to hold four new species and one existing that share a unique shell microsculpture and other morphological traits. One genus, Drillia Gray, 1838, is not currently believed to have TWA representatives. Three genera comprised exclusively of bathyal species are not treated in this work: Clavus Monfort, 1810 (=Eldridgea Bartsch, 1934), Globidrillia

  13. Physical factors affecting the abundance and species richness of fishes in the shallow waters of the southern Bothnian Sea (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between the composition of the fish assemblages and the abiotic environment in seven shallow areas within the same geographical range in the southern Bothnian Sea were studied in May, July, September and November 1982. Eighteen species were found in the areas and the major species were Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The main purpose of the study was to examine the possible effects of exposure, organic contents in sediments and habitat heterogeneity on species richness and abundance of the assemblages. There was a negative correlation between the organic contents of the sediment and exposure. There were no significant correlations between exposure, organic contents, size of the areas and species numbers but habitat heterogeneity was positively correlated with species number. There were no correlations between fish abundance and heterogeneity of the areas. Negative correlations occurred between the exposure of the areas and fish abundance. The amounts of the pooled benthic fauna were negatively correlated to the exposure. The species/area hypothesis finds no support in the results, because there was no correlation between habitat heterogeneity of an area and its size. The effective fetch combined with the heterogeneity measurement of the areas seemed to be useful indicators of the species composition and fish abundance. Habitat heterogeneity and exposure were the most important structuring factors of these shallow water fish assemblages during the ice-free period and within the local geographical range. The assemblages consist of a mixture of species with marine or limnic origin and they have probably not evolved in the Bothnian Sea or together. They are most likely regulated by their physiological plasticity and not by interactions with other species.

  14. Nine New Species of Bugula Oken (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) in Brazilian Shallow Waters

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Leandro M.; Winston, Judith E.; Fehlauer-Ale, Karin H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bugula is a speciose genus of marine bryozoans, represented by both endemic and cosmopolitan species distributed in tropical and temperate waters and important to marine biologists because of the occurrence of many species in harbor and fouling communities, therefore as potential invaders. The southeastern Brazilian coast in the southern Atlantic hosts the highest known diversity of the genus, a status intimately associated with the intensity of collecting efforts. Methodology Morphological data based on the examination of living specimens, scanning electron and light microscopic images, and morphometric analyses were used to assess the diversity of Bugula along the coastal areas of southern, northeastern, and southeastern Brazil. In this study, morphological species boundaries were based mainly on avicularian characters. For two morphologically very similar species, boundaries are partially supported by 16 S rDNA molecular data. Results Nine species are newly described from Brazil, as follows: Bugula bowiei n. sp. ( = Bugula turrita sensu Marcus, 1937) from the southern, northeastern, and southeastern coasts; Bugula foliolata n. sp. ( = Bugula flabellata sensu Marcus, 1938), Bugula guara n. sp., Bugula biota n. sp. and Bugula ingens n. sp from the southeastern coast; Bugula gnoma n. sp. and Bugula alba n. sp. from the northeastern coast; Bugula rochae n. sp. ( = Bugula uniserialis sensu Marcus, 1937) from the southern coast; and Bugula migottoi n. sp., from the southeastern and southern coasts. Conclusion The results contribute to the morphological characterization and the knowledge of the species richness of the genus in the southwestern Atlantic (i.e., Brazil), through the description of new species in poorly sampled areas and also on the southeastern coast of that country. Additionally, the taxonomic status of the Brazilian specimens attributed to B. flabellata, B. turrita and B. uniserialis are clarified by detailed studies on zooidal

  15. Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships between Atlanto-Mediterranean shallow-water and deep-sea coral associated Hexadella species (Porifera, Ianthellidae).

    PubMed

    Reveillaud, Julie; Remerie, Thomas; van Soest, Rob; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Cárdenas, Paco; Derycke, Sofie; Xavier, Joana R; Rigaux, Annelien; Vanreusel, Ann

    2010-07-01

    Coral reefs constitute the most diverse ecosystem of the marine realm and an increasing number of studies are focusing on coral species boundaries, distribution, and on processes that control species ranges. However, less attention has been paid to coral associated species. Deep-sea sponges dominate cold-water coral ecosystems, but virtually nothing is known about their molecular diversity. Moreover, species boundaries based on morphology may sometimes be inadequate, since sponges have few diagnostic characters. In this study, we investigated the molecular diversity within the genus Hexadella (Porifera, Demospongiae, Verongida, Ianthellidae) from the European shallow-water environment to the deep-sea coral ecosystems. Three molecular markers were used: one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear gene fragments (28S rDNA and the ATPS intron). Phylogenetic analyses revealed deeply divergent deep-sea clades congruent across the mitochondrial and nuclear markers. One clade contained specimens from the Irish, the Scottish, and the Norwegian margins and the Greenland Sea (Hexadella dedritifera) while another clade contained specimens from the Ionian Sea, the Bay of Biscay, and the Irish margin (H. cf. dedritifera). Moreover, these deeply divergent deep-sea clades showed a wide distribution suggesting a connection between the reefs. The results also point to the existence of a new deep-sea species (Hexadella sp.) in the Mediterranean Sea and of a cryptic shallow-water species (Hexadella cf. pruvoti) in the Gorringe Bank. In contrast, low genetic differentiation between H. cf. dedritifera and H. pruvoti from the Mediterranean Sea was observed. All Hexadella racovitzai specimens from the Mediterranean Sea (shallow and deep) to the Atlantic formed a monophyletic group. PMID:20382244

  16. Application of DNA barcoding in biodiversity studies of shallow-water octocorals: molecular proxies agree with morphological estimates of species richness in Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, C. S.; Brown, A. S.; Brayton, C.; Hunt, C. B.; van Ofwegen, L. P.

    2014-06-01

    The application of DNA barcoding to anthozoan cnidarians has been hindered by their slow rates of mitochondrial gene evolution and the failure to identify alternative molecular markers that distinguish species reliably. Among octocorals, however, multilocus barcodes can distinguish up to 70 % of morphospecies, thereby facilitating the identification of species that are ecologically important but still very poorly known taxonomically. We tested the ability of these imperfect DNA barcodes to estimate species richness in a biodiversity survey of the shallow-water octocoral fauna of Palau using multilocus ( COI, mtMutS, 28S rDNA) sequences obtained from 305 specimens representing 38 genera of octocorals. Numbers and identities of species were estimated independently (1) by a taxonomic expert using morphological criteria and (2) by assigning sequences to molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) using predefined genetic distance thresholds. Estimated numbers of MOTUs ranged from 73 to 128 depending on the barcode and distance threshold applied, bracketing the estimated number of 118 morphospecies. Concordance between morphospecies identifications and MOTUs ranged from 71 to 75 % and differed little among barcodes. For the speciose and ecologically dominant genus Sinularia, however, we were able to identify 95 % of specimens correctly simply by comparing mtMutS sequences and in situ photographs of colonies to an existing vouchered database. Because we lack a clear understanding of species boundaries in most of these taxa, numbers of morphospecies and MOTUs are both estimates of the true species diversity, and we cannot currently determine which is more accurate. Our results suggest, however, that the two methods provide comparable estimates of species richness for shallow-water Indo-Pacific octocorals. Use of molecular barcodes in biodiversity surveys will facilitate comparisons of species richness and composition among localities and over time, data that do not

  17. A new species of Monocheres Stock (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Asterocheridae) from shallow waters off Florida, USA: an unexpected discovery

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rare asterocherid copepod genus Monocheres, ectosymbionts of corals and sponges, contains only two species, one from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and the other one from Brazil (western Atlantic). From the analysis of the digestive caecum contents of the benthic hesionid polychaete Hesione picta Müller, 1858, an adult female of an undescribed species of Monocheres was unexpectedly recovered; it is the third species of this rare asterocherid genus. The new species, Monocheres sergioi sp. n., has the distinctive reduction of the fifth leg as a process with a single seta. It differs from its two other congeners by several characters including the presence of an inner basipodal spine, the armature details of the third exopodal segment of leg 1, the shape of the cephalosome and pedigerous somites 3 and 4, and the ornamentation of the postero-lateral corners of the genital double-somite. The main synapomorphies include the presence of spinules along the posterior margin of the first leg coxal sclerite and the reduced, spiniform coxal seta on leg 4. The biology and feeding habits of the polychaete containing this specimen suggests that the copepod was ingested as an ectosymbiont from sponges or coral but it is also possible that it was consumed from an ophiurid echinoderm. This finding allows an expansion of the genus geographical distribution in the northwestern Atlantic. A key to the species of Monocheres is also provided. PMID:27551233

  18. A new species of Monocheres Stock (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Asterocheridae) from shallow waters off Florida, USA: an unexpected discovery.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The rare asterocherid copepod genus Monocheres, ectosymbionts of corals and sponges, contains only two species, one from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and the other one from Brazil (western Atlantic). From the analysis of the digestive caecum contents of the benthic hesionid polychaete Hesione picta Müller, 1858, an adult female of an undescribed species of Monocheres was unexpectedly recovered; it is the third species of this rare asterocherid genus. The new species, Monocheres sergioi sp. n., has the distinctive reduction of the fifth leg as a process with a single seta. It differs from its two other congeners by several characters including the presence of an inner basipodal spine, the armature details of the third exopodal segment of leg 1, the shape of the cephalosome and pedigerous somites 3 and 4, and the ornamentation of the postero-lateral corners of the genital double-somite. The main synapomorphies include the presence of spinules along the posterior margin of the first leg coxal sclerite and the reduced, spiniform coxal seta on leg 4. The biology and feeding habits of the polychaete containing this specimen suggests that the copepod was ingested as an ectosymbiont from sponges or coral but it is also possible that it was consumed from an ophiurid echinoderm. This finding allows an expansion of the genus geographical distribution in the northwestern Atlantic. A key to the species of Monocheres is also provided. PMID:27551233

  19. Shallow water marine gammaridean amphipods of Pulau Tioman, Malaysia, with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Azman, B.A.R.; Othman, B.H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Eleven taxa including one new species of gammaridean amphipods are reported from the waters of Pulau Tioman. The presence of Tethygeneia sunda sp. n. represents the first record of the genus from the South China Sea. Additional material of Ampelisca brevicornis (Costa, 1853); Cymadusa vadosa Imbach, 1967; Paradexamine setigera Hirayama, 1984; Ericthonius pugnax (Dana, 1853); Leucothoe furina (Savigny, 1816); Microlysias xenokeras (Stebbing, 1918); Monoculodes muwoni Jo, 1990 are identified from the South China Sea, supporting previous records by Lowry (2000), Huang (1994), Imbach (1967), Margulis (1968) and Nagata (1959). Three additional species, Gitanopsis pusilla K.H. Barnard, 1916, Liljeborgia japonica Nagata, 1965b and Latigammaropsis atlantica (Stebbing, 1888), whilst previously reported from the neighbouring waters, comprise new records for the South China Sea. PMID:24146563

  20. Visual optics and ecomorphology of the growing shark eye: a comparison between deep and shallow water species.

    PubMed

    Litherland, Lenore; Collin, Shaun P; Fritsches, Kerstin A

    2009-11-01

    Elasmobranch fishes utilise their vision as an important source of sensory information, and a range of visual adaptations have been shown to reflect the ecological diversity of this vertebrate group. This study investigates the hypotheses that visual optics can predict differences in habitat and behaviour and that visual optics change with ontogenetic growth of the eye to maintain optical performance. The study examines eye structure, pupillary movement, transmission properties of the ocular media, focal properties of the lens, tapetum structure and variations in optical performance with ontogenetic growth in two elasmobranch species: the carcharhinid sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, inhabiting nearshore coastal waters, and the squalid shortspine spurdog, Squalus mitsukurii, inhabiting deeper waters of the continental shelf and slope. The optical properties appear to be well tuned for the visual needs of each species. Eyes continue to grow throughout life, resulting in an ontogenetic shift in the focal ratio of the eye. The eyes of C. plumbeus are optimised for vision under variable light conditions, which change during development as the animal probes new light environments in its search for food and mates. By contrast, the eyes of S. mitsukurii are specifically adapted to enhance retinal illumination within a dim light environment, and the detection of bioluminescent prey may be optimised with the use of lenticular short-wavelength-absorbing filters. Our findings suggest that the light environment strongly influences optical features in this class of vertebrates and that optical properties of the eye may be useful predictors of habitat and behaviour for lesser-known species of this vertebrate group. PMID:19837900

  1. Accelerated shallow water modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    ln this talk we will describe our ongoing developments in accelerated numerical methods for modeling tsunamis, and oceanic fluid flows using two dimensional shallow water model and/or three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes model discretized with high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. High order discontinuous Galerkin methods can be computationally demanding, requiring extensive computational time to simulate real time events on traditional CPU architectures. However, recent advances in computing architectures and hardware aware algorithms make it possible to reduce simulation time and provide accurate predictions in a timely manner. Hence we tailor these algorithms to take advantage of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture that is seen in modern many core compute devices such as GPUs. We will discuss our unified and extensive many-core programming library OCCA that alleviates the need to completely re-design the solvers to keep up with constantly evolving parallel programming models and hardware architectures. We will present performance results for the flow simulations demonstrating performance leveraging multiple different multi-threading APIs on GPU and CPU targets.

  2. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through..., octopuses, and sculpins. This prohibition does not apply to fishing for pollock by vessels using...

  3. 76 FR 59064 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... under Sec. 679.21(d)(7)(i) on September 3, 2011 (76 FR 55726, September 7, 2011) and subsequent reopener from September 14, 2011 to September 16, 2011 (76 FR 57679, September 16, 2011). As of September 19... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file...

  4. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., January 20, 2012, through... fishery. The Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, NOAA (AA), finds good cause to waive the requirement.... The AA also finds good cause to waive the 30-day delay in the effective date of this action under 5...

  5. 77 FR 12213 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Amendment 80...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... tons as established by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR... information recently obtained from the fishery. The Acting Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, NOAA (AA... because the most recent, relevant data only became available as of February 23, 2012. The AA also...

  6. Shallow-water conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The derivation of basic conservation laws in the shallow-water theory from the multidimensional integral laws of conservation of mass and total momentum describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above a horizontal bottom is proposed. The restrictions on flow parameters arising in this case have the integral form and are much weaker in comparison with the requirement of flow potentiality and the condition of long-wavelength approximation. The last fact substantiates the use of the shallow-water model for the mathematical modeling of a much wider class of wave flows, the parameters of which are not related directly to the restrictions of the long-wavelength approximation.

  7. Sabellaria jeramae, a new species (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) from the shallow waters of Malaysia, with a note on the ecological traits of reefs.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Eijiroh; Matsuo, Kanako; Capa, Maria; Tomioka, Shinri; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Kupriyanova, Elena K; Polgar, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Sabellaria Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) is described from the intertidal zone of Jeram, Selangor, Malaysia. Sabellaria jeramae n. sp. is a gregarious species that constructs large reefs several hundreds of meters long and 50-200 m wide. The new species is distinguished from other congeners by the character combination of the presence of a single kind of middle paleae with conspicuous morphology, and outer paleae with long frayed teeth. Morphological features of the species are described and compared to those of all congeneric species. We also compare the reef structure and geographical distribution of the new species to those of the members of the family Sabellariidae around the world, demonstrating the ecological traits of the reefs. PMID:26701452

  8. Surface Towed CSEM Systems for Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J.; Constable, S.; Kannberg, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a low-power, surface towed electric dipole-dipole system suitable for mapping seafloor geology in shallow water and deployable from small boats. The transmitter is capable of up to 50 amps output using 12 VDC from a 110/240 VAC power supply, and can generate an arbitrary GPS stabilized ternary waveform. Transmitter antennas are typically 50 to 100 m long. Receivers are built around the standard Scripps seafloor electrode, amplifier, and logging systems but housed in floating PVC cases and equipped with GPS timing and positioning, pitch/roll/heading sensors, and accelerometers. Receiver dipoles are 1.5 m long rigid booms held 1 m below the surface. As with the Scripps deep-towed Vulcan system, rigid antennas are used to avoid noise associated with flexible antennas moving across Earth's magnetic field. The tow cable is a simple floating rope up to 1000 m long. Water depth and conductivity are sampled continuously in order to provide constraints for apparent resistivity calculations and inversion, and moored seafloor recorders can be used to extend transmitter/receiver offsets. The entire system can be air freighted and transported in one utility vehicle. We will present results from a study to map permafrost in shallow water off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.

  9. Multigrid shallow water equations on an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffress, Stephen; Duben, Peter; Palmer, Tim

    2015-04-01

    A novel computing technology for multigrid shallow water equations is investigated. As power consumption begins to constrain traditional supercomputing advances, weather and climate simulators are exploring alternative technologies that achieve efficiency gains through massively parallel and low power architectures. In recent years FPGA implementations of reduced complexity atmospheric models have shown accelerated speeds and reduced power consumption compared to multi-core CPU integrations. We continue this line of research by designing an FPGA dataflow engine for a mulitgrid version of the 2D shallow water equations. The multigrid algorithm couples grids of variable resolution to improve accuracy. We show that a significant reduction of precision in the floating point representation of the fine grid variables allows greater parallelism and thus improved overall peformance while maintaining accurate integrations. Preliminary designs have been constructed by software emulation. Results of the hardware implementation will be presented at the conference.

  10. Wave turbulence in shallow water models.

    PubMed

    Clark di Leoni, P; Cobelli, P J; Mininni, P D

    2014-06-01

    We study wave turbulence in shallow water flows in numerical simulations using two different approximations: the shallow water model and the Boussinesq model with weak dispersion. The equations for both models were solved using periodic grids with up to 2048{2} points. In all simulations, the Froude number varies between 0.015 and 0.05, while the Reynolds number and level of dispersion are varied in a broader range to span different regimes. In all cases, most of the energy in the system remains in the waves, even after integrating the system for very long times. For shallow flows, nonlinear waves are nondispersive and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with ∼k{-2} scaling. For deeper (Boussinesq) flows, the nonlinear dispersion relation as directly measured from the wave and frequency spectrum (calculated independently) shows signatures of dispersion, and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with predictions of weak turbulence theory, ∼k{-4/3}. In this latter case, the nonlinear dispersion relation differs from the linear one and has two branches, which we explain with a simple qualitative argument. Finally, we study probability density functions of the surface height and find that in all cases the distributions are asymmetric. The probability density function can be approximated by a skewed normal distribution as well as by a Tayfun distribution. PMID:25019897

  11. Non-classical shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Carina M.; Howison, S. D.; Ockendon, H.; Ockendon, J. R.

    2008-02-01

    This paper deals with violent discontinuities in shallow water flows with large Froude number F. On a horizontal base, the paradigm problem is that of the impact of two fluid layers in situations where the flow can be modelled as two smooth regions joined by a singularity in the flow field. Within the framework of shallow water theory, we show that, over a certain time-scale, this discontinuity may be described by a delta shock, which is a weak solution of the underlying conservation laws in which the depth and mass and momentum fluxes have both delta function and step function components. We also make some conjectures about how this model evolves from the traditional model for jet impacts in which a spout is emitted. For flows on a sloping base, we show that for flow with an aspect ratio of O(F-2) on a base with an O(1) or larger slope, the governing equations admit a new type of discontinuous solution that is also modelled as a delta shock. The physical manifestation of this discontinuity is a small tube' of fluid bounding the flow. The delta-shock conditions for this flow are derived and solved for a point source on an inclined plane. This latter delta-shock framework also sheds light on the evolution of the layer impact on a horizontal base

  12. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  13. NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER SITES IN TWO RHODE ISLAND COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water sites in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...

  14. Shallow-water models for gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Patrick James

    Gravity currents, produced by the instantaneous release of a finite volume of dense fluid beneath a layer of lighter fluid and overlying a spatially-varying rigid bottom boundary, are modelled as discontinuous solutions to the systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws arising from a shallow-water model. Equations of motion for two stably-stratified fluids of constant density are derived for the incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations for small aspect ratio flow in an Eulerian fluid, and the equations are nondimensionalized using a gravity current scaling so that they may be stated as a first order system of partial differential equations. The model equations neglect the effects of turbulence, entrainment, density stratification, and viscosity, but include the Coriolis force, variable topography, and bottom friction. Special cases are stated for one-layer three-dimensional axisymmetric flow, and in the two-dimensional case for flow with a free surface, rigid lid, thin upper or lower layer, or small density differences. These equations are then stated as a nonlinear system of conservation laws. The model equations are classified as hyperbolic, with defined regions of hyperbolicity stated where possible. When in conservation form, discontinuous solutions are considered, and the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions derived for solutions which are trivial on one side of the shock. The initial release problem is shown to be well-posed by the method of localization. By approximating a gravity current front as a vertical discontinuity, the initial release problem is solved numerically by use of a relaxation method designed for systems of hyperbolic conservation laws and adapted to include boundary conditions and forcing terms. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by several diagrams which show the effects of bottom slope and friction in the two-dimensional case, and of bottom slope and rotation in the three-dimensional one. Since the relaxation method is

  15. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic characters are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.

  16. Operation of linear and ring arrays in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukovskaya, V. G.; Petukhov, Yu. V.; Khil'ko, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    With the aim of unambiguously determining the direction to a tonal emission source, comparative analysis of the directed properties of sufficiently extended linear and ring horizontal arrays in shallow water was performed. An isovelocity waveguide with a homogeneous fluid bottom was used as the shallow water model, in which a multimode regime of acoustic signal propagation was achieved.

  17. Polarization lidar for shallow water depth measurement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Steven; Thayer, Jeffrey P; Hayman, Matthew

    2010-12-20

    A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532 nm and using a single photomultiplier tube is employed for applications of shallow water depth measurement. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction detection schemes to determine depth. The minimum resolvable water depth is no longer dictated by the system's laser or detector pulse width and can achieve better than 1 order of magnitude improvement over current water depth determination techniques. In laboratory tests, an Nd:YAG microchip laser coupled with polarization optics, a photomultiplier tube, a constant fraction discriminator, and a time-to-digital converter are used to target various water depths with an ice floor to simulate a glacial meltpond. Measurement of 1 cm water depths with an uncertainty of ±3 mm are demonstrated using the technique. This novel approach enables new approaches to designing laser bathymetry systems for shallow depth determination from remote platforms while not compromising deep water depth measurement. PMID:21173834

  18. Detector analysis for shallow water active sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Thomas J.; Phillips, Michael E.

    2002-11-01

    SPAWAR Systems Center-San Diego, in concert with the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has designed and built a proof-of-concept broadband biomimetic sonar. This proof-of-concept sonar emulates a dolphin biosonar system; emitted broadband signals approximate the frequency and time domain characteristics of signals produced by echolocating dolphins, the receive system is spatially modeled after the binaural geometry of the dolphin, and signal processing algorithms incorporate sequential integration of aspect varying returns. As with any sonar, object detection in shallow water while maintaining an acceptable false alarm rate is an important problem. A comprehensive parametric analysis of detection algorithms is presented, focusing primarily on two detector strategies: a matched filter and a spectral detector. The spectral detector compares the ratio of in-band to out-of-band power, and thus functions something like a phase-incoherent matched filter. This computationally efficient detector is shown to perform well with high proportional bandwidth signals. The detector (either matched filter or spectral) is coupled with an alpha-beta tracker which maintains a running noise estimate and calculates signal excess above the estimated noise level which is compared to a fixed threshold.

  19. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  20. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  1. Polarization of light in shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilerson, Alexander; Ibrahim, Amir; Stepinski, Jan; Ahmed, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Measurements of the upwelling polarized radiance in relatively shallow waters of varying depths and benthic conditions are compared to simulationsrevealing the depolarizing nature of the seafloor. Significant correlations between simulations and measurements are attained when the appropriate unpolarized, Lambertian bottoms are included in the radiative transfer model. The bottoms used in this study produce realistic upwelling radiance distributions as well as ranges of the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) that peak between 10 and 30%. This study specifically finds that polarization in upwelling radiance is best preserved at long wavelengths in clear waters and also at short wavelengths in phytoplankton- and CDOM-rich waters. These results can thus facilitate the detection of benthic materials as well as future studies of camouflage by benthic biota.The DoLPwas found to be highly sensitive to benthic reflectance, but the angle of polarization (AoLP), which quantifies the orientation of polarization, is independent of it. The AoLP could therefore be used to communicate and sense direction underwater.

  2. Multiple origins of deep-sea Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda) from shallow waters revealed by molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Mayer, Christoph; Malyutina, Marina; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The Asellota are a highly variable group of Isopoda with many species in freshwater and marine shallow-water environments. However, in the deep sea, they show their most impressive radiation with a broad range of astonishing morphological adaptations and bizarre body forms. Nevertheless, the evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea Asellota are poorly known because of difficulties in scoring morphological characters. In this study, the molecular phylogeny of the Asellota is evaluated for 15 marine shallow-water species and 101 deep-sea species, using complete 18S and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences. Our molecular data support the monophyly of most deep-sea families and give evidence for a multiple colonization of the deep sea by at least four major lineages of asellote isopods. According to our molecular data, one of these lineages indicates an impressive radiation in the deep sea. Furthermore, the present study rejects the monophyly of the family Janiridae, a group of plesiomorphic shallow-water Asellota, and several shallow-water and deep-sea genera (Acanthaspidia, Ianthopsis, Haploniscus, Echinozone, Eurycope, Munnopsurus and Syneurycope). PMID:19033145

  3. Combined effects of climate change and bank stabilization on shallow water habitats of chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; McClure, Michelle M; Sheer, Mindi B; Munn, Nancy L

    2013-12-01

    Significant challenges remain in the ability to estimate habitat change under the combined effects of natural variability, climate change, and human activity. We examined anticipated effects on shallow water over low-sloped beaches to these combined effects in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, an area highly altered by development. A proposal to stabilize some shoreline with large rocks (riprap) would alter shallow water areas, an important habitat for threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and would be subject to U.S. Endangered Species Act-mandated oversight. In the mainstem, subyearling Chinook salmon appear to preferentially occupy these areas, which fluctuate with river stages. We estimated effects with a geospatial model and projections of future river flows. Recent (1999-2009) median river stages during peak subyearling occupancy (April-June) maximized beach shallow water area in the lower mainstem. Upstream shallow water area was maximized at lower river stages than have occurred recently. Higher river stages in April-June, resulting from increased flows predicted for the 2080s, decreased beach shallow water area 17-32%. On the basis of projected 2080s flows, more than 15% of beach shallow water area was displaced by the riprap. Beach shallow water area lost to riprap represented up to 1.6% of the total from the mouth to 12.9 km upstream. Reductions in shallow water area could restrict salmon feeding, resting, and refuge from predators and potentially reduce opportunities for the expression of the full range of life-history strategies. Although climate change analyses provided useful information, detailed analyses are prohibitive at the project scale for the multitude of small projects reviewed annually. The benefits of our approach to resource managers include a wider geographic context for reviewing similar small projects in concert with climate change, an approach to analyze cumulative effects of similar actions, and estimation of the

  4. A multilayer shallow water system for polydisperse sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Koné, E. H.; Morales de Luna, T.; Bürger, R.

    2013-04-01

    This work considers the flow of a fluid containing one disperse substance consisting of small particles that belong to different species differing in size and density. The flow is modelled by combining a multilayer shallow water approach with a polydisperse sedimentation process. This technique allows one to keep information on the vertical distribution of the solid particles in the mixture, and thereby to model the segregation of the particle species from each other, and from the fluid, taking place in the vertical direction of the gravity body force only. This polydisperse sedimentation process is described by the well-known Masliyah-Lockett-Bassoon (MLB) velocity functions. The resulting multilayer sedimentation-flow model can be written as a hyperbolic system with nonconservative products. The definitions of the nonconservative products are related to the hydrostatic pressure and to the mass and momentum hydrodynamic transfer terms between the layers. For the numerical discretization a strategy of two steps is proposed, where the first one is also divided into two parts. In the first step, instead of approximating the complete model, we approximate a reduced model with a smaller number of unknowns. Then, taking advantage of the fact that the concentrations are passive scalars in the system, we approximate the concentrations of the different species by an upwind scheme related to the numerical flux of the total concentration. In the second step, the effect of the transference terms defined in terms of the MLB model is introduced. These transfer terms are approximated by using a numerical flux function used to discretize the 1D vertical polydisperse model, see Bürger et al. [ R. Bürger, A. García, K.H. Karlsen, J.D. Towers, A family of numerical schemes for kinematic flows with discontinuous flux, J. Eng. Math. 60 (2008) 387-425]. Finally, some numerical examples are presented. Numerical results suggest that the multilayer shallow water model could be adequate

  5. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  6. An integrable shallow water equation with peaked solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Camassa, R.; Holm, D.D. )

    1993-09-13

    We derive a new completely integrable dispersive shallow water equation that is bi-Hamiltonian and thus possesses an infinite number of conservation laws in involution. The equation is obtained by using an asymptotic expansion directly in the Hamiltonian for Euler's equations in the shallow water regime. The soliton solution for this equation has a limiting form that has a discontinuity in the first derivative at its peak.

  7. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  9. Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Antarctic shallow-water marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico; Vaca, Inmaculada; Chávez, Renato

    2013-10-01

    During the characterization of the mycobiota associated with shallow-water marine environments from Antarctic sea, a novel pink yeast species was isolated. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolated yeast was closely related to Rhodotorula pallida CBS 320(T) and Rhodotorula benthica CBS 9124(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel basidiomycetous yeast species, Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Pi2(T) ( = CBS 12733(T)  = CECT 13081(T)) which was isolated from shallow-water marine sediment in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. PMID:23934251

  10. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Sigwart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

  11. Estimation of freak wave occurrence in shallow water regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In the last two decades, freak waves have become an important topic in engineering and science and are sometimes featured by a single and steep crest causing severe damage to offshore structures and vessels. An accurate estimation of maximum wave height and prediction of freak wave occurrence frequency is important for marine safety and ocean developments. According to several studies on freak waves, the deep-water third-order nonlinearity (quasi-resonant four-wave interactions) can lead to a significant enhancement of freak wave occurrence from normality. However, it is not clear the behavior of offshore generated freak waves shoaling to shallow water regions. In general, a numerical simulation based on Boussinesq model has been frequently and widely used to estimate wave transformation in shallow water regions and has high-level performance in the design of coast and harbor structures in Japan. However, it is difficult to describe the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions by the Boussinesq model because it can express only up to the second-order nonlinear interactions. There is a gap of governing equation between deep and shallow water regions from the extreme wave modeling point of view. It is necessary to investigate the aftereffects of generated freak waves by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions and their propagation to shallow water regions using the Boussinesq model. In this study, the model experiments in a wave tank and numerical simulations based on the Boussinesq model were conducted to estimate the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions. In the model experiments, the maximum wave height increases with an increase in kurtosis by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions. The dependence of kurtosis on freak wave occurrence weakens by the second-order nonlinear interactions associated with wave shoaling if dimensionless water depth kph becomes shallower than 1.363, which kp

  12. Two-dimensional shallow water equations by composite schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, Richard; Wendroff, Burton

    1999-06-01

    Composite schemes are formed by global composition of several Lax-Wendroff steps followed by a diffusive Lax-Friedrichs or WENO step, which filters out the oscillations around shocks typical for the Lax-Wendroff scheme. These schemes are applied to the shallow water equations in two dimensions. The Lax-Friedrichs composite is also formulated for a trapezoidal mesh, which is necessary in several example problems. The suitability of the composite schemes for the shallow water equations is demonstrated on several examples, including the circular dam break problem, the shock focusing problem and supercritical channel flow problems. Copyright

  13. Geoacoustic inversion of noise coherence in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, David J.; Desharnais, Francine; Drover, Matthew L.; Gillard, Chris A.

    2002-11-01

    It is known that the geoacoustic properties of a shallow-water sea-bed can be inferred from relatively simple measurements of the ambient noise coherence between a pair of vertically separated hydrophones [D. M. F. Chapman, ''Surface-generated noise in shallow water: A model,'' Proc. Inst. Acoust. 9, 1-11 (1987)]. The design of an autonomous buoy package for acquiring geoacoustic information by this method is currently being considered by DRDC-Atlantic in support of matched-field localization efforts that are being developed for use with rapidly deployable arrays. Initially, vertical coherence estimates from a simple shallow water noise model were fit to measured coherences by adjusting geoacoustic parameters by a trial and error procedure. A more systematic approach involves combining noise coherence models with nonlinear global optimization methods based on matched-coherence processing concepts to search the space of possible sea-bed parameters more efficiently. In this paper, we report on recent efforts to use a hybrid simplex simulated annealing scheme [M. R. Fallat and S. E. Dosso, ''Geoacoustic inversion via local, global, and hybrid algorithms,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3219-3230 (1999)] to match an increasingly realistic suite of candidate geoacoustic parametrizations to some acoustic noise coherent data measured with modified sonobuoys deployed at several shallow water locations on the Scotian Shelf.

  14. Shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT: Recent developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the shallow water table depth (wtd) is crucial in many studies including determination of optimum irrigation and drainage management systems for agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, i...

  15. Acoustic MIMO communications in a very shallow water channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuehai; Cao, Xiuling; Tong, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Underwater acoustic channels pose significant difficulty for the development of high speed communication due to highly limited band-width as well as hostile multipath interference. Enlightened by rapid progress of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technologies in wireless communication scenarios, MIMO systems offer a potential solution by enabling multiple spatially parallel communication channels to improve communication performance as well as capacity. For MIMO acoustic communications, deep sea channels offer substantial spatial diversity among multiple channels that can be exploited to address simultaneous multipath and co-channel interference. At the same time, there are increasing requirements for high speed underwater communication in very shallow water area (for example, a depth less than 10 m). In this paper, a space-time multichannel adaptive receiver consisting of multiple decision feedback equalizers (DFE) is adopted as the receiver for a very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication system. The performance of multichannel DFE receivers with relatively small number of receiving elements are analyzed and compared with that of the multichannel time reversal receiver to evaluate the impact of limited spatial diversity on multi-channel equalization and time reversal processing. The results of sea trials in a very shallow water channel are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication.

  16. Computing nonhydrostatic shallow-water flow over steep terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Flood and dambreak hazards are not limited to moderate terrain, yet most shallow-water models assume that flow occurs over gentle slopes. Shallow-water flow over rugged or steep terrain often generates significant nonhydrostatic pressures, violating the assumption of hydrostatic pressure made in most shallow-water codes. In this paper, we adapt a previously published nonhydrostatic granular flow model to simulate shallow-water flow, and we solve conservation equations using a finite volume approach and an Harten, Lax, Van Leer, and Einfeldt approximate Riemann solver that is modified for a sloping bed and transient wetting and drying conditions. To simulate bed friction, we use the law of the wall. We test the model by comparison with an analytical solution and with results of experiments in flumes that have steep (31??) or shallow (0.3??) slopes. The law of the wall provides an accurate prediction of the effect of bed roughness on mean flow velocity over two orders of magnitude of bed roughness. Our nonhydrostatic, law-of-the-wall flow simulation accurately reproduces flume measurements of front propagation speed, flow depth, and bed-shear stress for conditions of large bed roughness. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  17. Critical fishery species in Alaska offshore oil and gas lease areas

    SciTech Connect

    Arbegast, J.; Allen, M.

    1980-11-01

    Offshore oil and gas development in Alaska is governed through sales of lease blocks in designated areas. USBLM manages these sales and prepares the necessary environmental impact statement prior to each sale. Collected fishery data are tabulated, linking critical crustacean and fishery species with their associated lease areas. Listed are critical species, organized by taxonomic name, associated common name, and taxonomic code numbers. Each critical species is linked to one or more of the lease area numbers, derived from USBLM planning units.

  18. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  19. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  20. Moose as a vector for non-indigenous plant species in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  1. Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus spp.) of interior Alaska: Species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the ecological and agricultural significance of bumble bees in Alaska, very little is known and published about this important group at the regional level. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites of the ...

  2. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas. PMID:26106744

  3. Shallow-water System Dynamics in Chesapeake Bay, with Physical-Biological Modeling Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, R.; Wang, P.; Linker, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. The total surface area is 9920 square kilometers of which 7540 square kilometers are shallower than 10 m. These shallow systems provide vital habitats and nursery grounds for numerous species of fish, shellfish, and wildlife. In the Chesapeake the shallow water systems have deteriorated in terms of healthy ecosystem levels and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Restoration of the shallow water systems requires an understanding of their dynamics including wave-current interactions, shoreline erosion, sediment suspension, biological and biogeochemical processes, sediment diagenesis, sediment-water exchange, and diel cycles of temperature, salinity, turbidity, alkalinity, chlorophyll, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen (DO). To this end, an extensive shallow water monitoring program has been implemented in the Chesapeake since 2003. The program includes bi-weekly cruises of nutrient sampling, a continuous monitoring network with electronic sensors collecting data at a 15 minute interval, and a unique data flow survey from moving boats that collect underway observations with a datum frequency of seconds. The data reveal large diel cycles, with chlorophyll varying between a few mg/l to hundreds of mg/l, DO between 0 to 20 mg/l (with saturation from 0 to 250%), turbidity between 0 to 1500 NTUs, and pH from 6.0 to 9.5, which demonstrate the highly dynamic nature in physical and biological process of the shallow water systems . In order to better understand the key mechanisms and processes of these shallow-water systems and to explore the monitoring data, we applied a coupled physical and water quality model to the Chester and Corsica tributaries. The physical model is the Unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) and the water quality model is the Integrated Compartment Model (ICM) which has 36 state variables such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, DO, nutrients, and various organic matter and sediment

  4. Wind wave prediction in shallow water: Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaleri, L.; Rizzoli, P.M.

    1981-11-20

    A wind wave forecasting model is described, based upon the ray technique, which is specifically designed for shallow water areas. The model explicitly includes wave generation, refraction, and shoaling, while nonlinear dissipative processes (breaking and bottom fricton) are introduced through a suitable parametrization. The forecast is provided at a specified time and target position, in terms of a directional spectrum, from which the one-dimensional spectrum and the significant wave height are derived. The model has been used to hindcast storms both in shallow water (Northern Adriatic Sea) and in deep water conditions (Tyrrhenian Sea). The results have been compared with local measurements, and the rms error for the significant wave height is between 10 and 20%. A major problems has been found in the correct evaluation of the wind field.

  5. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  6. Model-Based Detection in a Shallow Water Ocean Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    2001-07-30

    A model-based detector is developed to process shallow water ocean acoustic data. The function of the detector is to adaptively monitor the environment and decide whether or not a change from normal has occurred. Here we develop a processor incorporating both a normal-mode ocean acoustic model and a vertical hydrophone array. The detector is applied to data acquired from the Hudson Canyon experiments at various ranges and its performance is evaluated.

  7. Mixing and shocks in geophysical shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Tivon

    In the first section, a reduced two-layer shallow water model for fluid mixing is described. The model is a nonlinear hyperbolic quasilinear system of partial differential equations, derived by taking the limit as the upper layer becomes infinitely deep. It resembles the shallow water equations, but with an active buoyancy. Fluid entrainment is supposed to occur from the upper layer to the lower. Several physically motivated closures are proposed, including a robust closure based on maximizing a mixing entropy (also defined and derived) at shocks. The structure of shock solutions is examined. The Riemann problem is solved by setting the shock speed to maximize the production of mixing entropy. Shock-resolving finite-volume numerical models are presented with and without topographic forcing. Explicit shock tracking is required for strong shocks. The constraint that turbulent energy production be positive is considered. The model has geophysical applications in studying the dynamics of dense sill overflows in the ocean. The second section discusses stationary shocks of the shallow water equations in a reentrant rotating channel with wind stress and topography. Asymptotic predictions for the shock location, strength, and associated energy dissipation are developed by taking the topographic perturbation to be small. The scaling arguments for the asymptotics are developed by demanding integrated energy and momentum balance, with the result that the free surface perturbation is of the order of the square root of the topographic perturbation. Shock formation requires that linear waves be nondispersive, which sets a solvability condition on the mean flow and which leads to a class of generalized Kelvin waves. Two-dimensional shock-resolving numerical simulations validate the asymptotic expressions and demonstrate the presence of stationary separated flow shocks in some cases. Geophysical applications are considered. Overview sections on shock-resolving numerical methods

  8. Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.

  9. A semi-Lagrangian approach to the shallow water equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. R.; Mccormick, Stephen F.; Ruge, John; Sholl, David S.; Yavneh, Irad

    1993-01-01

    We present a formulation of the shallow water equations that emphasizes the conservation of potential vorticity. A locally conservative semi-Lagrangian time-stepping scheme is developed, which leads to a system of three coupled PDE's to be solved at each time level. We describe a smoothing analysis of these equations, on which an effective multigrid solver is constructed. Some results from applying this solver to the static version of these equations are presented.

  10. Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. Vents are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water vents have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant vent fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the vent, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the vent fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of vent fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the vent crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with vents and inhabit the vent mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments. PMID:26849440

  11. Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. Vents are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water vents have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant vent fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the vent, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the vent fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of vent fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the vent crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with vents and inhabit the vent mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments. PMID:26849440

  12. Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus spp.) of Interior Alaska: Species Composition, Distribution, Seasonal Biology, and Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Pampell, Rehanon; Pantoja, Alberto; Holloway, Patricia; Knight, Charles; Ranft, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the ecological and agricultural significance of bumble bees in Alaska, very little is known and published about this important group at the regional level. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites of the genus Bombus at three major agricultural locations within Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, to lay the groundwork for future research on bumble bee pollination in Alaska. New information A total of 8,250 bumble bees representing 18 species was collected from agricultural settings near Delta Junction, Fairbanks, and Palmer, Alaska in 2009 and 2010. Of the 8,250 specimens, 51% were queens, 32.7% were workers, and 16.2% were males. The species composition and relative abundances varied among sites and years. Delta Junction had the highest relative abundance of bumble bees, representing 51.6% of the specimens collected; the other two locations, Fairbanks and Palmer represented 26.5% and 21.8% of the overall catch respectively. The species collected were: Bombus bohemicus Seidl 1837 (= B. ashtoni (Cresson 1864)), B. balteatus Dahlbom 1832, B. bifarius Cresson 1878, B. centralis Cresson 1864, B. cryptarum (Fabricius 1775) (=B. moderatus Cresson 1863), B. distinguendus Morawitz 1869, B. flavidus Eversmann 1852 (=B. fernaldae Franklin 1911), B. flavifrons Cresson 1863, B. frigidus Smith 1854, B. insularis (Smith 1861), B. jonellus (Kirby 1802), B. melanopygus Nylander 1848, B. mixtus Cresson 1878, B. neoboreus Sladen 1919, B. occidentalis Greene 1858, B. perplexus Cresson 1863, B. rufocinctus Cresson 1863, and B. sylvicola Kirby 1837. Overall, the most common bumble bees near agricultural lands were B. centralis, B. frigidus, B. jonellus, B. melanopygus, B. mixtus, and B. occidentalis. Species' relative population densities and local diversity were highly variable from year to year. Bombus occidentalis, believed to be in decline in the Pacific

  13. A depth-dependent formula for shallow water propagation.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    In shallow water propagation, the sound field depends on the proximity of the receiver to the sea surface, the seabed, the source depth, and the complementary source depth. While normal mode theory can predict this depth dependence, it can be computationally intensive. In this work, an analytical solution is derived in terms of the Faddeeva function by converting a normal mode sum into an integral based on a hypothetical continuum of modes. For a Pekeris waveguide, this approach provides accurate depth dependent propagation results (especially for the surface decoupling) without requiring complex calculation methods for eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions. PMID:25096092

  14. Modulational Instability and Rogue Waves in Shallow Water Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimshaw, R.; Chow, K. W.; Chan, H. N.

    It is now well known that the focussing nonlinear Schrödinger equation allows plane waves to be modulationally unstable, and at the same time supports breather solutions which are often invoked as models for rogue waves. This suggests a direct connection between modulation instability and the existence of rogue waves. In this chapter we review this connection for a suite of long wave models, such as the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the extended Korteweg-de Vries (Gardner) equation, often used to describe surface and internal waves in shallow water, a Boussinesq equation and, also a coupled set of Korteweg-de Vries equations.

  15. Jupiter's Great Red Spot as a shallow water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager cloud-top velocity data for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is used to derive the bottom topography up to a constant that depends on the unknown radius of deformation. The bottom topography is inferred from the Bernoulli streamfunction, kinetic energy per unit mass, and absolute vorticity values derived from the velocity data. The results are used to calculate potential vorticity versus latitude far from the vortex. It is found that the deep atmosphere is in differential motion and that the far-field potential vorticity gradient changes sign at several latitudes. Numerical experiments are conducted to study the time-dependent behavior of the shallow water analog of Jupiter's analog.

  16. Behavior of a shallow water table under periodic flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Nick; Nielsen, Peter; Perrochet, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    A new laboratory data set on the behavior of a shallow water table in a sand column aquifer subject to simple harmonic periodic forcing at its base is presented and discussed. The data are analyzed using the dynamic effective porosity, which is defined as the ratio of the rate of change in total moisture to the rate of change in water table elevation; thus, a reduction in this parameter means that the extent of moisture exchange has been reduced relative to a given water table fluctuation. The data show a clear decrease in the dynamic effective porosity with increasing proximity of the water table to the sand surface, which is consistent with previous research under a steadily rising or falling shallow water table. The observed reduction in moisture exchange due to shallowness of the water table has implications for periodic flow scenarios such as the propagation of water table waves in coastal and beach groundwater systems. That is, as moisture exchange is reduced, less work is being done by the flow, and thus, energy dissipation rates for shallow water tables will be reduced relative to the case of a deeper water table. At present no account of the influence of water table shallowness has been included in theories describing water table wave dispersion. The present experiments, in conjunction with the dynamic effective porosity concept, provide a framework in which this gap in knowledge can be further investigated. Additional experiments were designed such that the free surface transgressed the sand surface for part of the oscillation period to investigate the influence of meniscus formation and deformation at the sand surface on periodic flow dynamics. The observed behavior is consistent with previous observations of steady infiltration above shallow water tables, namely, a rapid drop (rise) in pore pressure with the onset of meniscus formation (deformation). A simple "wetting and drying" model is derived, accounting for the variation in effective porosity

  17. Eight new species and an annotated checklist of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Canada and Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Based on the study of 12,000+ specimens, an annotated checklist of 28 genera and 225 species of Microgastrinae braconids from Canada and Alaska is provided, increasing by 50% the number of species for the region. The genera Distatrix, Iconella, Protomicroplitis and Pseudapanteles for Canada, and Diolcogaster for Alaska are recorded for the first time; all but Iconella and Protomicroplitis represent the northernmost extension of their known distribution. Eight new species are described: Apanteles huberi sp. n., Apanteles jenniferae sp. n., Apanteles masmithi sp. n., Apanteles roughleyi sp. n., Apanteles samarshalli sp. n., Distatrix carolinae sp. n., Pseudapanteles gouleti sp. n., and Venanus heberti sp. n. For the more diverse genera, especially Cotesia, Microplitis, Apanteles, Dolichogenidea and Glyptapanteles, many more species are expected to be found. DNA barcode sequences (cytochrome c oxidase I, or CO1) for 3,500+ specimens provided an additional layer of useful data. CO1 sequences were incorporated to the new species descriptions whenever possible, helped to clarify the limits of some species, and flagged cases where further study is needed. Preliminary results on the latitudinal gradient of species/genera richness (45–80° N); as well as biogeographical affinities of the Canadian/Alaska fauna, are discussed. Taking into account the number of specimens in collections still to be studied, data from the barcoded specimens, and extrapolations from Lepidoptera diversity (the host group of the subfamily) the actual diversity of Microgastrinae in the region is estimated to be at least twice that currently known. PMID:21594019

  18. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  19. Community structure of age-0 fishes in paired mainstem and created shallow-water habitats in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starks, T. A.; Long, James M.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic alterations to aquatic ecosystems have greatly reduced and homogenized riverine habitat, especially those used by larval and juvenile fishes. Creation of shallow-water habitats is used as a restoration technique in response to altered conditions in several studies globally, but only recently in the USA. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers sampled larval and juvenile fishes at six paired sites (mainstem and constructed chute shallow-water habitats) along a section of the Missouri River between Rulo, NE and St. Louis, MO, USA. From those samples, we enumerated and identified a total of 7622 fishes representing 12 families. Community responses of fishes to created shallow-water habitats were assessed by comparisons of species richness and diversity measures between paired sites and among sampling events. Shannon entropy measures were transformed, and gamma diversity (total diversity) was partitioned into two components, alpha (within community) and beta (between community) diversity using a multiplicative decomposition method. Mantel test results suggest site location, time of sampling event and habitat type were drivers of larval and juvenile community structure. Paired t-test results indicated little to no differences in beta diversity between habitat types; however, chute habitats had significantly higher alpha and gamma diversity as well as increased abundances of Asian carp larvae when compared with mainstem shallow-water habitat. Our results not only show the importance of created shallow-water habitat in promoting stream fish diversity but also highlight the role space and time may play in future restoration and management efforts. 

  20. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  1. A temperature-tolerant interstitial worm with associated epibiotic bacteria from the shallow water fumaroles of Deception Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, M.; Arndt, C.; Keckeis, H.; Felbeck, H.

    2003-06-01

    A prominent not previously identified species of Monocelidae (Platyhelminthes, Proseriata) was found in the vicinity of fumarole activity at Fumarole Bay. The distribution of this animal and the metazoan meiobenthos in the vicinity of this area suggests that this species constitutes the most abundant species and the bulk of the biomass at these shallow water fumaroles. In contrast to the other metazoan meiofauna, the distribution of this species is positively correlated with the water temperature and gas emissions, indicating a preference for the areas around fumaroles. The range of temperature tolerated by this animal was determined in in vivo experiments to be at least 30-40°C. The outer surface the animals is colonized by apparently symbiotic bacteria, which are usually rod-like and approximately 0.68 μm wide and 2.07 μm long. The results of this study revealed a remarkable difference between shallow-water and deep-sea hydrothermal vent meiobenthic communities. Generalists capable of tolerating extreme abiotic conditions appear to dominate shallow-water vents, whereas endemism seems to be the rule in the deep-sea vents.

  2. Compressed sensing for wideband wavenumber tracking in dispersive shallow water.

    PubMed

    Le Courtois, Florent; Bonnel, Julien

    2015-08-01

    In shallow water zones and at low frequency, seabed and water column properties can be estimated from the acoustic wavenumbers using inversion algorithms. When considering horizontal line arrays (HLA) and narrowband sources, the wavenumbers can be evaluated with classic spectral analysis methods. In this paper, a compressed sensing (CS) method for sparse recovery of the wavenumbers is proposed. This takes advantage of the few propagating modes and allows for spectral estimation when short HLA are used. The CS representation improves the wavenumber estimation, compared to the Fourier transform. However, for small arrays and several propagating modes, the CS generates interferences and does not allow proper wavenumber estimation. When considering broadband sources, it is possible to combine the wavenumbers estimated at several frequencies in order to build a frequency-wavenumber (f - k) representation. In this case, a post-processing tracking operation which improves the f - k resolution is presented. This relies on a general approach of waveguide physics and uses a particle filtering (PF) algorithm to track the wavenumbers. The consecutive use of CS and PF leads to a better wavenumber estimation. This methodology can be used for sources that are not at an end-fire position. It is illustrated by simulations and successfully applied on the Shallow Water 2006 data using the 32 sensor SHARK array. PMID:26328676

  3. Assessing Tsunami Vulnerabilities of Geographies with Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    Tsunami preparedness is crucial for saving human lives in case of disasters that involve massive water movement. In this work, we develop a framework for visual assessment of tsunami preparedness of geographies. Shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant equations) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that are derived by depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations and provide a great abstraction of water masses that have lower depths compared to their free surface area. Our specific contribution in this study is to use Microsoft's XNA Game Studio to import underwater and shore line geographies, create different tsunami scenarios, and visualize the propagation of the waves and their impact on the shore line geography. Most importantly, we utilized the computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs) as HLSL based shader files and delegated all of the heavy computations to the GPU. Finally, we also conducted a validation study, in which we have tested our model against a controlled shallow water experiment. We believe that such a framework with an easy to use interface that is based on readily available software libraries, which are widely available and easily distributable, would encourage not only researchers, but also educators to showcase ideas.

  4. Mid frequency shallow water fine-grained sediment attenuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Holland, Charles W; Dosso, Stan E

    2013-07-01

    Attenuation is perhaps the most difficult sediment acoustic property to measure, but arguably one of the most important for predicting passive and active sonar performance. Measurement techniques can be separated into "direct" measurements (e.g., via sediment probes, sediment cores, and laboratory studies on "ideal" sediments) which are typically at high frequencies, O(10(4)-10(5)) Hz, and "indirect" measurements where attenuation is inferred from long-range propagation or reflection data, generally O(10(2)-10(3)) Hz. A frequency gap in measurements exists in the 600-4000 Hz band and also a general acknowledgement that much of the historical measurements on fine-grained sediments have been biased due to a non-negligible silt and sand component. A shallow water measurement technique using long range reverberation is critically explored. An approximate solution derived using energy flux theory shows that the reverberation is very sensitive to depth-integrated attenuation in a fine-grained sediment layer and separable from most other unknown geoacoustic parameters. Simulation using Bayesian methods confirms the theory. Reverberation measurements across a 10 m fine-grained sediment layer yield an attenuation of 0.009 dB/m/kHz with 95% confidence bounds of 0.006-0.013 dB/m/kHz. This is among the lowest values for sediment attenuation reported in shallow water. PMID:23862792

  5. Solitary wave dynamics in shallow water over periodic topography.

    PubMed

    Nakoulima, Ousseynou; Zahibo, Narcisse; Pelinovsky, Efim; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkin, Andrey

    2005-09-01

    The problem of long-wave scattering by piecewise-constant periodic topography is studied both for a linear solitary-like wave pulse, and for a weakly nonlinear solitary wave [Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton]. If the characteristic length of the topographic irregularities is larger than the pulse length, the solution of the scattering problem is obtained analytically for a leading wave in the framework of linear shallow-water theory. The wave decrement in the case of the small height of the topographic irregularities is proportional to delta2, where delta is the relative height of the topographic obstacles. An analytical approximate solution is also obtained for the weakly nonlinear problem when the length of the irregularities is larger than the characteristic nonlinear length scale. In this case, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is solved for each piece of constant depth by using the inverse scattering technique; the solutions are matched at each step by using linear shallow-water theory. The weakly nonlinear solitary wave decays more significantly than the linear solitary pulse. Solitary wave dynamics above a random seabed is also discussed, and the results obtained for random topography (including experimental data) are in reasonable agreement with the calculations for piecewise topography. PMID:16253002

  6. Shallow water imaging sonar system for environmental surveying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The scope of this research is to develop a shallow water sonar system designed to detect and map the location of objects such as hazardous wastes or discarded ordnance in coastal waters. The system will use high frequency wide-bandwidth imaging sonar, mounted on a moving platform towed behind a boat, to detect and identify objects on the sea bottom. Resolved images can be obtained even if the targets are buried in an overlayer of silt. The specific technical objective of this research was to develop and test a prototype system that is capable of (1) scan at high speeds (up to 10m/s), even in shallow water (depth to ten meters), without motion blurring or loss of resolution; (2) produce images of the bottom structure that are detailed enough for unambiguous detection of objects as small as 15cm, even if they are buried up to 30cm deep in silt or sand. The critical technology involved uses an linear FM (LFM) or similar complex waveform, which has a high bandwidth for good range resolution, with a long pulse length for similar Dopper resolution. The lone duration signal deposits more energy on target than a narrower pulse, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-clutter ratio. This in turn allows the use of cheap, lightweight, low power, piezoelectric transducers at the 30--500 kHz range.

  7. Global dynamical behaviors in a physical shallow water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchakoutio Nguetcho, Aurélien Serge; Li, Jibin; Bilbault, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-01

    The theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems is used to investigate the behavior of travelling wave solutions in an entire family of shallow water wave equations. This family is obtained by a perturbative asymptotic expansion for unidirectional shallow water waves. According to the parameters of the system, this family can lead to different sets of known equations such as Camassa-Holm, Korteweg-de Vries, Degasperis and Procesi and several other dispersive equations of the third order. Looking for possible travelling wave solutions, we show that different phase orbits in some regions of parametric planes are similar to those obtained with the model of the pressure waves studied by Li and Chen. Many other exact explicit travelling waves solutions are derived as well, some of them being in perfect agreement with solutions obtained in previous works by researchers using different methods. When parameters are varied, the conditions under which the above solutions appear are also shown. The dynamics of singular nonlinear travelling system is completely determined for each of the above mentioned equations. Moreover, we define sufficient conditions leading to the existence of propagating wave solutions and demonstrate how and why travelling waves lose their smoothness and develop into solutions with compact support or breaking waves.

  8. Shallow-water sparsity-cognizant source-location mapping.

    PubMed

    Forero, Pedro A; Baxley, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Using passive sonar for underwater acoustic source localization in a shallow-water environment is challenging due to the complexities of underwater acoustic propagation. Matched-field processing (MFP) exploits both measured and model-predicted acoustic pressures to localize acoustic sources. However, the ambiguity surface obtained through MFP contains artifacts that limit its ability to reveal the location of the acoustic sources. This work introduces a robust scheme for shallow-water source localization that exploits the inherent sparse structure of the localization problem and the use of a model characterizing the acoustic propagation environment. To this end, the underwater acoustic source-localization problem is cast as a sparsity-inducing stochastic optimization problem that is robust to model mismatch. The resulting source-location map (SLM) yields reduced ambiguities and improved resolution, even at low signal-to-noise ratios, when compared to those obtained via classical MFP approaches. An iterative solver based on block-coordinate descent is developed whose computational complexity per iteration is linear with respect to the number of locations considered for the SLM. Numerical tests illustrate the performance of the algorithm. PMID:24907812

  9. Simulations of time spreading in shallow water propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsos, Eric I.; Elam, W. T.; Tang, Dajun; Henyey, Frank S.; Williams, Kevin L.; Reynolds, Stephen A.

    2002-11-01

    Pulse propagation in a shallow water wave guide leads to time spreading due to multipath effects. Results of PE simulations will be described for pulse propagation in shallow water with a rough sea surface and a flat sandy sea floor. The simulations illustrate that such time spreading may be significantly less at longer ranges than for the flat surface case. Pressure fields are simulated in two space dimensions and have been obtained using a wide-angle PE code developed by Rosenberg [A. D. Rosenberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 144-153 (1999)]. The effect of rough surface scattering is to cause acoustic energy initially propagating at relatively high angles but still below the critical angle at the sea floor to be eventually shifted to grazing angles above the critical angle. This energy is then lost into the bottom, effectively stripping higher propagating modes. The surviving energy at longer ranges is concentrated in the lowest modes and shows little effect of time spreading. Thus, the effect of rough surface scattering is found to produce a simpler temporal field structure than if the surface were treated as flat. [Work supported by ONR.

  10. Microcosm procedure for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities, using laboratory microcosms as test subjects. The safe level is considered to be the maximum exposure that causes no persistent, ecologically significant changes in the ecosystem. In experiments completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, microcosm-derived estimates of safe exposure levels were confirmed using outdoor artificial ponds, which suggests that the microcosm procedure can be an efficient and economical means of determining safe levels for shallow-water communities. Details of microcosm construction, techniques for monitoring ecological variables in microcosms, and an experimental design for determining safe exposure levels are provided here. The microcosms are assembled by transferring components of natural ecosystems to 80-litre aquaria in a controlled laboratory environment. The communities that develop in these systems are typically dominated by common, cosmopolitan littoral species of macrophytes, algae, and invertebrates. Methods are described for measuring changes in water chemistry, phytoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and ecosystem production and respiration. By monitoring these variables over a gradient of pollutant exposure levels, the safe level can be determined accurately and precisely. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: a shallow-water perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Kabiri, Lahcen; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The Toarcian ocean anoxic event (T-OAE, ca. 183 Ma) corresponds to a major perturbation of the carbon cycle as reflected by a marked decrease (2 to 7 per mil) in carbon-isotope ratios of various carbonate and organic matter phases. Severe environmental perturbations and biotic turnovers are accompanying the unfolding of the T-OAE, which is thought to be initiated by the activity of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. Most of the studies dedicated to the T-OAE were however undertaken in mud-rich, deep-water setting, leaving vast uncertainties about its shallow-water expression and accompanying sea-level fluctuations. Here we present an extensive sedimentological dataset of the shallow-water record of the T-OAE within the Central High Atlas Basin of Morocco. The combination of ammonite and brachiopod biostratigraphy, together with carbon-isotope chemostratigraphy (on both carbonate and organic matter) allows a precise location of the T-OAE in the studied shallow-water sections. Thanks to well-exposed and thick successions, relative sea-level variations were reconstructed on a high-resolution scale, highlighting several important facts. Firstly, the T-OAE interval is preceded by a 50 meters-deep incised valley, observed within the uppermost Polymorphum ammonite zone. Similar observations have been reported from Euro-boreal basins and, together with published evidences of coeval occurrence of relatively cool seawater temperature and low atmospheric pCO2, we postulate that this forced regression is driven by glacio-eustasy. This points at the occurrence of a "cold snap" event just prior to the onset of the T-OAE. Secondly, the inception of the T-OAE is marked by the demise of the Lithiotid-dominated neritic carbonate factory, replaced by siliciclastic-dominated sedimentation during the T-OAE negative carbon isotope shift. Thirdly, an important progradation of oo-biodetritic shoal occurs during the negative carbon isotope plateau, underlying that the renewal of

  12. A spectral element shallow water model on spherical geodesic grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Francis X.

    2001-04-01

    The spectral element method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The equations are written in conservation form and the domains are discretized using quadrilateral elements obtained from the generalized icosahedral grid introduced previously (Giraldo FX. Lagrange-Galerkin methods on spherical geodesic grids: the shallow water equations. Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368). The equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates that introduce an additional momentum equation, but the pole singularities disappear. This paper represents a departure from previously published work on solving the shallow water equations on the sphere in that the equations are all written, discretized, and solved in three-dimensional Cartesian space. Because the equations are written in a three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system, the algorithm simplifies into the integration of surface elements on the sphere from the fully three-dimensional equations. A mapping (Song Ch, Wolf JP. The scaled boundary finite element method - alias consistent infinitesimal finite element cell method - for diffusion. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999; 45: 1403-1431) which simplifies these computations is described and is shown to contain the Eulerian version of the method introduced previously by Giraldo (Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368) for the special case of triangular elements. The significance of this mapping is that although the equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates, the mapping takes into account the curvature of the high-order spectral elements, thereby allowing the elements to lie entirely on the surface of the sphere. In addition, using this mapping simplifies all of the three-dimensional spectral-type finite element surface integrals because any of the typical two-dimensional planar finite element or spectral element basis functions found in any textbook (for example, Huebner et al

  13. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  14. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  15. Dispersal of Shallow-Water Benthic Foraminifera - a Key to Current and Potential Future Distribution Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Goldstein, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, climate-driven range expansions of various warm-adapted marine species have been observed, including benthic foraminifera. Distribution models predict further poleward extensions in the future, which might result in significant impacts on native faunas, habitats and entire ecosystems. The prolific expansion and colonization of benthic foraminifera is related to propagule dispersal. Foraminiferal propagules - tiny juveniles - are transported well beyond their biogeographic ranges and are able to grow and become established under suitable conditions. Here, we focus on propagule dispersal along the southeastern coast of the United States. Sediment samples containing propagules were collected from different shallow-water locations along a latitudinal gradient from Sapelo Island (GA), Fort Pierce (FL) and the Florida Keys. We hypothesize that propagules of warm-adapted species might be transported farther to the North than their biogeographic boundaries indicate, and that their current distribution is limited. Applying the propagule method, we are growing foraminifera from propagules collected at these three sites under constant normal and elevated temperatures (18°, 24°, 30°C) and normal and reduced salinities (15 and 35‰) with illumination on a 12-hr cycle. These set-ups cover a wide range of shallow-water habitats from intertidal to environments more proximal to the open marine realm. They also reflect the temperature gradient along the southeastern coast. The occurrence of species typically confined to warmer regions in assemblages grown at elevated temperatures would support distribution models that predicted the further range expansion of warm-adapted species within the next decades. Thus, results of this study could provide a glimpse into the future.

  16. Reverberation clutter induced by nonlinear internal waves in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Henyey, Frank S; Tang, Dajun

    2013-10-01

    Clutter is related to false alarms for active sonar. It is demonstrated that, in shallow water, target-like clutter in reverberation signals can be caused by nonlinear internal waves. A nonlinear internal wave is modeled using measured stratification on the New Jersey shelf. Reverberation in the presence of the internal wave is modeled numerically. Calculations show that acoustic energy propagating near a sound speed minimum is deflected as a high intensity, higher angle beam into the bottom, where it is backscattered along the reciprocal path. The interaction of sound with the internal wave is isolated in space, hence resulting in a target-like clutter, which is found to be greater than 10 dB above the mean reverberation level. PMID:24116532

  17. Modeling of SAR signatures of shallow water ocean topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kozma, A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrodynamic/electromagnetic model was developed to explain and quantify the relationship between the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observed signatures and the bottom topography of the ocean in the English Channel region of the North Sea. The model uses environmental data and radar system parameters as inputs and predicts SAR-observed backscatter changes over topographic changes in the ocean floor. The model results compare favorably with the actual SEASAT SAR observed backscatter values. The developed model is valid for only relatively shallow water areas (i.e., less than 50 meters in depth) and suggests that for bottom features to be visible on SAR imagery, a moderate to high velocity current and a moderate wind must be present.

  18. Algebraic instability in shallow water flows with horizontally nonuniform density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. P.; Pavlov, V. I.

    2015-04-01

    The regimes and mechanisms of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability have been studied in the scope of the nonhydrostatic shallow water model with horizontally nonuniform density. As analysis shows, the nonhydrostaticity has a crucial influence on the instability. It is for this reason that at the final stage a collapse tendency predicted on the base of the hydrostatic scenario slows down and turns into the regime of algebraic instability. The numerical testing has shown that in spite of its simplicity, the model is quite able to describe realistically a number of effects. For example, the model captures the shallowing effect, which manifests itself as profile concavities on either side of the jet coming out of the boundary layer.

  19. Development of Modular Shallow Water AUV: Issues & Trial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, S. N.; Nandy, S.; Pal, D.; Das, S. K.; Vadali, S. R. K.; Basu, Jhankar; Ghosh, Sukamal

    2012-07-01

    In view of their operational ease, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) find wide applications in different sub-sea operations, and the range encompasses bathymetry, seabed mapping, collection of marine data as well as strategic and commercial applications like underwater surveillance and reconnaissance, recovery and monitoring of submerged installations. A modular shallow water AUV having five degrees of freedom—christened AUV-150—has been designed and developed by CSIR-CMERI, Durgapur, India for operating up to a depth of 150 m. A fully functional AUV has been tested at various conditions in accordance to test protocols. This paper relates to the developmental issues, the hurdles faced during various phases of development of the AUV-150 and discusses the experimental results obtained during trials of the AUV in lake and sea.

  20. On shallow water rogue wave formation in strongly inhomogeneous channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-05-01

    Rogue wave formation in shallow water is often governed by dispersive focusing and wave-bottom interaction. In this study we try to combine these mechanisms by considering dispersive nonreflecting wave propagation in shallow strongly inhomogeneous channels. Nonreflecting wave propagation provides extreme wave amplification and the transfer of wave energy over large distances, while dispersive effects allow formation of a short-lived wave of extreme height (rogue wave). We found several types of water channels, where this mechanism can be realized, including (i) channels with a monotonically decreasing cross-section (normal dispersion), (ii) an inland basin described by a half of elliptic paraboloid (abnormal dispersion) and (iii) an underwater hill described by a half of hyperbolic paraboloid (normal dispersion). Conditions for variations of local frequency in the wave train providing optimal focusing of the wave train are also found.

  1. Subsurface Characterization of Shallow Water Regions using Airborne Bathymetric Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, B.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the complex interactions between air, land, and water in shallow water regions is becoming increasingly critical in the age of climate change. To effectively monitor and manage these zones, scientific data focused on changing water levels, quality, and subsurface topography are needed. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to address this need as it can simultaneously provide detailed three-dimensional spatial data for both topographic and bathymetric applications in an efficient and effective manner. The key to useful data, however, is the correct interpretation of the incoming laser returns to distinguish between land, water, and objects. The full waveform lidar receiver captures the complete returning signal reflected from the Earth, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the characterization of this full waveform with respect to water surface depth penetration and subsurface classification, including sand, rock, and vegetation. Three assessments are performed to help characterize the laser interaction within the shallow water zone: evaluation of water surface backscatter as a function of depth and location, effects from water bottom surface roughness and reflectivity, and detection and classification of subsurface structure. Using the Chiroptera dual-laser lidar mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), both bathymetric and topographic mapping are possible. The Chiroptera system combines a 1064nm near infrared topographic laser with a 515nm green bathymetric laser to seamlessly map the land/water interface in coastal areas. Two survey sites are examined: Lake Travis in Austin, Texas, USA, and Lake Vättern in Jönköping, Sweden. Water quality conditions were found to impact depth penetration of the lidar, as a maximum depth of 5.5m was recorded at Lake Travis and 11m at Lake Vättern.

  2. Statistical Mechanics of the Shallow Water and Primitive Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potters, M.; Bouchet, F.

    2012-04-01

    Geophysical flows are highly turbulent, yet embody large-scale coherent structures, such as ocean rings, jets, and large-scale circulations. Understanding how these structures appear and predicting their shape are major theoretical challenges. The statistical mechanics approach to geophysical flows is a powerful complement to more conventional theoretical and numerical methods [1]. In the inertial limit, it allows to describe, with only a few thermodynamical parameters, the long-time behavior of the largest scales of the flow. Recent studies in quasi-geostrophic models provide encouraging results: a model of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter [2], an explanation of the drift properties of ocean rings [3], the inertial structure of mid-basin eastward jets [3], bistability phenomena in complex turbulent flows [4], and so on. Generalization to more comprehensive hydrodynamical models, which include gravity wave dynamics and allow for the possibility of energy transfer through wave motion, would be extremely interesting. Namely, both are essential in understanding the geophysical flow energy balance. However, due to difficulties in essential theoretical parts of the statistical mechanics approach, previous methods describing statistical equilibria were up to now limited to the use of quasi-geostrophic models. The current study fills this gap. The new theory we propose describes geophysical phenomena using statistical mechanics applied to the shallow water model, and is easily generalizable to the primitive equations. Invariant measures of the shallow water model are built based on the Hamiltonian structure and the Liouville theorem. In parallel with the development of the theory, we devised an algorithm based on the Creutz algorithm [5] (a generalization of Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) in order to sample microcanonical measures. Numerical simulations are compared with the theoretical predictions [6]. We apply these new tools in order to describe vortex solutions similar

  3. Statistical Mechanics of the Shallow Water and Primitive Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potters, M.; Bouchet, F.

    2011-12-01

    Geophysical flows are highly turbulent, yet embody large-scale coherent structures, such as ocean rings, jets, and large-scale circulations. Understanding how these structures appear and predicting their shape are major theoretical challenges. The statistical mechanics approach to geophysical flows is a powerful complement to more conventional theoretical and numerical methods [1]. In the inertial limit, it allows to describe, with only a few thermodynamical parameters, the long-time behavior of the largest scales of the flow. Recent studies with quasi-geostrophic models provide encouraging results: a model of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter [2], an explanation of the drift properties of ocean rings [3], the inertial structure of mid-basin eastward jets [3], bistability phenomena in complex turbulent flows [4], and so on. Generalization to more comprehensive hydrodynamical models, which include gravity wave dynamics and the possibility of energy transfer through wave motion, would be extremely interesting. Namely, both are essential in understanding the geophysical flow energy balance. However, due to difficulties in essential theoretical parts of the statistical mechanics approach, previous methods describing statistical equilibria were up to now limited to the use of quasi-geostrophic models. The current study fills this gap. The new theory we propose describes geophysical phenomena using statistical mechanics applied to the shallow water model, and is easily generalizable to the primitive equations. Invariant measures of the shallow water model are built based on the Hamiltonian structure and the Liouville theorem. In parallel with the development of the theory, we devised an algorithm based on the Creutz algorithm [5] (a generalization of Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) in order to sample microcanonical measures. Numerical simulations are compared with the theoretical predictions [6]. We apply these new tools in order to describe vortex solutions similar to the

  4. Propagation of Exploration Seismic Sources in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.; Barton, P. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    The choice of safety radii to mitigation the impact of exploration seismic sources upon marine mammals is typically based on measurement or modeling in deep water. In shallow water environments, rule-of-thumb spreading laws are often used to predict the falloff of amplitude with offset from the source, but actual measurements (or ideally, near-perfect modeling) are still needed to account for the effects of bathymetric changes and subseafloor characteristics. In addition, the question: "how shallow is 'shallow?'" needs an answer. In a cooperative effort by NSF, MMS, NRL, IAGC and L-DEO, a series of seismic source calibration studies was carried out in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2003. The sources used were the two-, six-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-airgun arrays of R/V Ewing, and a 31-element, 3-string "G" gun array, deployed by M/V Kondor, an exploration industry source ship. The results of the Ewing calibrations have been published, documenting results in deep (3200m) and shallow (60m) water. Lengthy analysis of the Kondor results, presented here, suggests an approach to answering the "how shallow is shallow" question. After initially falling off steadily with source-receiver offset, the Kondor levels suddenly increased at a 4km offset. Ray-based modeling with a complex, realistic source, but with a simple homogeneous water column-over-elastic halfspace ocean shows that the observed pattern is chiefly due to geophysical effects, and not focusing within the water column. The same kind of modeling can be used to predict how the amplitudes will change with decreasing water depth, and when deep-water safety radii may need to be increased. Another set of data (see Barton, et al., this session) recorded in 20 meters of water during early 2005, however, shows that simple modeling may be insufficient when the geophysics becomes more complex. In this particular case, the fact that the seafloor was within the near field of the R/V Ewing source array seems to have

  5. The Post-Glacial Species Velocity of Picea glauca following the Last Glacial Maximum in Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, B. D.; Napier, J.; Kelly, R.; Li, B.; Heath, K.; Hug, B.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is leading to dramatic fluctuations to Earth's biodiversity that has not been observed since past interglacial periods. There is rising concern that Earth's warming climate will have significant impacts to current species ranges and the ability of a species to persist in a rapidly changing environment. The paleorecord provides information on past species distributions in relation to climate change, which can illuminate the patterns of potential future distributions of species. Particularly in areas where there are multiple potential limiting factors on a species' range, e.g. temperature, radiation, and evaporative demand, the spatial patterns of species migrations may be particularly complex. In this study, we assessed the change in the distributions of white spruce (Picea glauca) from the Last Glacial Maxima (LGM) to present-day for the entire state of Alaska. To accomplish this, we created species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated from modern vegetation data and high-resolution, downscaled climate surfaces at 60m. These SDMs were applied to downscaled modern and paleoclimate surfaces to produce estimated ranges of white spruce during the LGM and today. From this, we assessed the "species velocity", the rate at which white spruce would need to migrate to keep pace with climate change, with the goal of determining whether the expansion from the LGM to today originated from microclimate refugia. Higher species velocities indicate locations where climate changed drastically and white spruce would have needed to migrate rapidly to persist and avoid local extinction. Conversely, lower species velocities indicated locations where the local climate was changing less rapidly or was within the center of the range of white spruce, and indicated locations where white spruce distributions were unlikely to have changed significantly. Our results indicate the importance of topographic complexity in buffering the effects of climate change

  6. Effects of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on biological communities of coastal marine ecosystems of the western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, V G

    2006-01-01

    primary production, abundance of organic matter in the water column and intense development of benthic microflora ensure the formation of an abundant benthic fauna. In Kraternaya Bight, Matupi Harbour and Bay of Plenty, the macrozoobenthos has low species diversity. The taxonomic composition of the populations is determined by geographical region (temperate or tropical), by the character of the seabed (hard or soft bottoms, rigid lava flows or hydrothermal structures), by the temperature of bottom sediments and of volcanic fluids and lastly by the chemical composition of the vent fluid (sulfide or nonsulfide). In most of the surveyed areas the fauna is derived from locally common species or from opportunistic species that can form high-density populations in eutrophic waters. The benthic communities of shallow-water venting areas have many characteristics in common with communities subject to anthropogenic impact (thermal, residential or industrial) or to changes resulting from a sharp deterioration of the marine environment. In contrast to the fauna of deeper water hydrothermal communities (i.e., those that exist below 200 m), shallow-water venting communities lack obligate hydrothermal species. The structure and function of the pelagic and benthic communities in areas of shallow-water venting can be regarded as transitional between those of deep-water vent communities and the normal communities of the coast. PMID:16782453

  7. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, C.M.; Swanson, S.A.; Nigro, Debora A.; Matsuoka, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distribution of birds breeding within five ecological landforms in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, a 10,194-km2 roadless conservation unit on the Alaska-Canada border in the boreal forest zone. Passerines dominated the avifauna numerically, comprising 97% of individuals surveyed but less than half of the 115 species recorded in the Preserve. We used distance-sampling and discrete-removal models to estimate detection probabilities, densities, and population sizes across the Preserve for 23 species of migrant passerines and five species of resident passerines. Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) and Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) were the most abundant species, together accounting for 41% of the migrant passerine populations estimated. White-winged Crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Boreal Chickadees (Poecile hudsonica), and Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were the most abundant residents. Species richness was greatest in the Floodplain/Terrace landform flanking the Yukon River but densities were highest in the Subalpine landform. Species composition was related to past glacial history and current physiography of the region and differed notably from other areas of the northwestern boreal forest. Point-transect surveys, augmented with auxiliary observations, were well suited to sampling the largely passerine avifauna across this rugged landscape and could be used across the boreal forest region to monitor changes in northern bird distribution and abundance. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  8. Nonlinear wave interactions in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The rotating magnetohydrodynamic flows of a thin layer of astrophysical and space plasmas with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field are considered in the shallow water approximation. The presence of a vertical external magnetic field changes significantly the dynamics of wave processes in an astrophysical plasma, in contrast to a neutral fluid and a plasma layer in an external toroidal magnetic field. There are three-wave nonlinear interactions in the case under consideration. Using the asymptotic method of multiscale expansions, we have derived nonlinear equations for the interaction of wave packets: three magneto- Poincare waves, three magnetostrophic waves, two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplification is predicted. We show that a magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, a magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, a magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and a magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. There are the following parametric amplification mechanisms: the parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, the parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, the amplification of a magneto-Poincare wave in the field of a magnetostrophic wave, and the amplification of a magnetostrophic wave in the field of a magneto-Poincare wave. The instability growth rates and parametric amplification factors have been found for the corresponding processes.

  9. Soliton turbulence in shallow water ocean surface waves.

    PubMed

    Costa, Andrea; Osborne, Alfred R; Resio, Donald T; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivì, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E

    2014-09-01

    We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of soliton turbulence in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a dense soliton gas, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries equation, a completely integrable soliton system: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic-quasiperiodic boundary conditions the ergodic solutions of Korteweg-deVries are exactly solvable by finite gap theory (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as ∼ω-1. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter densely packed soliton wave trains from the data. We apply FGT to determine the soliton spectrum and find that the low frequency ∼ω-1 region is soliton dominated. The solitons have random FGT phases, a soliton random phase approximation, which supports our interpretation of the data as soliton turbulence. From the probability density of the solitons we are able to demonstrate that the solitons are dense in time and highly non-Gaussian. PMID:25238388

  10. Multipath pulse shapes in shallow water: theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H; Nielsen, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    In shallow water propagation the steeper ray angles are weakened most by boundary losses. Regarding the sound intensity as a continuous function of angle it can be converted into a function of travel time to reveal the multipath pulse shape received from a remote source (one-way path) or a target (two-way path). The closed-form isovelocity pulse shape is extended here to the case of upward or downward refraction. The envelope of the earliest arrivals is roughly trapezoidal with a delayed peak corresponding to the slowest, near horizontal refracted paths. The tail of the pulse falls off exponentially (linearly in decibels) with a decay constant that depends only on the bottom reflection properties and water depth, irrespective of travel time, a useful property for geoacoustic inversion and for sonar design. The nontrivial analytical problem of inverting explicit functions of angle into explicit functions of time is solved by numerical interpolation. Thus exact solutions can be calculated numerically. Explicit closed-form approximations are given for one-way paths. Two-way paths are calculated by numerical convolution. Using the wave model C-SNAP in several broadband cases of interest it is demonstrated that these solutions correspond roughly to a depth average of multipath arrivals. PMID:17407872

  11. Ecological succession of a Jurassic shallow-water ichthyosaur fall.

    PubMed

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J; Matts, Katie

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of whale fall communities in modern oceans, it has been hypothesized that during the Mesozoic the carcasses of marine reptiles created similar habitats supporting long-lived and specialized animal communities. Here, we report a fully documented ichthyosaur fall community, from a Late Jurassic shelf setting, and reconstruct the ecological succession of its micro- and macrofauna. The early 'mobile-scavenger' and 'enrichment-opportunist' stages were not succeeded by a 'sulphophilic stage' characterized by chemosynthetic molluscs, but instead the bones were colonized by microbial mats that attracted echinoids and other mat-grazing invertebrates. Abundant cemented suspension feeders indicate a well-developed 'reef stage' with prolonged exposure and colonization of the bones prior to final burial, unlike in modern whale falls where organisms such as the ubiquitous bone-eating worm Osedax rapidly destroy the skeleton. Shallow-water ichthyosaur falls thus fulfilled similar ecological roles to shallow whale falls, and did not support specialized chemosynthetic communities. PMID:25205249

  12. A new Shallow Water Cabled OBS System off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, Horst; Pearcey, Chris; Mangano, Giorgio; Guralp, Cansun; Pearce, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    During the summer and fall of 2013 we installed a turnkey cabled network of four combination broadband velocity/acceleration ocean bottom sensors (OBS) on the sea floor near Point Buchon in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central California. We implemented a novel network design by daisy-chaining the instruments to one single multistranded cable. The signals of each station are digitized in-situ and then transmitted via dedicated optical fiber links inside the cable to a shore station. From there they are fed in real time via a cell phone modem into several seismic networks in California. The goal of this dense network is to monitor the microseismicity of two offshore faults running parallel to the strike of the San Andreas Fault. However, because the network is installed in rather shallow water near the coast, the action of waves and swell at the sea surface affect the sensor registrations much stronger as compared to the typical deep water installation of OBS equipment. We will report about the challenges of installing and maintaining the network and present some initial results.

  13. Statistical moments of soliton field in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurgalina, Ekaterina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The ensemble of solitons plays an important role in the long-term dynamics of a wave field which can be interpreted as soliton turbulence. Dynamics of a soliton field in shallow water in the framework of Korteweg - de Vries equation is studied. The statistical ensemble is generated from the isolated solitons with random phases and amplitudes. Main interest is paid to the first four statistical moments (mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) playing an important role in the turbulence theory. They are computed analytically for initial random soliton field presenting the linear superposition of the solitary pulses. It is demonstrated that the random soliton field is not Gaussian. Then the time evolution of the statistical moments is studied numerically. It is confirmed that first two moments being the invariants of the Korteweg - de Vries equation remain to be constant. The skewness and kurtosis vary in time in each realization but tends to the constants in the average. The averaged magnitude of these moments is decreased to compare with initial values with increase of the soliton density. This effect is related with features of the two-soliton interaction described in (E.N.Pelinovsky et al., Physics Letters A (2012) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2012.11.037). As a result, the nonlinear soliton interaction leads to tendency of normalization of the random process. This study was supported by the Federal Targeted Program "Research and educational personnel of innovation Russia" for 2009-2013 and Dynasty Foundation.

  14. Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters.

    PubMed

    Gilerson, Alexander A; Stepinski, Jan; Ibrahim, Amir I; You, Yu; Sullivan, James M; Twardowski, Michael S; Dierssen, Heidi M; Russell, Brandon; Cummings, Molly E; Brady, Parrish; Ahmed, Samir A; Kattawar, George W

    2013-12-20

    Measurements of the upwelling polarized radiance in relatively shallow waters of varying depths and benthic conditions are compared to simulations, revealing the depolarizing nature of the seafloor. The simulations, executed with the software package RayXP, are solutions to the vector radiative transfer equation, which depends on the incident light field and three types of parameters: inherent optical properties, the scattering matrix, and the benthic reflectance. These were measured directly or calculated from measurements with additional assumptions. Specifically, the Lambertian model used to simulate benthic reflectances is something of a simplification of reality, but the bottoms used in this study are found to be crucial for accurate simulations of polarization. Comparisons of simulations with and without bottom contributions show that only the former corroborate measurements of the Stokes components and the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) collected by the polarimeter developed at the City College of New York. Because this polarimeter is multiangular and hyperspectral, errors can be computed point-wise over a large range of scattering angles and wavelengths. Trends also become apparent. DoLP is highly sensitive to the benthic reflectance and to the incident wavelength, peaking in the red band, but the angle of linear polarization is almost spectrally constant and independent of the bottom. These results can thus facilitate the detection of benthic materials as well as future studies of camouflage by benthic biota; to hide underwater successfully, animals must reflect light just as depolarized as that reflected by benthic materials. PMID:24513934

  15. Conservation laws and LETKF with 2D Shallow Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yuefei; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous approaches have been proposed to maintain physical conservation laws in the numerical weather prediction models. However, to achieve a reliable prediction, adequate initial conditions are also necessary, which are produced by a data assimilation algorithm. If an ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) is used for this purpose, it has been shown that it could yield unphysical analysis ensemble that for example violates principles of mass conservation and positivity preservation (e.g. Janjic et al 2014) . In this presentation, we discuss the selection of conservation criteria for the analysis step, and start with testing the conservation of mass, energy and enstrophy. The simple experiments deal with nonlinear shallow water equations and simulated observations that are assimilated with LETKF (Localized Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, Hunt et al. 2007). The model is discretized in a specific way to conserve mass, angular momentum, energy and enstrophy. The effects of the data assimilation on the conserved quantities (of mass, energy and enstrophy) depend on observation covarage, localization radius, observed variable and observation operator. Having in mind that Arakawa (1966) and Arakawa and Lamb (1977) showed that the conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy by momentum advection schemes in the case of nondivergent flow prevents systematic and unrealistic energy cascade towards high wave numbers, a cause of excessive numerical noise and possible eventual nonlinear instability, we test the effects on prediction depending on the type of errors in the initial condition. The performance with respect to nonlinear energy cascade is assessed as well.

  16. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  17. Multiple time-reversed guide-sources in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaumond, Charles F.; Fromm, David M.; Lingevitch, Joseph F.; Gauss, Roger C.; Menis, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Detection in a monostatic, broadband, active sonar system in shallow water is degraded by propagation-induced spreading. The detection improvement from multiple spatially separated guide sources (GSs) is presented as a method to mitigate this degradation. The improvement of detection by using information in a set of one-way transmissions from a variety of positions is shown using sea data. The experimental area is south of the Hudson Canyon off the coast of New Jersey. The data were taken using five elements of a time-reversing VLA. The five elements were contiguous and at midwater depth. The target and guide source was an echo repeater positioned at various ranges and at middepth. The transmitted signals were 3.0- to 3.5-kHz LFMs. The data are analyzed to show the amount of information present in the collection, a baseline probability of detection (PD) not using the collection of GS signals, the improvement in PD from the use of various sets of GS signals. The dependence of the improvement as a function of range is also shown. [The authors acknowledge support from Dr. Jeffrey Simmen, ONR321OS, and the chief scientist Dr. Charles Holland. Work supported by ONR.

  18. Polar Vortices in Shallow Water Simulations of Gas Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Emanuel, Kerry

    2014-11-01

    Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune each exhibit unique polar atmospheric behavior. Assuming these flows are due to shallow dynamics, we explore the parameter space potentially responsible for the difference between each planet's polar features. The best observations have come from the Cassini misson to Saturn. Among many discoveries, a massive, warm and cyclonic vortex has been observed on each pole. The South Polar Vortex (SPV), specifically, has the highest measured temperatures on Saturn, a double eyewall, deep eye and a rapid cyclonic jet with the second highest windspeeds observed on the planet. Numerous small, vortical, and potentially convective systems are embedded within the large-scale flow of the SPV. Given these observations, we explore one potential mechanism of polar vortex maintenance: up-scale, poleward vorticity flux due to vortical hot towers (VHTs). Large GCMs cannot yet resolve local deep convection in the weather layer. Using a reduced gravity shallow water model on a polar beta plane, we represent convective towers with mass-flux driven vortex pairs and allow them to move freely. We show that there exist multiple regimes of polar flow, and that small and/or quickly rotating planets with sufficient total energy favor a polar cyclone in our simulations.

  19. Ecological succession of a Jurassic shallow-water ichthyosaur fall

    PubMed Central

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J.; Matts, Katie

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of whale fall communities in modern oceans, it has been hypothesized that during the Mesozoic the carcasses of marine reptiles created similar habitats supporting long-lived and specialized animal communities. Here, we report a fully documented ichthyosaur fall community, from a Late Jurassic shelf setting, and reconstruct the ecological succession of its micro- and macrofauna. The early ‘mobile-scavenger’ and ‘enrichment-opportunist’ stages were not succeeded by a ‘sulphophilic stage’ characterized by chemosynthetic molluscs, but instead the bones were colonized by microbial mats that attracted echinoids and other mat-grazing invertebrates. Abundant cemented suspension feeders indicate a well-developed ‘reef stage’ with prolonged exposure and colonization of the bones prior to final burial, unlike in modern whale falls where organisms such as the ubiquitous bone-eating worm Osedax rapidly destroy the skeleton. Shallow-water ichthyosaur falls thus fulfilled similar ecological roles to shallow whale falls, and did not support specialized chemosynthetic communities. PMID:25205249

  20. Modeling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. The results are tested against analytical solutions and the commercial avalanche model RAMMS. The overall results are in excellent agreement with the reference system RAMMS, and the deviations between the different models are far below the uncertainties in the determination of the relevant fluid parameters and involved avalanche volumes in reality. As this code is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool assisting regional scale natural hazard studies.

  1. Soliton Turbulence in Shallow Water Ocean Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Andrea; Osborne, Alfred R.; Resio, Donald T.; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivı, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E.

    2014-09-01

    We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of soliton turbulence in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a dense soliton gas, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries equation, a completely integrable soliton system: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic-quasiperiodic boundary conditions the ergodic solutions of Korteweg-deVries are exactly solvable by finite gap theory (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as ˜ω-1. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter densely packed soliton wave trains from the data. We apply FGT to determine the soliton spectrum and find that the low frequency ˜ω-1 region is soliton dominated. The solitons have random FGT phases, a soliton random phase approximation, which supports our interpretation of the data as soliton turbulence. From the probability density of the solitons we are able to demonstrate that the solitons are dense in time and highly non-Gaussian.

  2. The shallow-water New Caledonia Drilliidae of genus Clavus Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea).

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Richard N; Fedosov, Alexander; Kantor, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Clavus of the conoidean family Drilliidae that occur in the littoral and shallow waters of New Caledonia are here revised. This study is based primarily on recent expedition material from the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (New Caledonia) and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (France). A total of 22 species is recorded, of which eight are described as new. New species: Clavus boucheti, Clavus delphineae, Clavus virginieae, Clavus picoides, Clavus squamiferus, Clavus devexistriatus, Clavus hylikos, Clavus maestratii; New synonyms: Tylotiella Habe, 1958 = Clavus; Clavus leforestieri Hervier, 1896 = Pleurotoma obliquicostata Reeve, 1845; Pleurotoma mariei Crosse, 1869 = Pleurotoma lamberti Montrouzier, 1860; Clavus mighelsi Kay, 1979, new name for Pleurotoma acuminata Mighels, 1845, non J. Sowerby, 1816, was misidentified by Kay 1979; the lectotype of P. acuminata Mighels, 1845, is mangeliine. Clavus mighelsi sensu Kay 1979, is a synonym of Pleurotoma humilis E. A. Smith, 1879. It is suggested that Pleurotoma pulchella Reeve, 1845, sometimes treated as an Indo-Pacific species, may be a senior synonym of Fenimorea halidorema Schwengel, 1940, from the tropical western Atlantic. Nomen dubium: Pleurotoma mediocris Deshayes, 1863. PMID:24943803

  3. Shallow Water Simulations of the Three Last Saturn's Giant Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Shallow Water (SW) simulations are used to present a unified study of the polar (1960), equatorial (1990), and mid-latitude (2010) major storms in Saturn nicknamed as Great White Spots (GWS). The 2010 GWS appeared at +40, moved at -30 m s-1 where the Coriolis force is predominant producing an open anticyclone with a high speed peripheral circulation and a cloud front around the convective source; a long-lived anticyclone; and strong zonal advection on the south part of the storm forming a turbulent region. The 1990 GWS onset took place near the equator, between +12 and +5, on the broad prograde equatorial jet (450 m s-1) where equatorial dynamics dominated producing a storm nucleus, with rapid expansion to the west of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the north side of the perturbation due to advection, and trapped equatorial waves which also expanded the storm to the east around the equator. The 1960 GWS appeared at high latitudes (+56) where Coriolis force is predominant in a region where zonal wind velocity is 0 m s-1. SW simulations predict a strong injection of relative vorticity which may produce large anticyclones on the anticyclonic side of the zonal profile, and a quick turbulent expansion on the background cyclonic regions at mid and high latitudes. In general, simulations indicate that negative relative vorticity injected by the storms also defines the natural interaction with the zonal winds at latitudes where the Coriolis force is dominant dictating its large scale dynamical behavior. Numerical experiments on the 1990 storm indicate that the onset of the storm can only be reproduced if the Voyager era background zonal flow is used, which suggests that it dominated the circulation dynamics at the storm’s outbreak region at that time. They also reproduce its most important morphological features, and show the production of planetary waves and turbulence. We discuss possible mechanism for the observed equatorial jet alterations during the storm

  4. Point based hydrodynamics applied to shallow water equations

    SciTech Connect

    Eltgroth, P.

    1994-05-01

    Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has proven useful for many problems of scientific interest. This report is concerned with a generalization to the SPH method which may be of value for problems such as climate modeling. The main objective of the work is to carry out the new formulation, called Point Interactive Physics and to compare results for PIP and standard finite difference techniques on a simple test problem. The basic SPH approach describes a system using a set of points. These points are not associated with a grid or mesh, as in most approaches. The individual points are each assigned a mass and move with the material velocity. Thus the original SPH method is Lagrangian. Properties of the system are expressed as sums over the sample points using a weighting function called a kernel function. For most problems, tile weighting function extends over a relatively short range, called the smoothing length. The Point Interacting Physics (PIP) approach also samples information at a set of points, and then uses kernel functions to infer physical properties everywhere. The points are not assigned fixed values of miss and they are allowed to undergo arbitrary physically reasonable motion. In this report, results will be presented for fixed points arranged irregularly over a spherical surface. Thus, this version of PIP will be applied in an Eulerian fashion. The basic reason for the Eulerian treatment is enhanced efficiency arising from the fixed geometric relationships among the points. After a brief description of the SPH and PIP methods, the PIP formulation will be compared to a normal finite difference approach for a simple shallow water advection test problem. It appears that accurate simulations can be accomplished, but that computational speed is comparable to that observed for other techniques.

  5. Joint forces and torques when walking in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Orselli, Maria Isabel Veras; Duarte, Marcos

    2011-04-01

    This study reports for the first time an estimation of the internal net joint forces and torques on adults' lower limbs and pelvis when walking in shallow water, taking into account the drag forces generated by the movement of their bodies in the water and the equivalent data when they walk on land. A force plate and a video camera were used to perform a two-dimensional gait analysis at the sagittal plane of 10 healthy young adults walking at comfortable speeds on land and in water at a chest-high level. We estimated the drag force on each body segment and the joint forces and torques at the ankle, knee, and hip of the right side of their bodies using inverse dynamics. The observed subjects' apparent weight in water was about 35% of their weight on land and they were about 2.7 times slower when walking in water. When the subjects walked in water compared with walking on land, there were no differences in the angular displacements but there was a significant reduction in the joint torques which was related to the water's depth. The greatest reduction was observed for the ankle and then the knee and no reduction was observed for the hip. All joint powers were significantly reduced in water. The compressive and shear joint forces were on average about three times lower during walking in water than on land. These quantitative results substantiate the use of water as a safe environment for practicing low-impact exercises, particularly walking. PMID:21334630

  6. Vortex formation from a cylinder in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilli, H.; Rockwell, D.

    2002-09-01

    The near wake of a vertical, circular cylinder in shallow water is investigated using a combination of visualization marker and a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry. The formation of a large-scale Karman vortex involves upward ejection of fluid through its center, which eventual leads to a horizontal vortex that induces significant distortion of the free surface. The strength of this secondary vortex is, however, an order of magnitude smaller than that of the large-scale Karman vortex. Using global, instantaneous imaging, the relationship between patterns of streamline topology and vorticity is established for successive phases of the oscillation cycle, and in horizontal planes at and above the bed. The sequence of phase-referenced states shows that it is possible to identify topological characteristics, including the location of a specific critical (saddle) point that are consistent at elevations on and above the bed. In turn, the sequential development of topological streamline and vorticity patterns is related to time-averaged representations. At the bed, the time-averaged streamline topology downstream of the base of the cylinder takes on a form known as an owl face of the first kind, which was originally defined for a completely different exterior flow. Immediately adjacent to the base of the cylinder, an additional system of saddle points is located at either end of a nodal line. At locations above the bed, one of the two principal saddle points of the owl face of the first kind disappears and the principal foci are transformed from a stable to an unstable state. Furthermore, at progressive elevations above the bed, the degree of concentration of vorticity of the major, large-scale vortex successively decreases. In turn, the foregoing features are related to the patterns of Reynolds stress and velocity fluctuation at and above the bed.

  7. Vortex formation from a cylinder in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilli, H.; Rockwell, D.

    2002-09-01

    The near wake of a vertical, circular cylinder in shallow water is investigated using a combination of visualization marker and a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry. The formation of a large-scale Kármán vortex involves upward ejection of fluid through its center, which eventual leads to a horizontal vortex that induces significant distortion of the free surface. The strength of this secondary vortex is, however, an order of magnitude smaller than that of the large-scale Kármán vortex. Using global, instantaneous imaging, the relationship between patterns of streamline topology and vorticity is established for successive phases of the oscillation cycle, and in horizontal planes at and above the bed. The sequence of phase-referenced states shows that it is possible to identify topological characteristics, including the location of a specific critical (saddle) point that are consistent at elevations on and above the bed. In turn, the sequential development of topological streamline and vorticity patterns is related to time-averaged representations. At the bed, the time-averaged streamline topology downstream of the base of the cylinder takes on a form known as an owl face of the first kind, which was originally defined for a completely different exterior flow. Immediately adjacent to the base of the cylinder, an additional system of saddle points is located at either end of a nodal line. At locations above the bed, one of the two principal saddle points of the owl face of the first kind disappears and the principal foci are transformed from a stable to an unstable state. Furthermore, at progressive elevations above the bed, the degree of concentration of vorticity of the major, large-scale vortex successively decreases. In turn, the foregoing features are related to the patterns of Reynolds stress and velocity fluctuation at and above the bed.

  8. Changes in Species, Areal Cover, and Production of Moss across a Fire Chronosequence in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Munster, J.; Manies, K.L.; Mack, M.C.; Bubier, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the species and production rates of various upland mosses and their relationship to both site drainage and time since fire, annual net primary production of six common moss species was measured. Several stands located near Delta Junction, interior Alaska, were located. These stands ranged from one to 116 years since fire in well-drained (dry) and moderately to somewhat poorly drained (wet) black spruce (Picea mariana)-feathermoss systems. Moss species composition varied greatly during the fire cycle, with Ceratodon purpureus dominating the earliest years after a fire, Aulacomnium palustre dominating the transitional and older stages, and Hylocomium splendens dominating the oldest, mature sites. Polytrichum spp. was found at all sites. Average moss cover ranged from <10 percent in the youngest sites to almost 90 percent in the mature sites. Species from the genus Polytrichum were the most productive and contributed up to 30 g m2 of organic matter in one growing season. Least productive was Rhytidium rugosum, which contributed about 1.5 g m2 of organic matter in mature stands. Recovery of moss productivity after fire was not significantly different for wet and dry sites.

  9. Coordinating perception and action with an underwater robot in a shallow water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasso, R. P.

    1992-04-01

    It is usually difficult to use underwater robots for mapping, reconnaissance, and mine-clearing tasks in shallow water (10 to 80 foot depth) ocean environments. The shallow water environment is characterized by strong, intermittent wave surge which requires robot behaviors that are capable of riding out the surge and then repositioning the platform and re- acquiring the objects being sensed. The shallow water area is also characterized by water that is murky, making optical sensors useless for long range search, and which produces multiple paths for sonar returns, giving errant range readings. Teleoperation from a remote surface platform is not effective due to the rapid changes in the environment. A more promising approach would place reactive intelligence on-board the robot. This paper describes such an approach which uses high frequency acoustic and vision sensing and a situated reasoning software architecture to provide task-achieving capability to an underwater robot in a shallow water environment. The approach is demonstrated in the context of a shallow water marking task wherein a robot must locate and navigate to a moored object in shallow water depths, attach a buoyant marker, and then return to a destination location. The approach seeks to integrate selective perception with robust transit and hovering behaviors to overcome the natural problems associated with shallow water environments.

  10. Shallow water processes govern system-wide phytoplankton bloom dynamics: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Lucas, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of the phytoplankton dynamics in South San Francisco Bay, California, USA have hypothesized that bivalve filter-feeders are responsible for the limited phytoplankton blooms in the system. This study was designed to examine the effects of benthic grazing and light attenuation on this shallow, turbid, and nutrient replete system. We found that grazing by shallow water bivalves was important in determining phytoplankton bloom occurrence throughout the system and that above a shallow water bivalve grazing threshold, phytoplankton biomass did not exceed bloom levels. Wind speed, used as a proxy for light attenuation in the shallow water, was similarly important in determining bloom development in the shallow water. Environmental conditions and benthic grazing in the deep water channel had a less discernible effect on system-wide phytoplankton blooms although persistent water column stratification did increase bloom magnitude. The shallow water bivalves, believed to be preyed upon by birds and fish that migrate through the system in fall and winter, disappear each year prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. Because growth of the phytoplankton depends so strongly on shallow water processes, any change in the shallow-water benthic filter-feeders or their predators has great potential to change the phytoplankton bloom dynamics in this system. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    PubMed

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L; Guild, Liane S; Armstrong, Roy A; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health. PMID:26619210

  12. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L.; Guild, Liane S.; Armstrong, Roy A.; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral’s symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5–98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health. PMID:26619210

  13. Caprellid assemblages (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in shallow waters invaded by Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea from southeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Luis, M.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.; Bayle-Sempere, J. T.

    2009-06-01

    Growth of the invasive algae Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in shallow habitats may influence the faunal assemblage composition. We studied its effects on caprellid assemblages associated with shallow-water habitats of hard and soft bottoms from the SE Iberian Peninsula (native rocky-bottom algae, C. racemosa from hard and soft bottoms, and Caulerpa prolifera, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica from soft bottoms). Samples were taken in two different sampling periods (September 2004 and March 2005). A total of seven caprellid species were identified, with important differences in their distribution in different habitats. Total abundance of caprellids was very high in March on native algae on hard bottoms, and on C. racemosa on both soft and hard bottoms. On both hard and soft bottoms, abundances of Caprella hirsuta recorded from C. racemosa were low. On the other hand, a higher abundance of other species, namely C. acanthifera, C. santosrosai, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma, was recorded from C. racemosa. The results indicate that C. racemosa may have a positive influence on some caprellid species, while seasonal changes are also evident. It is concluded that introduced C. racemosa may serve as a new habitat, promoting and maintaining caprellid populations in shallow Mediterranean habitats.

  14. Design of underwater video attached to buoy for observing shallow water substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingtian, Y.; Wenxi, C.; Delu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of shallow water substrate is very important for protection and management of coastal ecosystem. Traditional methods for observing shallow water substrate was by sending diver to photography and recorded with eye, which was laborious and money taking. In order to obtain the easier way to study the shallow water substrate, an underwater video system was designed. Underwater video sensor, optical sensor, sonar sensor, tiltometer, GPS system, and ascending and descending system were all attached to the buoy system, and data was gathered and processed by the computer on the ship. The obtained data could be used for analyzing substrate type, activity of benthos and ground truth data for satellite remote sensing.

  15. Calculations of Asteroid Impacts into Deep and Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisler, Galen; Weaver, Robert; Gittings, Michael

    2011-06-01

    kilometers from the impact point, and fallout from the initial splash can be extremely violent. There is some indication that near-field effects are more severe if the impact occurs in shallow water.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Bacterial Symbionts Retrieved from Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Eythorsdottir, Arnheidur; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Einarsson, Hjorleifur

    2016-06-01

    Marine sponges and other sessile macro-organisms were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal site in Eyjafjörður, Iceland. Bacteria were isolated from the organisms using selective media for actinomycetes, and the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 111 isolates revealed antimicrobial activity displaying different antimicrobial patterns which indicates production of various compounds. Known test strains were grown in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts from one selected isolate, and a clear growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was observed down to 0.1 % extract concentration in the medium. Identification of isolates shows different species of Actinobacteria with Streptomyces sp. playing the largest role, but also members of Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Sponges have an excellent record regarding production of bioactive compounds, often involving microbial symbionts. At the hydrothermal vents, however, the majority of active isolates originated from other invertebrates such as sea anemones or algae. The results indicate that antimicrobial assays involving isolates in full growth can detect activity not visible by other methods. The macro-organisms inhabiting the Eyjafjörður hydrothermal vent area host diverse microbial species in the phylum Actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity, and the compounds responsible for the activity will be subject to further research. PMID:27147438

  17. Localized vortices in a nonlinear shallow water model: examples and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisel, S. A.; Tolchennikov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Exact solutions of the system of nonlinear shallow water equations on paraboloid are constructed by the method of group analysis. These solutions describe fast wave motion of the fluid layer and slow evolution of symmetric localized vortices. Explicit formulae are obtained for asymptotic solution related to the linear shallow water approximation. Numerical methods are used by the modeling the trajectory of the vortex center in the case of asymmetric vortices.

  18. Conservation laws and symmetries of the shallow water system above rough bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. V.; Druzhkov, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    The system of one-dimensional shallow water equations above the rough bottom is considered. All its hydrodynamic conservation laws are found, and a group classification is performed. A new conservation law additional to the two basic conservation laws is found. It is shown that the system of shallow water equations can be linearized by a point change of variables only in cases of constant and linear bottom profiles.

  19. Variational asymptotics for rotating shallow water near geostrophy: a transformational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Marcel

    2006-03-01

    We introduce a unified variational framework in which the classical balance models for nearly geostrophic shallow water as well as several new models can be derived. Our approach is based on consistently truncating an asymptotic expansion of a near-identity transformation of the rotating shallow-water Lagrangian. Model reduction is achieved by imposing either degeneracy (for models in a semi-geostrophic scaling) or incompressibility (for models in a quasi-geostrophic scaling) with respect to the new coordinates.

  20. Historical abundance and morphology of Didymosphenia species in Naknek Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pite, D.P.; Lane, K.A.; Hermann, A.K.; Spaulding, S.A.; Finney, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, nuisance blooms of Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt have been documented in sites that are warmer and more mesotrophic than historical records indicate. While the invasion of D. geminata in New Zealand is well documented, it is less clear whether nuisance blooms in North America are a new phenomenon. In order to test the hypothesis that D. geminata blooms have increased in recent years, we examined the historical record of this species in sediments of Naknek Lake, in Katmai National Park, Alaska. Chronological control was established by relating the presence of two ash layers to known volcanic eruptions. We identified two species of Didymosphenia within the sediment record: D. geminata and D. clavaherculis (Ehrenberg) Metzeltin et Lange-Bertalot. This is the first published record of D. clavaherculis in North America. We found no statistically significant change in the numerical presence of D. geminata or D. clavaherculis, as a group, in Naknek Lake between the years 1218 and 2003. While there has been no sudden, or recent, increase in abundance of Didymosphenia in Naknek Lake, morphological features of D. geminata populations in Naknek Lake are distinct compared to morphological features of D. geminata in streams containing nuisance blooms from sites in North America and New Zealand. Variance in the morphology of Didymosphenia cells may help determine relationships between distinct sub-populations and establish the history of habitat invasion.

  1. Modeling shallow-water hydrodynamics: Rotations, rips, and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Joseph W.

    Hydrodynamic models are used as a diagnostic tool to understand the temporal variability of shallow-water processes that are difficult to completely resolve with traditional field measurements. For all simulations, modeled quantities are qualitatively or quantitatively compared with available measurements to gain confidence in conclusions derived from the modeled results. In this work we consider both vorticity motions and rip currents, which arise from alongshore inhomogeneities in the wave momentum flux but occur at much different time scales (O(min) vs. O(hours-weeks)). They each have an effect on sediment transport processes and dispersion of sediments or pollutants in the surf zone, which makes understanding their structure and persistence essential. The vorticity motions of interest here are associated with spatial and temporal wave height variations caused by wave grouping and can exist with either normally or obliquely incident wave conditions. We find that these flows persist for O(1000s) but their lifespan is controlled by the sequence of wave forcing rather than bottom friction as previously hypothesized. These motions can also be observed in combination with either stable or unstable alongshore currents. Our results suggest that, at times, these alongshore propagating wave group forced vortices are misinterpreted as instabilities of the alongshore current. Alternately, the rip currents considered in this research are controlled by strong wave height gradients in the surf zone generated by the refraction of incident waves over variable offshore depth contours. Thus, this type of circulation is governed by timescales associated with changing offshore wave conditions (O(hours - days)). We consider a four- week time period when variable offshore wave spectra were observed during a large-scale field experiment. The model and data are in good agreement for all wave conditions during the month and estimated model errors are similar to those found previously

  2. A comprehensive inventory of the Gulf of Alaska sponge fauna with the description of two new species and geographic range extensions.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Hamacantha (Vomerula) cassanoi n. sp. and Prosuberites salgadoi n. sp., are described from the eastern Gulf of Alaska in the North Pacific Ocean. These are the first records of the genera Hamacantha and Prosuberites from Alaska. We also report two geographic range extensions for the region. Geodia japonica Sollas, 1888 was previously known only from Japan and is now recorded from the Gulf of Alaska. We also document the first record of Rhizaxinella cervicornis Thiele, 1898 from the Gulf of Alaska. Our comprehensive inventory of the sponge fauna of the Gulf of Alaska confirms the presence of 52 taxa with an additional 38 taxa suspected of occurring in the region. This is a much lower number of species than that recorded from neighbouring regions like the Aleutian Islands and British Columbia. PMID:27470862

  3. A New Microbial Player on the Iron Redox Court of Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, I. M.; Rawls, M.; Coykendall, D. K.; Foustoukos, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple is thought to have been a significant early energy metabolism involved in some of the first biogeochemical processes on Earth (Weber et al., 2006). The early evolving and metal-rich nature of modern hydrothermal systems remain particularly significant for Fe-based activities (Vargas et al., 1998). Documented evidence from such systems show a variety of yet unknown microbial lineages potentially linked to the history of Fe (i.e., Meyer-Dombard and Amend, 2014). Here we describe a novel microbe that reduces Fe(III) at shallow-water hydrothermal vents in Milos Island, Greece. Our laboratory experiments show this strain, MAG-PB1T, to reduce Fe(III) between 30 - 70 °C, 0 - 50 g NaCl l-1 and pH 5.5 - 8.0. Shortest generation time occurred under optimal conditions (60 °C, ~1.8 g NaCl l-1, pH 6.0) with H2 as the energy source, CO2 as the carbon source and Fe(III) as electron acceptor. Its metabolic characteristics are, however, not limited to this pathway. Strain MAG-PB1T can also reduce Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate. Its use of at least 9 organic substrates as energy or carbon sources also demonstrates its mixotrophy. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analyses place strain MAG-PB1T within the Deltaproteobacteria, with the closest match (99%) being an uncultured microbe from hydrothermal springs in Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea (Meyer-Dombard and Amend, 2014). Its next closest match (97%) is Deferrisoma camini, isolated from a deep-sea vent in the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (Slobodkina et al. 2012). Our strain represents a novel species, which we named Deferrisoma paleochoriense. The occurrence of D. paleochoriense in the shallow-water vents of Milos and Ambitle islands coincides with high arsenic, iron and sulfide contents (Akerman et al., 2011; Price et al., 2013; Yücel et al., 2013). Consequently, our study provides important physiological and metabolic evidence of the feedback between metal chemistry and life in hydrothermal sytems rich in

  4. A new genus and species of Thyasiridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from deep-water, Beaufort Sea, northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Valentich-Scott, Paul; Powell, Charles L; Ii; Lorenson, Thomas D; Edwards, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Bivalve mollusk shells were collected in 2350 m depth in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean off northern Alaska. Initial identification suggested the specimens were a member of the bivalve family Thyasiridae, but no known eastern Pacific or Arctic living or fossil thyasirid resembled these deep-water specimens. Comparisons were made with the type of the genera Maorithyas Fleming, 1950, Spinaxinus Oliver & Holmes, 2006, Axinus Sowerby, 1821, and Parathyasira Iredale, 1930. We determined the Beaufort Sea species represents a new genus, herein described as Wallerconcha. These specimens also represent a new species, herein named Wallerconchasarae. These new taxa are compared with known modern and fossil genera and species of thyasirds. PMID:25589851

  5. Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Jorge; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Ferreira, Maria S G; Hollatz, Claudia; Gomes, Pedro T; Sousa, Ronaldo; Ravara, Ascensão; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens, which were assigned to 51 morphospecies. To our data set from Portugal, we added available published sequences selected from the same species, genus or family, to inspect for taxonomic congruence among studies and collection location. The final data set comprised 290 specimens and 79 morphospecies, which generated 99 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) within Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Among these, 22 BINs were singletons, 47 other BINs were concordant, confirming the initial identification based on morphological characters, and 30 were discordant, most of which consisted on multiple BINs found for the same morphospecies. Some of the most prominent cases in the latter category include Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (7), Eulalia viridis (Linnaeus, 1767) (2) and Owenia fusiformis (delle Chiaje, 1844) (5), all of them reported from Portugal and frequently used in ecological studies as environmental quality indicators. Our results for these species showed discordance between molecular lineages and morphospecies, or added additional relatively divergent lineages. The potential inaccuracies in environmental assessments, where underpinning polychaete species diversity is poorly resolved or clarified, demand additional and extensive investigation of the DNA barcode diversity in this group, in parallel with alpha taxonomy efforts. PMID:26129849

  6. Intertidal rocky shore seaweed communities subject to the influence of shallow water hydrothermal activity in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallenstein, Francisco M.; Couto, Ruben P.; Torrão, Daniel F.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.; Wilkinson, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The volcanic origin of the Azores archipelago (Portugal) gives rise to active deep sea and shallow water hydrothermal activity that affects benthic communities. Intertidal seaweed surveys were conducted at two shores affected by intense shallow water hydrothermal vents. Water temperature, acidity and salinity were monitored. Seaweed communities were found to be species poor and have a disproportionally larger number of filamentous early successional species on shores that are subject to the effect of hot and acidic freshwater of volcanic origin. There is an ecological resemblance between hydrothermally affected seaweed communities in the Azores and those affected by acid mine drainage in the UK, thus indicating that hydrothermalism can be a useful scenario for pollution studies under conditions of ocean warming and acidification.

  7. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  8. Habitat values for artificial oyster ( Crassostrea ariakensis) reefs compared with natural shallow-water habitats in Changjiang River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Weimin; Zheng, Lin; Li, Beijun; An, Chuanguang

    2013-09-01

    Oyster reefs have an equivalent, complex 3-dimensional structure to vegetated habitats and may provide similar functions in estuarine environments. Nevertheless, few studies have compared oyster reefs with adjacent natural shallow-water habitats. Here the resident benthic macroinvertebrate communities in an artificial oyster ( Crassostrea ariakensis) reef and in adjacent natural estuarine shallow-water habitats (salt marsh, intertidal mudflat, and subtidal soft bottom) in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary were described. The mean total densities and biomass, Margalef's species richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Weaver biodiversity indices of the resident benthic macroinvertebrate communities differed significantly among the habitats. Significantly higher densities and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates occurred in the oyster reef compared with the other three habitats. Ordination plots showed a clear separation in benthic macroinvertebrate communities among the four habitat types. The results demonstrated that the artificial oyster reef supported distinct and unique benthic communities, playing an important role in the complex estuarine habitat by supplying prey resources and contributing to biodiversity. In addition, the results suggested that the oyster reef had been restored successfully.

  9. Examining mechanisms in the final stages of the elimination of boreal tree species on vulnerable sites in boreal Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Jess, R.; Alix, C. M.; Verbyla, D.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Alaska and western Canada exist in a complex mosaic of environments determined by elevation, aspect of exposure, and longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of change from warm, dry continental to maritime-influenced conditions. This forest region is largely made up of trees with two growth responses to temperature increases. Trees that decrease in growth are termed negative responders, and occupy warm, dry sites at low elevations. Trees that increase in radial growth are termed positive responders, and are largely in western Alaska, and at high elevation of the Brooks and Alaska Ranges. Since the Pacific climate regime shift of the 1970s, mature trees at low elevation sites have experienced increasing climate stress in several quasi-decadal cycles of intensifying drought stress. NDVI trends and tree ring records demonstrating radial growth decline are coherent. Phenological monitoring of spruce height growth also indicates that depletion of spring soil moisture is a critical process driven by the interaction of early warm season temperatures and precipitation. Novel biotic disturbance agents including spruce budworm, outbreaks of which are triggered by warm temperature anomalies related to its biology, and aspen leaf miner are depressing realized growth below climatically predicted levels, suggesting a pathway by which tree death is likely to occur before absolute temperature limits. As a result, insect outbreaks are degrading the otherwise strong long-term climate signal in Alaska boreal trees. However, young tree (> 40 yrs.) regeneration generally does not yet display the symptoms of acute high temperature stress. Overall, on these vulnerable sites, if temperature increases similar to the past 40 years continue, long term survival prospects are questionable because the climate conditions would be outside the limits that have historically defined the species ranges of aspen, Alaska birch, and black and white spruce.

  10. Ecological Turnover of Shallow Water Carbonate Producers Following the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern coral reef ecosystems are under threat from global climate change (and associated, synergistic stresses) and local environmental degradation. Therefore, it is important for ecologists to understand how ecosystems adapt and recover from climate change. The fossil record provides excellent case studies of similar events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Although Paleocene and Eocene shallow water carbonates have not received the same degree of attention as the deep-water record, the PETM provides an opportunity to study the role of alternative stable states in maintaining the health and diversity of shallow water carbonate environments. It is generally accepted that during the PETM there is a transition from reef systems to foraminiferal shoals as the dominant shallow water carbonate producers. In fact, previous work has documented this interval as one of the major metazoan reef collapses of the Phanerozoic. This study fills an important gap in the shallow-water PETM record by quantitatively measuring the changes in carbonate production and ecology of 15 localities as they shift from coral reefs to foraminiferal shoal. The quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis is accomplished by using data from the PaleoReefs database and a simple carbonate production calculation to estimate the productivity of the shallow water system. Ecological data are gathered through a literature review of the localities. The results of this study will enable a better understanding of how modern reefs may react to global climate and environmental change.

  11. Adaptation to deep-sea methane seeps from Cretaceous shallow-water black shale environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Wiese, Frank; Titus, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Sulfide-enriched environments in shallow water were considered as sites where animals acquire pre-adaptations enabling them to colonize deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps or where they survived extinction events in their deep-sea habitats. Here we present upper Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) shallow-water seep communities from the Tropic Shale in the Western Interior Seaway, USA, that lived during a time of extremely warm deep-water temperatures, which supposedly facilitates adaptations to the deep sea, and time-equivalent with a period of widespread oceanic and photic zone anoxia (OAE 2) that supposedly extinguished deep-water vent and seep faunas. Contrary to the expectation, the taxa inhabiting the Tropic Shale seeps were not found at any coeval or younger deep-water seep or vent deposit. This suggests that (i) pre-adaptations for living at deep-sea vents and seeps do not evolve at shallow-water methane seeps, and probably also not in sulfide-rich shallow-water environments in general; (ii) a low temperature gradient from shallow to deep water does not facilitate onshore-offshore adaptations to deep-sea vents and seeps; and (iii) shallow-water seeps did not act as refuges for deep-sea vent and seep animals. We hypothesize that the vast majority of adaptations to successfully colonize deep-sea vents and seeps are acquired below the photic zone.

  12. A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerroukat, M.; Allen, T.

    2015-06-01

    The shallow water equations have long been used as an initial test for numerical methods applied to atmospheric models with the test suite of Williamson et al. [1] being used extensively for validating new schemes and assessing their accuracy. However the lack of physics forcing within this simplified framework often requires numerical techniques to be reworked when applied to fully three dimensional models. In this paper a novel two-dimensional shallow water equations system that retains moist processes is derived. This system is derived from three-dimensional Boussinesq approximation of the hydrostatic Euler equations where, unlike the classical shallow water set, we allow the density to vary slightly with temperature. This results in extra (or buoyancy) terms for the momentum equations, through which a two-way moist-physics dynamics feedback is achieved. The temperature and moisture variables are advected as separate tracers with sources that interact with the mean-flow through a simplified yet realistic bulk moist-thermodynamic phase-change model. This moist shallow water system provides a unique tool to assess the usually complex and highly non-linear dynamics-physics interactions in atmospheric models in a simple yet realistic way. The full non-linear shallow water equations are solved numerically on several case studies and the results suggest quite realistic interaction between the dynamics and physics and in particular the generation of cloud and rain.

  13. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  14. Blue-winged teals swim in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of blue-winged teals glide through the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Inhabiting marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, the teal winters as far south as South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  15. Marine bird and cetacean associations with bathymetric habitats and shallow-water topographies: implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Peggy P. W.; Sydeman, William J.; Hyrenbach, K. David

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the aggregative response of marine birds and cetaceans to bathymetric features in central California over 4 years, 1996-1997 and 2001-2002. A total of 1700 km 2 of ocean habitat was surveyed over six cruises. We considered the distribution of the most abundant marine birds and mammals in relation to bathymetry. We focused our analyses on eight focal taxa: Cassin's auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), common murre ( Uria aalge), sooty shearwater ( Puffinus grieus), phalarope species (red, and red-necked: Phalaropus fulicaria, Phalaropus lobatus), Dall's porpoise ( Phocoenoides dalli), Pacific white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae), and Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus). We evaluated associations of top predators with seven bathymetric indices and three distance measurements to shallow-water topographies. The bathymetric descriptors included (1) median depth, (2) depth coefficient of variation, (3) contour index, and shortest distance to (4) the mainland, (5) the continental shelf-break (200-m isobath), (6) the continental slope (1000-m isobath), and (7) pelagic waters (3000-m isobath). The measurements of shallow water topographies included the shortest distance to: (8) the Cordell Bank seamount, (9) the Farallon Island Archipelago (a breeding colony for auklets and murres), and (10) Monterey Canyon. We documented two instances of spatial autocorrelation (for Cassin's auklet and common murre) at lags (distances) of 0-3 and 3-9 km, respectively, and accounted for this spatial pattern in analyses of habitat associations. We found similar relationships between cetaceans and bathymetric features at both interannual and weekly time scales. Seabirds revealed both persistent and variable relationships through time. For the resident breeding murres, we detected an interannual trend in habitat use, with these birds shifting their distribution offshore over time. Our study demonstrates that resident and

  16. On the relevance of a variational iteration method for solving the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungkasi, Sudi; Wiryanto, Leo Hari

    2016-02-01

    We solve the shallow water equations using a variational iteration method due to Ji-Huan He. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are investigated. Some reference solutions are used to assess the performance of the variational iteration method. Variational iteration solutions are mesh-free, which makes the computation easy at any point at any time. However, we must understand the validity of these solutions for large time values. The goal of this paper is to verify the validity of variational iteration solutions, when the method is used to solve the shallow water equations.

  17. Three-dimensional mapping of evolving internal waves during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Wan, Lin; Song, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of sound speed profiles and the sound speed profile's spatial and temporal variability resulting from internal waves (IWs) are indispensable to investigating significant acoustic field fluctuations in shallow water. A strategy to obtain a time-varying, three-dimensional (3D) IW temperature field is presented. It uses two types of simultaneous measurements: dense observations from a farm of thermistor strings and IW surface expressions from a ship-based radar. Using data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment, the temperature field, over multiple kilometers in range, was reconstructed and, fed to a 3D acoustic model to demonstrate IW impacts on acoustic propagation. PMID:23862909

  18. A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models

    SciTech Connect

    Zerroukat, M. Allen, T.

    2015-06-01

    The shallow water equations have long been used as an initial test for numerical methods applied to atmospheric models with the test suite of Williamson et al. being used extensively for validating new schemes and assessing their accuracy. However the lack of physics forcing within this simplified framework often requires numerical techniques to be reworked when applied to fully three dimensional models. In this paper a novel two-dimensional shallow water equations system that retains moist processes is derived. This system is derived from three-dimensional Boussinesq approximation of the hydrostatic Euler equations where, unlike the classical shallow water set, we allow the density to vary slightly with temperature. This results in extra (or buoyancy) terms for the momentum equations, through which a two-way moist-physics dynamics feedback is achieved. The temperature and moisture variables are advected as separate tracers with sources that interact with the mean-flow through a simplified yet realistic bulk moist-thermodynamic phase-change model. This moist shallow water system provides a unique tool to assess the usually complex and highly non-linear dynamics–physics interactions in atmospheric models in a simple yet realistic way. The full non-linear shallow water equations are solved numerically on several case studies and the results suggest quite realistic interaction between the dynamics and physics and in particular the generation of cloud and rain. - Highlights: • Novel shallow water equations which retains moist processes are derived from the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq equations. • The new shallow water set can be seen as a more general one, where the classical equations are a special case of these equations. • This moist shallow water system naturally allows a feedback mechanism from the moist physics increments to the momentum via buoyancy. • Like full models, temperature and moistures are advected as tracers that interact

  19. Geostatistical investigation into the temporal evolution of spatial structure in a shallow water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.; Lembo, A. J.; Walter, M. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2006-02-01

    Shallow water tables near-streams often lead to saturated, overland flow generating areas in catchments in humid climates. While these saturated areas are assumed to be principal biogeochemical hot-spots and important for issues such as non-point pollution sources, the spatial and temporal behavior of shallow water tables, and associated saturated areas, is not completely understood. This study demonstrates how geostatistical methods can be used to characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the shallow water table for the near-stream region. Event-based and seasonal changes in the spatial structure of the shallow water table, which influences the spatial pattern of surface saturation and related runoff generation, can be identified and used in conjunction to characterize the hydrology of an area. This is accomplished through semivariogram analysis and indicator kriging to produce maps combining soft data (i.e., proxy information to the variable of interest) representing general shallow water table patterns with hard data (i.e., actual measurements) that represent variation in the spatial structure of the shallow water table per rainfall event. The area used was a hillslope in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. The shallow water table was monitored for a 120 m×180 m near-stream region at 44 sampling locations on 15-min intervals. Outflow of the area was measured at the same time interval. These data were analyzed at a short time interval (15 min) and at a long time interval (months) to characterize the changes in the hydrologic behavior of the hillslope. Indicator semivariograms based on binary-transformed ground water table data (i.e., 1 if exceeding the time-variable median depth to water table and 0 if not) were created for both short and long time intervals. For the short time interval, the indicator semivariograms showed a high degree of spatial structure in the shallow water table for the spring, with increased range during many rain

  20. Shallow-water reef ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) of Réunion (Mascarene Islands), with biogeographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Boissin, Emilie; Hoareau, Thierry B; Paulay, Gustav; Bruggemann, J Henrich

    2016-01-01

    Despite their importance in marine biodiversity, invertebrates are far less studied than vertebrates. Given the current global biodiversity crisis and insufficient taxonomic resources, sustained efforts need to be undertaken to assess species diversity, especially in the highly threatened 'biodiversity hotspots'. Réunion is a young volcanic island lying in the Mascarene Islands (south-western Indian Ocean, SWIO), a marine biodiversity hotspot. A substantial sampling effort was conducted around Réunion Island to document shallow water reef-associated ophiuroid (brittle-stars) diversity, a class recognised as the most diverse among echinoderms. A total of 33 species were documented, increasing the known species richness of the island by 56%. Findings include 15 new records for Réunion, 11 for the Mascarene Islands and 8 for the Indian Ocean. The most diverse family was Ophiocomidae, a family of large, abundant and conspicuous tropical species. Even in this well studied family, a new species was revealed by this survey. Morphological variants together with DNA sequence variations within several species revealed cryptic species. We compared our results with the known fauna of other Mascarene Islands and discuss biogeographic implications for the region. PMID:27394586

  1. Sugarcane Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on a Histosol with shallow Water Table and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables on Histosols in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida. Through microbial oxidation, these soils provide excess N for sugarcane, but it is not known if supplemental N would improve yields when micr...

  2. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  3. Higher Order Corrections for Shallow-Water Solitary Waves: Elementary Derivation and Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasz, Gabor B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an elementary method to obtain the equations of the shallow-water solitary waves in different orders of approximation. The first two of these equations are solved to get the shapes and propagation velocities of the corresponding solitary waves. The first-order equation is shown to be equivalent to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,…

  4. Comparison of shallow water table depth algorithms used in SWAT2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the ground surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage....

  5. Incorporation of a new shallow water table depth algorithm into SWAT 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage. Theref...

  6. SWIM: A Semi-Analytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm for Optically Shallow Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean color remote sensing provides synoptic-scale, near-daily observations of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs). Whilst contemporary ocean color algorithms are known to perform well in deep oceanic waters, they have difficulty operating in optically clear, shallow marine environments where light reflected from the seafloor contributes to the water-leaving radiance. The effect of benthic reflectance in optically shallow waters is known to adversely affect algorithms developed for optically deep waters [1, 2]. Whilst adapted versions of optically deep ocean color algorithms have been applied to optically shallow regions with reasonable success [3], there is presently no approach that directly corrects for bottom reflectance using existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic albedo.To address the issue of optically shallow waters, we have developed a semi-analytical ocean color inversion algorithm: the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM). SWIM uses existing bathymetry and a derived benthic albedo map to correct for bottom reflectance using the semi-analytical model of Lee et al [4]. The algorithm was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Groups L2GEN program and tested in optically shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. In-lieu of readily available in situ matchup data, we present a comparison between SWIM and two contemporary ocean color algorithms, the Generalized Inherent Optical Property Algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA).

  7. New shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT2005: recent modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proximity of the shallow water table depth (wtd) to the soil surface impacts agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, it is essential for hydrologic models to accurately simulate wtd. Recently, an...

  8. Questions Student Ask: Why Is It Harder to Paddle a Canoe in Shallow Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Explains the effect that depth of water has on the speed of Olympic-style racing canoes and kayaks. Indicates that canoes are harder to paddle in shallow water because the skin friction drag increases appreciable when the water depth decreases. (DH)

  9. Evaluation of 2D shallow-water model for spillway flow with a complex geometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water model is formulated based on several assumptions such as hydrostatic pressure distribution and vertical velocity is negligible, as a simple alternative to the complex 3D model, it has been used to compute water flows in which these assumptions may be ...

  10. Geostatistical investigation into the temporal evolution of spatial structure in a shallow water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.; Lembo, A. J.; Walter, M. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2005-08-01

    Shallow water tables in the near-stream region often lead to saturated areas in catchments in humid climates. While these saturated areas are assumed to be of importance for issues such as non-point pollution sources, little is known about the spatial and temporal behavior of shallow water tables and the resulting saturated areas. In this study, geostatistical methods are employed demonstrating their utility in investigating the spatial and temporal variation of the shallow water table for the near-stream region. Event-based and seasonal changes in the spatial structure of the shallow water table, which directly influences surface saturation and runoff generation, can be identified and used in conjunction to characterize the hydrology of an area. This is accomplished through semivariogram analysis and indicator kriging to produce maps combining supplemental soft data (i.e., proxy information to the variable of interest) representing seasonal trends in the shallow water table with hard data (i.e., the actual measurements) that represent variation in the spatial structure of the shallow water table per rainfall event. The area used was a hillslope located in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. The shallow water table was monitored for a 120 m×180 m near-stream region at 44 sampling locations on 15-min intervals. Outflow of the area was measured at the same time interval. These data were analyzed at a short time interval (15 min) and at a long time interval (months) to characterize the changes in the hydrology of the region. Indicator semivariograms based on transforming the depth to ground water table data into binary values (i.e., 1 if exceeding the time-variable median depth to water table and 0 if not) were created for both time interval lengths. When considering only the short time interval, the indicator semivariograms for spring when there is excess rainfall show high spatial structure with increased ranges during rain events with surface

  11. A new genus and species of Thyasiridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from deep-water, Beaufort Sea, northern Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Valentich-Scott, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; II; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Edwards, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bivalve mollusk shells were collected in 2350 m depth in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean off northern Alaska. Initial identification suggested the specimens were a member of the bivalve family Thyasiridae, but no known eastern Pacific or Arctic living or fossil thyasirid resembled these deep-water specimens. Comparisons were made with the type of the genera Maorithyas Fleming, 1950, Spinaxinus Oliver & Holmes, 2006, Axinus Sowerby, 1821, and Parathyasira Iredale, 1930. We determined the Beaufort Sea species represents a new genus, herein described as Wallerconcha. These specimens also represent a new species, herein named Wallerconcha sarae. These new taxa are compared with known modern and fossil genera and species of thyasirds. PMID:25589851

  12. Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadelliadae) associated with potatoes in Alaska: species composition, seasonal abundance, and potential vectors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhopper transmitted phytoplasma diseases are an emerging problem for potato and vegetable producers in the conterminous US. Due to its geographical isolation and climatic constrains, Alaska is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests; therefore growers in the state are exploring th...

  13. Leafhopper and aphids associated with potato in Alaska: species composition, seasonal abundance, and potential virus vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests; therefore, growers in the state are exploring the potential of producing seed potato for export. However, the biology of agricultural insect pests in the circumpolar region ...

  14. Exploring a multi-resolution modeling approach within the shallow-water equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd; Jacobsen, Doug; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili; Duda, Michael; Skamarock, William

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve the global shallow-water equations with a conforming, variable-resolution mesh is evaluated using standard shallow-water test cases. While the long-term motivation for this study is the creation of a global climate modeling framework capable of resolving different spatial and temporal scales in different regions, the process begins with an analysis of the shallow-water system in order to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach developed herein. The multiresolution meshes are spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations where a single, user-supplied density function determines the region(s) of fine- and coarsemesh resolution. The shallow-water system is explored with a suite of meshes ranging from quasi-uniform resolution meshes, where the grid spacing is globally uniform, to highly variable resolution meshes, where the grid spacing varies by a factor of 16 between the fine and coarse regions. The potential vorticity is found to be conserved to within machine precision and the total available energy is conserved to within a time-truncation error. This result holds for the full suite of meshes, ranging from quasi-uniform resolution and highly variable resolution meshes. Based on shallow-water test cases 2 and 5, the primary conclusion of this study is that solution error is controlled primarily by the grid resolution in the coarsest part of the model domain. This conclusion is consistent with results obtained by others.When these variable-resolution meshes are used for the simulation of an unstable zonal jet, the core features of the growing instability are found to be largely unchanged as the variation in the mesh resolution increases. The main differences between the simulations occur outside the region of mesh refinement and these differences are attributed to the additional truncation error that accompanies increases in grid spacing. Overall, the results demonstrate support for this approach as a path toward

  15. Atlas of Relations Between Climatic Parameters and Distributions of Important Trees and Shrubs in North America - Alaska Species and Ecoregions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Strickland, Laura E.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate is the primary factor in controlling the continental-scale distribution of plant species, although the relations between climatic parameters and species' ranges is only now beginning to be quantified. Preceding volumes of this atlas explored the continental-scale relations between climatic parameters and the distributions of woody plant species across all of the continent of North America. This volume presents similar information for important woody species, groups of species, and ecoregions in more detail for the State of Alaska. For these analyses, we constructed a 25-kilometer equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters for North America from instrumental weather records. We obtained a digital representation of the geographic distribution of each species or ecoregion, either from a published source or by digitizing the published distributions ourselves. The presence or absence of each species or ecoregion was then determined for each point on the 25-kilometer grid, thus providing a basis for comparison of the climatic data with the geographic distribution of each species or ecoregion. The relations between climate and these distributions are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  16. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Chile has been sparsely studied in regards to its invertebrate fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around the port of Caldera (27 °S), in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. Eight species of sea slugs were found in this study: Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi (Marcus, 1959), Baptodoris peruviana (d'Orbigny, 1837), Diaulula variolata (d'Orbigny, 1837), Doris fontainii d'Orbigny, 1837, Onchidella marginata (Couthouy in Gould, 1852), Phidiana lottini (Lesson, 1831), Tyrinna delicata (Abraham, 1877) and the new species Berthella schroedli sp. nov., described herein. All of the species found in the area are endemic to South America, having distributions in the southeastern Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, from Ancash, Perú to Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, and two of them represent species which are endemic to the Chilean coasts (Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi and Berthella schroedli). The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Atacama. PMID:27168975

  17. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Chile has been sparsely studied in regards to its invertebrate fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around the port of Caldera (27 °S), in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. Eight species of sea slugs were found in this study: Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi (Marcus, 1959), Baptodoris peruviana (d’Orbigny, 1837), Diaulula variolata (d’Orbigny, 1837), Doris fontainii d’Orbigny, 1837, Onchidella marginata (Couthouy in Gould, 1852), Phidiana lottini (Lesson, 1831), Tyrinna delicata (Abraham, 1877) and the new species Berthella schroedli sp. nov., described herein. All of the species found in the area are endemic to South America, having distributions in the southeastern Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, from Ancash, Perú to Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, and two of them represent species which are endemic to the Chilean coasts (Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi and Berthella schroedli). The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Atacama. PMID:27168975

  18. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 108 cells g−1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology. PMID:23847607

  19. Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents in the Gulf of California: Natural Laboratories for Multidisciplinary Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Hilton, D. R.; Price, R. E.; Kulongoski, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modern and fossil examples of shallow water submarine hydrothermal vents occur throughout the Gulf of California. These sites offer important information about the processes involved in the extensional tectonics that created the Gulf of California and continue to shape the region to this day. Due to their accessibility, shallow water marine hydrothermal vents are far easier to access and study than their deeper analogs, and these settings can provide natural laboratories to study biogeochemical processes. Certain biogeochemical and biomineralizing processes occurring at shallow vents are very similar to those observed around deep-sea hydrothermal vents. In some cases, authigenic carbonates form around shallow vents. However, the hydrothermal precipitates are generally composed of Fe-oxyhydroxides, Mn-oxides, opal, calcite, pyrite and cinnabar, and their textural and morphological characteristics suggest microbial mediation for mineral deposition. Modern shallow-water hydrothermal vents also support complex biotic communities, characterized by the coexistence of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms. These shallow vents are highly productive and provide valuable resources to local fishermen. Extant shallow water hydrothermal activity has been studied in Bahía Concepción, San Felipe, Punta Estrella, El Coloradito, Puertecitos, and around the Islas Encantadas. Discrete streams of gas bubbles are often discharged along with hot liquids at shallow water vents. The vent liquids generally exhibit lower salinities than seawater, and their isotopic compositions indicate that they contain meteoric water mixed with seawater. The composition of the shallow vent gas is primarily made up of CO2, but may also be enriched in N2, H2S, CH4, and other higher hydrocarbons. The geochemistry of these gases can be informative in determining the sources and processes involved in their generation. In particular, 3He/4He ratios may provide valuable information about the origin of

  20. A Global Semi-Lagrangian Spectral Model of the Shallow-Water Equations with Variable Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Guo, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A time-dependent focusing grid works together with the formulation of a semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian spectral method for the shallow-water equations in a rotated and stretched spherical geometry. The conformal mapping of the underlying discrete grid based on the Schmidt transformation, focuses grid on a particular region or path with variable resolution. A new advective form of the vorticity-divergence equations allows for the conformal map to be incorporated while maintaining an efficient spectral transform algorithm. A shallow water model on the sphere is used to test the spectral model with variable resolution. We are able to focus on a specified location resolving local details of the flow. More importantly, we could follow the features of the flow at all time.

  1. Energy and Potential Enstrophy Conserving Scheme for the Rotating Shallow Water Equations on an Arbitrary Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, C.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The shallow water equations provide a useful analogue of fully compressible Euler equations since they have similar conservation laws, many of the same types of waves and a similar (quasi-) balanced state. With regards to conservation properties, there have been two major thrusts of research: Hamiltonian methods (work done by Salmon and Dubos, primarily) and Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC; Thuburn, Cotter, Ringler, etc.). In particular, recent work done by Thuburn and Cotter (2011) introduced a generalized framework for energy-conservative C-grid discretizations of the rotating shallow water equation using ideas from Discrete Exterior Calculus. The current research elucidates the connections between the Hamiltonian and DEC approaches, and looks at potential enstrophy conservation in addition to total energy conservation. As an illustration of this approach, an extension of the Arakawa and Lamb 1981 total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme to arbitrary, non-orthogonal polygonal grids is made.

  2. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within themore » Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.« less

  3. Initial Value Problem Solution of Nonlinear Shallow Water-Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2006-10-06

    The initial value problem solution of the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations is developed under initial waveforms with and without velocity. We present a solution method based on a hodograph-type transformation to reduce the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations into a second-order linear partial differential equation and we solve its initial value problem. The proposed solution method overcomes earlier limitation of small waveheights when the initial velocity is nonzero, and the definition of the initial conditions in the physical and transform spaces is consistent. Our solution not only allows for evaluation of differences in predictions when specifying an exact initial velocity based on nonlinear theory and its linear approximation, which has been controversial in geophysical practice, but also helps clarify the differences in runup observed during the 2004 and 2005 Sumatran tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  4. Iterative Receiver in Time-Frequency Domain for Shallow Water Acoustic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jianhua

    2012-03-01

    Inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel, degrades the performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication systems. In this paper, we combine soft minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalization and the serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoding to develop an iterative receiver in time-frequency domain (TFD) for underwater acoustic point to point communications. Based on sound speed profile (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray (FER) tracing method (Bellhop), the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. The results suggest that the proposed iterative receiver can reduce the calculation complexity of the equalizer and obtain better performance using less receiving elements.

  5. Double criticality and the two-way Boussinesq equation in stratified shallow water hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Thomas J.; Ratliff, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    Double criticality and its nonlinear implications are considered for stratified N-layer shallow water flows with N = 1, 2, 3. Double criticality arises when the linearization of the steady problem about a uniform flow has a double zero eigenvalue. We find that there are two types of double criticality: non-semisimple (one eigenvector and one generalized eigenvector) and semi-simple (two independent eigenvectors). Using a multiple scales argument, dictated by the type of singularity, it is shown that the weakly nonlinear problem near double criticality is governed by a two-way Boussinesq equation (non-semisimple case) and a coupled Korteweg-de Vries equation (semisimple case). Parameter values and reduced equations are constructed for the examples of two-layer and three-layer stratified shallow water hydrodynamics.

  6. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.

  7. Flows caused by rise of a rectangular bar partially immersed in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsovaa, V. V.; Ostapenko, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The wave flows caused by the vertical rise of a rectangular bar partially immersed in shallow water filling a rectangular prismatic channel with a horizontal bottom are investigated. Such flows are modeled within the framework of the first approximation of the theory of shallow water disregarding the effect of drag, the viscosity of the fluid, and its surface tension. The case is considered when at the second stage of flow at which the edges of the lower surface of the bar start to come out from the water, the pressure in the region of contact of the bar with the fluid is less than atmospheric one. For this case, an explicit formula setting the law of motion of this boundary is obtained.

  8. Multiwavelet Discontinuous Galerkin Accelerated ELP Method for the Shallow Water Equations on the Cubed Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    White III, James B; Archibald, Richard K; Evans, Katherine J; Drake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to increase the time-step size for an explicit discontinuous Galerkin numerical method. The attributes of this approach are demonstrated on standard tests for the shallow-water equations on the sphere. The addition of multiwavelets to discontinuous Galerkin method, which has the benefit of being scalable, flexible, and conservative, provides a hierarchical scale structure that can be exploited to improve computational efficiency in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. This paper explains how combining a multiwavelet discontinuous Galerkin method with exact linear part time-evolution schemes, which can remain stable for implicit-sized time steps, can help increase the time-step size for shallow water equations on the sphere.

  9. A modified Rusanov scheme for shallow water equations with topography and two phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Kamel; Benkhaldoun, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we introduce a finite volume method for numerical simulation of shallow water equations with source terms in one and two space dimensions, and one-pressure model of two-phase flows in one space dimension. The proposed method is composed of two steps. The first, called predictor step, depends on a local parameter allowing to control the numerical diffusion. A strategy based on limiters theory enables to control this parameter. The second step recovers the conservation equation. The scheme can thus be turned to order 1 in the regions where the flow has a strong variation, and order 2 in the regions where the flow is regular. The numerical scheme is applied to several test cases in one and two space dimensions. This scheme demonstrates its well-balanced property, and that it is an efficient and accurate approach for solving shallow water equations with and without source terms, and water faucet problem.

  10. Shock capturing data assimilation algorithm for 1D shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, Seshu; T. Tchrakian, Tigran; Zhuk, Sergiy; McKenna, Sean

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new data assimilation algorithm for shallow water equations in one dimension. The algorithm is based upon Discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization of shallow water equations (DG-SW model) and the continuous formulation of the minimax filter. The latter allows for construction of a robust estimation of the state of the DG-SW model and computes worst-case bounds for the estimation error, provided the uncertain parameters belong to a given bounding set. Numerical studies show that, given sparse observations from numerical or physical experiments, the proposed algorithm quickly reconstructs the true solution even in the presence of shocks, rarefaction waves and unknown values of model parameters. The minimax filter is compared against the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for a benchmark dam-break problem and the results show that the minimax filter converges faster to the true solution for sparse observations.

  11. Sound speed profile inversion using a horizontal line array in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, ZhengLin; He, Li; Zhang, RenHe; Li, FengHua; Yu, YanXin; Lin, Peng

    2015-01-01

    It is better to use a simple configuration to enhance the applicability of ocean environment inversion in shallow water. A matched-field inversion method based on a horizontal line array (HLA) is used to retrieve the variation of sound speed profile. The performance of the inversion method is verified in the South China Sea in June, 2010. An HLA laid at bottom was used to receive signals from a bottom-mounted transducer. Inverted mean sound speed profiles from 9-hour long acoustic signals are in good agreement with measurements from two temperature chains at the sites of the source and receiver. The results show that an HLA can be used to monitor the variability of shallow-water sound speed profile.

  12. Inversion for Sound Speed Profile by Using a Bottom Mounted Horizontal Line Array in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Ren-He

    2010-08-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography is an appealing technique for remote monitoring of the ocean environment. In shallow water, matched field processing (MFP) with a vertical line array is one of the widely used methods for inverting the sound speed profile (SSP) of water column. The approach adopted is to invert the SSP with a bottom mounted horizontal line array (HLA) based on MFP. Empirical orthonormal functions are used to express the SSP, and perturbation theory is used in the forward sound field calculation. This inversion method is applied to the data measured in a shallow water acoustic experiment performed in 2003. Successful results show that the bottom mounted HLA is able to estimate the SSP. One of the most important advantages of the inversion method with bottom mounted HLA is that the bottom mounted HLA can keep a stable array shape and is safe in a relatively long period.

  13. Biological implications of the hydrodynamics of swimming at or near the surface and in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Blake, R W

    2009-03-01

    The origins and effects of wave drag at and near the surface and in shallow water are discussed in terms of the dispersive waves generated by streamlined technical bodies of revolution and by semi-aquatic and aquatic animals with a view to bearing on issues regarding the design and function of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles. A simple two-dimensional model based on energy flux, allowing assessment of drag and its associated wave amplitude, is applied to surface swimming in Lesser Scaup ducks and is in good agreement with measured values. It is argued that hydrodynamic limitations to swimming at speeds associated with the critical Froude number ( approximately 0.5) and hull speed do not necessarily set biological limitations as most behaviours occur well below the hull speed. From a comparative standpoint, the need for studies on the hull displacement of different forms is emphasized. For forms in surface proximity, drag is a function of both Froude and Reynolds numbers. Whilst the depth dependence of wave drag is not particularly sensitive to Reynolds number, its magnitude is, with smaller and slower forms subject to relatively less drag augmentation than larger, faster forms that generate additional resistance due to ventilation and spray. A quasi-steady approach to the hydrodynamics of swimming in shallow water identifies substantial drag increases relative to the deeply submerged case at Froude numbers of about 0.9 that could limit the performance of semi-aquatic and aquatic animals and autonomous vehicles. A comparative assessment of fast-starting trout and upside down catfish shows that the energy losses of fast-starting fish are likely to be less for fish in surface proximity in deep water than for those in shallow water. Further work on unsteady swimming in both circumstances is encouraged. Finally, perspectives are offered as to how autonomous surface and underwater vehicles in surface proximity and shallow water could function to avoid

  14. Regularized shallow water equations for numerical simulation of flows with a moving shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, O. V.; Elizarova, T. G.

    2016-04-01

    A numerical algorithm for simulating free-surface flows based on regularized shallow water equations is adapted to flows involving moving dry-bed areas. Well-balanced versions of the algorithm are constructed. Test computations of flows with dry-bed areas in the cases of water runup onto a plane beach and a constant-slope beach are presented. An example of tsunami simulation is given.

  15. Generalized energy and potential enstrophy conserving finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramopoulos, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The conditions under which finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations can conserve both total energy and potential enstrophy are considered. A method of deriving such schemes using operator formalism is developed. Several such schemes are derived for the A-, B- and C-grids. The derived schemes include second-order schemes and pseudo-fourth-order schemes. The simplest B-grid pseudo-fourth-order schemes are presented.

  16. Biding their time - Insights from propagule experiments into the assemblage composition of shallow-water foraminifera under environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Goldstein, Susan T.

    2016-04-01

    The assemblage composition of shallow-water foraminifera in coastal environments is often strongly influenced by water temperature and salinity. Community structures of foraminifera have long been used as indicators for environmental change. This is - at least partly - due to their ability to respond quickly to changing local conditions, which becomes increasingly important in the wake of ongoing climate change. In this study, we examined the range of assemblage compositions that grow and develop under different combinations of temperature and salinity. We did this by applying the Propagule Method using several coastal sites in Georgia and Florida (United States). The Propagule Method is an experimental tool for examining the growth of foraminiferal assemblages from suites of tiny juveniles that occur in the "propagule banks" found within the fine fraction of the sediment. We exposed the propagule banks from our study sites to different temperatures (18, 24, and 30°C) and salinities (15 and 35) over a period of 5 weeks, to simulate different shallow-water conditions. Results show that foraminifera grew abundantly in all experimental treatments, with increased growth and reproduction occurring at higher temperatures (24 and 30°C). Salinity had a strong influence on the species composition of the experimental assemblages. The most successful species were opportunists and known "pioneer" species such as Ammonia tepida (Cushman) or Quinqueloculina seminula (Linné). However, we also found significant numbers of allochthonous or "exotic" species that occurred only in rare numbers or were even absent from the living in situ assemblages of the study sites. The presence of allochthonous taxa resulted from propagule recruitment from areas beyond our immediate study sites. These propagules - which might be transported even beyond their ecological range - may remain viable within the propagule bank until environmental conditions become favorable. As such, they are "biding

  17. A Gegenbauer-based Shallow Water solver for a thick "ocean" over a rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Ofer; Paldor, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Gegenbauer Harmonics which are the eigenfunctions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations in spherical coordinates for a thick layer of ocean are examined as alternative basis functions for global-scale spectral models. The performance of this basis is compared to that of the traditional Spherical Harmonics basis by testing the accuracy and stability with which the two bases simulate a single, analytic, wave mode of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations. For the linear equations our results show that for low initial wavenumbers the Spherical Harmonics are able to conserve the single wave mode with comparable accuracy to that of the proposed Gegenbauer Harmonics basis while at high initial wavenumbers the simulation with the Spherical Harmonics is significantly less accurate than the simulation with the Gegenbauer Harmonics. By considering a range of ocean thicknesses it is found that, for thin oceans, the Spherical Harmonics become numerically unstable after about 150 days, whereas the proposed Gegenbauer Harmonics remain stable even though they too are not the eigenfunctions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations in thin oceans. This numerical instability of the Spherical Harmonics is independent of the wave's period and was not observed in thick oceans where the simulation remained stable for at least 200 days. Our results suggest that the numerical instability of the Spherical Harmonics originates at the poles. For the non-linear equations our results show that the Spherical Harmonics solutions are less accurate than the Gegenbauer Harmonics even in a thick ocean.

  18. Pressure gradient sensors for bearing determination in shallow water tracking ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Peter J.; Euerle, Steven E.; Menoche, Richard K.; Janiesch, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Underwater acoustic tracking has traditionally used only the arrival time of tracking pings to localize targets. This implies that the ping transmitted from a target must be received at a minimum of three separate nodes (receiver locations) in order to determine the position. For deep water ranges this was acceptable. In shallow water, where propagation ranges are limited, this requires a large number of nodes. This makes shallow water ranges very costly. An effort is underway to use pressure gradient hydrophones as receivers and measure the bearing of the ping arrival along with arrival time, thereby locating the target using only one tracking node. This allows for increased node spacing and greatly reduced cost. However, the accuracy required for training ranges is on the order of 1 degree. Further, the directional receiver must be housed so as to withstand impacts from fishing operations. Research including design, fabrication, and testing of conventional and unconventional pressure gradient hydrophones, the housing, and signal processing methods are discussed. Extensive testing has already been conducted using a 1″ diameter by 5″ long multimode hydrophone. A shallow water tracking test was conducted at the NUWC Lake Seneca test facility. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tracking using a single pressure gradient hydrophone with an accuracy of 50 yds out to 2 kyds. The effects of multiple paths and scattering are also discussed.

  19. Diversity and Distribution of Prokaryotes within a Shallow-Water Pockmark Field.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Fiorentino, Federica; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Vetriani, Costantino; Yücel, Mustafa; Taviani, Marco; Manini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are crater-like depression on the seafloor associated with hydrocarbon ascent through muddy sediments in continental shelves around the world. In this study, we examine the diversity and distribution of benthic microbial communities at shallow-water pockmarks adjacent to the Middle Adriatic Ridge. We integrate microbial diversity data with characterization of local hydrocarbons concentrations and sediment geochemistry. Our results suggest these pockmarks are enriched in sedimentary hydrocarbons, and host a microbial community dominated by Bacteria, even in deeper sediment layers. Pockmark sediments showed higher prokaryotic abundance and biomass than surrounding sediments, potentially due to the increased availability of organic matter and higher concentrations of hydrocarbons linked to pockmark activity. Prokaryotic diversity analyses showed that the microbial communities of these shallow-water pockmarks are unique, and comprised phylotypes associated with the cycling of sulfur and nitrate compounds, as well as numerous know hydrocarbon degraders. Altogether, this study suggests that shallow-water pockmark habitats enhance the diversity of the benthic prokaryotic biosphere by providing specialized environmental niches. PMID:27379070

  20. Investigation of Interference Phenomena of Broadband Acoustic Vector Signals in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Shengchun; Ren, Qunyan

    2010-09-01

    Although the ocean environment in shallow water is very complex, there still exists stable interference pattern for broadband low frequency sound propagation. The waveguide invariant concept is introduced to describe the broadband interference structure of the acoustic pressure field in a waveguide and now it is widely used in underwater acoustic signal processing. Acoustic vector sensor can measure the particle velocity in the ocean and provides more information for the underwater sound field. In this paper, the interference phenomena of broadband vector acoustic signals in shallow water are investigated by numerical simulation. Energy spatial-frequency distributions are shown for energy flux density vector obtained by combination of pressure and particle velocity signals and they are analyzed according to normal mode theory. Comparisons of the interference structure between the scale acoustic field and vector acoustic field also have been made. The waveguide invariant concept is extended to describe the interference structure of vector acoustic field in shallow water. A method for extraction of the waveguide invariant from interference patterns in vector acoustic field spectrograms is presented, which can be used in matched-field processing and geoacoustic inversion. It is shown that this method may have more advantages than the traditional methods which calculate the waveguide invariant using measured sound pressure in the ocean.

  1. Model-based processor design for a shallow water ocean acoustic experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V. ); Sullivan, E.J. )

    1994-04-01

    Model-based signal processing is a well-defined methodology enabling the inclusion of environmental (propagation) models, measurement (sensor arrays) models, and noise (shipping, measurement) models into a sophisticated processing algorithm. Depending on the class of model developed from the mathematical representation of the physical phenomenology, various processors can evolve. Here the design of a space-varying, nonstationary, model-based processor (MBP) is investigated and applied to the data from a well-controlled shallow water experiment performed at Hudson Canyon. This particular experiment is very attractive for the inaugural application of the MBP because it was performed in shallow water at low frequency requiring a small number of modes. In essence, the Hudson Canyon represents a well-known ocean environment, making it ideal for this investigation. In this shallow water application, a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model is used. The processor is designed such that it allows [ital in] [ital situ] recursive estimation of both the pressure-field and modal functions. It is shown that the MBP can be effectively utilized to validate'' the performance of the model on noisy ocean acoustic data. In fact, a set of processors is designed, one for each source range and the results are quite good---implying that the propagation model with measured parameters adequately represents the data.

  2. A high-order element-based Galerkin Method for the global shallow water equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ramachandran D.; Tufo, Henry M.; Levy, Michael Nathan

    2010-08-01

    The shallow water equations are used as a test for many atmospheric models because the solution mimics the horizontal aspects of atmospheric dynamics while the simplicity of the equations make them useful for numerical experiments. This study describes a high-order element-based Galerkin method for the global shallow water equations using absolute vorticity, divergence, and fluid depth (atmospheric thickness) as the prognostic variables, while the wind field is a diagnostic variable that can be calculated from the stream function and velocity potential (the Laplacians of which are the vorticity and divergence, respectively). The numerical method employed to solve the shallow water system is based on the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods. The discontinuous Galerkin method, which is inherently conservative, is used to solve the equations governing two conservative variables - absolute vorticity and atmospheric thickness (mass). The spectral element method is used to solve the divergence equation and the Poisson equations for the velocity potential and the stream function. Time integration is done with an explicit strong stability-preserving second-order Runge-Kutta scheme and the wind field is updated directly from the vorticity and divergence at each stage, and the computational domain is the cubed sphere. A stable steady-state test is run and convergence results are provided, showing that the method is high-order accurate. Additionally, two tests without analytic solutions are run with comparable results to previous high-resolution runs found in the literature.

  3. Diversity and Distribution of Prokaryotes within a Shallow-Water Pockmark Field

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Fiorentino, Federica; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Vetriani, Costantino; Yücel, Mustafa; Taviani, Marco; Manini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are crater-like depression on the seafloor associated with hydrocarbon ascent through muddy sediments in continental shelves around the world. In this study, we examine the diversity and distribution of benthic microbial communities at shallow-water pockmarks adjacent to the Middle Adriatic Ridge. We integrate microbial diversity data with characterization of local hydrocarbons concentrations and sediment geochemistry. Our results suggest these pockmarks are enriched in sedimentary hydrocarbons, and host a microbial community dominated by Bacteria, even in deeper sediment layers. Pockmark sediments showed higher prokaryotic abundance and biomass than surrounding sediments, potentially due to the increased availability of organic matter and higher concentrations of hydrocarbons linked to pockmark activity. Prokaryotic diversity analyses showed that the microbial communities of these shallow-water pockmarks are unique, and comprised phylotypes associated with the cycling of sulfur and nitrate compounds, as well as numerous know hydrocarbon degraders. Altogether, this study suggests that shallow-water pockmark habitats enhance the diversity of the benthic prokaryotic biosphere by providing specialized environmental niches. PMID:27379070

  4. Successes and failures of shallow-water interpretations of Voyager wind data.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Timothy E.

    1994-06-01

    Studying the dynamics of Jupiter's atmosphere is a rewarding experience, in part because the planet's cloud-top circulations are easy to track from space, the jet streams flow in straight lines eastward or westward, and there is enough room for the vortices to usually keep out of each other's way. Earth, in contrast, is a planet with global circulations that are not easy to track from space, with jet streams that make wide, fluctuating arcs as they negotiate mountain ranges, and with vortices that are constantly jostling against each other in a cramped environment. But we know a great deal more about the vertical structure of Earth's atmosphere than of Jupiter's. In order to make headway on the Jovian problem, researchers have turned to the shallow-water model as a guide to interpreting the Voyager wind data. The shallow-water model matches the character of the data because it combines high-resolution horizontal dynamics with low-resolution vertical structure, but there is no guarantee that it captures the character of Jupiter's atmosphere itself. Remarkably, the model does well at reproducing the Great Red Spot, and it has revealed that Jupiter is clever about how it manages its vorticity by arranging its zonal winds to be neutrally stable with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem. We discuss reasons why the shallow-water model works for Jupiter and point out the limitations that are motivating researchers to develop more realistic models. PMID:12780101

  5. Microbial diversity in shallow-water hydrothermal sediments of Kueishan Island, Taiwan as revealed by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cheung, Man Kit; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wong, Chong Kim

    2015-11-01

    Kueishan Island is a young volcanic island in the southernmost edge of the Okinawa Trough in the northeastern part of Taiwan. A cluster of hydrothermal vents is located off the southeastern tip of the Island at water depths between 10 and 80 m. This paper presents the results of the first study on the microbial communities in bottom sediments collected from the shallow-water hydrothermal vents of Kueishan Island. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the assemblages of bacteria, archaea, and small eukaryotes in sediment samples collected at various distances from the hydrothermal vents. Sediment from the vent area contained the highest diversity of archaea and the lowest diversity of bacteria and small eukaryotes. Epsilonproteobacteria were the most abundant group in the vent sediment, but their abundance decreased with increasing distance from the vent area. Most Epsilonproteobacteria belonged to the mesophilic chemolithoautotrophic genera Sulfurovum and Sulfurimonas. Recent reports on these two genera have come from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Conversely, the relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the bacterial community increased with increasing distance from the vent area. Our study revealed the contrasting effects of venting on the benthic bacterial and archaeal communities, and showed that the sediments of the shallow-waters hydrothermal vents were dominated by chemoautotrophic bacteria. The present work broadens our knowledge on microbial diversity in shallow-water hydrothermal vent habitats. PMID:26132902

  6. Detection improvement using multiple time-reversal guide-sources in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaumond, Charles F.; Fromm, David M.

    2002-11-01

    Detection in a monostatic broadband, active sonar system in shallow water is degraded by propagation induced spreading. The method of multiple guide sources has been presented as a method to mitigate this degradation. This paper shows the detection improvement from the use of the separable kernel receiver (SKR) that is based on a statistical behavior of the ensemble of multiple guide-source signals, which provide several one-way propagation signals from guide sources at various ranges at a single depth. A measure of information is derived to quantify the variability of these guide-source signals. The improvement of detection is shown as a function of range and depth for several sets of system and environmental parameters. In particular, two environments are shown. One is the case of farther ranges and lower frequencies in shallow water where the propagation causes dispersion. The other is the case of shorter ranges and higher frequencies in shallow water where the propagation effects are predominantly multipath. [Work supported by ONR.

  7. Underwater partial polarization signatures from the shallow water real-time imaging polarimeter (SHRIMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, James S., Jr.; Davis, P. S.; Wolff, Lawrence B.

    2003-09-01

    Research has shown that naturally occurring light outdoors and underwater is partially linearly polarized. The polarized components can be combined to form an image that describes the polarization of the light in the scene. This image is known as the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image or partial polarization image. These naturally occurring polarization signatures can provide a diver or an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) with more information to detect, classify, and identify threats such as obstacles and/or mines in the shallow water environment. The SHallow water Real-time IMaging Polarimeter (SHRIMP), recently developed under sponsorship of Dr. Tom Swean at the Office of Naval Research (Code 321OE), can measure underwater partial polarization imagery. This sensor is a passive, three-channel device that simultaneously measures the three components of the Stokes vector needed to determine the partial linear polarization of the scene. The testing of this sensor has been completed and the data has been analyzed. This paper presents performance results from the field-testing and quantifies the gain provided by the partial polarization signature of targets in the Very Shallow Water (VSW) and Surf Zone (SZ) regions.

  8. Biomechanical characteristics of adults walking in shallow water and on land.

    PubMed

    Barela, Ana M F; Stolf, Sandro F; Duarte, Marcos

    2006-06-01

    Although water environment has been employed for different physical activities, there is little available information regarding the biomechanical characteristics of walking in shallow water. In the present study, we investigated the kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic (EMG) activation patterns of eight selected muscles of adults walking in shallow water and on land. Ten healthy adults were videotaped while walking at self-selected comfortable speeds on land and in water (at the Xiphoid process level). In both conditions there was a force plate embedded in the middle of each walkway to register the GRF components. Reflective markers were placed over main anatomical landmarks and they were digitalized later to obtain stride characteristics and joint angle information. In general, walking in water was different to walking on land in many aspects and these differences were attributed to the drag force, the apparent body weight reduction, and the lower comfortable speed during walking in shallow water. The joint range of motions (ROM) were not different, the segment ROM, magnitudes of GRF components, impact force, and impulse were different between the two conditions. The present results will contribute to a better understanding of this activity in the context of training and rehabilitation. PMID:16111894

  9. On Classical Solutions to 2D Shallow Water Equations with Degenerate Viscosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yachun; Pan, Ronghua; Zhu, Shengguo

    2016-07-01

    2D shallow water equations have degenerate viscosities proportional to surface height, which vanishes in many physical considerations, say, when the initial total mass, or energy are finite. Such a degeneracy is a highly challenging obstacle for development of well-posedness theory, even local-in-time theory remains open for a long time. In this paper, we will address this open problem with some new perspectives, independent of the celebrated BD-entropy (Bresch et al in Commun Math Phys 238:211-223, 2003, Commun Part Differ Eqs 28:843-868, 2003, Analysis and Simulation of Fluid Dynamics, 2007). After exploring some interesting structures of most models of 2D shallow water equations, we introduced a proper notion of solution class, called regular solutions, and identified a class of initial data with finite total mass and energy, and established the local-in-time well-posedness of this class of smooth solutions. The theory is applicable to most relatively physical shallow water models, broader than those with BD-entropy structures. We remark that our theory is on the local strong solutions, while the BD entropy is an essential tool for the global weak solutions. Later, a Beale-Kato-Majda type blow-up criterion is also established. This paper is mainly based on our early preprint (Li et al. in 2D compressible Navier-Stokes equations with degenerate viscosities and far field vacuum, preprint. arXiv:1407.8471, 2014).

  10. Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics and Energy Partition for the Shallow Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, A.; Venaille, A.; Bouchet, F.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to use large deviation theory in order to compute the entropy of macrostates for the microcanonical measure of the shallow water system. The main prediction of this full statistical mechanics computation is the energy partition between a large scale vortical flow and small scale fluctuations related to inertia-gravity waves. We introduce for that purpose a semi-Lagrangian discrete model of the continuous shallow water system, and compute the corresponding statistical equilibria. We argue that microcanonical equilibrium states of the discrete model in the continuous limit are equilibrium states of the actual shallow water system. We show that the presence of small scale fluctuations selects a subclass of equilibria among the states that were previously computed by phenomenological approaches that were neglecting such fluctuations. In the limit of weak height fluctuations, the equilibrium state can be interpreted as two subsystems in thermal contact: one subsystem corresponds to the large scale vortical flow, the other subsystem corresponds to small scale height and velocity fluctuations. It is shown that either a non-zero circulation or rotation and bottom topography are required to sustain a non-zero large scale flow at equilibrium. Explicit computation of the equilibria and their energy partition is presented in the quasi-geostrophic limit for the energy-enstrophy ensemble. The possible role of small scale dissipation and shocks is discussed. A geophysical application to the Zapiola anticyclone is presented.

  11. Pressure gradient sensors for bearing determination in shallow water tracking ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, P.J.; Euerle, S.E.; Menoche, R.K.; Janiesch, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    Underwater acoustic tracking has traditionally used only the arrival time of tracking pings to localize targets. This implies that the ping transmitted from a target must be received at a minimum of three separate nodes (receiver locations) in order to determine the position. For deep water ranges this was acceptable. In shallow water, where propagation ranges are limited, this requires a large number of nodes. This makes shallow water ranges very costly. An effort is underway to use pressure gradient hydrophones as receivers and measure the bearing of the ping arrival along with arrival time, thereby locating the target using only one tracking node. This allows for increased node spacing and greatly reduced cost. However, the accuracy required for training ranges is on the order of 1 degree. Further, the directional receiver must be housed so as to withstand impacts from fishing operations. Research including design, fabrication, and testing of conventional and unconventional pressure gradient hydrophones, the housing, and signal processing methods are discussed. Extensive testing has already been conducted using a 1{double_prime} diameter by 5{double_prime} long multimode hydrophone. A shallow water tracking test was conducted at the NUWC Lake Seneca test facility. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tracking using a single pressure gradient hydrophone with an accuracy of 50 yds out to 2 kyds. The effects of multiple paths and scattering are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis into a shallow-water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotta, Jonne; Orav, Helen; Sandberg-Kilpi, Eva

    2001-12-01

    Effects of the North American polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis on a simple shallow-water benthic community of the northern Baltic Sea were studied in a field experiment combining natural densities of dominating macrofaunal species. The presence of M. cf. viridis increased benthic production (chlorophyll a) and reduced the survival of the native polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Adult Macoma balthica caused a significant mortality on M. cf. viridis whereas adult Cerastoderma glaucum had no effect on M. cf. viridis. We suggest that the competitive interactions between M. cf. viridis and M. balthica are a possible key factor determining the distribution pattern of M. cf. viridis in the Baltic Sea.

  13. Task-specificity vs. ceiling effect: step-training in shallow water after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kuerzi, J; Brown, E H; Shum-Siu, A; Siu, A; Burke, D; Morehouse, J; Smith, R R; Magnuson, D S K

    2010-07-01

    While activity-based rehabilitation is one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury, the necessary components for optimal locomotor retraining have not yet been determined. Currently, a number of different activity-based approaches are being investigated including body weight-supported treadmill training (with and without manual assistance), robotically-assisted treadmill training, bicycling and swimming, among others. We recently showed, in the adult rat, that intensive rehabilitation based on swimming brought about significant improvements in hindlimb performance during swimming but did not alter the normal course of recovery of over-ground walking (Smith et al., 2006a,b, 2009). However, swimming lacks the phasic limb-loading and plantar cutaneous feedback thought to be important for weight-supported step training. So, we are investigating an innovative approach based on walking in shallow water where buoyancy provides some body weight support and balance while still allowing for limb-loading and appropriate cutaneous afferent feedback during retraining. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine if spinal cord injured animals show improved overground locomotion following intensive body weight-supported locomotor training in shallow water. The results show that training in shallow water successfully improved stepping in shallow water, but was not able to bring about significant improvements in overground locomotion despite the fact that the shallow water provides sufficient body weight support to allow acutely injured rats to generate frequent plantar stepping. These observations support previous suggestions that incompletely injured animals retrain themselves while moving about in their cages and that daily training regimes are not able to improve upon this already substantial functional improvement due to a ceiling effect, rather than task-specificity, per se. These results also support the concept that moderately-severe thoracic

  14. Passive range estimation using ship-radiated noise in range-dependent shallow water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Alexander W.

    The motivation for this work is a desire to exploit ship-radiated noise in shallow water environments for the purpose of passive range estimation. The method presented utilizes range-frequency intensity striations, arising from multi-path interference in shallow water waveguides and measured across a horizontal line array, to estimate range between a source and a receiver array. This method is based upon the premise that the effects of waveguide geometry on multi-path interference may be represented by a single parameter, beta, called the waveguide invariant, which relates striation slope to source range. Much of the literature on striation-based passive range estimation is focused on range-independent environments or relies on the assumption that beta ≈ 1 in shallow water waveguides in order to eliminate the requirement of knowing the specific values of propagation parameters a priori. However, prior work has shown that range-dependent effects from bathymetry or sound speed profiles can cause the value of beta to vary from its canonical shallow water value and introduce significant bias to range estimates. This work specifically focuses on the effects of range-dependent bathymetry in shallow water waveguides and discusses issues surrounding normal mode propagation and mode coupling. Beyond discussing range-dependent modal propagation, several signal, array, and image processing techniques are presented, which enable estimation of range-frequency intensity images from acoustic data and permit the images to be characterized in terms of striation angle and slope distributions. Using these techniques, a method for estimating range from striation patterns is developed and applied to simulated striation patterns and acoustic data from a 2007 experiment performed off the coast of Port Everglades, Florida. To improve range estimates obtained from the application of this method, an analytical formulation of a waveguide invariant distribution is derived, which takes into

  15. Shallow-water carbonate records of hyperthermals: do Pacific Ocean guyots hold the key? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.8 Ma) is associated with a rapid and large carbon cycle perturbation, transient warming and deep-sea acidification, and is the best-known example of a hyperthermal event. Although this event is widely known from pelagic, hemipelagic and continental records, the lack of in situ, shallow-water, carbonate-platform sections inhibits interpretations of whether the PETM had a significant effect on shallow-water carbonate ecosystems. Guyots in the Pacific Ocean are submerged seamounts that comprise a volcanic pedestal, topped with shallow-water carbonates (that accumulated at or close to sea-level) and a pelagic cap that formed after the platform ‘drowned’ (sunk below the photic zone). The isolated carbonate platforms on these guyots formed far from terrigenous input and runoff, both detrimental effects for calcifying organisms. The isolation and thickness of the carbonate platforms on guyots makes them ideal localities at which to investigate the response of shallow-water carbonate ecosystems to changes in surface ocean temperature and chemistry, free from the complications that can affect continental margin settings. Limalok Guyot (ODP Site 871) in the Pacific Ocean comprises a volcanic pedestal topped by a Paleogene carbonate platform that drowned in the middle Eocene. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of the platform carbonate sediments will be presented, in conjunction with existing biostratigraphy, to refine the stratigraphic framework of the carbonate platform. Although core recovery was poor, the major Late Paleocene-Middle Eocene stratigraphic trends in carbon-isotopes can be recognized, including a prominent ~3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), recording the onset of the PETM. The lithological and paleontological record of the PETM on Limalok Guyot shows no major evidence for a carbonate production crisis, suggesting that the effects of any changes in temperatures or surface ocean pH were relatively short

  16. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Sergi; Riesgo, Ana; Bas, Maria; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Cristobo, Javier; Rouse, Greg W.; Avila, Conxita

    2015-01-01

    Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica) and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic). We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I–COI–), using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI) although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. ‘mediterranea’) recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma) and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma) concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. ‘mediterranea’ to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from

  17. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) associated with rhubarb (Rheum spp.) in the Matanuska Valley, Alaska: species composition, seasonal abundance, and potential virus vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheum spp (rhubarb) is one of the priority crop species curated at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit (SARU) in Palmer, Alaska. The Palmer site acts as the primary rhubarb repository for the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). The SARU r...

  18. Occurrence and genotypic analysis of Trichinella species in Alaska marine-associated mammals of the Bering and Chukchi seas.

    PubMed

    Seymour, J; Horstmann-Dehn, L; Rosa, C; Lopez, J A

    2014-02-24

    The zoonotic parasite Trichinella is the causative agent of trichinellosis outbreaks in the circumpolar Arctic. Subsistence communities are particularly prone to trichinellosis due to traditional meat preparation methods and regional presence of a freeze-tolerant Trichinella species (Trichinella nativa). This study is the first application of a validated artificial digestion method in determining incidence of Trichinella sp. in Alaskan mammals. Infection incidence in pinniped species (Erignathus barbatus, Eumetopias jubatus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens, and Pusa hispida) was low, with only 1/57 ringed seals infected. Polymerase Chain Reaction assays indicate T. nativa as the only species present in northern Alaska. Analysis of an archived polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle sample shows freeze-tolerance and longevity for T. nativa to -20°C for 10 years and short-term freeze resistance to -80°C when morphology was used to determine presence of live larvae. However, larval motility suggests 0% survival. An approach that combines artificial digestion with PCR based species identification has excellent potential for Trichinella sp. detection and identification of archived tissues. Overall, Trichinella in Alaskan mammals, particularly marine mammals of subsistence importance, appears to be a minor problem. These modern diagnostic techniques provide accurate insight into the presence of Trichinella in the Alaskan marine environment. PMID:24373515

  19. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera. PMID:26140195

  20. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera. PMID:26140195

  1. Response of shallow-water carbonates and reef systems to the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (183 Ma) on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Schaller, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    With rising concerns regarding the persistence of coral reefs through the 21st century, there is a crucial need to understand how these ecosystems will respond to future environmental deterioration (e.g. ocean warming, acidification, and decreased oxygenation). Several ancient events have been identified as good analogues for modern ecological changes, however, most of these correspond to mass extinction events. By studying carbon cycle perturbations that caused more minor ecosystem collapse, such as the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE), the key physiological, ecological, and environmental features that correlate with species and community survival can be assessed. The Dinaric Carbonate Platform, which extends from northeastern Italy to northwestern Albania, is one of the few platforms in Europe that captures an almost continuous shallow-water record of Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata. Specifically, this comparatively poorly studied platform captures the T-OAE in shallow-water carbonates. One such outcrop on the Trnovski Gozd karst plateau in western Slovenia contains both Pleinsbachian lithiotid (bivalve) biostromes and coral bioherms (i.e. coral reefs). The occurrence of both lithiotid and coral buildups in one section is extremely rare and provides the opportunity to study the response of both communities, as well as the carbonate system as a whole, to the T-OAE. This research focuses on the lithology and chemostratigraphy from this locality, particularly identifying the T-OAE horizon more precisely. Additionally, (micro)facies analyses and paleontological analyses of the reefs themselves will be presented. These data will establish the paleoenvironmental conditions that favored reef growth in the Pliensbachian, as well as what conditions changed at the stage boundary and T-OAE to cause the collapse of the shallow-water carbonates and reef systems.

  2. Carbonate clumped isotope variability in shallow water corals: Temperature dependence and growth-related vital effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenger, Casey; Affek, Hagit P.; Felis, Thomas; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Lough, Janice M.; Holcomb, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical variations in shallow water corals provide a valuable archive of paleoclimatic information. However, biological effects can complicate the interpretation of these proxies, forcing their application to rely on empirical calibrations. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry (Δ47) is a novel paleotemperature proxy based on the temperature dependent "clumping" of 13C-18O bonds. Similar Δ47-temperature relationships in inorganically precipitated calcite and a suite of biogenic carbonates provide evidence that carbonate clumped isotope variability may record absolute temperature without a biological influence. However, large departures from expected values in the winter growth of a hermatypic coral provided early evidence for possible Δ47 vital effects. Here, we present the first systematic survey of Δ47 in shallow water corals. Sub-annual Red Sea Δ47 in two Porites corals shows a temperature dependence similar to inorganic precipitation experiments, but with a systematic offset toward higher Δ47 values that consistently underestimate temperature by ˜8 °C. Additional analyses of Porites, Siderastrea, Astrangia and Caryophyllia corals argue against a number of potential mechanisms as the leading cause for this apparent Δ47 vital effect including: salinity, organic matter contamination, alteration during sampling, the presence or absence of symbionts, and interlaboratory differences in analytical protocols. However, intra- and inter-coral comparisons suggest that the deviation from expected Δ47 increases with calcification rate. Theoretical calculations suggest this apparent link with calcification rate is inconsistent with pH-dependent changes in dissolved inorganic carbon speciation and with kinetic effects associated with CO2 diffusion into the calcifying space. However, the link with calcification rate may be related to fractionation during the hydration/hydroxylation of CO2 within the calcifying space. Although the vital effects we describe will

  3. Gravity currents flowing upslope: Laboratory experiments and shallow-water simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, V.; Adduce, C.; Sciortino, G.; La Rocca, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of lock-release gravity currents propagating upslope by laboratory experiments and shallow-water simulations. Both the interface between the dense and the ambient fluid and the instantaneous velocity field were measured by image analysis. Different runs were carried out by varying the initial density of the lock fluid and the bed upslope. As a gravity current moves upslope, the dense layer becomes thinner, and an accumulation region of dense fluid in the initial part of the tank occurs. The current speed decreases as the bed upslope increases, and for the highest up sloping angles, the gravity current stops before reaching the end of the tank. A new two-layer shallow-water model is developed and benchmarked against laboratory experiments. The present model accounts for the mixing between the two layers, the free surface, and the space-time variations of the density. The effect of the horizontal density gradient in the simulation of gravity currents is investigated by comparing the numerical results of both the present model and the model proposed by Adduce et al. ["Gravity currents produced by lock-exchange: Experiments and simulations with a two layer shallow-water model with entrainment," J. Hydraul. Eng. 138, 111-121 (2012)] with laboratory measurements. The comparison shows that the present model reproduces both the current shape and the front position better than the Adduce et al. model, in particular, for gravity currents flowing up a slope. For these currents, the presence of a backflow near the lock is shown by the analysis of the streamwise depth-averaged velocity predicted by the present model and the velocity measured by particle image velocimetry as well.

  4. Modeling wind waves from deep to shallow waters in Lake Michigan using unstructured SWAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Miaohua; van der Westhuysen, André J.; Xia, Meng; Schwab, David J.; Chawla, Arun

    2016-06-01

    Accurate wind-wave simulations are vital for evaluating the impact of waves on coastal dynamics, especially when wave observations are sparse. It has been demonstrated that structured-grid models have the ability to capture the wave dynamics of large-scale offshore domains, and the recent emergence of unstructured meshes provides an opportunity to better simulate shallow-water waves by resolving the complex geometry along islands and coastlines. For this study, wind waves in Lake Michigan were simulated using the unstructured-grid version of Simulating Waves Nearshore (un-SWAN) model with various types of wind forcing, and the model was calibrated using in situ wave observations. Sensitivity experiments were conducted to investigate the key factors that impact wave growth and dissipation processes. In particular, we considered (1) three wind field sources, (2) three formulations for wind input and whitecapping, (3) alternative formulations and coefficients for depth-induced breaking, and (4) various mesh types. We find that un-SWAN driven by Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) wind data reproduces significant wave heights reasonably well using previously proposed formulations for wind input, recalibrated whitecapping parameters, and alternative formulations for depth-induced breaking. The results indicate that using GEM wind field data as input captures large waves in the midlake most accurately, while using the Natural Neighbor Method wind field reproduces shallow-water waves more accurately. Wind input affects the simulated wave evolution across the whole lake, whereas whitecapping primarily affects wave dynamics in deep water. In shallow water, the process of depth-induced breaking is dominant and highly dependent upon breaker indices and mesh types.

  5. Shallow-water limestones within the Paleogene forearc basin of California: Unique paleogeographic indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Whidden, K.J.; Bottjer, D.J.; Lund, S.P. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    A number of shallow-water limestones have recently been documented in late Mesozoic/Paleogene forearc strata of the Cordilleran continental arc. These limestones occur on two different tectonic blocks which were both developed within the forearc basin and subsequently moved relative to one another due to oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous time. Faunal evidence suggests that these limestones were deposited within the photic zone, at shelfal depths. Each limestone represents part or all of the basal Paleogene sequence; they are intercalated with or overlain by deeper-water strata. One region of outcrops in the western Santa Monica Mountains is latest Paleocene in age, while the other region, in the eastern Santa Ynez Mountains and Wheeler Gorge area, is early Eocene in age. These shallow-water limestones may be used as paleogeographic indicators, as they represent relative topographic highs within the basin. The microplate tectonic reconstruction of Hornafius (1985) suggests that the limestones occur on opposite sides of a north-south trending trough within the overall forearc basin. The Paleocene limestones, which occur along the eastern margin of the trough, are intercalated with marine shales and may represent small fluctuations in relative sea level and/or sediment supply on a topographic high. The Eocene limestones, which occur along the western side of the trough, are always the basal Paleogene unit deposited on tilted Cretaceous strata or Franciscan rocks and overlain by deeper-water shales. The occurrence of Franciscan as basement for limestone deposition implies localized tectonic uplift within the forearc. Each of these limestones probably represents initiation of a single period of relative sea level rise, as the basal shallow-water carbonates were eventually overwhelmed by deeper-water shales. Thus two episodes of carbonate deposition allow for the delineation of two topographic highs within the Paleogene forearc basin.

  6. A method for measuring vertical accretion, elevation, and compaction of soft, shallow-water sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Marin, P.E.; Black, B.K.; Lynch, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution measures of vertical accretion, elevation, and compaction of shallow-water sediments are fundamental to understanding the processes that control elevation change and the mechanisms of progradation (e.g., development of mudflats and intertidal wetlands) in coastal systems. Yet, measurements of elevation by traditional survey methods often are of low accuracy because of the compressible nature of the substrates. Nor do they provide measures of vertical accretion or sediment compaction. This paper evaluates the use in shallow-water systems of an approach designed to measure these variables in vegetated wetlands. The approach employs simultaneous measures of elevation from temporary benchmarks using a sedimentation-erosion table (SET) and vertical accretion from marker horizons with sediment cores collected with a cryogenic coring apparatus. The measures are made with a level of resolution sufficient to distinguish between the influence of surface and subsurface processes on elevation, thus providing quantitative estimates of shallow subsidence. The SET-marker horizon approach was evaluated on a developing splay created by an artificial crevasse of a distributary in the Mississippi River delta. The approach provided high-resolution measures of vertical accretion (48.3 ' 2.0 cm.) and elevation (36.7 ' 1.6 cm) over a 4-year period, with the difference between the two indicating the amount of shallow subsidence. In addition, by laying new marker horizons in later years, the approach provided rates not only of shallow subsidence (3.9 ' 0.5 cm y-1) but also compaction of newly deposited seiments (2.1 ' 0.6 cm y-1) and compaction of underlying sediments (1.8 ' 2.0 cm y-1 ) over a two-year period. Hence, the SET-marker horizon approach has widespread applicability in both emergent wetland and shallow water environments for providing high resolution measures of the processes controlling elevation change.

  7. Estimating shallow water sound power levels and mitigation radii for the R/V Marcus G. Langseth using an 8 km long MCS streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, Timothy J.; Tolstoy, Maya; Carton, Helene

    2014-10-01

    seismic surveys in shallow-water environments, the complexity of local geology and seafloor topography can make it difficult to accurately predict associated sound levels and establish appropriate mitigation radii required to ensure the safety of local marine protected species. This is primarily because necessary detailed information regarding the local seafloor topography and subseafloor geology is often unavailable before a survey begins. One potential solution to this problem is to measure received levels using the ship's multichannel seismic (MCS) streamer, which could allow for the dynamic real-time determination of sound levels and mitigation radii while a survey is underway. We analyze R/V Langseth streamer data collected on the shelf and slope near the Washington coast during the Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects (COAST) and Ridge2Trench projects to measure received levels up to a distance of approximately 8 km from the sound source array. We establish methods to filter, clean, and process streamer data to accurately determine received power levels and confidently establish mitigation radii. We show that in shallow water measured power levels can fluctuate due to the influence of seafloor topographic features, but that the use of the streamer for the establishment of dynamic mitigation radii is feasible and should be further pursued. The establishment of mitigation radii based on local conditions may help to maximize the safety of marine protected species while also maximizing the ability of researchers to conduct seismic studies.

  8. Estimating the effective sound speed in the bottom in shallow water areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunkov, A. A.; Petnikov, V. G.; Chernousov, A. D.

    2015-11-01

    Techniques are proposed for estimating the effective sound speed in sediments in shallow water areas with a soft bottom. The techniques are oriented toward determining this physical quantity for relatively small range intervals on the order of ten depths. The estimates are based on comparison of the experimental results and calculations of the characteristics of low-frequency sound fields propagating in these water areas. It is proposed to find this sound speed quantity by calculating its value for which the best agreement between experiment and calculation occurs. We present the results of testing the proposed techniques in experiments in the Klyaz'ma reservoir.

  9. A multispeed Discrete Boltzmann Model for transcritical 2D shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rocca, Michele; Montessori, Andrea; Prestininzi, Pietro; Succi, Sauro

    2015-03-01

    In this work a Discrete Boltzmann Model for the solution of transcritical 2D shallow water flows is presented and validated. In order to provide the model with transcritical capabilities, a particular multispeed velocity set has been employed for the discretization of the Boltzmann equation. It is shown that this particular set naturally yields a simple and closed procedure to determine higher order equilibrium distribution functions needed to simulate transcritical flow. The model is validated through several classical benchmarks and is proven to correctly and accurately simulate both 1D and 2D transitions between the two flow regimes.

  10. Travelling wave solutions for some two-component shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutykh, Denys; Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we perform a unified analysis of travelling wave solutions to three different two-component systems which appear in shallow water theory. Namely, we analyze the celebrated Green-Naghdi equations, the integrable two-component Camassa-Holm equations and a new two-component system of Green-Naghdi type. In particular, we are interested in solitary and cnoidal-type solutions, as two most important classes of travelling waves that we encounter in applications. We provide a complete phase-plane analysis of all possible travelling wave solutions which may arise in these models. In particular, we show the existence of new type of solutions.

  11. 8-kHz bottom backscattering measurements at low grazing angles in shallow water.

    PubMed

    La, Hyoungsul; Choi, Jee Woong

    2010-04-01

    8-kHz bottom backscattering measurements at low grazing angles (6 degrees -31 degrees ) are presented. The experiment was performed at a very shallow water site with a silty bottom on the south coast of Korea. Backscattering strengths between -42 and -30 dB were obtained and were compared to a theoretical backscattering model and Lambert's law. The fit of the theoretical model to the measurements suggests that sediment volume scattering is dominant over scattering from bottom interface roughness. Combining these results with previous measurements found in the published literature implies that backscattering strengths from silty sediment increase slightly as the frequency increases. PMID:20369984

  12. Documentation of the Goddard Laboratory for atmospheres fourth-order two-layer shallow water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, L. L. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The theory and numerical treatment used in the 2-level GLA fourth-order shallow water model are described. This model was designed to emulate the horizontal finite differences used by the GLA Fourth-Order General Circulation Model (Kalnay et al., 1983) in addition to its grid structure, form of high-latitude and global filtering, and time-integration schemes. A user's guide is also provided instructing the user on how to create initial conditions, execute the model, and post-process the data history.

  13. Unique laminar-flow stability limit based shallow-water theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1993-01-01

    Two approaches are generally taken in deriving the stability limit for the Froude member (Fs) for laminar sheet flow. The first approach used the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, while the second uses the cross-section-averaged equations of continuity and motion. Because both approaches are based on shallow-water theory, the values of Fs obtained from both approaches should be identical, yet in the literature they are not. This suggests that a defect exists in at least one of the two approaches. After examining the governing equations used in both approaches, one finds that the existing cross-section -averaged equation of motion is dependent on the frame of reference.

  14. Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.

    1990-01-01

    To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.

  15. Preliminary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of EIIB Push Barge in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneš, Petr; Kollárik, Róbert

    2011-12-01

    This study presents preliminary CFD simulation of EIIb push barge in inland conditions using CFD software Ansys Fluent. The RANSE (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation) methods are used for the viscosity solution of turbulent flow around the ship hull. Different RANSE methods are used for the comparison of their results in ship resistance calculations, for selecting the appropriate and removing inappropriate methods. This study further familiarizes on the creation of geometrical model which considers exact water depth to vessel draft ratio in shallow water conditions, grid generation, setting mathematical model in Fluent and evaluation of the simulations results.

  16. A discontinuous Galerkin method for the shallow water equations in spherical triangular coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läuter, Matthias; Giraldo, Francis X.; Handorf, Dörthe; Dethloff, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    A global model of the atmosphere is presented governed by the shallow water equations and discretized by a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method on an unstructured triangular grid. The shallow water equations on the sphere, a two-dimensional surface in R3, are locally represented in terms of spherical triangular coordinates, the appropriate local coordinate mappings on triangles. On every triangular grid element, this leads to a two-dimensional representation of tangential momentum and therefore only two discrete momentum equations. The discontinuous Galerkin method consists of an integral formulation which requires both area (elements) and line (element faces) integrals. Here, we use a Rusanov numerical flux to resolve the discontinuous fluxes at the element faces. A strong stability-preserving third-order Runge-Kutta method is applied for the time discretization. The polynomial space of order k on each curved triangle of the grid is characterized by a Lagrange basis and requires high-order quadature rules for the integration over elements and element faces. For the presented method no mass matrix inversion is necessary, except in a preprocessing step. The validation of the atmospheric model has been done considering standard tests from Williamson et al. [D.L. Williamson, J.B. Drake, J.J. Hack, R. Jakob, P.N. Swarztrauber, A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry, J. Comput. Phys. 102 (1992) 211-224], unsteady analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow water equations and a barotropic instability caused by an initial perturbation of a jet stream. A convergence rate of O(Δx) was observed in the model experiments. Furthermore, a numerical experiment is presented, for which the third-order time-integration method limits the model error. Thus, the time step Δt is restricted by both the CFL-condition and accuracy demands. Conservation of mass was shown up to machine precision and energy conservation

  17. Comparison of horizontal difference schemes for the shallow water equations on a sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gary L.; Takano, Kenji; Abramopoulos, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of horizontal difference schemes used in the hydrodynamics parts of General Circulation Models are compared by means of numerical experiments for the shallow water equations on a sphere. As expected, the phase lag of moving waves decreases as the order of accuracy of a scheme increases or as the grid resolution increases. Overall, Takano and Wurtele's partial fourth order energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme on the C grid is most accurate. It is clearly superior to the other schemes for the Rossby-Haurwitz wave number 6 initial conditions for coarse grid resolution.

  18. On the assimilation of flood extension images into 2D shallow-water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J.; Couderc, F.; Dartus, D.; Madec, R.; Vila, J.

    2012-12-01

    In river hydraulics, assimilation of water level measurements at gauging stations is well controlled, while assimilation of images (e.g. from satellite) is still delicate. In the present talk, we address the richness of satellite information to constraint a 2D shallow-water model, and present also related difficulties. A preliminary study done on Mosel river is presented in [LaMo] [HoLaMoPu]. On selected parts of the image, an 0th order model flow allows to obtain some reliable water levels with quantified uncertainties (C. Puech et al.). Next, variationnal sensitivities (based on a gradient computation and adjoint equations) reveal some difficulties that a model designer have to tackle (e.g. roughness parameters at open boundaries), and allow to better understand both the model and the flow. Next, a variational data assimilation algorithm (4D-var) shows that such data lead to a better calibration of the model (e.g. roughness coefficients) and potentially allows to identify the incoming and/or outgoing flow at open boundaries, [LaMo] [HoLaMoPu]. On the other side, the flood dynamic extension is difficult to represent accurately using a 2D SW model since the wet-dry front dynamics is difficult to compute. We compare some 2nd order finite volume solvers and obtain an accurate and stable scheme at wet-dry front. Then, we present some basic rules of compatibility between data and mesh resolution in order to be reliable enough to constraint the model with flood extension data, [CoMaMoViDa]. All the algorithms are implemented into DassFlow software (Fortran, MPI, adjoint) [Da]. [CoMaMoViDa] F. Couderc, R. Madec, J. Monnier, J.-P. Vila, D. Dartus. "Sensitivity analysis and variational data assimilation for geophysical shallow water flows". Submitted. [Da] DassFlow - Data Assimilation for Free Surface Flows. Open-source computational software http://www-gmm.insa-toulouse.fr/~monnier/DassFlow/ [HoLaMoPu] R. Hostache, X. Lai, J. Monnier, C. Puech. "Assimilation of spatial

  19. Mid-frequency acoustic propagation in shallow water on the New Jersey shelf: mean intensity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dajun; Henyey, Frank S; Wang, Zhongkang; Williams, Kevin L; Rouseff, Daniel; Dahl, Peter H; Quijano, Jorge; Choi, Jee Woong

    2008-09-01

    Mid-frequency (1-10 kHz) sound propagation was measured at ranges 1-9 km in shallow water in order to investigate intensity statistics. Warm water near the bottom results in a sound speed minimum. Environmental measurements include sediment sound speed and water sound speed and density from a towed conductivity-temperature-depth chain. Ambient internal waves contribute to acoustic fluctuations. A simple model involving modes with random phases predicts the mean transmission loss to within a few dB. Quantitative ray theory fails due to near axial focusing. Fluctuations of the intensity field are dominated by water column variability. PMID:19045567

  20. A multigrid solver for semi-implicit global shallow-water models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barros, Saulo R. M.; Dee, Dick P.; Dickstein, Flavio

    1990-01-01

    A multigrid solver is developed for the discretized two-dimensional elliptic equation on the sphere that arises from a semiimplicit time discretization of the global shallow-water equations. Different formulations of the semiimplicit scheme result in variable-coefficient Helmholtz-type equations for which no fast direct solvers are available. The efficiency of the multigrid solver is optimal, in the sense that the total operation count is proportional to the number of unknowns. Numerical experiments using initial data derived from actual 300-mb height and wind velocity fields indicate that the present model has very good accuracy and stability properties.

  1. Using Hough harmonics to validate and assess nonlinear shallow-water models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Dick P.; Moraes Da Silva, Arlindo

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of a technique for locating programming errors in shallow-water codes, establishing the correctness of the code, and assessing the performance of the numerical model under various flow conditions is described. The right-hand side of the differential equations is modified in such a way that the exact solution of the nonlinear initial-value problem is known, so that the truncation errors of the numerical scheme can be studied in detail. The exact solution is prescribed to be any linear combination of Hough harmonics which propagate in time according to their natural frequencies.

  2. Barotropic, baroclinic, and inertial instabilities of the Gaussian jet on the equatorial β-plane in rotating shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribstein, Bruno; Tissier, Ann-Sophie; Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    abstract A detailed linear stability analysis of an easterly barotropic Gaussian jet centered at the equator is performed in the long-wave sector in the framework of one- and two-layer shallow-water models on the equatorial β-plane. It is shown that the dominant instability of the jet is due to phase-locking and resonance between Yanai waves, although the standard barotropic and baroclinic instabilities due to the resonance between Rossby waves are also present. In the one-layer case this dominant instability has non-zero growth rate at zero wavenumber for high enough Rossby and low enough Burger numbers, thus reproducing the classical symmetric inertial instability. Yet its asymmetric counterpart has the highest growth rate [1, 2]. In the two-layer case the dominant instability may be barotropic or baroclinic, the latter being stronger, with the maximum of the growth rate shifting towards smaller downstream wavenumbers as Rossby number increases at fixed Burger number and given thickness and density ratios [1, 2]. At large enough Rossby numbers this instability has a non-zero growth rate limit at zero wavenumber, giving the baroclinic symmetric inertial instability. Again, the maximal growth rate is achieved at small but non-zero wavenumbers, corresponding to the asymmetric inertial instability. At high enough Rossby number and low enough Burger number not only the baroclinic, but also the barotropic symmetric instability appears, as well as higher meridional modes of the baroclinic symmetric instability. Still, all of them are dominated by their asymmetric counterparts. Direct numerical simulations of the saturation of the leading instabilities are performed, showing that the barotropic species of the instability saturates by forming a double vortex street subject to nonlinear oscillations, while the baroclinic, the most vigorous one, saturates by producing strong vertical shears and related dissipation and mixing. Key words: Rotating equatorial β-plane flows

  3. Analysis of nonlinear shallow water waves in a tank by concentrated mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The sloshing of liquid in a tank is an important engineering problem. For example, liquid storage tanks in industrial facilities can be damaged by earthquakes, and conversely liquid tanks, called tuned liquid damper, are often used as passive mechanical dampers. The water depth is less often than the horizontal length of the tank. In this case, shallow water wave theory can be applied, and the results indicate that the surface waveform in a shallow excited tank exhibits complex behavior caused by nonlinearity and dispersion of the liquid. This study aims to establish a practical analytical model for this phenomenon. A model is proposed that consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, base support dampers, and base support springs. The characteristics of the connecting nonlinear springs are derived from the static and dynamic pressures. The advantages of the proposed model are that nonlinear dispersion is considered and that the problem of non-uniform water depth can be addressed. To confirm the validity of the model, numerical results obtained from the model are compared with theoretical values of the natural frequencies of rectangular and triangular tanks. Numerical results are also compared with experimental results for a rectangular tank. All computational results agree well with the theoretical and experimental results. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear shallow water wave problems.

  4. A high-order conservative collocation scheme and its application to global shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Li, X.; Shen, X.; Xiao, F.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient and conservative collocation method is proposed and used to develop a global shallow-water model. Being a nodal type high-order scheme, the present method solves the pointwise values of dependent variables as the unknowns within each control volume. The solution points are arranged as Gauss-Legendre points to achieve high-order accuracy. The time evolution equations to update the unknowns are derived under the flux reconstruction (FR) framework (Huynh, 2007). Constraint conditions used to build the spatial reconstruction for the flux function include the pointwise values of flux function at the solution points, which are computed directly from the dependent variables, as well as the numerical fluxes at the boundaries of the computational element, which are obtained as Riemann solutions between the adjacent elements. Given the reconstructed flux function, the time tendencies of the unknowns can be obtained directly from the governing equations of differential form. The resulting schemes have super convergence and rigorous numerical conservativeness. A three-point scheme of fifth-order accuracy is presented and analyzed in this paper. The proposed scheme is adopted to develop the global shallow-water model on the cubed-sphere grid, where the local high-order reconstruction is very beneficial for the data communications between adjacent patches. We have used the standard benchmark tests to verify the numerical model, which reveals its great potential as a candidate formulation for developing high-performance general circulation models.

  5. Accounting for water-column variability in shallow-water waveguide characterizations based on modal eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Kyle M.; Ballard, Megan S.

    2010-09-06

    The influence of water-column variability on the characterization of shallow-water waveguides using modal eigenvalue information is considered. This work is based on the relationship between the acoustic pressure field in shallow water and the depth-dependent Green's function through the Hankel transform. In many practical situations, the Hankel transform can be approximated by a Fourier transform, in which case the Green's function is approximated by a horizontal wave number spectrum with discrete peaks corresponding with individual modal eigenvalues. In turn, the wave number data can be used in inverse algorithms to determine geoacoustic properties of the waveguide. Wave number spectra are estimated from measurements of a point-source acoustic field on a horizontal aperture array in the water column. For range-dependent waveguides, techniques analogous to using a short-time Fourier transform are employed to estimate range-dependent wave number spectra. In this work, water-column variability due to linear internal waves and mesoscale features are considered. It will be shown that these two types of variability impact the estimation of range-dependent modal eigenvalues in different ways. Approaches for accounting for these different types of variability will be discussed as they apply to waveguide characterization.

  6. Assessment of Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in Modified Dike Structures, Lower Missouri River, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E., III

    2004-01-01

    This study documented the effects of wing-dike notching on the availabilit of shallow water habitat in the Lower Missouri River. Five wing dikes were surveyed in late May 2004 after they were notched in early May as part of shallow-water habitat (SWH) rehabilitation activities undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Surveys included high-resolution hydroacoustic depth, velocity, and substrate mapping. Relations of bottom elevations within the wing dike fields to index discharges and water-surface elevations indicate that little habitat meeting the SWH definition was created immediately following notching. This result is not unexpected, as significant geomorphic adjustment may require large flow events. Depth, velocity, and substrate measurements in the post-rehabilitation time period provide baseline data for monitoring ongoing changes. Differences in elevation and substrate were noted at all sites. Most dike fields showed substantial aggradation and replacement of mud substrate with sandier sediment, although the changes did not result in increased availability of SWH at the index discharge. It is not known how much of the elevation and substrate changes can be attributed directly to notching and how much would result from normal sediment transport variation.

  7. Shallow water acoustic response and platform motion modeling via a hierarchical Gaussian mixture model.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    A hierarchical Gaussian mixture model is proposed to characterize shallow water acoustic response functions that are time-varying and sparse. The mixture model is based on the assumption that acoustic paths can be partitioned into two sets. The first is a relatively coherent set of arrivals that on average exhibit Doppler spreading about a mean Doppler and the remaining set is of multiple surface scattered paths that exhibit a spectrally flat Doppler. The hierarchy establishes constraints on the parameters of each of these Gaussian models such that coherent components of the response are both sparse and in the ensemble obey the Doppler spread profile. This is accomplished with a Bernoulli model that indicates the ensonification state of each element in the bi-frequency representation of the acoustic response function. Estimators of the time-varying acoustic response for the full duration of a broadband transmission are developed and employed to compensate for the shared time-varying dilation process among the coherent arrivals. The approach ameliorates response coherence degradation and can be employed to enhance coherent multi-path combining and is a useful alternative to time recursive estimation. The model is tested with acoustic communication recordings taken in shallow water at low signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:27106339

  8. Coherent reverberation model based on adiabatic normal mode theory in a range dependent shallow water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenglin; Zhang, Renhe; Li, Fenghua

    2010-09-01

    Ocean reverberation in shallow water is often the predominant background interference in active sonar applications. It is still an open problem in underwater acoustics. In recent years, an oscillation phenomenon of the reverberation intensity, due to the interference of the normal modes, has been observed in many experiments. A coherent reverberation theory has been developed and used to explain this oscillation phenomenon [F. Li et al., Journal of Sound and Vibration, 252(3), 457-468, 2002]. However, the published coherent reverberation theory is for the range independent environment. Following the derivations by F. Li and Ellis [D. D. Ellis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 97(5), 2804-2814, 1995], a general reverberation model based on the adiabatic normal mode theory in a range dependent shallow water environment is presented. From this theory the coherent or incoherent reverberation field caused by sediment inhomogeneity and surface roughness can be predicted. Observations of reverberation from the 2001 Asian Sea International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) in the East China Sea are used to test the model. Model/data comparison shows that the coherent reverberation model can predict the experimental oscillation phenomenon of reverberation intensity and the vertical correlation of reverberation very well.

  9. Airborne mapping of shallow water bathymetry in the optically complex waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit

    2016-04-01

    Accurate determination of the water depth is important for marine spatial planning, producing maritime charts for navigation, seabed morphology studies, and carrying out different activities in the coastal waters. Bathymetric data are lacking foremost in the shallow water regions as those areas are often inaccessible to the hydrographic ships carrying out echo sounding measurements. Remote sensing technology can be used as an alternative for shallow water bathymetry mapping. Varieties of empirical methods have been proposed for bathymetry retrieval, where the relationship between remotely sensed radiance of the water body and the water depth at sampled locations was established empirically. Two most widely used depth derivation methods, the linear band model proposed by Lyzenga (1978, 1985, 2006), and the log-transformed band ratio model proposed by Stumpf et al. (2003), were applied to the different preprocessing level airborne Hyspex hyperspectral images from the optically complex Baltic Sea area and evaluated for accuracy. Results showed that the Lyzenga linear band model outperformed the Stumpf log-transformed band ratio model. The best results were achieved with the atmospherically corrected images. The application of glint correction did not improve, but even reduced the accuracy of bathymetric maps.

  10. Effect of tidal internal wave fields on shallow water acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ju; Wang, Huan; Sun, Junping

    2010-09-01

    Internal waves are one of the most pronounced oceanic phenomenons to the oceanographer. During past decades much effort has been made to investigate the effect of internal waves on shallow water acoustic propagation. Even though many field observations, such as SWARM '95, have provided fruitful information about the relation between internal waves and acoustic propagation, it is necessary to conduct more numerical simulations due to their extensive feasibility. In this study, the shallow water internal wave environment is constructed by using a non-hydrostatic ocean model, the open boundary forcing is set by considering single or several internal wave modes at the M2 tidal frequency. In order to show the mode coupling caused by the internal wave field more clearly, the acoustic starting field with different single normal modes is adopted. The acoustic simulation can be used to check whether a specific combination of internal wave modes is related to the mode coupling, and which mode pair will be affected. The combination of internal wave modes can be separated into several groups. Even though the internal wave fields are different among every case in each group, the acoustic field structure and the mode coupling are similar. Different acoustic normal mode coupling occurs due to the different combinations of internal wave mode forcing. When the parameters of internal wave mode are modified gently, the acoustic mode coupling becomes quite different. It is interesting and important to investigate the sensitivity of acoustic fields to the variability of the internal mode combination.

  11. A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.L.; Hack, J.J.; Jakob, R.; Swarztrauber, P.N. ); Drake, J.B. )

    1991-08-01

    A suite of seven test cases is proposed for the evaluation of numerical methods intended for the solution of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. The shallow water equations exhibit the major difficulties associated with the horizontal dynamical aspects of atmospheric modeling on the spherical earth. These cases are designed for use in the evaluation of numerical methods proposed for climate modeling and to identify the potential trade-offs which must always be made in numerical modeling. Before a proposed scheme is applied to a full baroclinic atmospheric model it must perform well on these problems in comparison with other currently accepted numerical methods. The cases are presented in order of complexity. They consist of advection across the poles, steady state geostrophically balanced flow of both global and local scales, forced nonlinear advection of an isolated low, zonal flow impinging on an isolated mountain, Rossby-Haurwitz waves and observed atmospheric states. One of the cases is also identified as a computer performance/algorithm efficiency benchmark for assessing the performance of algorithms adapted to massively parallel computers. 31 refs.

  12. Tools to Perform Local Dense 3D Reconstruction of Shallow Water Seabed.

    PubMed

    Avanthey, Loïca; Beaudoin, Laurent; Gademer, Antoine; Roux, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Tasks such as distinguishing or identifying individual objects of interest require the production of dense local clouds at the scale of these individual objects of interest. Due to the physical and dynamic properties of an underwater environment, the usual dense matching algorithms must be rethought in order to be adaptive. These properties also imply that the scene must be observed at close range. Classic robotized acquisition systems are oversized for local studies in shallow water while the systematic acquisition of data is not guaranteed with divers. We address these two major issues through a multidisciplinary approach. To efficiently acquire on-demand stereoscopic pairs using simple logistics in small areas of shallow water, we devised an agile light-weight dedicated system which is easy to reproduce. To densely match two views in a reliable way, we devised a reconstruction algorithm that automatically accounts for the dynamics, variability and light absorption of the underwater environment. Field experiments in the Mediterranean Sea were used to assess the results. PMID:27196913

  13. High-order nite volume WENO schemes for the shallow water equations with dry states

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Shu, Chi-wang

    2011-01-01

    The shallow water equations are used to model flows in rivers and coastal areas, and have wide applications in ocean, hydraulic engineering, and atmospheric modeling. These equations have still water steady state solutions in which the flux gradients are balanced by the source term. It is desirable to develop numerical methods which preserve exactly these steady state solutions. Another main difficulty usually arising from the simulation of dam breaks and flood waves flows is the appearance of dry areas where no water is present. If no special attention is paid, standard numerical methods may fail near dry/wet front and produce non-physical negative water height. A high-order accurate finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed in this paper to address these difficulties and to provide an efficient and robust method for solving the shallow water equations. A simple, easy-to-implement positivity-preserving limiter is introduced. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are provided to verify the positivity-preserving property, well-balanced property, high-order accuracy, and good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.

  14. A shallow water model for magnetohydrodynamic flows with turbulent Hartmann layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothérat, Alban; Schweitzer, Jean-Philippe

    2011-05-01

    We establish a shallow water model for flows of electrically conducting fluids in homogeneous static magnetic fields that are confined between two parallel planes where turbulent Hartmann layers are present. This is achieved by modelling the wall shear stress in these layers using Prandtl's mixing length model, as did by Alboussière and Lingwood [Phys. Fluids 12(6), 1535 (2000)]. The idea for this new model arose from the failure of previous shallow water models that assumed a laminar Hartmann layer to recover the correct amount of dissipation found in some regimes of the MATUR experiment. This experiment, conducted by Messadek and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 456, 137 (2002)], consisted of a thin layer of mercury electrically driven in differential rotation in a transverse magnetic field. Numerical simulations of our new model in the configuration of this experiment allowed us to recover experimental values of both the global angular momentum and the local velocity up to a few percent when the Hartmann layer was in a sufficiently well developed turbulent state. We thus provide an evidence that the unexplained level of dissipation observed in MATUR in these specific regimes was caused by turbulence in the Hartmann layers. A parametric analysis of the flow, made possible by the simplicity of our model, also revealed that turbulent friction in the Hartmann layer prevented quasi-2D turbulence from becoming more intense and limited the size of the large scales.

  15. Integral formulation of shallow-water equations with anisotropic porosity for urban flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Brett F.; Schubert, Jochen E.; Gallegos, Humberto A.

    2008-11-01

    SummaryAn integral form of the shallow-water equations suitable for urban flood modeling is derived by applying Reynolds transport theorem to a finite control volume encompassing buildings on a flood plain. The effect of buildings on storage and conveyance is modeled with a binary density function i(x,y) that equals unity when (x,y) corresponds to a void, and nil otherwise, and can be measured using remote sensing data such as classified aerial imagery; the effect of buildings on flow resistance is modeled with a drag formulation. Discrete equations are obtained by applying the integral equations to a computational cell and adopting a Godunov-type, piecewise linear distribution of flow variables. The discrete equations include a volumetric porosity ϕ that represents the integral of i over the cell, normalized by the cell area, and an areal porosity ψ that represents the integral of i over an edge of the mesh, normalized by the edge length. The latter is directionally dependent which introduces anisotropy to the shallow-water equations and captures sub-grid preferential flow directions which occur in urban settings due to asymmetric building shapes and spacings and the alignment of buildings along streets. A important implication is that model predictions are necessarily grid dependent; therefore, a mesh design strategy is proposed. First- and second-order accurate numerical methods are presented to solve the discrete equations, and applications are shown for verification and validation purposes including the ability of the model to resolve preferential flow directions.

  16. Unknown object localization and identification in shallow water environment at Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Balint; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Vajda, Ferenc; Vajta, Laszlo; Vogel, Miklos

    2004-11-01

    This paper addresses a particular detection problem related to the largest freshwater lake of Central and Western Europe, namely the Lake Balaton. The bed-silt of this shallow water lake (its average depth is 3.3 meters) contains several type of objects: industrial debris, historical vestiges, and in particular, an unknown quantity of unexploded ordnance from the second World War. It is important to localize and classify these objects for precise risk assessment and eventual later removal (not addressed in the paper). The bed-silt of the lake can be characterized as a mud having a light and constantly changing structure. It follows that the shallow water is almost always mixed with the mud. This admixture is constantly maintained by winds and navigating boats, hence the underwater visibility is close to zero during the most part of the year, especially in the depth range close to the bottom. Since the climate makes it possible, the authors propose a special way to explore the bed-silt of the lake, namely the use an autonomous vehicle on the frozen lake. Note that the ice prevents the wind and navigating boats to generate water movement and thus the mud is sedimented. This autonomous vehicle is equipped with a GPS based onboard localization system, with multiple sensor and recording equipment, and with a radio link to its command post. More details about the nature of objects to be detected as well as about the architecture of the detection and localization system are presented in the paper.

  17. Analysis of spurious oscillation modes for the shallow water and Navier-Stokes equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Carey, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The origin and nature of spurious oscillation modes that appear in mixed finite element methods are examined. In particular, the shallow water equations are considered and a modal analysis for the one-dimensional problem is developed. From the resulting dispersion relations we find that the spurious modes in elevation are associated with zero frequency and large wave number (wavelengths of the order of the nodal spacing) and consequently are zero-velocity modes. The spurious modal behavior is the result of the finite spatial discretization. By means of an artificial compressibility and limiting argument we are able to resolve the similar problem for the Navier-Stokes equations. The relationship of this simpler analysis to alternative consistency arguments is explained. This modal approach provides an explanation of the phenomenon in question and permits us to deduce the cause of the very complex behavior of spurious modes observed in numerical experiments with the shallow water equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, this analysis is not limited to finite element formulations, but is also applicable to finite difference formulations. ?? 1983.

  18. Parallel iterative solution for h and p approximations of the shallow water equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barragy, E.J.; Walters, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    A p finite element scheme and parallel iterative solver are introduced for a modified form of the shallow water equations. The governing equations are the three-dimensional shallow water equations. After a harmonic decomposition in time and rearrangement, the resulting equations are a complex Helmholz problem for surface elevation, and a complex momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. Both equations are nonlinear and the resulting system is solved using the Picard iteration combined with a preconditioned biconjugate gradient (PBCG) method for the linearized subproblems. A subdomain-based parallel preconditioner is developed which uses incomplete LU factorization with thresholding (ILUT) methods within subdomains, overlapping ILUT factorizations for subdomain boundaries and under-relaxed iteration for the resulting block system. The method builds on techniques successfully applied to linear elements by introducing ordering and condensation techniques to handle uniform p refinement. The combined methods show good performance for a range of p (element order), h (element size), and N (number of processors). Performance and scalability results are presented for a field scale problem where up to 512 processors are used. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A finite element method for solving the shallow water equations on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comblen, Richard; Legrand, Sébastien; Deleersnijder, Eric; Legat, Vincent

    Within the framework of ocean general circulation modeling, the present paper describes an efficient way to discretize partial differential equations on curved surfaces by means of the finite element method on triangular meshes. Our approach benefits from the inherent flexibility of the finite element method. The key idea consists in a dialog between a local coordinate system defined for each element in which integration takes place, and a nodal coordinate system in which all local contributions related to a vectorial degree of freedom are assembled. Since each element of the mesh and each degree of freedom are treated in the same way, the so-called pole singularity issue is fully circumvented. Applied to the shallow water equations expressed in primitive variables, this new approach has been validated against the standard test set defined by [Williamson, D.L., Drake, J.B., Hack, J.J., Jakob, R., Swarztrauber, P.N., 1992. A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. Journal of Computational Physics 102, 211-224]. Optimal rates of convergence for the P1NC-P1 finite element pair are obtained, for both global and local quantities of interest. Finally, the approach can be extended to three-dimensional thin-layer flows in a straightforward manner.

  20. Numerical simulations of dynamic coupling between shallow-water sloshing and horizontal vessel motion with baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi Ardakani, H.; Turner, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The coupled motion between shallow water sloshing in a moving vessel with baffles and the vessel dynamics is considered. Here the vessel dynamics is restricted to horizontal motion such as in tuned liquid dampers. It was shown by (Turner et al 2013 Phys. Fluids 25 112102) that partitioning a moving vessel into n separate compartments leads to an interesting dynamical behaviour of the system. Also, under particular input parameter values an internal (n+1)-fold 1:\\cdots :1 resonance can be generated, where the frequency of the sloshing fluid in each compartment is equal, and equal to the frequency of the vessel itself. Here the form of the sloshing eigenmodes at this resonance are derived in the shallow-water limit. Using the Lagrangian formulation of the problem, an efficient numerical algorithm is implemented to solve the fully nonlinear system of equations based on the implicit midpoint rule. This algorithm is simple, fast and maintains the energy partition between the vessel and the fluid over long times. In this work numerical results are presented for dynamical vessel/sloshing motion attached to a nonlinear spring.

  1. Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casulli, Vincenzo; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1992-01-01

    A semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of three-dimensional shallow water flows is presented and discussed. The governing equations are the primitive three-dimensional turbulent mean flow equations where the pressure distribution in the vertical has been assumed to be hydrostatic. In the method of solution a minimal degree of implicitness has been adopted in such a fashion that the resulting algorithm is stable and gives a maximal computational efficiency at a minimal computational cost. At each time step the numerical method requires the solution of one large linear system which can be formally decomposed into a set of small three-diagonal systems coupled with one five-diagonal system. All these linear systems are symmetric and positive definite. Thus the existence and uniquencess of the numerical solution are assured. When only one vertical layer is specified, this method reduces as a special case to a semi-implicit scheme for solving the corresponding two-dimensional shallow water equations. The resulting two- and three-dimensional algorithm has been shown to be fast, accurate and mass-conservative and can also be applied to simulate flooding and drying of tidal mud-flats in conjunction with three-dimensional flows. Furthermore, the resulting algorithm is fully vectorizable for an efficient implementation on modern vector computers.

  2. Parallel iterative solution for h and p approximations of the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragy, E. J.; Walters, R. A.

    A p finite element scheme and parallel iterative solver are introduced for a modified form of the shallow water equations. The governing equations are the three-dimensional shallow water equations. After a harmonic decomposition in time and rearrangement, the resulting equations are a complex Helmholz problem for surface elevation, and a complex momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. Both equations are nonlinear and the resulting system is solved using the Picard iteration combined with a preconditioned biconjugate gradient (PBCG) method for the linearized subproblems. A subdomain-based parallel preconditioner is developed which uses incomplete LU factorization with thresholding (ILUT) methods within subdomains, overlapping ILUT factorizations for subdomain boundaries and under-relaxed iteration for the resulting block system. The method builds on techniques successfully applied to linear elements by introducing ordering and condensation techniques to handle uniform p refinement. The combined methods show good performance for a range of p (element order), h (element size), and N (number of processors). Performance and scalability results are presented for a field scale problem where up to 512 processors are used.

  3. Tools to Perform Local Dense 3D Reconstruction of Shallow Water Seabed ‡

    PubMed Central

    Avanthey, Loïca; Beaudoin, Laurent; Gademer, Antoine; Roux, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Tasks such as distinguishing or identifying individual objects of interest require the production of dense local clouds at the scale of these individual objects of interest. Due to the physical and dynamic properties of an underwater environment, the usual dense matching algorithms must be rethought in order to be adaptive. These properties also imply that the scene must be observed at close range. Classic robotized acquisition systems are oversized for local studies in shallow water while the systematic acquisition of data is not guaranteed with divers. We address these two major issues through a multidisciplinary approach. To efficiently acquire on-demand stereoscopic pairs using simple logistics in small areas of shallow water, we devised an agile light-weight dedicated system which is easy to reproduce. To densely match two views in a reliable way, we devised a reconstruction algorithm that automatically accounts for the dynamics, variability and light absorption of the underwater environment. Field experiments in the Mediterranean Sea were used to assess the results. PMID:27196913

  4. A second-order treatment to the wet-dry interface of shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifei; Zhang, Jie; Shafiai, Siti Habibah

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a second-order lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for treating the wet-dry interface of shallow water flows. This approach is improved according to the Chapman-Enskog analysis and the Taylor expansion, which are used to set up the relation of the dry cell and its adjacent wet cell. The external forces, such as bed friction and wind stress, are directly included in the wetting and drying boundary treatment. However, the viscous effect cannot be absolutely removed, as the single relaxation time, τ > 0.5 , should be retained for the reason of stability. In order to verify the scheme, two one-dimensional (1D) and one two-dimensional (2D) numerical cases are carried out. The results indicate that the approach is superior to the first-order scheme, comparing with the other numerical solutions and the experimental data. It can be concluded that the proposed scheme is more accurate and effective in simulating shallow water fronts.

  5. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  6. A Vorticity-Divergence Global Semi-Lagrangian Spectral Model for the Shallow Water Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, JB

    2001-11-30

    The shallow water equations modeling flow on a sphere are useful for the development and testing of numerical algorithms for atmospheric climate and weather models. A new formulation of the shallow water equations is derived which exhibits an advective form for the vorticity and divergence. This form is particularly well suited for numerical computations using a semi-Lagrangian spectral discretization. A set of test problems, standard for the shallow water equations on a sphere, are solved and results compared with an Eulerian spectral model. The semi-Lagrangian transport method was introduced into atmospheric modeling by Robert, Henderson, and Turnbull. A formulation based on a three time level integration scheme in conjunction with a finite difference spatial discretization was studied by Ritchie. Two time level grid point schemes were derived by Bates et al. Staniforth and Cote survey developments of the application of semi-Lagrangian transport (SLT) methods for shallow water models and for numerical weather prediction. The spectral (or spherical harmonic transform) method when combined with a SLT method is particularly effective because it allows for long time steps avoiding the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction of Eulerian methods, while retaining accurate (spectral) treatment of the spatial derivatives. A semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian formulation with spectral spatial discretization is very effective because the Helmholz problem arising from the semi-implicit time integration can be solved cheaply in the course of the spherical harmonic transform. The combination of spectral, semi-Lagrangian transport with a semi-implicit time integration schemes was first proposed by Ritchie. A advective formulation using vorticity and divergence was introduced by Williamson and Olson. They introduce the vorticity and divergence after the application of the semi-Lagrangian discretization. The semi-Lagrangian formulation of Williamson and Olson and Bates et al. has

  7. Organic Nutrients and Contaminants In Subsistence Species of Alaska: Concentrations and Relationship To Food Preparation Method

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Whiting, Alex V.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wang, Xiaowa; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine nutrient and contaminant concentrations, document concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for select subsistence foods consumed by residents of Kotzebue, Alaska. Study design Eleven organic nutrients and 156 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. Methods Nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake criteria. POPs were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). Results Cooking, as well as absence/presence of skin during sheefish processing, altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations in seals and fish. Sheefish muscle and seal blubber were particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids and seal liver in vitamin A. Seal liver exceeded the recommended upper limit for vitamin A. POP contribution to TDIL was <25% in all tissues except blubber, in which 4 POPs were present at >25% TDIL. No POPs exceeded TDIL in a serving of any tissue studied. The most prominent concerns identified were levels of vitamin A in spotted seal liver and certain POPs in blubber, warranting consideration when determining how much and how often these foods should be consumed. Conclusions Preparation methods altering tissues from their raw state significantly affect nutrient and contaminant concentrations, thus direct evaluation of actual food items is highly recommended to determine risk-benefits ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide essential nutrients with very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage the consumption of traditional foods and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models to assess overall food safety and quality. PMID:19917188

  8. INORGANIC NUTRIENTS AND CONTAMINANTS IN SUBSISTENCE SPECIES OF ALASKA: LINKING WILDLIFE AND HUMAN HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Whiting, Alex V.; Bratton, Gerald R.; Taylor, Robert J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine inorganic nutrient and contaminant concentrations in subsistence foods consumed by Alaska Natives, concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for these foods. Study design Eleven essential and six non-essential elements were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. Methods Essential nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake (DRI) criteria. Non-essential elements were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). These comparisons serve as a risk-benefit analysis, not as consumption advice. Results Cooking altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations. Spotted seal muscle and kidney are rich in Fe and Se; liver in Cu, Fe, Mo and Se; and sheefish muscle in Se. TDIL was exceeded in a 100 g serving of seal for THg in raw and fried liver and boiled kidney; MeHg in dried muscle and raw and fried liver; Cd in raw and boiled kidney; and As in raw and rendered blubber. Arsenic exceeded TDIL in sheefish muscle. However, toxicity potential is likely reduced by the element form (i.e., organic As, inorganic Hg) and the presence of protective nutrients such as Se. Conclusions Preparation methods alter wildlife tissues from their raw state, significantly affecting element concentrations. Direct evaluation of actual food items is warranted to determine risk-benefit ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide many essential nutrients with a very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage continued consumption of traditional foods, and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models for providing consumption advice, incorporating food processing considerations. PMID:19331242

  9. Twig and foliar biomass estimation equations for major plant species in the Tanana River basin of interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Yarie, J.; Mead, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    Equations are presented for estimating the twig, foliage, and combined biomass for 58 plant species in interior Alaska. The equations can be used for estimating biomass from percentage of the foliar cover of 10-centimeter layers in a vertical profile from 0 to 6 meters. Few differences were found in regressions of the same species between layers except when the ratio of foliar-to-twig biomass changed drastically between layers, for example, Rosa acicularis Lindl. Eighteen species were tested for regression differences between years. Thirteen showed no significant differences, five were different. Of these five, three were feather mosses for which live and dead biomass are easily confused when measured.

  10. Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

    2008-08-01

    Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

  11. The role of Argopecten purpuratus shells structuring the soft bottom community in shallow waters of southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gamero, Patricia A.; Romero, Leonardo; Firstater, Fausto N.; Gamarra Salazar, Alex; Hidalgo, Fernando; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of Argopecten purpuratus shells often occurs after El Niño events in shallow waters of Independencia Bay (14°17‧S-76°10‧W; Pisco, Peru). Here we experimentally investigate the effects of their shell accumulation on macrobenthos assemblages in soft bottom, shallow areas of the bay. A field experiment (from May 2006 to May 2007), including four treatments with different coverage levels of empty shells of A. purpuratus, were randomly arranged in: (1) areas devoid of shells ("Empty" treatment: experimental control), (2) 50% of the plot area covered with shells haphazardly distributed over the bottom ("medium" treatment), (3) 100% of the plot area covered with shells, forming a 10 cm valve layer ("full" treatment) and (4) "natural control". We found a total of 124 taxa throughout the experiment. Polychaetes, crustaceans and mollusks were the most abundant groups in "natural controls", dominated by the gastropod Nassarius gayi and the polychaetes Prionospio peruana, Platynereis bicanaliculata and Mediomastus branchiferus. The abundance of individuals (N) and the species richness (S) were higher in the "medium" treatment, but only in one month under positive sea bottom thermal anomalies. Similarity analysis (Bray-Curtis) showed that "natural control", "empty" and "full" treatments were more similar among them than the "medium" treatment. Multidimensional analysis showed no clear species association among treatments and a higher grouping among the samplings of Jun-06, Aug-06 and Nov-06. Our results also showed that the commercial crab Romaleon polyodon and the polyplacophora Tonicia elegans were positively affected by shell accumulations ("medium" treatment), while the limpet Fissurella crassa was negatively affected. Our study shows that directly by changing habitat structure or indirectly by changing sediment characteristics, the addition of scallop shells to the soft bottom can modify the macrobenthic assemblage; however, the seasonal oceanographic

  12. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  13. Metagenetic community analysis of microbial eukaryotes illuminates biogeographic patterns in deep-sea and shallow water sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bik, Holly M.; Sung, Way; De Ley, Paul; Baldwin, James G.; Sharma, Jyotsna; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Summary Microbial eukaryotes (nematodes, protists, fungi, etc., loosely referred to as meiofauna) are ubiquitous in marine sediments and likely play pivotal roles in maintaining ecosystem function. Although the deep-sea benthos represents one of the world’s largest habitats, we lack a firm understanding of the biodiversity and community interactions amongst meiobenthic organisms in this ecosystem. Within this vast environment key questions concerning the historical genetic structure of species remain a mystery, yet have profound implications for our understanding of global biodiversity and how we perceive and mitigate the impact of environmental change and anthropogenic disturbance. Using a metagenetic approach, we present an assessment of microbial eukaryote communities across depth (shallow water to abyssal) and ocean basins (deep-sea Pacific and Atlantic). Within the 12 sites examined, our results suggest that some taxa can maintain eurybathic ranges and cosmopolitan deep-sea distributions, but the majority of species appear to be regionally restricted. For OCTUs reporting wide distributions, there appears to be a taxonomic bias towards a small subset of taxa in most phyla; such bias may be driven by specific life history traits amongst these organisms. In addition, low genetic divergence between geographically disparate deep-sea sites suggests either a shorter coalescence time between deep-sea regions or slower rates of evolution across this vast oceanic ecosystem. While high-throughput studies allow for broad assessment of genetic patterns across microbial eukaryote communities, intragenomic variation in rRNA gene copies and the patchy coverage of reference databases currently present substantial challenges for robust taxonomic interpretations of eukaryotic datasets. PMID:21985648

  14. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    PubMed

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  15. Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov., a novel manganese oxidizing bacterium isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent in Espalamaca (Azores).

    PubMed

    Rajasabapathy, Raju; Mohandass, Chellandi; Dastager, Syed Gulam; Liu, Qing; Li, Wen-Jun; Colaço, Ana

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod or narrow lemon-shaped bacterial strain, VSW210(T), was isolated from surface seawater in a shallow water hydrothermal vent region in Espalamaca (Azores). Strain VSW210(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 2-6 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain VSW210(T) clusters with the type strain Citreicella marina CK-I3-6(T) (sequence similarity value of 99.6 %), but DNA-DNA hybridization showed DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain VSW210(T) and C. marina CK-I3-6(T) to be 55.8 ± 3.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain VSW210(T) was determined to be 67.4 mol%. The cellular fatty acid profiles of strain VSW210(T) was found to contain C18:1 ω7c (80.1 %) and C16:0 (9.2 %). The major polar lipids in strain VSW210(T) were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. Strain VSW210(T) was found to be able to oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble MnO2, which was confirmed with LBB staining. Differential phenotypic properties and genetic uniqueness revealed that this strain VSW210(T) is distinguishable from other species of the genus Citreicella. On the basis of the data presented, strain VSW210(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Citreicella, for which the name Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VSW210(T) (=KCTC 32497(T) = MCC 2286(T)). PMID:26404429

  16. Toward the Application of the Implicit Particle Filter to Real Data in a Shallow Water Model of the Nearshore Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the success of the implicit particle filter in twin experiments with a shallow water model of the nearshore environment, the planned next step is application to the intensive Sandy Duck data set, gathered at Duck, NC. Adaptation of the present system to the Sandy Duck data set will require construction and evaluation of error models for both the model and the data, as well as significant modification of the system to allow for the properties of the data set. Successful implementation of the particle filter promises to shed light on the details of the capabilities and limitations of shallow water models of the nearshore ocean relative to more detailed models. Since the shallow water model admits distinct dynamical regimes, reliable parameter estimation will be important. Previous work by other groups give cause for optimism. In this talk I will describe my progress toward implementation of the new system, including problems solved, pitfalls remaining and preliminary results

  17. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (< 6 m deep) in the lower Snake River reservoirs to help inform the long-term plan. Natural fry and parr were present within all four shallow water habitat complexes that we studied from early spring through early summer, and parr ( = 40,345 ± 18,800 [error bound]) were more abundant than fry ( = 24,615 ± 5,701). Water < 2 m deep was highly used for rearing by natural fall Chinook salmon subyearlings (fry and parr combined; hereafter natural subyearlings) based on duration of use and relative group abundances during spring and summer, whereas the 2–6 m depth interval was more highly used by migratory hatchery fall Chinook salmon subyearlings and spring, summer, and fall Chinook salmon yearlings. Overall mean spring-summer apparent density of natural subyearlings was 15.5 times higher within the < 2 m depth interval than within the 2–6 m depth interval. Density of natural subyearlings also decreased as the distance a given shallow water habitat complex was located from the riverine spawning areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water

  18. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Binnerts, Bas; Ainslie, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of this assumption is investigated for ship generated sound in the Dutch North Sea, for realistic ship and wind distributions. Sound maps are generated for zero, negative and positive gradients for selected frequency bands (56 Hz to 3.6 kHz). The effect of sound speed profile for the decidecade centred at 125 Hz is less than 1.7 dB. PMID:27475218

  19. Interference structure of low-frequency reverberation signals in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunkov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Using numerical simulation, an analysis was conducted of the interference structure of a bottomscattered sound field generated by a wideband point source in shallow water under winter and summer conditions. The scattered signals were received from the place where the source was located and were subjected to Fourier transform with a sliding window. The paper demonstrates the possibility of estimating the waveguide invariant for backscattered signals when processing the sound intensity distributions in wide frequency and distance ranges up to the scattering area. A technique is proposed for reconstructing the twodimensional field of internal waves using variations of the interference pattern of reverberation signals. The influence of wind surface waves on the degree of interference band contrast is illustrated.

  20. Determining the depth of a sound source in shallow water against intense background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedina, T. N.; Kuznetsov, G. N.; Kuz'kin, V. M.; Pereselkov, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a method for estimating the depth of a sound source in a shallow water acoustic waveguide for a weak signal, based on information on the ratio of the amplitude of neighboring modes of the wave field. Results of a numerical experiment using a single receiver and a horizontal linear array in the lowfrequency region are given. We demonstrate the stability of the method to errors in measuring the amplitudes of filtered modes and variations of the waveguide model, as well as high noise immunity. It is established that the error in reconstructing the depth of a source with increasing noise tends to the established value. We give a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the simulation results.

  1. Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Numerical Roe Flux for Spherical Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, T.; Choi, S.; Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    In developing the dynamic core of a numerical weather prediction model with discontinuous Galerkin method, a numerical flux at the boundaries of grid elements plays a vital role since it preserves the local conservation properties and has a significant impact on the accuracy and stability of numerical solutions. Due to these reasons, we developed the numerical Roe flux based on an approximate Riemann problem for spherical shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates [1] to find out its stability and accuracy. In order to compare the performance with its counterpart flux, we used the Lax-Friedrichs flux, which has been used in many dynamic cores such as NUMA [1], CAM-DG [2] and MCore [3] because of its simplicity. The Lax-Friedrichs flux is implemented by a flux difference between left and right states plus the maximum characteristic wave speed across the boundaries of elements. It has been shown that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with the finite volume method is more dissipative and unstable than other numerical fluxes such as HLLC, AUSM+ and Roe. The Roe flux implemented in this study is based on the decomposition of flux difference over the element boundaries where the nonlinear equations are linearized. It is rarely used in dynamic cores due to its complexity and thus computational expensiveness. To compare the stability and accuracy of the Roe flux with the Lax-Friedrichs, two- and three-dimensional test cases are performed on a plane and cubed-sphere, respectively, with various numbers of element and polynomial order. For the two-dimensional case, the Gaussian bell is simulated on the plane with two different numbers of elements at the fixed polynomial orders. In three-dimensional cases on the cubed-sphere, we performed the test cases of a zonal flow over an isolated mountain and a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, of which initial conditions are the same as those of Williamson [4]. This study presented that the Roe flux with the discontinuous Galerkin method is less

  2. Accelerating Time Integration for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere Using GPUs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Archibald, R.; Evans, K. J.; Salinger, A.

    2015-06-01

    The push towards larger and larger computational platforms has made it possible for climate simulations to resolve climate dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This direction in climate simulation has created a strong need to develop scalable time-stepping methods capable of accelerating throughput on high performance computing. This work details the recent advances in the implementation of implicit time stepping on a spectral element cube-sphere grid using graphical processing units (GPU) based machines. We demonstrate how solvers in the Trilinos project are interfaced with ACME and GPU kernels can significantly increase computational speed of the residual calculations in themore » implicit time stepping method for the shallow water equations on the sphere. We show the optimization gains and data structure reorganization that facilitates the performance improvements.« less

  3. Accelerating Time Integration for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere Using GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, R.; Evans, K. J.; Salinger, A.

    2015-06-01

    The push towards larger and larger computational platforms has made it possible for climate simulations to resolve climate dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This direction in climate simulation has created a strong need to develop scalable time-stepping methods capable of accelerating throughput on high performance computing. This work details the recent advances in the implementation of implicit time stepping on a spectral element cube-sphere grid using graphical processing units (GPU) based machines. We demonstrate how solvers in the Trilinos project are interfaced with ACME and GPU kernels can significantly increase computational speed of the residual calculations in the implicit time stepping method for the shallow water equations on the sphere. We show the optimization gains and data structure reorganization that facilitates the performance improvements.

  4. Semi-Lagrangian integration of a grid-point shallow water model on the sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, A.; Bates, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a semi-Lagrangian technique for integrating the equations of motion on the global domain. The technique uses an auxiliary spherical coordinate system at each near-polar gridpoint of the latitude-longitude grid; the auxiliary system is obtained by a rotation such that the new equator passes through the gridpoint in question and the new coordinate directions coincide with those of the original system at that point. The technique was applied to the shallow water equations, incorporating a semiimplicit treatment of the adjustment terms on a C-grid, with two-time levels. A five day integration was successfully carried out for a situation involving strong cross-polar flow. No filtering or diffusion was required to maintain stability over a five day period.

  5. On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Gawad, Hamdy I.; Osman, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (vcKdV) equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE’s. PMID:26199750

  6. On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Hamdy I; Osman, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (vcKdV) equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE's. PMID:26199750

  7. Solution of the stochastic generalized shallow-water wave equation using RVT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdallah; Selim, Mustafa M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, some exact solutions of the stochastic generalized nonlinear shallow-water wave (SGNSWW) equation are obtained. This equation is an important equation in fluid mechanics field. Opposite to what is usually assumed in the literature, the coefficients of the nonlinear terms in this stochastic nonlinear partial differential equation (SNLPDE) are considered to be random quantities. The random variable transformation (RVT) technique is combined with the modified extended-tanh function method (METFM) to get the stochastic solutions represented by the probability density functions (PDFs) of the solution processes in terms of the PDFs of the random coefficients. These solutions are illustrated graphically along the spacial and time dimensions at a certain wave speed.

  8. A Kalman filter for a two-dimensional shallow-water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, D. F.; Cohn, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional Kalman filter is described for data assimilation for making weather forecasts. The filter is regarded as superior to the optimal interpolation method because the filter determines the forecast error covariance matrix exactly instead of using an approximation. A generalized time step is defined which includes expressions for one time step of the forecast model, the error covariance matrix, the gain matrix, and the evolution of the covariance matrix. Subsequent time steps are achieved by quantifying the forecast variables or employing a linear extrapolation from a current variable set, assuming the forecast dynamics are linear. Calculations for the evolution of the error covariance matrix are banded, i.e., are performed only with the elements significantly different from zero. Experimental results are provided from an application of the filter to a shallow-water simulation covering a 6000 x 6000 km grid.

  9. An unstructured grid, three-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casulli, V.; Walters, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    A semi-implicit finite difference model based on the three-dimensional shallow water equations is modified to use unstructured grids. There are obvious advantages in using unstructured grids in problems with a complicated geometry. In this development, the concept of unstructured orthogonal grids is introduced and applied to this model. The governing differential equations are discretized by means of a semi-implicit algorithm that is robust, stable and very efficient. The resulting model is relatively simple, conserves mass, can fit complicated boundaries and yet is sufficiently flexible to permit local mesh refinements in areas of interest. Moreover, the simulation of the flooding and drying is included in a natural and straightforward manner. These features are illustrated by a test case for studies of convergence rates and by examples of flooding on a river plain and flow in a shallow estuary. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Thermal regime of shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.; Macrae, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Many shallow lakes and ponds of the Arctic/sub-Arctic contain thick, organic-rich sediments, which have the potential to release significant amounts of CO2 or CH4 to the atmosphere if sediment decomposition rates increase in response to warmer temperatures caused by global warming. This may be exacerbated by a deepening of the seasonal sediment thaw depth in small water bodies that are underlain by permafrost. An important step in linking climatic conditions to rates of organic matter decomposition and gas production from shallow water bodies is an improved understanding of the thermal properties of lake sediments and how sediment temperatures fluctuate in response to changing air temperatures. This knowledge is also important if the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic landscape units in cold regions changes under a warmer climate. One approach that has been used in terrestrial permafrost environments is the examination of how mean annual permafrost surface temperature deviates from mean annual 2-m screen height air temperature (MAAT). The offset between MAAT and the mean annual sediment surface temperature (MASST) has been found to be much larger in deep aquatic systems (greater than 10 m) than in terrestrial permafrost systems due to the presence of the water column that can efficiently transfer heat through mixing. However, the efficiency of heat transfer in shallow water bodies is expected to larger in summer (thawed) than in winter (frozen) conditions, when thermal energy must move by conduction alone. The present study examined the efficiency of sediment heat transfer in shallow water bodies (less than 3 m) during summer and winter periods. Air, sediment and water temperatures of three shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada were monitored (December 2009-August 2011). Arrays of thermistors and heat pulse probes were placed at 10 cm increments between 20 cm above the water/sediment interface and

  11. Nonlinear Solver Approaches for the Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, N.; Knepley, M.

    2015-12-01

    The diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations (DSW) is a doubly-degenerate, nonlinear, parabolic partial differential equation used to model overland flows. Despite its challenges, the DSW equation has been extensively used to model the overland flow component of various integrated surface/subsurface models. The equation's complications become increasingly problematic when ponding occurs, a feature which becomes pervasive when solving on large domains with realistic terrain. In this talk I discuss the various forms and regularizations of the DSW equation and highlight their effect on the solvability of the nonlinear system. In addition to this analysis, I present results of a numerical study which tests the applicability of a class of composable nonlinear algebraic solvers recently added to the Portable, Extensible, Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc).

  12. On the derivation of variational integrators for the rotating shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Werner; Gay-Balmaz, François

    2016-04-01

    We present a structure-preserving discretization of the rotating shallow-water equations. This novel numerical scheme is based on a finite dimensional approximation of the group of diffeomorphisms and is derived via a discrete version of the Euler-Poincaré variational formulation of rotating compressible fluids. The resulting variational integrator, currently derived for regular triangular meshes, provides the first successful derivation and implementation of a compressible two-dimensional model by this discrete variational principle. We illustrate on various test cases that this variationally derived scheme exhibits excellent long term energy behavior, shows a second order convergence rate in space, and respects conservation laws such as geostrophic balance and mass conservation.

  13. Parameterization and simulation of near bed orbital velocities under irregular waves in shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elfrink, B.; Hanes, D.M.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    A set of empirical formulations is derived that describe important wave properties in shallow water as functions of commonly used parameters such as wave height, wave period, local water depth and local bed slope. These wave properties include time varying near-bed orbital velocities and statistical properties such as the distribution of wave height and wave period. Empirical expressions of characteristic wave parameters are derived on the basis of extensive analysis of field data using recently developed evolutionary algorithms. The field data covered a wide range of wave conditions, though there were few conditions with wave periods greater than 15 s. Comparison with field measurements showed good agreement both on a time scale of a single wave period as well as time averaged velocity moments.

  14. A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

  15. A model for sonar interrogation of complex bottom and surface targets in shallow-water waveguides.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Thomas E; Shirron, Joseph J

    2008-04-01

    Many problems of current interest in underwater acoustics involve low-frequency broadband sonar interrogation of objects near the sea surface or sea floor of a shallow-water environment. When the target is situated near the upper or lower boundary of the water column the acoustic interactions with the target objects are complicated by interactions with the nearby free surface or fluid-sediment interface, respectively. A practical numerical method to address such situations is presented. The model provides high levels of accuracy with the flexibility to handle complex, three-dimensional targets in range-independent environments. The model is demonstrated using several bottom target scenarios, with and without locally undulating seabeds. The impact of interface and boundary interactions is considered with an eye toward using the sonar return signal as the basis for acoustic imaging or spectral classification. PMID:18397010

  16. Matched-impulse-response processing for shallow-water localization and geoacoustic inversion

    PubMed

    Michalopoulou

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, impulse response matching is proposed for source localization and environmental inversion. The ocean impulse response is estimated using a cross-correlation procedure applied to data from the propagation of a broadband pulse in a shallow-water environment. Source localization and geoacoustic parameter estimation are then performed through time-domain correlations between the estimated impulse responses at spatially separated phones and synthetic replica impulse responses. The method is both spatially and temporally coherent. Parameter space search uses a hierarchical scheme designed to exploit the sensitivity of the acoustic field to the unknown parameters. Tested on the SWellEX-96 and synthetic data, the proposed method is shown to be more robust than conventional (linear), incoherent, broadband matched field processing. PMID:11108345

  17. On the assimilation of SWOT type data into 2D shallow-water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frédéric, Couderc; Denis, Dartus; Pierre-André, Garambois; Ronan, Madec; Jérôme, Monnier; Jean-Paul, Villa

    2013-04-01

    In river hydraulics, assimilation of water level measurements at gauging stations is well controlled, while assimilation of images is still delicate. In the present talk, we address the richness of satellite mapped information to constrain a 2D shallow-water model, but also related difficulties. 2D shallow models may be necessary for small scale modelling in particular for low-water and flood plain flows. Since in both cases, the dynamics of the wet-dry front is essential, one has to elaborate robust and accurate solvers. In this contribution we introduce robust second order, stable finite volume scheme [CoMaMoViDaLa]. Comparisons of real like tests cases with more classical solvers highlight the importance of an accurate flood plain modelling. A preliminary inverse study is presented in a flood plain flow case, [LaMo] [HoLaMoPu]. As a first step, a 0th order data processing model improves observation operator and produces more reliable water level derived from rough measurements [PuRa]. Then, both model and flow behaviours can be better understood thanks to variational sensitivities based on a gradient computation and adjoint equations. It can reveal several difficulties that a model designer has to tackle. Next, a 4D-Var data assimilation algorithm used with spatialized data leads to improved model calibration and potentially leads to identify river discharges. All the algorithms are implemented into DassFlow software (Fortran, MPI, adjoint) [Da]. All these results and experiments (accurate wet-dry front dynamics, sensitivities analysis, identification of discharges and calibration of model) are currently performed in view to use data from the future SWOT mission. [CoMaMoViDaLa] F. Couderc, R. Madec, J. Monnier, J.-P. Vila, D. Dartus, K. Larnier. "Sensitivity analysis and variational data assimilation for geophysical shallow water flows". Submitted. [Da] DassFlow - Data Assimilation for Free Surface Flows. Computational software http

  18. Multi-carrier synthetic aperture communication in shallow water: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taehyuk; Song, H C; Hodgkiss, W S

    2011-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications in the presence of motion is investigated using data collected from the Kauai Acomms MURI 2008 (KAM08) experiment, conducted off the western side of Kauai, Hawaii, in June-July 2008. The experiment involved a vertical array moored in 106 m deep shallow water and a source towed at a speed of 3 knots at ranges between 600 m and 6 km. In order to attain reliable communications with only a single receive element, a synthetic aperture approach is applied. After combining multiple transmissions, an error-free reception is achieved with a low-density parity-check code, confirming the feasibility of coherent synthetic aperture communications using OFDM. PMID:22225037

  19. Observations of the R reflector and sediment interface reflection at the Shallow Water '06 Central Site.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jee Woong; Dahl, Peter H; Goff, John A

    2008-09-01

    Acoustic bottom-interacting measurements from the Shallow Water '06 experiment experiment (frequency range 1-20 kHz) are presented. These are co-located with coring and stratigraphic studies showing a thin (approximately 20 cm) higher sound speed layer overlaying a thicker (approximately 20 m) lower sound speed layer ending at a high-impedance reflector (R reflector). Reflections from the R reflector and analysis of the bottom reflection coefficient magnitude for the upper two sediment layers confirm both these features. Geoacoustic parameters are estimated, dispersion effects addressed, and forward modeling using the parabolic wave equation undertaken. The reflection coefficient measurements suggest a nonlinear attenuation law for the thin layer of sandy sediments. PMID:19045554

  20. Numerical study of the Guderley and Vasilev reflections in steady two-dimensional shallow water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defina, Andrea; Susin, Francesca Maria; Viero, Daniele Pietro

    2008-09-01

    We present high-resolution numerical solutions of the depth-averaged two-dimensional inviscid shallow water equations which provide new information on shock reflection configuration within the von Neumann paradox conditions. The computed flow field and shock wave patterns close to the triple point for the Guderley and the Vasilev reflections confirm the four-wave theory. We suggest that the most likely Guderley reflection model is a four-wave pattern with a compression wave that originates along the downstream boundary of the supercritical patch. The compression wave, after being refracted by the slip stream, turns the flow behind the Guderley stem further toward the wall until critical condition is achieved.

  1. Delayed blood-brain barrier disruption after shallow-water diving demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hadanny, Amir; Tal, Sigal; Fishlev, Gregori; Bechor, Yair; Efrati, Shai

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old diver presented to our emergency room complaining of headaches and left side numbness three days after diving to a depth of 6 metres for 25 minutes. On examination, he had left-sided hypaesthesia, and a post-contrast FLAIR brain MRI sequence revealed significant diffuse meningeal enhancement, indicating blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen; the initial four sessions resulted in only partial symptom improvement correlating with partial improvement in the MRI findings. Ten additional hyperbaric treatments resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms and normalization of MRI findings. The main aim of this case report is to present a probable, atypical, delayed-onset case of shallow-water decompression sickness culminating in significant BBB damage, which was demonstrated by special MRI techniques. PMID:26165534

  2. Functioning of a Shallow-Water Sediment System during Experimental Warming and Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Alsterberg, Christian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Hulth, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of warming and nutrient enrichment on intact unvegetated shallow-water sediment were investigated for 5 weeks in the autumn under simulated natural field conditions, with a main focus on trophic state and benthic nitrogen cycling. In a flow-through system, sediment was exposed to either seawater at ambient temperature or seawater heated 4°C above ambient, with either natural or nutrient enriched water. Sediment–water fluxes of oxygen and inorganic nutrients, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification were measured. Warming resulted in an earlier shift to net heterotrophy due to increased community respiration; primary production was not affected by temperature but (slightly) by nutrient enrichment. The heterotrophic state was, however, not further strengthened by warming, but was rather weakened, probably because increased mineralization induced a shortage of labile organic matter. Climate-related warming of seawater during autumn could therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, induce shorter but more intensive heterotrophic periods in shallow-water sediments, followed by longer autotrophic periods. Increased nitrogen mineralization and subsequent effluxes of ammonium during warming suggested a preferential response of organisms driving nitrogen mineralization when compared to sinks of ammonium such as nitrification and algal assimilation. Warming and nutrient enrichment resulted in non-additive effects on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification (synergism), as well as on benthic fluxes of phosphate (antagonism). The mode of interaction appears to be related to the trophic level of the organisms that are the main drivers of the affected processes. Despite the weak response of benthic microalgae to both warming and nutrient enrichment, the assimilation of nitrogen by microalgae was similar in magnitude to rates of nitrogen mineralization. This implies a sustained filter function and retention capacity of nutrients by the sediment. PMID

  3. Shallow-water flow past isolated topography. Part I: Vorticity production and wake formation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaer, C.; Smith, R.B. )

    1993-05-15

    The flow of a single layer of shallow water past high three-dimensional topography is studies in a nonrotating environment and in the absence of surface friction. The dimensionless parameters for this problem are the upstream Froude number, the dimensionless mountain height, and a dimensionless measure of the dissipation rate. In part I of this study, high-resolution numerical simulations are utilized to construct a regime diagram for steady left-right symmetric flow and for the domain of parameter space with subcritical upstream conditions. Three distinct regimes occur. They are characterized, respectively, by fore-aft symmetry, essentially inviscid dynamics, and entirely subcritical conditions (regime I); by transition to supercritical flow and the occurrence of a hydraulic jump over the lee slope (regime II); and by the inability of the flow to climb the mountain top resulting in flow separation (regime III). Regimes II and III are associated with a wake that entails significant potential vorticity features and sometimes reversed flow. Potential vorticity is produced by two related mechanisms. First, internal dissipation in the shallow-water system is generally not possible without potential vorticity production, even in an initially fully irrotational state and in absence of surface friction. The proof of this follows from a new theorem, which states that the steady-state Bernoulli function is the streamfunction of the total (i.e., advective and dissipative) vorticity flux. Second, flow separation in regime III can lead to the formation of contact discontinuities that are connected to the separation point and represent the inviscid limit of shearlines. Here potential vorticity production at the separation point is related to the joining of two streams of fluid with different values of the Bernoulli function. 59 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Stability analysis of Eulerian-Lagrangian methods for the one-dimensional shallow-water equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casulli, V.; Cheng, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper stability and error analyses are discussed for some finite difference methods when applied to the one-dimensional shallow-water equations. Two finite difference formulations, which are based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, are discussed. In the first part of this paper the results of numerical analyses for an explicit Eulerian-Lagrangian method (ELM) have shown that the method is unconditionally stable. This method, which is a generalized fixed grid method of characteristics, covers the Courant-Isaacson-Rees method as a special case. Some artificial viscosity is introduced by this scheme. However, because the method is unconditionally stable, the artificial viscosity can be brought under control either by reducing the spatial increment or by increasing the size of time step. The second part of the paper discusses a class of semi-implicit finite difference methods for the one-dimensional shallow-water equations. This method, when the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used for the convective terms, is also unconditionally stable and highly accurate for small space increments or large time steps. The semi-implicit methods seem to be more computationally efficient than the explicit ELM; at each time step a single tridiagonal system of linear equations is solved. The combined explicit and implicit ELM is best used in formulating a solution strategy for solving a network of interconnected channels. The explicit ELM is used at channel junctions for each time step. The semi-implicit method is then applied to the interior points in each channel segment. Following this solution strategy, the channel network problem can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional open-channel flow problems. Numerical results support properties given by the stability and error analyses. ?? 1990.

  5. Local feedback mechanisms of the shallow water region around the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Pengfei; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Wei, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The focus of this study is the local-scale air-sea feedback mechanisms over the shallow shelf water region (water depth <200 m) of the Maritime Continent (MC). MC was selected as a pilot study site for its extensive shallow water coverage, geographic complexity, and importance in the global climate system. To identify the local-scale air-sea feedback processes, we ran numerical experiments with perturbed surface layer water temperature using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model and an uncoupled ocean model. By examining the responses of the coupled and uncoupled models to the water temperature perturbation, we identify that, at a local-scale, a negative feedback process through the coupled dynamics that tends to restore the SST from its perturbation could dominate the shallow water region of the MC at a short time scale of several days. The energy budget shows that 38% of initial perturbation-induced heat energy was adjusted through the air-sea feedback mechanisms within 2 weeks, of which 58% is directly transferred into the atmosphere by the adjustment of latent heat flux due to the evaporative cooling mechanism. The increased inputs of heat and moisture into the lower atmosphere then modifies its thermal structure and increases the formation of low-level clouds, which act as a shield preventing incoming solar radiation from reaching the sea surface, accounts for 38% of the total adjustment of surface heat fluxes, serving as the second mechanism for the negative feedback process. The adjustment of sensible heat flux and net longwave radiation play a secondary role. The response of the coupled system to the SST perturbation suggests a response time scale of the coupled feedback process of about 3-5 days. The two-way air-sea feedback tightly links the surface heat fluxes, clouds and SST, and can play an important role in regulating the short-term variability of the SST over the shallow shelf water regions.

  6. Remote sensing of water depths in shallow waters via artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhun, Özçelik; Yalçın, Arısoy

    2010-09-01

    Determination of the water depths in coastal zones is a common requirement for the majority of coastal engineering and coastal science applications. However, production of high quality bathymetric maps requires expensive field survey, high technology equipment and expert personnel. Remotely sensed images can be conveniently used to reduce the cost and labor needed for bathymetric measurements and to overcome the difficulties in spatial and temporal depth provision. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methodology is introduced in this study to derive bathymetric maps in shallow waters via remote sensing images and sample depth measurements. This methodology provides fast and practical solution for depth estimation in shallow waters, coupling temporal and spatial capabilities of remote sensing imagery with modeling flexibility of ANN. Its main advantage in practice is that it enables to directly use image reflectance values in depth estimations, without refining depth-caused scatterings from other environmental factors (e.g. bottom material and vegetation). Its function-free structure allows evaluating nonlinear relationships between multi-band images and in-situ depth measurements, therefore leads more reliable depth estimations than classical regressive approaches. The west coast of the Foca, Izmir/Turkey was used as a test bed. Aster first three band images and Quickbird pan-sharpened images were used to derive ANN based bathymetric maps of this study area. In-situ depth measurements were supplied from the General Command of Mapping, Turkey (HGK). Two models were set, one for Aster and one for Quickbird image inputs. Bathymetric maps relying solely on in-situ depth measurements were used to evaluate resultant derived bathymetric maps. The efficiency of the methodology was discussed at the end of the paper. It is concluded that the proposed methodology could decrease spatial and repetitive depth measurement requirements in bathymetric mapping especially for

  7. POD/DEIM nonlinear model order reduction of an ADI implicit shallow water equations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefănescu, R.; Navon, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2-D shallow-water equations (SWE) model on a β-plane solved using an alternating direction fully implicit (ADI) finite-difference scheme on a rectangular domain. The scheme was shown to be unconditionally stable for the linearized equations. The discretization yields a number of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. We then use a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the SWE model. Due to the model nonlinearities, the computational complexity of the reduced model still depends on the number of variables of the full shallow - water equations model. By employing the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) we reduce the computational complexity of the reduced order model due to its depending on the nonlinear full dimension model and regain the full model reduction expected from the POD model. To emphasize the CPU gain in performance due to use of POD/DEIM, we also propose testing an explicit Euler finite difference scheme (EE) as an alternative to the ADI implicit scheme for solving the swallow water equations model. We then proceed to assess the efficiency of POD/DEIM as a function of number of spatial discretization points, time steps, and POD basis functions. As was expected, our numerical experiments showed that the CPU time performances of POD/DEIM schemes are proportional to the number of mesh points. Once the number of spatial discretization points exceeded 10000 and for 90 DEIM interpolation points, the CPU time decreased by a factor of 10 in case of POD/DEIM implicit SWE scheme and by a factor of 15 for the POD/DEIM explicit SWE scheme in comparison with the corresponding POD SWE schemes. Moreover, our numerical tests revealed that if the number of points selected by DEIM algorithm reached 50, the approximation errors due to POD/DEIM and POD reduced systems have the same orders of magnitude, thus supporting the theoretical results existing in the literature.

  8. Fracturing and flow: Investigations on the formation of shallow water sills on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Kathleen L.; Patterson, G. Wes; Lowell, Robert P.; Germanovich, Leonid

    2016-08-01

    Double ridge tectonic features appear prominently and ubiquitously across the surface of Jupiter's icy moon Europa. Previous studies have interpreted flanking fractures observed along some of the ridges as indicators of stress resulting from the ridge loading and flexing of the ice shell above a shallow water body. Here, we investigate a shallow water sill emplacement process at a time when the shell is cooling and thickening and explore the conditions that would make such a system feasible on timescales of ridge formation. Results show that fracture initiation and transport of ocean water to shallow depths can realistically occur, although horizontal fracturing and sill lifetimes prove challenging. Finite element models demonstrate that mechanical layering or a fractured shell do not provide enough stress change to promote horizontal fracturing, but tidal forcing does result in a small amount of turn. Assuming it is possible for a shallow sill to form, a sill would convect internally and conduct heat out quickly, resulting in a short lifetime in comparison to an estimated flexure timeframe of 100 kyr suggested required for double ridge formation. Consideration of heat transfer and residence in the overlying ice, however, extends the flexure timeframe and multiple sill intrusions or replenishment with warm ocean water could prolong the effective sill lifetime. Though challenges still remain for sill formation at Europa, these analyses constrain the potential mechanisms for emplacement and indicate sills can act as viable options for supplying the heat needed for surface flexure. Further analyses and future missions to Europa will help to increase our understanding of these enigmatic processes.

  9. Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, Richard; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Sarmiento, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    Underground storage organs (USOs) have been proposed as critical fallback foods for early hominins in savanna, but there has been little discussion as to which habitats would have been important sources of USOs. USOs consumed by hominins could have included both underwater and underground storage organs, i.e., from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Shallow aquatic habitats tend to offer high plant growth rates, high USO densities, and relatively continuous USO availability throughout the year. Baboons in the Okavango delta use aquatic USOs as a fallback food, and aquatic or semiaquatic USOs support high-density human populations in various parts of the world. As expected given fossilization requisites, the African early- to mid-Pleistocene shows an association of Homo and Paranthropus fossils with shallow-water and flooded habitats where high densities of plant-bearing USOs are likely to have occurred. Given that early hominins in the tropics lived in relatively dry habitats, while others occupied temperate latitudes, ripe, fleshy fruits of the type preferred by African apes would not normally have been available year round. We therefore suggest that water-associated USOs were likely to have been key fallback foods, and that dry-season access to aquatic habitats would have been an important predictor of hominin home range quality. This study differs from traditional savanna chimpanzee models of hominin origins by proposing that access to aquatic habitats was a necessary condition for adaptation to savanna habitats. It also raises the possibility that harvesting efficiency in shallow water promoted adaptations for habitual bipedality in early hominins. PMID:19890871

  10. Functioning of a shallow-water sediment system during experimental warming and nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Alsterberg, Christian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Hulth, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of warming and nutrient enrichment on intact unvegetated shallow-water sediment were investigated for 5 weeks in the autumn under simulated natural field conditions, with a main focus on trophic state and benthic nitrogen cycling. In a flow-through system, sediment was exposed to either seawater at ambient temperature or seawater heated 4°C above ambient, with either natural or nutrient enriched water. Sediment-water fluxes of oxygen and inorganic nutrients, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification were measured. Warming resulted in an earlier shift to net heterotrophy due to increased community respiration; primary production was not affected by temperature but (slightly) by nutrient enrichment. The heterotrophic state was, however, not further strengthened by warming, but was rather weakened, probably because increased mineralization induced a shortage of labile organic matter. Climate-related warming of seawater during autumn could therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, induce shorter but more intensive heterotrophic periods in shallow-water sediments, followed by longer autotrophic periods. Increased nitrogen mineralization and subsequent effluxes of ammonium during warming suggested a preferential response of organisms driving nitrogen mineralization when compared to sinks of ammonium such as nitrification and algal assimilation. Warming and nutrient enrichment resulted in non-additive effects on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification (synergism), as well as on benthic fluxes of phosphate (antagonism). The mode of interaction appears to be related to the trophic level of the organisms that are the main drivers of the affected processes. Despite the weak response of benthic microalgae to both warming and nutrient enrichment, the assimilation of nitrogen by microalgae was similar in magnitude to rates of nitrogen mineralization. This implies a sustained filter function and retention capacity of nutrients by the sediment. PMID:23240032

  11. Shallow water seismic surveys for site investigation in the Haifa Port Extension area, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtivelman, Vladimir

    2001-02-01

    A shallow water seismic study was recently carried out as a part of a site investigation project in the Haifa Port Extension area near the Mediterranean coast of Israel. The objectives of the study were estimating P- and S-wave velocity distribution below the seabed and detecting recent faulting at the site. An additional target was testing the presence of a hard rock with P-wave velocity of more than 3000 m/s within the depth range down to 700 m. To achieve the objectives, specially designed refraction and high resolution reflection surveys were carried out at the site. The data acquisition was performed using bay cables and hydrophones placed at the seabed. The source of seismic energy was a single air gun for the reflection survey and explosives for the refraction survey. The P-wave velocities estimated from the shallow refraction data vary in a narrow range of 1800-2200 m/s, hampering the depth interpretation of the data. No indication of the presence of a high-velocity (hard rock) layer within the depth range of 700 m was found. The S-wave velocities were estimated on the basis of the dispersion analysis of Scholte waves contained in the refraction records. The resulting S-wave velocity distribution correlates well with the result of the land refraction survey carried out in the vicinity of the investigated site. The reflection time sections display a sequence of reflections from various stratigraphic units down to the depths of about 800 m. Although some evidence of deformation may be found in the deep part of the sections, there is no indication of the existence of faults in the shallow part of the sections (upper 250-300 m). The results of the surveys show that acquiring shallow water seismic data at the sea bottom may be a relatively simple and effective way to derive information regarding the structure and properties of the shallow subsurface below the seabed.

  12. Phase space analysis and classification of sonar echoes in shallow-water channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okopal, Greg

    A primary objective of active sonar systems is to detect, locate, and classify objects, such as mines, ships, and biologics, based on their sonar backscatter. A shallow-water ocean channel is a challenging environment in which to classify sonar echoes because interactions of the sonar signal with the ocean surface and bottom induce frequency-dependent changes (especially dispersion and damping) in the signal as it propagates, the effects of which typically grow with range. Accordingly, the observed signal depends not only on the initial target backscatter, but also the propagation channel and how far the signal has propagated. These propagation effects can increase the variability of observed target echoes and degrade classification performance. Furthermore, uncertainty of the exact propagation channel and random variations within a channel cause classification features extracted from the received sonar echo to behave as random variables. With the goal of improving sonar signal classification in shallow-water environments, this work develops a phase space framework for studying sound propagation in channels with dispersion and damping. This approach leads to new moment features for classification that are invariant to dispersion and damping, the utility of which is demonstrated via simulation. In addition, the accuracy of a previously developed phase space approximation method for range-independent pulse propagation is analyzed and shown to be greater than the accuracy of the standard stationary phase approximation for both large and small times/distances. The phase space approximation is also extended to range dependent propagation. Finally, the phase space approximation is used to investigate the random nature of moment features for classification by calculating the moments of the moment features under uncertain and random channel assumptions. These moments of the moment features are used to estimate probability distribution functions for the moment features, and

  13. Acoustic projectors for AUV and UUV applications in shallow-water regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Thomas R.

    1999-07-01

    For acoustic identification of objects in a littoral environment, there are generally three frequency bands of interest; 1 kHz to 10 kHz, 10 kHz to 100 kHz and 100 kHz to >= 1 MHz, where the selection of these bands is dependent upon the specific Navy mission. This paper will discuss the progress of the Naval Research Laboratory in developing acoustic projector prototypes to address the lower two frequency bands for unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) and/or autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) applications. The band of 1 kHz to 10 kHz is currently being addressed sing cymbal flextensional vibrator elements sandwiched in to thin panels. In-air data has shown that high levels of acoustic displacement at low frequencies are possible with these devices while more recent in-water data has verified these expectations. This success has led to modeling and prototyping of similar devices for shallow water regions. The frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz has been investigated for several years where the acoustic projector was originally reported during AeroSense 1998. The result of integrating the NRL broadband projector into the NSWC/Coastal Systems Station synthetic aperture sonar UUV will be presented. This system integration considers the projector as a constant source level over the 10 kHz to 100 kHz band by driving the 100 kHz resonant transducer with an inversely shaped transformed. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the future development trends in shallow water transducers for AUV and UUV missions.

  14. Static and flowing regions in granular collapses down channels: Insights from a sedimenting shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Emma E.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Lube, Gert; Mader, Heidy M.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    2007-10-01

    A two layer model for the collapse and spreading of a granular column is presented. This model builds upon that of Larrieu et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 554, 669 (2006)] where the free fall collapse of the column and subsequent flow of material onto a plane is represented by a "raining" mass source term into a thin flowing layer of constant density. These modified shallow water equations with Coulomb friction capture the free surface of the flows and key scaling laws for initial sand columns of aspect ratios up to a <10. However, unrealistically high coefficients of friction of μ =0.9 are required to reproduce run-outs observed. Key scaling laws for high aspect ratio columns are also not captured. We thus extend the model of Larrieu (2006) to include an estimation for the interface between the static and flowing regions observed within granular collapses in the laboratory by Lube et al. [Phys. Fluids 19, 043301 (2007)]. An empirical sedimentation term Ls and the instantaneous removal of a static deposit wedge, seen in the laboratory, are incorporated into the "raining" shallow water model. The growing static deposit surface provides a basal topography for the flowing layer. For a constant empirical sedimentation rate of Ls=0.20m/s, a coefficient of friction of μ =0.4 simulates comparable run-outs to laboratory observations. The correct run-out dependence of a2/3 for columns of aspect ratio a >3 is also captured. Simulating this behavior for values of a above 10 has not been possible with previous continuum models. In addition, this model captures the correct dependence of final run-out time upon a0.5. The application of this extends beyond observed and simulated collapses, to sedimenting highly concentrated debris flows, useful in the development of large mechanistic numerical models utilized in hazard assessment.

  15. Bottom Roughness and Bathymetry Estimation of 1-D Shallow Water Equations Model Using Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshyar, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic models are widely applied to coastal areas in order to predict water levels and flood inundation and typically involve solving a form of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). The SWE are routinely discretized by applying numerical methods, such as the finite element method. Like other numerical models, hydrodynamic models include uncertainty. Uncertainties are generated due to errors in the discrete approximation of coastal geometry, bathymetry, bottom friction and forcing functions such as tides and wind fields. Methods to counteract these uncertainties should always begin with improvements to physical characterization of: the geometric description through increased resolution, parameters that describe land cover variations in the natural and urban environment, parameters that enhance transfer of surface forcings to the water surface, open boundary forcings, and the wetting/drying brought upon by flood and ebb cycles. When the best possible physical representation is achieved, we are left with calibration and data assimilation to reduce model uncertainty. Data assimilation has been applied to coastal hydrodynamic models to better estimate system states and/or system parameters by incorporating observed data into the model. Kalman Filter is one of the most studied data assimilation methods that minimizes the mean square errors between model state estimations and the observed data in linear systems (Kalman , 1960). For nonlinear systems, as with hydrodynamic models, a variation of Kalman filter called Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), is applied to update the system state according to error statistics in the context of Monte Carlo simulations (Evensen , 2003) & (Hitoshi et. al, 2014). In this research, Kalman Filter is incorporated to simultaneously estimate an influential parameter used in the shallow water equations, bottom roughness, and to adjust the physical feature of bathymetry. Starting from an initial estimate of bottom roughness and bathymetry, and

  16. Correlating Mediterranean shallow water deposits with global Oligocene–Miocene stratigraphy and oceanic events☆

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E.; Brandano, Marco; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Shallow-marine sediment records have the strong potential to display sensitive environmental changes in sedimentary geometries and skeletal content. However, the time resolution of most neritic carbonate records is not high enough to be compared with climatic events as recorded in the deep-sea sediment archives. In order to resolve the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes during the Oligocene–Miocene transition in the Mediterranean shallow water carbonate systems with the best possible time resolution, we re-evaluated the Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), which acts as a reference for the correlation of Oligocene–Miocene shallow water deposits in the Mediterranean region. The 120-m-thick late Oligocene–late Miocene carbonate succession is composed of larger foraminiferal, bryozoan and corallinacean limestones interlayered with distinct planktonic foraminiferal carbonates representing a mostly outer neritic setting. Integrated multi-proxy and facies analyses indicate that CaCO3 and total organic carbon contents as well as gamma-ray display only local to regional processes on the carbonate platform and are not suited for stratigraphic correlation on a wider scale. In contrast, new biostratigraphic data correlate the Decontra stable carbon isotope record to the global deep-sea carbon isotope record. This links relative sea level fluctuations, which are reflected by facies and magnetic susceptibility changes, to third-order eustatic cycles. The new integrated bio-, chemo-, and sequence stratigraphic framework enables a more precise timing of environmental changes within the studied time interval and identifies Decontra as an important locality for correlating not only shallow and deep water sediments of the Mediterranean region but also on a global scale. PMID:25844021

  17. A 3-D implicit finite-volume model of shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weiming; Lin, Qianru

    2015-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) model has been developed to simulate shallow water flows in large water bodies, such as coastal and estuarine waters. The eddy viscosity is determined using a newly modified mixing length model that uses different mixing length functions for the horizontal and vertical shear strain rates. The 3-D shallow water flow equations with the hydrostatic pressure assumption are solved using an implicit finite-volume method based on a quadtree (telescoping) rectangular mesh on the horizontal plane and the sigma coordinate in the vertical direction. The quadtree technique can locally refine the mesh around structures or in high-gradient regions by splitting a coarse cell into four child cells. The grid nodes are numbered with a one-dimensional index system that has unstructured grid feature for better grid flexibility. All the primary variables are arranged in a non-staggered grid system. Fluxes at cell faces are determined using a Rhie and Chow-type momentum interpolation, to avoid the possible spurious checkerboard oscillations caused by linear interpolation. Each of the discretized governing equations is solved iteratively using the flexible GMRES method with ILUT preconditioning, and coupling of water level and velocity among these equations is achieved by using the SIMPLEC algorithm with under-relaxation. The model has been tested in four cases, including steady flow near a spur-dyke, tidal flows in San Francisco Bay and Gironde Estuary, and wind-induced current in a flume. The calculated water levels and velocities are in good agreement with the measured values.

  18. Airborne Laser Bathymetry for Documentation of Submerged Archaeological Sites in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doneus, M.; Miholjek, I.; Mandlburger, G.; Doneus, N.; Verhoeven, G.; Briese, Ch.; Pregesbauer, M.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of underwater topography is essential to the understanding of the organisation and distribution of archaeological sites along and in water bodies. Special attention has to be paid to intertidal and inshore zones where, due to sea-level rise, coastlines have changed and many former coastal sites are now submerged in shallow water. Mapping the detailed inshore topography is therefore important to reconstruct former coastlines, identify sunken archaeological structures and locate potential former harbour sites. However, until recently archaeology has lacked suitable methods to provide the required topographical data of shallow underwater bodies. Our research shows that airborne topo-bathymetric laser scanner systems are able to measure surfaces above and below the water table over large areas in high detail using very short and narrow green laser pulses, even revealing sunken archaeological structures in shallow water. Using an airborne laser scanner operating at a wavelength in the green visible spectrum (532 nm) two case study areas in different environmental settings (Kolone, Croatia, with clear sea water; Lake Keutschach, Austria, with turbid water) were scanned. In both cases, a digital model of the underwater topography with a planimetric resolution of a few decimeters was measured. While in the clear waters of Kolone penetration depth was up to 11 meters, turbid Lake Keutschach allowed only to document the upper 1.6 meters of its underwater topography. Our results demonstrate the potential of this technique to map submerged archaeological structures over large areas in high detail providing the possibility for systematic, large scale archaeological investigation of this environment.

  19. Stability Analysis of Tachocline Latitudinal Differential Rotation and Coexisting Toroidal Band Using a Shallow-Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; Gilman, Peter A.; Rempel, Matthias

    2003-10-01

    Recently global, quasi-two-dimensional instabilities of tachocline latitudinal differential rotation have been studied using a so-called shallow-water model. While purely hydrodynamic shallow-water type disturbances were found to destabilize only the overshoot tachocline, the MHD analysis showed that in the presence of a broad toroidal field, both the radiative and overshoot parts of the tachocline can be unstable. We explore here instability in the shallow-water solar tachocline with concentrated toroidal bands placed at a wide range of latitudes, emulating different phases of the solar cycle. In equilibrium, the poleward magnetic curvature stress of the band is balanced either by an equatorward hydrostatic pressure gradient or by the Coriolis force from a prograde jet inside the band. We find that toroidal bands placed almost at all latitudes make the system unstable to shallow-water disturbances. For bands without prograde jets, the instability persists well above 100 kG peak field, while a jet stabilizes the band at a field of ~40 kG. The jet imparts gyroscopic inertia to the toroidal band inhibiting it from unstably ``tipping'' its axis away from rotation axis. Like previously studied HD and MHD shallow-water instabilities in the tachocline, unstable shallow-water modes found here produce kinetic helicity and hence a tachocline α-effect these narrow kinetic helicity profiles should generate narrowly confined poloidal fields, which will help formation of the narrow toroidal field. Toroidal bands poleward of 15° latitude suppress midlatitude hydrodynamic α-effects. However, even strong toroidal bands equatorward of 15° allow this hydrodynamic α-effect. Such bands should occur during the late declining phase of a solar cycle and, thus, could help the onset of a new cycle by switching on the mid latitude α-effect.

  20. Consistent nonlinear deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for deep to shallow water wave shoaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrecica, Teodor; Toledo, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    oscillating terms, but as the water depth becomes shallow they change to an exponential growth (or decay) behavior. Hence, the formerly used localization technique cannot be justified for the shallow water region. A new formulation is devised for the localization in shallow water, it approximates the nonlinear non-local shoaling coefficient in shallow water and matches it to the one fitting to the intermediate water region. This allows the model behavior to be consistent from deep water to intermediate depths and up to the shallow water regime. Various simulations of the model were performed for the cases of intermediate, and shallow water, overall the model was found to give good results in both shallow and intermediate water depths. The essential difference between the shallow and intermediate nonlinear shoaling physics is explained via the dominating class III Bragg resonances phenomenon. By inspecting the resonance conditions and the nature of the dispersion relation, it is shown that unlike in the intermediate water regime, in shallow water depths the formation of resonant interactions is possible without taking into account bottom components. References Agnon, Y. & Sheremet, A. 1997 Stochastic nonlinear shoaling of directional spectra. J. Fluid Mech. 345, 79-99. Benney, D. J. & Saffman, P. G. 1966 Nonlinear interactions of random waves. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 289, 301-321. Bredmose, H., Agnon, Y., Madsen, P.A. & Schaffer, H.A. 2005 Wave transformation models with exact second-order transfer. European J. of Mech. - B/Fluids 24 (6), 659-682. Eldeberky, Y. & Madsen, P. A. 1999 Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves. Coastal Engineering 38, 1-24. Kaihatu, J. M. & Kirby, J. T. 1995 Nonlinear transformation of waves in infinite water depth. Phys. Fluids 8, 175-188. Holloway, G. 1980 Oceanic internal waves are not weak waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 906-914. Stiassnie, M. & Drimer, N. 2006 Prediction of long forcing waves

  1. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  2. A three-dimensional, longitudinally-invariant finite element model for acoustic propagation in shallow water waveguides.

    PubMed

    Isakson, Marcia J; Goldsberry, Benjamin; Chotiros, Nicholas P

    2014-09-01

    A three-dimensional, longitudinally-invariant finite element (FE) model for shallow water acoustic propagation is constructed through a cosine transform of a series of two-dimensional FE models at different values of the out-of-plane wavenumber. An innovative wavenumber sampling method is developed that efficiently captures the essential components of the integral as the out-of-plane wave number approaches the water wavenumber. The method is validated by comparison with benchmark solutions of two shallow water waveguide environments: a flat range independent case and a benchmark wedge. PMID:25190422

  3. Stability of the train of N solitary waves for the two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingxing

    2016-06-01

    Considered herein is the integrable two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system derived in the context of shallow water theory, which admits blow-up solutions and the solitary waves interacting like solitons. Using modulation theory, and combining the almost monotonicity of a local version of energy with the argument on the stability of a single solitary wave, we prove that the train of N solitary waves, which are sufficiently decoupled, is orbitally stable in the energy space H1 (R) ×L2 (R).

  4. A Well-Balanced Central-Upwind Scheme for the 2D Shallow Water Equations on Triangular Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in approximating solutions of the two-dimensional shallow water equations with a bottom topography on triangular meshes. We show that there is a certain flexibility in choosing the numerical fluxes in the design of semi-discrete Godunov-type central schemes. We take advantage of this fact to generate a new second-order, central-upwind method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations that is well-balanced. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method as well as its balance properties in a variety of examples.

  5. An adaptive multiblock high-order finite-volume method for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, Peter; Ullrich, Paul; Johansen, Hans; Colella, Phillip

    2015-09-04

    We present a high-order finite-volume approach for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere, using multiblock grids on the cubed-sphere. This approach combines a Runge--Kutta time discretization with a fourth-order accurate spatial discretization, and includes adaptive mesh refinement and refinement in time. Results of tests show fourth-order convergence for the shallow-water equations as well as for advection in a highly deformational flow. Hierarchical adaptive mesh refinement allows solution error to be achieved that is comparable to that obtained with uniform resolution of the most refined level of the hierarchy, but with many fewer operations.

  6. Nitrogen cycling between sediment and the shallow-water column in the transition zone of the Potomac River and estuary. I. Nitrate and ammonium fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, N. S.

    1988-05-01

    A three-year study of seasonal variation in water-column and sediment nitrogen species was conducted in the transition zone of the Potomac River 35 m from the Virginia shore at a site with an average water-column depth of approximately 1 m over sandy sediment. A diffusion-controlled sampler was used to collect water samples from the water column, at the interface between the water column and sediment, and at several tens of centimeters into the sediment. Nitrate was the predominant dissolved nitrogen species in the water column. The importance of denitrification was inferred by nitrate fluxes which were directed into the sediment from the water column during approximately 75% of the sampling periods and ranged from 0·02 to 0·69 mmol m -2 day -1. Flux of nitrate from the sediment into the water column, ⩾0·1 mmol m -2 day -1, due possibly to nitrification in surficial sediment, occurred during one spring and two summer sampling periods. Ammonium fluxes were less than 0·1 mmol m -2 day -1 during 90% of the sampling periods. Of the ammonium fluxes that were >0·05 mmol m -2 day -1, all were fluxes into the sediment during sampling periods when sediment resuspension occurred, and all were into the water column during periods of calm. The mean value of ammonium flux (0·005 ± 0·05 mmol m -2 day -1) from the sandy, shallow-water sediments was two orders of magnitude less than the ammonium fluxes from the deeper, silty channel sediments in the same reach of the river. Diffusive flux calculations suggest that approximately one order of magnitude more nitrate than ammonium is cycled between the shallow-water column and the sandy sediment in the transition zone of the Potomac River.

  7. Nitrogen cycling between sediment and the shallow-water column in the transition zone of the Potomac River and estuary. I. Nitrate and ammonium fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    A three-year study of seasonal variation in water-column and sediment nitrogen species was conducted in the transition zone of the Potomac River 35 m from the Virginia shore at a site with an average water-column depth of approximately 1 m over sandy sediment. A diffusion-controlled sampler was used to collect water samples from the water column, at the interface between the water column and sediment, and at several tens of centimeters into the sediment. Nitrate was the predominant dissolved nitrogen species in the water column. The importance of denitrification was inferred by nitrate fluxes which were directed into the sediment from the water column during approximately 75% of the sampling periods and ranged from 0??02 to 0??69 mmol m-2 day-1. Flux of nitrate from the sediment into the water column, ???0??1 mmol m-2 day-1, due possibly to nitrification in surficial sediment, occurred during one spring and two summer sampling periods. Ammonium fluxes were less than 0??1 mmol m-2 day-1 during 90% of the sampling periods. Of the ammonium fluxes that were >0??05 mmol m-2 day-1, all were fluxes into the sediment during sampling periods when sediment resuspension occurred, and all were into the water column during periods of calm. The mean value of ammonium flux (0??005 ?? 0??05 mmol m-2 day-1) from the sandy, shallow-water sediments was two orders of magnitude less than the ammonium fluxes from the deeper, silty channel sediments in the same reach of the river. Diffusive flux calculations suggest that approximately one order of magnitude more nitrate than ammonium is cycled between the shallow-water column and the sandy sediment in the transition zone of the Potomac River. ?? 1988.

  8. Exact traveling wave solutions and L1 stability for the shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.

  9. A new approach to model weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows in open channels with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chang, Kao-Hua; Kao, Hong-Ming

    2014-11-01

    A new approach to model weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows in open channels is proposed by using a Lagrangian meshless method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The Lagrangian form of the Boussinesq equations is solved through SPH to merge the local and convective derivatives as the material derivative. In the numerical SPH procedure, the present study uses a predictor-corrector method, in which the pure space derivative terms (the hydrostatic and source terms) are explicitly solved and the mixed space and time derivatives term (the material term of B1 and B2) is computed with an implicit scheme. It is thus a convenient tool in the processes of the space discretization compared to other Eulerian approaches. Four typical benchmark problems in weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows, including solitary wave propagation, nonlinear interaction of two solitary waves, dambreak flow propagation, and undular bore development, are selected to employ model validation under the closed and open boundary conditions. Numerical results are compared with the analytical solutions or published laboratory and numerical results. It is found that the proposed approach is capable of resolving weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows. Thus, the proposed SPH approach can supplement the lack of the SPH-Boussinesq researches in the literatures, and provide an alternative to model weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows in open channels.

  10. A high-resolution finite volume model for shallow water flow on uneven bathymetry using quadrilateral meshes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-dimensional cell-centred finite volume model for quadrilateral grids is presented. The solution methodology of the depth-averaged shallow water equations is based upon a Godunov-type upwind finite volume formulation, whereby the inviscid fluxes of the system of equations are obtained using the...

  11. a Positive Well-Balanced Vfroe-Ncv Scheme for Non-Homogeneous Shallow-Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Christophe; Marche, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    In the present work, we propose a new interpretation of the VFRoe—ncv scheme for the shallow-water equations. We propose suitable modifications to ensure that the scheme is always well defined (at the discrepancy with its initial derivation). We enforce relevant condition to preserve the positivity of the water depth and thus we ensure the robustness of the proposed numerical procedure.

  12. Meshless collocation methods for the numerical solution of elliptic boundary valued problems the rotational shallow water equations on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Christopher D.

    This dissertation thesis has three main goals: (1) To explore the anatomy of meshless collocation approximation methods that have recently gained attention in the numerical analysis community; (2) Numerically demonstrate why the meshless collocation method should clearly become an attractive alternative to standard finite-element methods due to the simplicity of its implementation and its high-order convergence properties; (3) Propose a meshless collocation method for large scale computational geophysical fluid dynamics models. We provide numerical verification and validation of the meshless collocation scheme applied to the rotational shallow-water equations on the sphere and demonstrate computationally that the proposed model can compete with existing high performance methods for approximating the shallow-water equations such as the SEAM (spectral-element atmospheric model) developed at NCAR. A detailed analysis of the parallel implementation of the model, along with the introduction of parallel algorithmic routines for the high-performance simulation of the model will be given. We analyze the programming and computational aspects of the model using Fortran 90 and the message passing interface (mpi) library along with software and hardware specifications and performance tests. Details from many aspects of the implementation in regards to performance, optimization, and stabilization will be given. In order to verify the mathematical correctness of the algorithms presented and to validate the performance of the meshless collocation shallow-water model, we conclude the thesis with numerical experiments on some standardized test cases for the shallow-water equations on the sphere using the proposed method.

  13. Shallow Water Flow in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: 20-Year Overview of a Near-Surface Geologic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Ahmed, A.

    2005-05-01

    Since 1984, shallow water flow occurrences have been reported in about 100 Gulf of Mexico lease blocks covering 80 oil and gas fields or lease blocks. These sands were deposited as continental slope/fan sequences during upper Pleistocene progradation. They include prodelta debris flows with a chaotic seismic character and, in some cases, rotated slump blocks. High sedimentation rates and an impermeable mud or clay seal from a condensed section are critical factors contributing to overpressures in shallow water flow sands. With a few exceptions, water flow incidents occur at water depths exceeding 1500 ft with a mean value at about 3800 ft of water. Water flow problem sands typically occur from 750 to 2000 ft below the seafloor. In the Mississippi Canyon and southern Viosca Knoll area, some of the shallower channel sands can be identified as part of a particular distributary system such as the old Timbalier channel, Southwest Pass canyon, or Einstein levee/channel system. Integration of high-resolution multichannel and reprocessed conventional 2D and 3D seismic data for the top-hole section is widely used to identify sand bodies with moderate or high shallow water flow potential. With the development of new geophysical technology and a better understanding of the controlling geological factors, instances of shallow water flow in recent years have been less severe and mitigating approaches to this geologic hazard have been successful in most cases.

  14. Dynamic drivers of a shallow-water hydrothermal vent ecogeochemical system (Milos, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Sievert, Stefan; Giovanelli, Donato; Foustoukos, Dionysis; DeForce, Emelia; Thomas, François; Vetriani, Constantino; Le Bris, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents share many characteristics with their deep-sea analogs. However, despite ease of access, much less is known about the dynamics of these systems. Here, we report on the spatial and temporal chemical variability of a shallow-water vent system at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece, and on the bacterial and archaeal diversity of associated sandy sediments. Our multi-analyte voltammetric profiles of dissolved O2 and hydrothermal tracers (e.g. Fe2+, FeSaq, Mn2+) on sediment cores taken along a transect in hydrothermally affected sediments indicate three different areas: the central vent area (highest temperature) with a deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediment, and a lack of dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+; a middle area (0.5 m away) rich in dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+ (exceeding 2 mM) and high free sulfide with potential for microbial sulfide oxidation as suggested by the presence of white mats at the sediment surface; and, finally, an outer rim area (1-1.5 m away) with lower concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+ and higher signals of FeSaq, indicating an aged hydrothermal fluid contribution. In addition, high-frequency temperature series and continuous in situ H2S measurements with voltammetric sensors over a 6-day time period at a distance 0.5 m away from the vent center showed substantial temporal variability in temperature (32 to 46 ºC ) and total sulfide (488 to 1329 µM) in the upper sediment layer. Analysis of these data suggests that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Despite substantial variability, the concentration of sulfide available for chemoautotrophic microbes remained high. These findings are consistent with the predominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in the hydrothermally influenced sediments Diversity and metagenomic analyses on sediments and biofilm collected along a transect from the center to the outer rim of the vent provide further insights on

  15. Inference of tidal elevation in shallow water using a vessel-towed acoustic Doppler current profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Atkinson, Larry P.; Royer, Tom C.

    2000-11-01

    Vessel-towed acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have been widely used to measure velocity profiles. Since the instrument is usually mounted on a catamaran floating on the surface, previous studies have used the water surface as the reference level from which the vertical coordinate for the velocity profile is defined. However, because of the tidal oscillation, the vertical coordinate thus defined is time-dependent in an Earth-coordinate system, which introduces an error to the estimated harmonic constants for the velocity. As a result, the total transport will also be in error. This is particularly a problem in shallow waters where the tidal elevation is relatively large. Therefore tidal elevation needs to be resolved to make a correct harmonic analysis for the velocity. The present study is aimed at resolving the tidal elevation change in shallow water using a vessel-towed ADCP. Semidiurnal and diurnal tidal elevations across the lower Chesapeake Bay have been determined using a vessel-towed ADCP. Data from four cruises ranging from 25 to 92 hours in 1996 and 1997 are used. Water depth averaged every 30 s by the ADCP is studied by harmonic and statistical analysis. By selecting only the data within a narrow band (˜320 m) over the planned transect, we are able to improve the reliability of the data. We then grid the depth data along the 16 km transect into 200 equal segments and use harmonic analysis to resolve the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal variations within each segment. We find that (1) the depth data from the ADCP contain both semidiurnal and diurnal signals that can be resolved, from which the surface elevation can be inferred, (2) the major error appears to come from spatial variation of the depth, (3) the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal variations of elevation inferred over flat bottom topography account for almost 100% of the total variability, while those measurements over large bottom slopes account for a much lower percentage of the total

  16. Shallow water mud-mounds of the Early Devonian Buchan Group, East Gippsland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosolini, A.-M. P.; Wallace, M. W.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Devonian Rocky Camp Member of the Murrindal Limestone, Buchan Group of southeastern Australia consists of a series of carbonate mud-mounds and smaller lagoonal bioherms. The Rocky Camp mound is the best exposed of the mud-mounds and has many characteristics in common with Waulsortian (Carboniferous) mounds. Detailed paleoecological and sedimentological studies indicate that the mound initially accumulated in the photic zone, in contrast to most of the previously recorded mud-mounds. Five facies are present in the mud-mound: a Dasycladacean Wackestone Facies at the base of the mound represents a moderate energy, shallow water bank environment within the photic zone. A Crinioidal Wackestone Facies was deposited in a laterally equivalent foreslope setting. A Poriferan-Crinoidal Mudstone Facies developed in a quiet, deeper water, lee-side mound setting associated with a minor relative sea-level rise. A Stromatoporoid-Coralline Packstone Facies in the upper part of the mound deposited in a high-energy, fair-weather wave base, mound-front environment. The crest of the mound is represented by a Crinoidal-Receptaculitid Packstone Facies indicative of a moderate-energy mound-top environment in the photic zone, sheltered by the mound-front stromatoporoid-coral communities. A mound flank facies is present on the southern side of the mound and this consists of high-energy crinoidal grainstones. Mud-mound deposition was terminated by a transgression that deposited dark gray, fossil-poor marl of the overlying Taravale Formation. The Rocky Camp mound appears to have originated in shallow water photic zone conditions and grew into a high-energy environment, with the mound being eventually colonized by corals and stromatoporoids. The indications of a high-energy environment during later mound growth (growth form of colonial metazoans and grainstones of the flanking facies) suggest that the micrite in the mound was autochthonous and implies the presence of an energy

  17. Linear and nonlinear properties of numerical methods for the rotating shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Chris

    The shallow water equations provide a useful analogue of the fully compressible Euler equations since they have similar conservation laws, many of the same types of waves and a similar (quasi-) balanced state. It is desirable that numerical models posses similar properties, and the prototypical example of such a scheme is the 1981 Arakawa and Lamb (AL81) staggered (C-grid) total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme, based on the vector invariant form of the continuous equations. However, this scheme is restricted to a subset of logically square, orthogonal grids. The current work extends the AL81 scheme to arbitrary non-orthogonal polygonal grids, by combining Hamiltonian methods (work done by Salmon, Gassmann, Dubos and others) and Discrete Exterior Calculus (Thuburn, Cotter, Dubos, Ringler, Skamarock, Klemp and others). It is also possible to obtain these properties (along with arguably superior wave dispersion properties) through the use of a collocated (Z-grid) scheme based on the vorticity-divergence form of the continuous equations. Unfortunately, existing examples of these schemes in the literature for general, spherical grids either contain computational modes; or do not conserve total energy and potential enstrophy. This dissertation extends an existing scheme for planar grids to spherical grids, through the use of Nambu brackets (as pioneered by Rick Salmon). To compare these two schemes, the linear modes (balanced states, stationary modes and propagating modes; with and without dissipation) are examined on both uniform planar grids (square, hexagonal) and quasi-uniform spherical grids (geodesic, cubed-sphere). In addition to evaluating the linear modes, the results of the two schemes applied to a set of standard shallow water test cases and a recently developed forced-dissipative turbulence test case from John Thuburn (intended to evaluate the ability the suitability of schemes as the basis for a climate model) on both hexagonal

  18. A variational implementation of the implicit particle filter for the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souopgui, I.; Morzfeld, M.; Hussaini, M.; Chorin, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation of initial conditions for shallow water equations is a well known test problem for operational data assimilation techniques. The state-of-the-art approach to this problem is the variational method (4D-Var), i.e. the computation of the mode of the posterior probability density function (pdf) via the adjoint technique. We add a sampling step to the variational method, thus turning a computation of the conditional mode (a biased estimator) into a computation of the conditional mean (the minimum least square error estimator). Our implementation relies on implicit sampling, which is a Monte Carlo (MC) sampling scheme. The idea in implicit sampling is to first search for the high-probability region of the posterior pdf and then to find samples in this region. Because the samples are concentrated in the high-probability region, fewer samples are required than with competing MC schemes and, thus, implicit sampling can be more efficient than other MC schemes. The search for the high-probability region can be done via a numerical minimization that is very similar to the minimization in 4D-Var. Here, we use existing 4D-Var code to implement the implicit sampling scheme. Once the minimization problem is solved, we obtain samples by solving algebraic equations with a random right-hand-side. These equations can be solved efficiently, so that the additional cost of our approach, compared to 4D-Var, is small. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of our approach. These numerical experiments mimic physical experiments done with the CORIOLIS turntable in Grenoble (France), which are used to study the drift of a vortex. In particular we consider shallow water equations on a square domain (2.5m x 2.5m) with open boundary conditions and discretize the equations with finite differences on a staggered grid of size 256 x 256 and a fourth order Runge-Kutta time integrator. Our goal is to estimate the initial state (velocities and

  19. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  20. Shallow Water Euxinia and Density Stratification of the Cenomanian/Turonian Western Interior Seaway in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, M.; Pope, M. C.; Tice, M. M.; Gardner, R.; Donovan, A. D.; Staerker, S.; Lyon, T.; Maulana, I.; Pramudito, A.; Xu, G.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Eagle Ford Group was deposited at the south and east side of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS). These sediments contain evidence of anoxia and shallow-water deposition (between storm-wave and fair weather wave-base) in the proximal deposits at Lozier Canyon and Antonio Creek (LC/AC). Shallow-water (above storm wave-base) depositional conditions are mostly based on the suite of primary sedimentary structures that includes: hummocky cross-stratification (HCS), swaley cross-stratification (SCS), symmetric ripples, gutter casts and shell lags. These occur in outcrop and support the interpretation that LC/AC is the most proximal location relative to other study locations. At Hot Springs in Brewster County, Texas, sedimentary structures are limited to shell lags, a few symmetric ripples and low-angle laminations. This is consistent with the distal expression of storm deposits. The primary sedimentary structures from the core from the subsurface in McMullen County, south Texas, are limited to those of low-energy currents, scouring, and reworking, which could indicate it is in the distally steepened portion of the carbonate ramp on which Eagle Ford Groups are deposited. Pelagic foraminifera are the most microfossil and benthic foraminifera only occur in the Upper Eagle Formation at LC/AC. Molybdenum was also used as a proxy for occurrence and persistence of a sulfer-reducing zone. The geochemical data from the subsurface core suggests persistence of anoxia throughout its depositional history. At LC/AC, molybdenum is elevated (up to 5-6 times average shale value) and bioturbation in these zones is limited to the surfaces of symmetric ripples, suggesting that oxygenation events were brief and occurred only immediately after storm events. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the HCS, SCS, and symmetric ripples were caused by storms and temporarily mixed the ocean in a normally stratified water column. At LC/AC, the water column became persistently oxic from the

  1. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character. PMID

  2. Seafloor bathymetry in deep and shallow water marine CSEM responses of Nigerian Niger Delta oil field: Effects and corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folorunso, Adetayo Femi; Li, Yuguo

    2015-12-01

    Topography distortions in bathymetrically acquired marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) responses are capable of misleading interpretation to the presence or absence of the target if not corrected for. For this reason, the effects and correction of bathymetry distortions on the deep and shallow seafloor mCSEM responses of the Niger Delta Oil province were examined in this paper. Marine CSEM response of the Niger Delta geological structure was modelled by using a 2.5D adaptive finite element forward modelling code. In both the deep water and shallow water cases, the bathymetry distortions in the electric field amplitude and phase were found to get smaller with increasing Tx-Rx offsets and contain short-wavelength components in the amplitude curves which persist at all Tx-Rx offsets. In the deep water, topographic effects on the reservoir signatures are not significant, but as water depth reduces, bathymetric distortions become more significant as a result of the airwave effects, masking the target signatures. The correction technique produces a good agreement between the flat-seafloor reservoir model and its equivalent bathymetric model in deep water at 0.25 Hz, while in shallow water, the corrected response only shows good agreement at shorter offsets but becomes complicated at longer offsets due to airwave effects. Transmission frequency was extended above and below 0.25 Hz in the frequency spectrum and the correction method applied. The bathymetry correction at higher frequency (1.75 Hz) is not effective in removing the topographic effects in either deep or shallow water. At 0.05 Hz for both seafloor scenarios, we obtained the best corrected amplitude profiles, removing completely the distortions from both topographic undulation and airwave effects in the shallow water model. Overall, the work shows that the correction technique is effective in reducing bathymetric effects in deep water at medium frequency and in both deep and shallow waters at a low

  3. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a “small plain, big front” character. PMID

  4. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  5. Modeling floods in a dense urban area using 2D shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, E.; Paquier, A.; Haider, S.

    2006-07-01

    SummaryA code solving the 2D shallow water equations by an explicit second-order scheme is used to simulate the severe October 1988 flood in the Richelieu urban locality of the French city of Nîmes. A reference calculation using a detailed description of the street network and of the cross-sections of the streets, considering impervious residence blocks and neglecting the flow interaction with the sewer network provides a mean peak water elevation 0.13 m lower than the measured flood marks with a standard deviation between the measured and computed water depths of 0.53 m. Sensitivity analysis of various topographical and numerical parameters shows that globally, the results keep the same level of accuracy, which reflects both the stability of the calculation method and the smoothening of results. However, the local flow modifications due to change of parameter values can drastically modify the local water depths, especially when the local flow regime is modified. Furthermore, the flow distribution to the downstream parts of the city can be altered depending on the set of parameters used. Finally, a second event, the 2002 flood, was simulated with the calibrated model providing results similar to 1988 flood calculation. Thus, the article shows that, after calibration, a 2D model can be used to help planning mitigation measures in a dense urban area.

  6. Ensemble variational data assimilation with a shallow-water model : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajard, Julien; Sirven, Jérôme; Talagrand, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The objective of ensemble data assimilation is to produce an ensemble of analysis from observations and a numerical model which is representative of the uncertainty of the system. In a bayesian framework, the ensemble represents a sampling of the state vector probability distribution conditioned to the available knowledge of the system, denoted the a-posteriori probability distribution. Ensemble variational data assimilation (EnsVar) consists in producing such an ensemble by perturbating N times the observations according to their error law, and run a standard variationnal assimilation for each perturbation. An ensemble of N members is then produced. In the case of linear models, there is a theoretical guarantee that this ensemble is a sampling of the a-posteriori probability. But there is no theoretical result in the non-linear case. Numerical experiments using non-linear numerical models suggest that the conclusion reached for linear models still stands for non linear toy models. The objective of the present work is to show preliminary results of EnsVar applied to a more realistic model : a shallow-water model. Some statistical properties of the ensemble are presented, and the sensitivity to the main features of the assimilation system (number, distribution of observations, size of the assimilation window, ...) are also studied.

  7. Theoretical analysis of warping operators for non-ideal shallow water waveguides.

    PubMed

    Niu, Haiqiang; Zhang, Renhe; Li, Zhenglin

    2014-07-01

    Signals propagating in waveguides can be decomposed into normal modes that exhibit dispersive characteristics. Based on the dispersion analysis, the warping transformation can be used to improve the modal separability. Different from the warping transformation defined using an ideal waveguide model, an improved warping operator is presented in this paper based on the beam-displacement ray-mode (BDRM) theory, which can be adapted to low-frequency signals in a general shallow water waveguide. For the sake of obtaining the warping operators for the general waveguides, the dispersion formula is first derived. The approximate dispersion relation can be achieved with adequate degree of accuracy for the waveguides with depth-dependent sound speed profiles (SSPs) and acoustic bottoms. Performance and accuracy of the derived formulas for the dispersion curves are evaluated by comparing with the numerical results. The derived warping operators are applied to simulations, which show that the non-linear dispersion structures can be well compensated by the proposed warping operators. PMID:24993195

  8. Chemistry of calcium carbonate-rich shallow water sediments in the Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.W.; Zullig, J.J.; Bernstein, L.D.; Millero, F.J.; Milne, P.; Mucci, A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1985-02-01

    The geochemistry of calcium carbonate-rich sediments from a variety of environments throughout the Bahamas was investigated with particular emphasis on the factors that control the pore water chemistry. Most sediments are supersaturated with respect to aragonite, the most abundant carbonate component. Experimental studies indicate that the observed in situ calcium carbonate ion activity products can often be produced as reversible metastable equilibria between the sediments and seawater. This is interpreted as being the result of interactions between the solutions and the minor high Mg-calcite component present in these sediments. Although the overlying waters are more supersaturated than the pore waters, carbonate dissolution, not precipitation, dominates in these sediments as a result of organic matter oxidation and the resulting increase in P/sub CO/sub 2//. The carbonate sediments of the Bahamas are remarkable for their purity, with the exception of special environments such as mangrove swamps and tidal flats with algal mats. Organic matter and heavy metal content is extremely low. Only minor sulfate reduction is occurring in most sediments. Phosphate is undetectable in all pore waters, probably as a result of adsorption on carbonate mineral surfaces. Other dissolved pore water components such as ammonia and DOC are much lower than typically found in shallow water fine-grained terrigeneous sediments.

  9. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: Risk assessment and proposed management strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hannak, Judith S.; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors’ socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers – the target group for further education and skill training – were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive ‘ecotourism zone’ while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420

  10. Bearing estimation based on orthogonal projections technique with a horizontal linear array in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Feng; Sun, Chao; Bai, Xiao-Hui

    2012-11-01

    A new signal-subspace high-resolution bearing estimation method based on the orthogonal projections technique is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the received data are calculated step by step to form a set of basis vectors for the signal-subspace, utilizing an orthogonal projections algorithm that does not construct and eigen-decompose the covariance matrix. This procedure retains a linear complexity in computation and guarantees maximum signal energy in the spanned signal-subspace. Then the algorithm exploits the singular value decomposition of the matrix, comprised of the signal-subspace and the modal subspace that is obtained also from the received data, and the source bearings are estimated by detecting the intersection between the estimated signal-subspace and the modal subspace. The computational complexity of the proposed method is compared to that of the subspace intersection method, and its performance is compared to that of the conventional bearing estimation method, including conventional beamforming (CBF), and minimum variance distortionless response beamforming (MVDR). The performance of the proposed method under different condition such as sensor number, sensor inter-space, received signal-noise ratio (SNR), snapshot number is also investigated. Numerical simulation results in typical shallow water demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Frequency-selective fading statistics of shallow-water acoustic communication channel with a few multipaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Minja; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Jongju; Xue, Dandan; Park, Kyu-Chil; Yoon, Jong Rak

    2016-07-01

    The bit error rate of an underwater acoustic communication system is related to multipath fading statistics, which determine the signal-to-noise ratio. The amplitude and delay of each path depend on sea surface roughness, propagation medium properties, and source-to-receiver range as a function of frequency. Therefore, received signals will show frequency-dependent fading. A shallow-water acoustic communication channel generally shows a few strong multipaths that interfere with each other and the resulting interference affects the fading statistics model. In this study, frequency-selective fading statistics are modeled on the basis of the phasor representation of the complex path amplitude. The fading statistics distribution is parameterized by the frequency-dependent constructive or destructive interference of multipaths. At a 16 m depth with a muddy bottom, a wave height of 0.2 m, and source-to-receiver ranges of 100 and 400 m, fading statistics tend to show a Rayleigh distribution at a destructive interference frequency, but a Rice distribution at a constructive interference frequency. The theoretical fading statistics well matched the experimental ones.

  12. A primitive pseudo wave equation formulation for solving the harmonic shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerink, J. J.; Connor, J. J.; Stolzenbach, K. D.

    A finite element method formulation for solving the harmonic shallow water equations in their primitive or unmodified form is developed and analysed. The scheme, referred to as the Primitive Pseudo Wave Equation Formulation (PPWE), involves developing a weak weighted residual form of the continuity equation and furthermore forming a pseudo wave equation by substituting the discretized form of the momentum equation into the discretized form of the continuity equation. The final set of equations to be solved, the pseudo wave equation and the primitive momentum equations, deceptively resemble the discretized equations of the wave equation formulation of Lynch and Gray. Despite this resemblance, Fourier analysis indicates that the PPWE scheme is still fundamentally primitive. However, application of the PPWE scheme to a set of stringent test problems results in very good solutions with well controlled nodal oscillations. It is shown that this low degree of spurious oscillations is due to the treatment of the boundary conditions such that elevation is taken as an essential condition and normal flux is taken as a natural condition. This particular boundary condition treatment is suggested by the formation of the pseudo wave equation. Furthermore, even though the equation re-arrangement does not in itself effect the solutions, it does make the scheme much more efficient.

  13. A robust probabilistic approach for variational inversion in shallow water acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, M.; Badran, F.; Crépon, M.; Hermand, J.-P.; Thiria, S.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a variational methodology for inverting shallow water acoustic tomography (SWAT) measurements. The aim is to determine the vertical profile of the speed of sound c(z), knowing the acoustic pressures generated by a frequency source and collected by a sparse vertical hydrophone array (VRA). A variational approach that minimizes a cost function measuring the distance between observations and their modeled equivalents is used. A regularization term in the form of a quadratic restoring term to a background is also added. To avoid inverting the variance-covariance matrix associated with the above-weighted quadratic background, this work proposes to model the sound speed vector using probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA). The PPCA introduces an optimum reduced number of non-correlated latent variables η, which determine a new control vector and a new regularization term, expressed as ηTη. The PPCA represents a rigorous formalism for the use of a priori information and allows an efficient implementation of the variational inverse method.

  14. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: risk assessment and proposed management strategy.

    PubMed

    Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420

  15. Analysis of triangular C-grid finite volume scheme for shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhani, Hamidreza; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Seidou, Ousmane; Qiblawey, Hazim

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a dispersion relation analysis is employed to investigate the finite volume triangular C-grid formulation for two-dimensional shallow-water equations. In addition, two proposed combinations of time-stepping methods with the C-grid spatial discretization are investigated. In the first part of this study, the C-grid spatial discretization scheme is assessed, and in the second part, fully discrete schemes are analyzed. Analysis of the semi-discretized scheme (i.e. only spatial discretization) shows that there is no damping associated with the spatial C-grid scheme, and its phase speed behavior is also acceptable for long and intermediate waves. The analytical dispersion analysis after considering the effect of time discretization shows that the Leap-Frog time stepping technique can improve the phase speed behavior of the numerical method; however it could not damp the shorter decelerated waves. The Adams-Bashforth technique leads to slower propagation of short and intermediate waves and it damps those waves with a slower propagating speed. The numerical solutions of various test problems also conform and are in good agreement with the analytical dispersion analysis. They also indicate that the Adams-Bashforth scheme exhibits faster convergence and more accurate results, respectively, when the spatial and temporal step size decreases. However, the Leap-Frog scheme is more stable with higher CFL numbers.

  16. Extremely Shallow-water Morphobathymetric Surveys: The Valle Fattibello (Comacchio, Italy) Test Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Luca

    2005-06-01

    A morphobathymetric survey has been carried out of a coastal lagoon south of the modern Po delta (Valle Fattibello, Comacchio). Acquisition of bathymetric data in such an extremely shallow water environment (more than 80% of the area lies between 0 and -1 m) faces technical difficulties that led to the development of ‘ ad hoc’ solutions. Methods to obtain morphobathymetric and reflectivity maps of the lagoon are presented, including descriptions of data acquisition and processing. ‘Ground-truthing’ of the reflectivity data, provided by analysis of sediment samples, allowed description of the sediment distribution within the lagoon, and the imaging of sedimentary features. Combined analysis of morphobathymetry and reflectivity maps identified arcuate, sand-rich features not in equilibrium with the present-day ‘low energy’ regime of the lagoon. These features might constitute the substratum over which the lagoon system has been formed, not completely overprinted by anthropogenic and biogeochemical processes at the lagoon bottom. The system we have developed could be used on board remote-controlled or autonomous vehicles that could perform rapid, low-cost surveys and collect data useful for quantitative estimates of sedimentary dynamics. Rapidity and low-cost are important conditions for carrying out periodical surveys, and taking a series of ‘snapshots’ of the lagoon bottom. This would allow predictive geological models on sediment budgets of these complex environments, characterized by multiple sediment sources and sinks that are difficult to quantify.

  17. Shallow water processes govern system-wide phytoplankton bloom dynamics: A modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, L.V.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    A pseudo-two-dimensional numerical model of estuarine phytoplankton growth and consumption, vertical turbulent mixing, and idealized cross-estuary transport was developed and applied to South San Francisco Bay. This estuary has two bathymetrically distinct habitat types (deep channel, shallow shoal) and associated differences in local net rates of phytoplankton growth and consumption, as well as differences in the water column's tendency to stratify. Because many physical and biological time scales relevant to algal population dynamics decrease with decreasing depth, process rates can be especially fast in the shallow water. We used the model to explore the potential significance of hydrodynamic connectivity between a channel and shoal and whether lateral transport can allow physical or biological processes (e.g. stratification, benthic grazing, light attenuation) in one sub-region to control phytoplankton biomass and bloom development in the adjacent sub-region. Model results for South San Francisco Bay suggest that lateral transport from a productive shoal can result in phytoplankton biomass accumulation in an adjacent deep, unproductive channel. The model further suggests that turbidity and benthic grazing in the shoal can control the occurrence of a bloom system-wide; whereas, turbidity, benthic grazing, and vertical density stratification in the channel are likely to only control local bloom occurrence or modify system-wide bloom magnitude. Measurements from a related field program are generally consistent with model-derived conclusions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. PV-induced forcing of gravity waves in a shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Marshall

    2008-10-01

    The influence of a geostrophically balanced or potential vorticity (PV) background flow on gravity wave propagation is examined using a rotating shallow water model. The system is analyzed in the context of a perturbative expansion that focuses on the dynamics of the resonances within the nonlinear terms of the system. The nonlinearity is reconstructed as a wave-wave interaction forcing on an otherwise undisturbed linear wavefield. The principal conclusion is that while the PV flow is generally undisturbed by the gravity wavefield, the gravity wavefield is forced by the geostrophic flow over moderate timescales. We numerically test these results for the interaction between a single geostrophic mode and a gravity wave, followed by propagation of a single gravity mode through a turbulent PV background. We find that the gravity mode energy is scattered into other modes of similar wavelength but different directions of propagation. The rate of dispersion is in agreement with resonant triad theory, where the rate depends primarily on the initial gravity wavenumber and background PV strength. These results are expected to have relevance to the propagation of coherent internal tides in the open ocean.

  19. Flood simulation using an open source quadtree grid shallow water flow solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, H.; Yu, S.

    2012-12-01

    We carry out performance testing of Gerris for flood simulation. Gerris Flow Solver is open source software and has the capability of adaptive quadtree grid generation. In particular, the shallow water flow solver within Gerris Flow Solver implements second-order accurate Gudunov type numerical schemes, with preserving the balance of source and flux terms on quadtree cut cell grids. The combination of quadtree grids with the cut cell method improves the flexibility of quadtree grids for grid generation. In addition, the model has the capacity of adaptive meshing in an easy and effective way, which can improve computational efficiency in 2D modeling. Pre- and post-processors are already well equipped for users. Finally, an extension such as bed erosion or sediment transport can be added if needed. Two flood events, Malpasset dam break in France and Baeksan levee failure in Korea, are simulated using Gerris, with adaptively refining meshes near water fronts and the river boundary. Simulation results are compared with survey data, experimental data as well as simulation results by other researchers. The simulation results demonstrate that the adaptive quadtree model can save approximately 95% of the computational cost while preserving the accuracy. Gerris is a very attractive alternative for flood managers given the favorable features demonstrated in this paper.

  20. Benchmarking of a New Finite Volume Shallow Water Code for Accurate Tsunami Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Claudia; Clain, Stephane; Figueiredo, Jorge; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Finite volume methods used to solve the shallow-water equation with source terms receive great attention on the two last decades due to its fundamental properties: the built-in conservation property, the capacity to treat correctly discontinuities and the ability to handle complex bathymetry configurations preserving the some steady-state configuration (well-balanced scheme). Nevertheless, it is still a challenge to build an efficient numerical scheme, with very few numerical artifacts (e.g. numerical diffusion) which can be used in an operational environment, and are able to better capture the dynamics of the wet-dry interface and the physical phenomenon that occur in the inundation area. We present here a new finite volume code and benchmark it against analytical and experimental results, and we test the performance of the code in the complex topographic of the Tagus Estuary, close to Lisbon, Portugal. This work is funded by the Portugal-France research agreement, through the research project FCT-ANR/MAT-NAN/0122/2012.

  1. Spectral analysis of approximations of Dirichlet-Neumann operators and nonlocal shallow water wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Magaña, Rosa; Panayotaros, Panayotis

    2015-11-01

    We study the problem of wave propagation in a long-wave asymptotic regime over variable bottom of an ideal irrotational fluid in the framework of the Hamiltonian formulation in which the non-local Dirichlet-Neumann (DtN) operator appears explicitly in the Hamiltonian. We propose a non-local Hamiltonian model for bidirectional wave propagation in shallow water that involves pseudodifferential operators that approximate the DtN operator for variable depth. These models generalize the Boussinesq system as they include the exact dispersion relation in the case of constant depth. We present results for the normal modes and eigenfrequencies of the linearized problem. We see that variable topography introduces effects such as steepening of normal modes with increasing variation of depth, as well as amplitude modulation of the normal modes in certain wavelength ranges. Numerical integration shows that the constant depth nonlocal Boussinesq model with quadratic nonlinearity can capture the evolution obtained with higher order approximations of the DtN operator. In the case of variable depth we observe certain oscillations in width of the crest and also some interesting textures in the evolution of wave crests during the passage from obstacles.

  2. Uncertain Acoustic Field Modeling and Robust Source Localization in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hangfang; Gong, Xianyi; Yu, Zibin

    2010-09-01

    Oceanic environmental uncertainty can cause significant performance degradation of the SONAR system. Understanding and modeling the uncertainty propagating from environment to acoustic field and then to steering vector is necessary for SONAR design and operation to mitigate the uncertainty effect and provide robust detection and location of targets. The statistical property of uncertainty can be described by the probability density functions or second-order moments of environmental parameters and acoustic fields. Based on the probability description, a stochastic response surface method is used to propagate the uncertainty from environment to acoustic field by polynomial chaos expansion. Then covariance matrix and associated ellipsoidal neighboring space are used to describe the uncertainty set of acoustic field and steering vector for sonar signal processing. Finally, a robust Minimum Variance (MV) matched-field processing method is derived by extending the constrained optimization of MV from single point to an uncertainty steering vector ellipsoid. We apply sea test data collected by a vertical array in shallow water to source localization.

  3. Mode excision adaptive beamforming for source detection in an uncertain shallow-water waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premus, Vincent E.

    2003-04-01

    Passive sonar detection is uniquely characterized by the fact that the acoustic clutter distribution is generally confined to the ocean's surface. There is considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that surfaced and submerged sources are well separated in acoustic mode space, and that shallow-water waveguide normal modes are relatively robust to imperfect environmental knowledge. In this work, the use of mode physics is explored for the purpose of identifying an improved adaptive subspace for submerged source detection in the presence of surface interference. The basic premise is to perform adaptive weight computation in a mode subspace that is weakly excited by the submerged source of interest, yet well coupled to the surface interference. The rationale is to excise as much of the target signature as possible from the sample covariance without excessively compromising the measurement of the interference spatial spectrum. This enables more aggressive nulling of the surface clutter spectrum for a given level of signal gain degradation on the submerged source of interest. In this paper, the algorithm for adaptive mode subspace identification will be discussed, and the theoretical performance as a function of imprecise environmental knowledge and array calibration will be examined for a number of different apertures, including vertical line arrays, horizontal line arrays, and volumetric arrays. [Work sponsored in part by DARPA, under Air Force Contract No. F19628-00-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the U.S. Air Force.

  4. Balanced Central Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional, well-balanced, central-upwind scheme for approximating solutions of the shallow water equations in the presence of a stationary bottom topography on triangular meshes. Our starting point is the recent central scheme of Kurganov and Petrova (KP) for approximating solutions of conservation laws on triangular meshes. In order to extend this scheme from systems of conservation laws to systems of balance laws one has to find an appropriate discretization of the source terms. We first show that for general triangulations there is no discretization of the source terms that corresponds to a well-balanced form of the KP scheme. We then derive a new variant of a central scheme that can be balanced on triangular meshes. We note in passing that it is straightforward to extend the KP scheme to general unstructured conformal meshes. This extension allows us to recover our previous well-balanced scheme on Cartesian grids. We conclude with several simulations, verifying the second-order accuracy of our scheme as well as its well-balanced properties.

  5. A middle Devonian temperate water limestone-isotopes, stromatoporoids and shallow water facies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolosz, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Edgecliff Member of the Middle Devonian Onondaga Formation has long been of interest to exploration geologists because its pinnacle reefs and bioherms are potential natural gas reservoirs. Current evidence indicates that the Edgecliff was deposited in a shallow, temperate water environment suggesting that application of standard tropical carbonate models will be misleading. Three lines of evidence support the temperate water model for the Edgecliff. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses performed on 29 samples from the non-luminescent portions of 15 brachiopods with prismatic ultrastructure yield {delta}{sup 18}O values which are isotopically heavier than accepted values for Devonian sea-water, suggesting cool water conditions. The distribution of stromatoporoids (assumed warm water organisms) ranges from rare and small in the eastern part of New York State, to more common in Ontario, Canada. This trend in stromatoporoids appears to represent an increase in size and abundance as the distance from the paleo-equator decreases. Finally, previously unrecognized shallow water facies in the Edgecliff including thin, dolomitized and bioturbated carbonate muds, solitary rugosan biostromes and ridge-like fringing coral bioherms negate any possibility that the isotopic and paleobiologic data reflect deposition in deep, cooler waters as opposed to an overall temperate water environment.

  6. A subaqueous eruption model for shallow-water, small volume eruptions: Evidence from two Precambrian examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Wulf U.

    Ancient, shallow-water, pyroclastic deposits are identified in the Paleoproterozoic Ketilidian Mobile belt, southeast Greenland at Kangerluluk and in the Neoproterozoic Gariep belt of Namibia in the Schakalsberg Mountains. The 1-30 m-thick tuff and lapilli tuff deposits are interpreted as eruption-fed density current deposits emanating from tephra jets that collapsed under subaqueous conditions due to water ingress. The presence of 1-10 mm diameter armoured lapilli, with a central vesicular lapillus or shard, suggests the existence of high velocity, gas, water vapour, and particle-rich tephra jets. A transition from a gas-steam supported tephra jet to a cold water-laden density current without an intermediate stage of storage and remobilization is inferred. Interpretation of a 5-15 m-thick lapilli tuff breccia further supports explosive subaqueous mechanisms. Pyroclasts in the lapilli tuff breccia are interpreted as bombs emplaced ballistically. Multiple bomb sags produced by the impact of rounded juvenile crystal-rich pyroclasts required a water-exclusion zone formed either by a continuous magma uprush or multiple jet activity occurring concurrently, rather than as isolated tephra jets. Intercalated density current deposits indicate uprush events of limited duration and their recurrence with rapid collapse after each pulse. A new subaqueous Surtseyan-type eruption model is proposed based on observations from these two Precambrian study areas.

  7. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments' performance and survey accuracy. PMID:26729117

  8. Balancing the source terms in a SPH model for solving the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xilin; Liang, Qiuhua; Pastor, Manuel; Zou, Weilie; Zhuang, Yan-Feng

    2013-09-01

    A shallow flow generally features complex hydrodynamics induced by complicated domain topography and geometry. A numerical scheme with well-balanced flux and source term gradients is therefore essential before a shallow flow model can be applied to simulate real-world problems. The issue of source term balancing has been exhaustively investigated in grid-based numerical approaches, e.g. discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods and finite volume Godunov-type methods. In recent years, a relatively new computational method, smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), has started to gain popularity in solving the shallow water equations (SWEs). However, the well-balanced problem has not been fully investigated and resolved in the context of SPH. This work aims to discuss the well-balanced problem caused by a standard SPH discretization to the SWEs with slope source terms and derive a corrected SPH algorithm that is able to preserve the solution of lake at rest. In order to enhance the shock capturing capability of the resulting SPH model, the Monotone Upwind-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) is also explored and applied to enable Riemann solver based artificial viscosity. The new SPH model is validated against several idealized benchmark tests and a real-world dam-break case and promising results are obtained.

  9. On the feasibility of the use of wind SAR to downscale waves on shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Filipponi, F.; Taramelli, A.; Valentini, E.; Camus, P.; Méndez, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, wave reanalyses have become popular as a powerful source of information for wave climate research and engineering applications. These wave reanalyses provide continuous time series of offshore wave parameters; nevertheless, in coastal areas or shallow water, waves are poorly described because spatial resolution is not detailed. By means of wave downscaling, it is possible to increase spatial resolution in high temporal coverage simulations, using forcing from wind and offshore wave databases. Meanwhile, the reanalysis wave databases are enough to describe the wave climate at the limit of simulations; wind reanalyses at an adequate spatial resolution to describe the wind structure near the coast are not frequently available. Remote sensing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the ability to detect sea surface signatures and estimate wind fields at high resolution (up to 300 m) and high frequency. In this work a wave downscaling is done on the northern Adriatic Sea, using a hybrid methodology and global wave and wind reanalysis as forcing. The wave fields produced were compared to wave fields produced with SAR winds that represent the two dominant wind regimes in the area: the bora (ENE direction) and sirocco (SE direction). Results show a good correlation between the waves forced with reanalysis wind and SAR wind. In addition, a validation of reanalysis is shown. This research demonstrates how Earth observation products, such as SAR wind fields, can be successfully up-taken into oceanographic modeling, producing similar downscaled wave fields when compared to waves forced with reanalysis wind.

  10. Modelling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open-source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. Testing the results against analytical solutions and the proprietary avalanche model RAMMS, we found a very good agreement. As the GERRIS flow solver is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool for assisting regional-scale natural hazard studies.

  11. Benchmarking a multiresolution discontinuous Galerkin shallow water model: Implications for computational hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Kesserwani, Georges

    2015-12-01

    Numerical modelling of wide ranges of different physical scales, which are involved in Shallow Water (SW) problems, has been a key challenge in computational hydraulics. Adaptive meshing techniques have been commonly coupled with numerical methods in an attempt to address this challenge. The combination of MultiWavelets (MW) with the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method offers a new philosophy to readily achieve mesh adaptivity driven by the local variability of the numerical solution, and without requiring more than one threshold value set by the user. However, the practical merits and implications of the MWRKDG, in terms of how far it contributes to address the key challenge above, are yet to be explored. This work systematically explores this, through the verification and validation of the MWRKDG for selected steady and transient benchmark tests, which involves the features of real SW problems. Our findings reveal a practical promise of the SW-MWRKDG solver, in terms of efficient and accurate mesh-adaptivity, but also suggest further improvement in the SW-RKDG reference scheme to better intertwine with, and harness the prowess of, the MW-based adaptivity.

  12. CD-CORMIX model for continuous dredge disposal mixing zone analysis in shallow water

    SciTech Connect

    Doneker, R.; Jirka, G.; Nash, J.; Pagenkopf, J.

    1995-12-31

    The rule-based expert system CD-CORMIX has been developed to predict the initial mixing of continuous dredge disposal operations in shallow water. CD-CORMIX extends the methodology of the CORMIX mixing zone model to include hydrodynamics of dredge disposal operations negatively buoyant discharges characterized by particle settling into ambients with bottom slope and density stratification. Discharge source scenarios include direct continuous pipeline disposal or discharge from a confined disposal facility; discharge ports can be located above or below the water surface with or without deflector plates. Five particle size fractions from clay size to large nonsuspended solids are allowed. A uniform downstream channel cross-section with uniform ambient velocity is assumed, although two near-discharge shore slopes are permitted with up to three arbitrary stable ambient density profiles. As a fully turbulent Newtonian fluid model, CD-CORMIX models water column concentrations of suspended sediment and a dissolved constituent, however the dynamics of the resulting fluid mud flow is not addressed because it displays viscous creep flow behavior. Program output include plume shape, trajectory, particle constituent concentration and dilution within the water column, total accretion rate of solids, and 1 hour accretion depth of solids on the bottom. CD-CORMIX has been compared to limited field data with good results.

  13. Subsurface detection of coral reefs in shallow waters using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Eladio; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Luis O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Gilbes, Fernando; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2003-09-01

    Hyperspectral Remote Sensing has the potential to be used as an effective coral monitoring system from either space or airborne sensors. The problems to be addressed in hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters are related to the medium, which presents high scattering and absorption, and the object to be detected. The object to be detected, in this case coral reefs or different types of ocean floor, has a weak signal as a consequence of its interaction with the medium. The retrieval of information about these targets requires the development of mathematical models and processing tools in the area of inversion, image reconstruction and detection. This paper presents the development of algorithms that does not use labeled samples to detect coral reefs under coastal shallow waters. Synthetic data was generated to simulate data gathered using a high resolution imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) sensor. A semi-analytic model that simplifies the radiative transfer equation was used to quantify the interaction between the object of interest, the medium and the sensor. Tikhonov method of regularization was used as a starting point in order to arrive at an inverse formulation that incorporates a priori information about the target. This expression will be used in an inversion process on a pixel by pixel basis to estimate the ocean floor signal. The a priori information is in the form of previously measured spectral signatures of objects of interest, such as sand, corals, and sea grass.

  14. Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

  15. Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

  16. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments’ performance and survey accuracy. PMID:26729117

  17. Fluctuating modal interference characteristics in shallow water with a seasonal thermocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shihong; Niu, Haiqiang; Ren, Yun; He, Li

    2012-11-01

    In temporal and spatial array signal processing, especially for a large-aperture horizontal line arrays (HLA), degradation of the horizontal longitudinal correlation of signals among different hydrophones due to multipath dispersion commonly limits the array gain. It is therefore important to reduce or cancel the dispersion effects between hydrophone signals. Modal filtering is one of the available approaches to utilize the interference structure of sound fields and to improve the signal processing performance. In this paper, modal filtering based on a warping transform from a nonlinear time-frequency signal to a linear one is used to separate modes from a broadband signal. Then, the contributions of modes to interference striation are determined in order to explain the difference of the waveguide invariant between modes. The variability of waveguide invariants in fluctuating shallow water with a strong seasonal thermocline and internal waves is examined experimentally. The experiment was performed with a sea-floor located HLA and a fixed sound source transmitting 160-250 Hz linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals, which were observed over a long period of time. The contribution of low-and high-order modes to interference patterns explains the variability of waveguide invariants in the measured data.

  18. Low-order modelling of shallow water equations for sensitivity analysis using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.

  19. Comparison of broadcast and wet-blade applications of 2,4-D and triclopyr for control of woody species and off target impacts on Conservation Reserve Program lands in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mowing every 2 to 3 yrs is not controlling woody plant species on Interior Alaska Conservation Reserve Program lands, therefore alternative methods for managing these plant species need to be developed. A new application technology, the wet-blade mower, which pumps herbicide out to the mower blades ...

  20. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (< 4-m) and high turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence

  1. Waveguide invariant active sonar target detection and depth classification in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhahn, Ryan A.

    Reverberation and clutter are two of the principle obstacles to active sonar target detection in shallow water. Diffuse seabed backscatter can obscure low energy target returns, while clutter discretes, specific features of the sea floor, produce temporally compact returns which may be mistaken for targets of interest. Detecting weak targets in the presence of reverberation and discriminating water column targets from bottom clutter are thus critical to good performance in active sonar. Both problems are addressed in this thesis using the time-frequency interference pattern described by a constant known as the waveguide invariant which summarizes in a scalar parameter the dispersive properties of the ocean environment. Conventional active sonar detection involves constant false alarm rate (CFAR) normalization of the reverberation return which does not account for the frequency-selective fading in a wideband pulse caused by multipath propagation. An alternative to conventional reverberation estimation is presented, motivated by striations observed in time-frequency analysis of active sonar data. A mathematical model for these reverberation striations is derived using waveguide invariant theory. This model is then used to motivate waveguide invariant reverberation estimation which involves averaging the time-frequency spectrum along these striations. An evaluation of this reverberation estimate using real Mediterranean data is given and its use in a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based CFAR detector is demonstrated. CFAR detection using waveguide invariant reverberation estimates is shown to out-perform conventional cell-averaged and frequency-invariant CFAR detection methods in shallow water environments producing strong reverberation returns which exhibit the described striations. Results are presented on simulated and real Mediterranean data from the SCARAB98 experiment. The ability to discriminate between water column targets and clutter discretes is

  2. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates

  3. Numerical experiments with an implicit particle filter for the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souopgui, I.; Chorin, A. J.; Hussaini, M.

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of initial conditions for the shallow water equations for a given set of later data is a well known test problem for data assimilation codes. A popular approach to this problem is the variational method (4D-Var), i.e. the computation of the mode of the posterior probability density function (pdf) via the adjoint technique. Here, we improve on 4D-Var by computing the conditional mean (the minimum least square error estimator) rather than the mode (a biased estimator) and we do so with implicit sampling, a Monte Carlo (MC) importance sampling method. The idea in implicit sampling is to first search for the high-probability region of the posterior pdf and then to find samples in this region. Because the samples are concentrated in the high-probability region, fewer samples are required than with competing MC schemes. The search for the high-probability region can be implemented by a minimization that is very similar to the minimization in 4D-Var, and we make use of a 4D-Var code in our implementation. The samples are obtained by solving algebraic equations with a random right-hand-side. These equations can be solved efficiently, so that the additional cost of our approach, compared to traditional 4D-Var, is small. The long-term goal is to assimilate experimental data, obtained with the CORIOLIS turntable in Grenoble (France), to study the drift of a vortex. We present results from numerical twin experiments as a first step towards our long-term goal. We discretize the shallow water equations on a square domain (2.5m× 2.5m) using finite differences on a staggered grid of size 28× 28 and a fourth order Runge-Kutta. We assume open boundary conditions and estimate the initial state (velocities and surface height) given noisy observations of the state. We solve the optimization problem using a 4D-Var code that relies on a L-BFGS method; the random algebraic equations are solved with random maps, i.e. we look for solutions in given, but random, directions

  4. Aragonite precipitation induced by anaerobic oxidation of methane in shallow-water seeps, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedling, Johanna; Kuhfuß, Hanna; Lott, Christian; Böttcher, Michael E.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Wegener, Gunter; Deusner, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Weber, Miriam

    2014-05-01

    In the shallow-water organic-poor silicate sands off the West coast of Elba, Italy, we found aragonite precipitates within a radius of 10 cm to methane seeps in 20 - 40 cm sediment depth. The shallow seep site was mapped by SCUBA diving and in an area of 100 m2 nine gas emission spots were observed. The gas emission, containing 73 Vol. % methane, was measured to be 0.72 L m-2 d-1. Findings of anaerobic methane oxidizing archea (ANME 1, 2, 2a, 2b) and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) as well as in vitro rate measurements of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with a maximum of 67 ± 7 nmol CH4 cm-3 d-1 led to the hypothesis that carbonate precipitation is coupled to these microbial processes. Porewater analysis showed elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (up to 15.5 mmol L-1) and hydrogen sulfide (up to 6.6 mmol L-1). The presence of bicarbonate and the ambient temperature (14 - 25 ° C) facilitate the precipitation of needle-shaped aragonite. Oxygen isotope compositions of the mineral are consistent with the ambient temperatures and may indicate a recent diagenetic formation of this mineral. Although precipitation should not be preserved in these sandy permeable sediments, influenced by seasonality, wave action, and fluid flow, we found up to 10-50 cm3 irregular pieces of cemented sand grains, very often encrusting dead seagrass rhizomes. Commonly known carbonate structures, especially from the deep sea, are chimneys, mounds, hardgrounds and nodules. These structures are well known from seep and vent sites, usually showing the same range of stable carbon isotope fractionation as the escaping methane. The permeable sediment at the Elba site possibly allows the gas to frequently change its pathway to the sediment surface and thus precipitation can occure at several spots and more irregular than in the reported sites. Preservation of precipitates, however, requires sufficient authigenic aragonite to be formed before fluid dynamics changed the

  5. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  6. Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study. PMID:24718610

  7. Improving shallow-water carbonate chemostratigraphy by means of rudist bivalve sclerochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, S.; Heimhofer, U.

    2015-09-01

    Deep-time shallow-marine carbonate platforms record distinct biotic responses to climatic and environmental stressors. Unfortunately, precise temporal assignment of these biotic responses is often problematical due to poor biostratigraphic control and/or a significant diagenetic overprint of the neritic bulk carbonate chemostratigraphic inventory. An accurate stratigraphic framework is essential to better understand the causal relation between biotic events recorded by carbonate platforms and environmental changes that, for instance, culminated in mass extinction events or prolonged episodes of oceanic anoxia. Here we provide an integrated carbon and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of the Early Cretaceous subtropical Provence carbonate platform in SE France that is based solely on pristine low-Mg calcite from rudist bivalves. Carbon-isotope data of geochemically screened rudist fragments enabled reconstruction of a characteristic Barremian pattern including the Mid-Barremian Event (MBE) that allowed for a precise correlation with stratigraphically well-constrained Tethyan shallow-water and hemipelagic reference sections. In order to evaluate ontogenetic carbon-isotope changes and the overall variability of the shell-derived carbon-isotope data, numerous sclerochronological carbon-isotope profiles of individual large rudist shells are presented. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy supports the carbon-isotope-based age of the studied sections, but also provides unequivocal evidence for a major hiatus in the depositional record covering large parts of the Late Barremian. In contrast to biostratigraphic and bulk carbonate chemostratigraphic archives, the here established chronostratigraphy of carbonate platform evolution in the southern Provence region demonstrates a twofold resurgence of rudist-rich carbonate platform production during the Early Aptian and arguably the latest Early Aptian.

  8. A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, F. X.; Warburton, T.

    2005-07-01

    A nodal triangle-based spectral element (SE) method for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The original SE method uses quadrilateral elements and high-order nodal Lagrange polynomials, constructed from a tensor-product of the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points. In this work, we construct the high-order Lagrange polynomials directly on the triangle using nodal sets obtained from the electrostatics principle [J.S. Hesthaven, From electrostatics to almost optimal nodal sets for polynomial interpolation in a simplex, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 35 (1998) 655-676] and Fekete points [M.A. Taylor, B.A. Wingate, R.E. Vincent, An algorithm for computing Fekete points in the triangle, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 38 (2000) 1707-1720]. These points have good approximation properties and far better Lebesgue constants than any other nodal set derived for the triangle. By employing triangular elements as the basic building-blocks of the SE method and the Cartesian coordinate form of the equations, we can use any grid imaginable including adaptive unstructured grids. Results for six test cases are presented to confirm the accuracy and stability of the method. The results show that the triangle-based SE method yields the expected exponential convergence and that it can be more accurate than the quadrilateral-based SE method even while using 30-60% fewer grid points especially when adaptive grids are used to align the grid with the flow direction. However, at the moment, the quadrilateral-based SE method is twice as fast as the triangle-based SE method because the latter does not yield a diagonal mass matrix.

  9. Hybrid ensemble 4DVar assimilation of stratospheric ozone using a global shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Douglas R.; Hoppel, Karl W.; Kuhl, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Wind extraction from stratospheric ozone (O3) assimilation is examined using a hybrid ensemble 4-D variational assimilation (4DVar) shallow water model (SWM) system coupled to the tracer advection equation. Stratospheric radiance observations are simulated using global observations of the SWM fluid height (Z), while O3 observations represent sampling by a typical polar-orbiting satellite. Four ensemble sizes were examined (25, 50, 100, and 1518 members), with the largest ensemble equal to the number of dynamical state variables. The optimal length scale for ensemble localization was found by tuning an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). This scale was then used for localizing the ensemble covariances that were blended with conventional covariances in the hybrid 4DVar experiments. Both optimal length scale and optimal blending coefficient increase with ensemble size, with optimal blending coefficients varying from 0.2-0.5 for small ensembles to 0.5-1.0 for large ensembles. The hybrid system outperforms conventional 4DVar for all ensemble sizes, while for large ensembles the hybrid produces similar results to the offline EnKF. Assimilating O3 in addition to Z benefits the winds in the hybrid system, with the fractional improvement in global vector wind increasing from ˜ 35 % with 25 and 50 members to ˜ 50 % with 1518 members. For the smallest ensembles (25 and 50 members), the hybrid 4DVar assimilation improves the zonal wind analysis over conventional 4DVar in the Northern Hemisphere (winter-like) region and also at the Equator, where Z observations alone have difficulty constraining winds due to lack of geostrophy. For larger ensembles (100 and 1518 members), the hybrid system results in both zonal and meridional wind error reductions, relative to 4DVar, across the globe.

  10. A new approach to macroalgal bloom control in eutrophic, shallow-water, coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Mauro; Salvaterra, Giulia; Gennaro, Paola; Mercatali, Isabel; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore; Sorce, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, an experiment was conducted in a shallow eutrophic lagoon with poor water exchange to determine the consequences of harvesting algae on the algal mat itself, which was traversed and repeatedly disturbed by large harvester boats. Four areas with high macroalgal density, measuring half a hectare each, were selected. Two were subjected to frequent disturbance of the algal mat and sediment (12 two-hour operations over a 38-day period) and the other two were left undisturbed as control. The following variables were determined: 1) water column physical chemistry and nutrients; 2) redox potential, nutrients and organic load in sediments; 3) C, N and P content of algal thalli; 4) macroalgal biomass. In 2013, a further experiment was conducted on a larger scale. Biomass was estimated in a high-density mat measuring 235 ha, where macroalgae were harvested and stirred up by four harvesting boats, and in two high-density mats measuring 150 and 120 ha, left undisturbed as control (9.15, 9.92 and 3.68 kg/m(2), respectively). In the first experiment, no significant changes were observed in the water column. In sediment the main variation was a significant reduction in labile organic matter in the disturbed areas and a significant increase mainly in refractory organic matter in the undisturbed areas. Biomass showed a significant drastic reduction in disturbed areas and substantial stability in undisturbed areas. In the large-scale experiment, the biomass of the disturbed mat declined by about 63%, only 6.5% of which was due to harvesting. On the other hand, the undisturbed mat with higher density underwent a natural decline in biomass of about 23% and the other increased by about 50%. These results demonstrate that disturbance of high-density mat in shallow water by boats can cause decay of the mat. PMID:25556869

  11. Volterra fusion of processing strings for automated sea mine classification in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernandez, Manuel; Dobeck, Gerald j.

    2005-06-01

    An improved sea mine computer-aided-detection / computer-aided-classification (CAD/CAC) processing string has been developed. The overall CAD/CAC processing string consists of pre-processing, adaptive clutter filtering (ACF), normalization, detection, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization, classification and fusion processing blocks. The range-dimension ACF is matched both to average highlight and shadow information, while also adaptively suppressing background clutter. For each detected object, features are extracted and processed through an orthogonalization transformation, enabling an efficient application of the optimal log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) classification rule, in the orthogonal feature space domain. The classified objects of 4 distinct processing strings are fused using the classification confidence values as features and either "M-out-of-N" or LLRT-based fusion rules. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with new shallow water high-resolution sonar imagery data. The processing string detection and classification parameters were tuned and the string classification performance was optimized, by appropriately selecting a subset of the original feature set. Two significant improvements were made to the CAD/CAC processing string by employing sub-image adaptive clutter filtering (SACF) and utilizing a repeated application of the subset feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT classification blocks. A new nonlinear (Volterra) feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. It was shown that this Volterra feature LLRT fusion of the CAD/CAC processing strings outperforms the "M-out-of-N" and baseline LLRT algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single CAD/CAC processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call all mine targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  12. Recent processing string and fusion algorithm improvements for automated sea mine classification in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernandez, Manuel F.; Dobeck, Gerald J.

    2003-09-01

    A novel sea mine computer-aided-detection / computer-aided-classification (CAD/CAC) processing string has been developed. The overall CAD/CAC processing string consists of pre-processing, adaptive clutter filtering (ACF), normalization, detection, feature extraction, feature orthogonalization, optimal subset feature selection, classification and fusion processing blocks. The range-dimension ACF is matched both to average highlight and shadow information, while also adaptively suppressing background clutter. For each detected object, features are extracted and processed through an orthogonalization transformation, enabling an efficient application of the optimal log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) classification rule, in the orthogonal feature space domain. The classified objects of 4 distinct processing strings are fused using the classification confidence values as features and logic-based, "M-out-of-N", or LLRT-based fusion rules. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with new shallow water high-resolution sonar imagery data. The processing string detection and classification parameters were tuned and the string classification performance was optimized, by appropriately selecting a subset of the original feature set. A significant improvement was made to the CAD/CAC processing string by utilizing a repeated application of the subset feature selection / LLRT classification blocks. It was shown that LLRT-based fusion algorithms outperform the logic based and the "M-out-of-N" ones. The LLRT-based fusion of the CAD/CAC processing strings resulted in up to a nine-fold false alarm rate reduction, compared to the best single CAD/CAC processing string results, while maintaining a constant correct mine classification probability.

  13. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2012-04-09

    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  14. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Processes in Shallow Waters of the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study. PMID:24718610

  15. A piecewise modeling approach for climate sensitivity studies: Tests with a shallow-water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Aimei; Qiu, Chongjian; Niu, Guo-Yue

    2015-10-01

    In model-based climate sensitivity studies, model errors may grow during continuous long-term integrations in both the "reference" and "perturbed" states and hence the climate sensitivity (defined as the difference between the two states). To reduce the errors, we propose a piecewise modeling approach that splits the continuous long-term simulation into subintervals of sequential short-term simulations, and updates the modeled states through re-initialization at the end of each subinterval. In the re-initialization processes, this approach updates the reference state with analysis data and updates the perturbed states with the sum of analysis data and the difference between the perturbed and the reference states, thereby improving the credibility of the modeled climate sensitivity. We conducted a series of experiments with a shallow-water model to evaluate the advantages of the piecewise approach over the conventional continuous modeling approach. We then investigated the impacts of analysis data error and subinterval length used in the piecewise approach on the simulations of the reference and perturbed states as well as the resulting climate sensitivity. The experiments show that the piecewise approach reduces the errors produced by the conventional continuous modeling approach, more effectively when the analysis data error becomes smaller and the subinterval length is shorter. In addition, we employed a nudging assimilation technique to solve possible spin-up problems caused by re-initializations by using analysis data that contain inconsistent errors between mass and velocity. The nudging technique can effectively diminish the spin-up problem, resulting in a higher modeling skill.

  16. A spectral element semi-Lagrangian (SESL) method for the spherical shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, F. X.; Perot, J. B.; Fischer, P. F.

    2003-09-01

    A spectral element semi-Lagrangian (SESL) method for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The sphere is discretized using a hexahedral grid although any grid imaginable can be used as long as it is comprised of quadrilaterals. The equations are written in Cartesian coordinates to eliminate the pole singularity which plagues the equations in spherical coordinates. In a previous paper [Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 35 (2001) 869] we showed how to construct an explicit Eulerian spectral element (SE) model on the sphere; we now extend this work to a semi-Lagrangian formulation. The novelty of the Lagrangian formulation presented is that the high order SE basis functions are used as the interpolation functions for evaluating the values at the Lagrangian departure points. This makes the method not only high order accurate but quite general and thus applicable to unstructured grids and portable to distributed memory computers. The equations are discretized fully implicitly in time in order to avoid having to interpolate derivatives at departure points. By incorporating the Coriolis terms into the Lagrangian derivative, the block LU decomposition of the equations results in a symmetric positive-definite pseudo-Helmholtz operator which we solve using the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) with a fast projection method [Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 163 (1998) 193]. Results for eight test cases are presented to confirm the accuracy and stability of the method. These results show that SESL yields the same accuracy as an Eulerian spectral element semi-implicit (SESI) while allowing for time-steps 10 times as large and being up to 70% more efficient.

  17. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  18. Unexpected Arsenate/Arsenite Gradients in Pore-Water Profiles From a Shallow-Water Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. E.; Pichler, T.; Amend, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The shallow-water submarine hot-springs near Ambitle Island in eastern Papua New Guinea provide us with the exceptional opportunity to study the biogeochemistry of arsenic (As) along a horizontal and a vertical gradient. Hydrothermal venting occurs as discharge of a clear, two-phase fluid from discrete orifices, 10-15 cm in diameter, with minor phase separation (boiling) at the sea floor. In addition diffuse seepage of the same fluid, but without phase separation occurs throughout the area. Fluid temperatures for individual springs range from 89 to 98/degC, while diffuse seepage temperatures are generally lower. The hydrothermal fluids contain up to 1000 μg/L As, which is exclusively present as the trivalent species arsenite (As(III)). Stepping away to a distance of 300 m from the area of focused venting, we collected 10 pore-water profiles down to a depth of 1 m in 10-cm intervals. The profiles were collected with a 10-port sampler by simultaneously filling 10 syringes to reduce vertical flow. In those samples 10 cm below the seawater-sediment interface, total As concentrations decreased from 900 μg/L closest to the vents to 6 μg/L at 300 m away. The 6 μg/L at 300 m is still 3-times the expected value for seawater, thus indicating the potential extension of hydrothermal influence. As(V)/As(III) ratios were determined to investigate the transport and fate of As(III) and to evaluate horizontal and vertical redox gradients. Surprisingly, As in the vertical pore-water profiles occurs predominantly as the oxidized form, As(V), with As(V)/As(III) ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.1, whereas vertical pore-water profiles from a "non-hydrothermal" control site show a redox gradient with a ratio ranging from 0.5 to 1.0. Along the horizontal gradient the 10 cm pore-water samples show an increase in the As(V)/As(III) ratio, from 0.07 near the vents to 1.75 at 300 m away. These unexpected ratios suggest that microbes may be catalyzing the oxidation of hydrothermal As(III) to

  19. COMPARISON OF RECORDING CURRENT METERS USED FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors determine the feasibility of collecting reliable current-meter data in shallow water under natural conditions. The study involved field testing four types of recording current meters (different speed sensors) and comparing data recorded by the meters under different field conditions. Speeds recorded by the current meters at slack water and during maximum flows were compared during calm and windy conditions at various tide levels.

  20. Semi-Lagrangian integration of a gridpoint shallow water model on the sphere. [for numerical weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, A.; Bates, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A stable, semi-Lagrangian, semi-implicit, two-time-level, gridpoint integration scheme for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. A rotated spherical coordinate system is used to integrate the equations of motion at each gridpoint poleward of a certain latitude, thus overcoming problems associated with the polar singularity. The results of medium term integrations of large scale test patterns using a long time step are presented.

  1. An energy and potential enstrophy conserving numerical scheme for the multi-layer shallow water equations with complete Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Andrew L.; Dellar, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an energy- and potential enstrophy-conserving scheme for the non-traditional shallow water equations that include the complete Coriolis force and topography. These integral conservation properties follow from material conservation of potential vorticity in the continuous shallow water equations. The latter property cannot be preserved by a discretisation on a fixed Eulerian grid, but exact conservation of a discrete energy and a discrete potential enstrophy seems to be an effective substitute that prevents any distortion of the forward and inverse cascades in quasi-two dimensional turbulence through spurious sources and sinks of energy and potential enstrophy, and also increases the robustness of the scheme against nonlinear instabilities. We exploit the existing Arakawa-Lamb scheme for the traditional shallow water equations, reformulated by Salmon as a discretisation of the Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket for this system. The non-rotating, traditional, and our non-traditional shallow water equations all share the same continuous Hamiltonian structure and Poisson bracket, provided one distinguishes between the particle velocity and the canonical momentum per unit mass. We have determined a suitable discretisation of the non-traditional canonical momentum, which includes additional coupling between the layer thickness and velocity fields, and modified the discrete kinetic energy to suppress an internal symmetric computational instability that otherwise arises for multiple layers. The resulting scheme exhibits the expected second-order convergence under spatial grid refinement. We also show that the drifts in the discrete total energy and potential enstrophy due to temporal truncation error may be reduced to machine precision under suitable refinement of the timestep using the third-order Adams-Bashforth or fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration schemes.

  2. On the transition towards slow manifold in shallow-water and 3D Euler equations in a rotating frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, A.

    1994-01-01

    The long-time, asymptotic state of rotating homogeneous shallow-water equations is investigated. Our analysis is based on long-time averaged rotating shallow-water equations describing interactions of large-scale, horizontal, two-dimensional motions with surface inertial-gravity waves field for a shallow, uniformly rotating fluid layer. These equations are obtained in two steps: first by introducing a Poincare/Kelvin linear propagator directly into classical shallow-water equations, then by averaging. The averaged equations describe interaction of wave fields with large-scale motions on time scales long compared to the time scale 1/f(sub o) introduced by rotation (f(sub o)/2-angular velocity of background rotation). The present analysis is similar to the one presented by Waleffe (1991) for 3D Euler equations in a rotating frame. However, since three-wave interactions in rotating shallow-water equations are forbidden, the final equations describing the asymptotic state are simplified considerably. Special emphasis is given to a new conservation law found in the asymptotic state and decoupling of the dynamics of the divergence free part of the velocity field. The possible rising of a decoupled dynamics in the asymptotic state is also investigated for homogeneous turbulence subjected to a background rotation. In our analysis we use long-time expansion, where the velocity field is decomposed into the 'slow manifold' part (the manifold which is unaffected by the linear 'rapid' effects of rotation or the inertial waves) and a formal 3D disturbance. We derive the physical space version of the long-time averaged equations and consider an invariant, basis-free derivation. This formulation can be used to generalize Waleffe's (1991) helical decomposition to viscous inhomogeneous flows (e.g. problems in cylindrical geometry with no-slip boundary conditions on the cylinder surface and homogeneous in the vertical direction).

  3. High-energy events versus global change controls on sedimentation and diagenesis of shallow-water carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh-Le Jan

    1988-08-01

    Miocene to Recent geological records of intertropical carbonates show that the sedimentology and diagenesis of the shallow-water carbonates are controlled by two events. (1) Global changes provide alternate phases of emersion and submersion. During submersion and depending upon physical and oceanographic data (temperature, development of oceanic currents), most shallow-water carbonates are formed. When sea level falls, erosion, alteration, pedogenesis, and diagenetic events occur. One of the major controls is the fluctuation and evolution of the Ghyben-Herzberg lens and the development of meromictic lakes. Karstic dissolution provokes internal and external cavities which become pedogenetic traps for allochthonous material (tephra, etc.) and further control the diagenesis evolution of trapped material as well as substratum carbonates. (2) High-energy events appear to be slow but continuous processes through geological time. They rework former deposits, provoking new high-energy sedimentation and a new superimposed and/or substituted morphology. Sedimentation and diagenesis of shallow-water intertropical carbonates are such an interaction of global changes and high-energy events.

  4. A Dynamic Eddy Viscosity Model for the Shallow Water Equations Solved by Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, Simone; Suckale, Jenny; Giraldo, Francis X.; Constantinescu, Emil

    2016-04-01

    We present the solution of the viscous shallow water equations where viscosity is built as a residual-based subgrid scale model originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible [1] and stratified flows [2]. The necessity of viscosity for a shallow water model not only finds motivation from mathematical analysis [3], but is supported by physical reasoning as can be seen by an analysis of the energetics of the solution. We simulated the flow of an idealized wave as it hits a set of obstacles. The kinetic energy spectrum of this flow shows that, although the inviscid Galerkin solutions -by spectral elements and discontinuous Galerkin [4]- preserve numerical stability in spite of the spurious oscillations in the proximity of the wave fronts, the slope of the energy cascade deviates from the theoretically expected values. We show that only a sufficiently small amount of dynamically adaptive viscosity removes the unwanted high-frequency modes while preserving the overall sharpness of the solution. In addition, it yields a physically plausible energy decay. This work is motivated by a larger interest in the application of a shallow water model to the solution of tsunami triggered coastal flows. In particular, coastal flows in regions around the world where coastal parks made of mitigation hills of different sizes and configurations are considered as a means to deviate the power of the incoming wave. References [1] M. Nazarov and J. Hoffman (2013) "Residual-based artificial viscosity for simulation of turbulent compressible flow using adaptive finite element methods" Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 71:339-357 [2] S. Marras, M. Nazarov, F. X. Giraldo (2015) "Stabilized high-order Galerkin methods based on a parameter-free dynamic SGS model for LES" J. Comput. Phys. 301:77-101 [3] J. F. Gerbeau and B. Perthame (2001) "Derivation of the viscous Saint-Venant system for laminar shallow water; numerical validation" Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 1:89?102 [4] F

  5. Statistical equilibria of the coupled barotropic flow and shallow water flow on a rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xueru

    The motivation of this research is to build equilibrium statistical models that can apply to explain two enigmatic phenomena in the atmospheres of the solar system's planets: (1) the super-rotation of the atmospheres of slowly-rotating terrestrial planets---namely Venus and Titan, and (2) the persistent anticyclonic large vortex storms on the gas giants, such as the Great Red Spot (GRS) on Jupiter. My thesis is composed of two main parts: the first part focuses on the statistical equilibrium of the coupled barotropic vorticity flow (non-divergent) on a rotating sphere; the other one has to do with the divergent shallow water flow rotating sphere system. The statistical equilibria of these two systems are simulated in a wide range of parameter space by Monte Carlo methods based on recent energy-relative enstrophy theory and extended energy-relative enstrophy theory. These kind of models remove the low temperatures defect in the old classical doubly canonical energy-enstrophy theory which cannot support any phase transitions. The other big difference of our research from previous work is that we work on the coupled fluid-sphere system, which consists of a rotating high density rigid sphere, enveloped by a thin shell of fluid. The sphere is considered to have infinite mass and angular momentum; therefore, it can serve as a reservoir of angular momentum. Unlike the fluid sphere system itself, the coupled fluid sphere system allows for the exchange of angular momentum between the atmosphere and the solid planet. This exchange is the key point in any model that is expected to capture coherent structures such as the super-rotation and GRS-like vortices problems in planetary atmospheres. We discovered that slowly-rotating planets can have super-rotation at high energy state. All known slowly-rotating cases in the solar system---Venus and Titan---have super-rotation. Moreover, we showed that the anticyclonicity in the GRS-like structures is closely associated with the

  6. Riemann solvers and boundary conditions for two-dimensional shallow water simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, Vincent

    2003-04-01

    Most existing algorithms for two-dimensional shallow water simulations treat multi-dimensional waves using wave splitting or time splitting. This often results in anisotropy of the computed flow. Both wave splitting and time splitting are based on a local decomposition of the multi-dimensional problem into one-dimensional, orthogonal problems. Therefore, these algorithms handle boundary conditions in a very similar way to classical one-dimensional algorithms. This should be expected to trigger a dependence of the number of boundary conditions on the direction of the flow at the boundaries. However, most computational codes based on alternate directions do not exhibit such sensitivity, which seems to contradict the theory of existence and uniqueness of the solution. The present paper addresses these issues. A Riemann solver is presented that aims to convert two-dimensional Riemann problems into a one-dimensional equivalent Riemann problem (ERP) at the interfaces between the computational cells. The ERP is derived by applying the theory of bicharacteristics at each end of the interface and by performing a linear averaging along the interface. The proposed approach is tested against the traditional one-dimensional approach on the classical circular dambreak problem. The results show that the proposed solver allows the isotropy of the solution to be better preserved. Use of the two-dimensional solver with a first-order scheme may give better results than use of a second-order scheme with a one-dimensional solver. The theory of bicharacteristics is also used to discuss the issue of boundary conditions. It is shown that, when the flow is subcritical, the number of boundary conditions affects the accuracy of the solution, but not its existence and uniqueness. When only one boundary condition is to be prescribed, it should not be the velocity in the direction parallel to the boundary. When two boundary conditions are to be prescribed, at least one of them should involve

  7. Shallow water submarine hydrothermal activity - A case study in the assessment of ocean acidification and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, T.; Nagao, K.; Kusakabe, M.; Wang, B.; Chen, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Most natural Shallow Water submarine Hydrothermal activates (SWH) along coastlines are related to hydrothermal eruptions involving heating of groundwater with the volcanic gas. These SWHs supply nutrients such as phosphorus and micro nutrients like iron to the euphotic zone, contributing to the overall natural fertility and primary productivity of coastal waters. However, SWHs also have a negative effect, dispersing toxic materials such as mercury and arsenic, and affecting the acidification of the surrounding waters. In this study, we evaluate the impact of "iron supply" and "ocean acidification" on the primary production in a coastal marine environment, at a SWH area discovered off Gueshandao Island, northeast Taiwan. In the past three years, expeditions were conducted and observations made around this SWH site. Divers, small boats and a research vessel (R/V OR1, Ocean University National Taiwan) were used to survey successively larger areas around the site. Some of the results obtained are as follows. Hydrothermal vents are located in a hilly terrain rich with hot spring water with gas erupting intermittently. There are two types of vents, roughly divided by color, yellow hot spring water with higher temperature >110 degC ejected from sulfur chimneys of various sizes, and colorless water with lower temperature ~80 degC ejected directly from the crevices of the andesitic bedrock. Natural sulfur solidifying in the mouth of a small chimney was captured by a video camera, and explosions were also observed at intervals of a few minutes. Sediment, sand and particles of sulfur were deposited on the sides to a radius of about 50 m condensing around the chimney. The bottom type changes from sand/particles to outcrop/rock away from the vents. Moreover, gas samples were collected from the vents; the ratios of gas concentrations (N2/Ar) and isotopic composition of noble gas (3He/4He) suggest that these volcanic gases are mantle-derived. Hydrothermal fluid with high p

  8. Initial-Boundary Value Problem Solution of the Nonlinear Shallow-water Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, U.; Aydin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The hodograph transformation solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow-water wave (NSW) equations are usually obtained through integral transform techniques such as Fourier-Bessel transforms. However, the original formulation of Carrier and Greenspan (1958 J Fluid Mech) and its variant Carrier et al. (2003 J Fluid Mech) involve evaluation integrals. Since elliptic integrals are highly singular as discussed in Carrier et al. (2003), this solution methodology requires either approximation of the associated integrands by smooth functions or selection of regular initial/boundary data. It should be noted that Kanoglu (2004 J Fluid Mech) partly resolves this issue by simplifying the resulting integrals in closed form. Here, the hodograph transform approach is coupled with the classical eigenfunction expansion method rather than integral transform techniques and a new analytical model for nonlinear long wave propagation over a plane beach is derived. This approach is based on the solution methodology used in Aydın & Kanoglu (2007 CMES-Comp Model Eng) for wind set-down relaxation problem. In contrast to classical initial- or boundary-value problem solutions, here, the NSW equations are formulated to yield an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) solution. In general, initial wave profile with nonzero initial velocity distribution is assumed and the flow variables are given in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The results reveal that the developed method allows accurate estimation of the spatial and temporal variation of the flow quantities, i.e., free-surface height and depth-averaged velocity, with much less computational effort compared to the integral transform techniques such as Carrier et al. (2003), Kanoglu (2004), Tinti & Tonini (2005 J Fluid Mech), and Kanoglu & Synolakis (2006 Phys Rev Lett). Acknowledgments: This work is funded by project ASTARTE- Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV

  9. Shallow water acoustic backscatter and reverberation measurements using a 68-kHz cylindrical array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaudet, Timothy Cole

    2001-10-01

    The characterization of high frequency, shallow water acoustic backscatter and reverberation is important because acoustic systems are used in many scientific, commercial, and military applications. The approach taken is to use data collected by the Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS), a 68 kHz multibeam sonar capable of 360° imaging in a vertical plane perpendicular to its direction of travel. With this unique capability, acoustic backscatter imagery of the seafloor, sea surface, and horizontal and vertical planes in the volume are constructed from data obtained in 200m deep waters in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico when the TVSS was towed 78m below the surface, 735m astern of a towship. The processed imagery provide a quasi-synoptic characterization of the spatial and temporal structure of boundary and volume acoustic backscatter and reverberation. Diffraction, element patterns, and high sidelobe levels are shown to be the most serious problems affecting cylindrical arrays such as the TVSS, and an amplitude shading method is presented for reducing the peak sidelobe levels of irregular-line and non-coplanar arrays. Errors in the towfish's attitude and motion sensor, and irregularities in the TVSS's transmitted beampattern produce artifacts in the TVSS-derived bathymetry and seafloor acoustic backscatter imagery. Correction strategies for these problems are described, which are unique in that they use environmental information extracted from both ocean boundaries. Sea surface and volume acoustic backscatter imagery are used to explore and characterize the structure of near-surface bubble clouds, schooling fish, and zooplankton. The simultaneous horizontal and vertical coverage provided by the TVSS is shown to be a primary advantage, motivating further use of multibeam sonars in these applications. Whereas boundary backscatter fluctuations are well described by Weibull, K, and Rayleigh mixture probability distributions, those corresponding to volume backscatter are

  10. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

  11. Detection of viruses and virus-like particles in four species of wild and farmed bivalve molluscs in Alaska, U.S.A., from 1987 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Theodore R; Burton, Tamara; Evans, Wally; Starkey, Norman

    2009-12-22

    The U.S. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has regulatory oversight of the mariculture industry that is partially administered through a statewide shellfish health policy. Possession and transport of bivalve molluscs require development of indigenous pathogen histories from diagnostic examinations of wild and farmed populations. These examinations have resulted in the detection of various infectious agents and parasites including viruses: an aquareovirus and aquabirna-like virus isolated by fish cell culture, and papilloma- or polyoma- and herpes-like virus particles within bivalve cell intranuclear inclusion bodies observed by electron microscopy. This study summarizes these results in samples examined from 1987 to 2009 and is the first description of poikilothermic viruses from Alaskan waters isolated from or observed within the tissues of 4 species of bivalve molluscs: geoduck clam Panope abrupta, native littleneck clam Protothaca staminea, purple-hinged rock scallop Crassadoma gigantea and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. PMID:20183960

  12. Spatial and temporal diversity of microbial mats in the shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, D.; Foustoukos, D.; Le Bris, N.; Sievert, S. M.; Yucel, M.; Vetriani, C.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are ubiquitous but poorly studied geothermal environments. The shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island is a unique study site with vents exhibiting steep geothermal gradients in the presence of light that allows the co-occurrence of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. The active hydrothermal emissions of the Milos hydrothermal system support complex microbial mats, which are fundamental in engineering the environmental niche in which extremophiles thrive. Because of the shallow depth, the mat community is wiped out during every major storm, when swell and wave action increase, and then it reconstitutes itself over a brief period of time (days). While most studies are focused on the diversity of the community residing in the underlying sediments, little information is available on the diversity and functioning of the mat community, and how it responds to abrupt geodynamic events. Here we report the results of a joint geochemical and microbiological survey of the microbial mats of Milos island, and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of the mat community following a major storm. Our results show that the community is dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, although significant variability is present within the systemm. The observed variability correlates with spatial profiles and in situ measurement of temperature and sulfide carried out over a 6 days periods, showing that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Diversity and metagenomic analyses of the mature mat provide further information on the metabolic potential of the community and on the influence of environmental factors on ecosystem functioning. Our work lays the basis for studies aimed at resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in shallow-water hydrothermal systems.

  13. Energy invariant for shallow-water waves and the Korteweg-de Vries equation: Doubts about the invariance of energy.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Anna; Rozmej, Piotr; Infeld, Eryk

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation has an infinite set of conserved quantities. The first three are often considered to represent mass, momentum, and energy. Here we try to answer the question of how this comes about and also how these KdV quantities relate to those of the Euler shallow-water equations. Here Luke's Lagrangian is helpful. We also consider higher-order extensions of KdV. Though in general not integrable, in some sense they are almost so within the accuracy of the expansion. PMID:26651809

  14. Experimental research of the interference and phase structure of the power flux from a local source in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, N. I.; Kuznetsov, G. N.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the interference structure of low-frequency tonal and wideband signals in shallow water, received by four-component vector-scalar modules. The spatial amplitudes and phase characteristics of the scalar field are analyzed, as well as three components of the vibration velocity vector and the power flux vector. A relationship is established between the zone of interference maxima and minima and the phase gradient in the horizontal and vertical plane, the change in direction of the vertical and horizontal components of the vibration velocity vector, and the change in the depression angle of the power flux vector in the horizontal plane.

  15. Solving the shallow water equations on the Cray X-MP/48 and the connection machine 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swarztrauber, Paul N.; Sato, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    The shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates and 2-D are solved on the Connection Machine 2 (CM-2) using both the spectral and finite difference methods. A description of these implementations is presented together with a brief discussion of the CM-2 as it relates to these specific computations. The finite difference code was written both in C* and *LISP and the spectral code was written in *LISP. The performance of the codes is compared with a FORTRAN version that was optimized for the Cray X-MP/48.

  16. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources. PMID:26611072

  17. Study on shallow-water delta characteristics by utilizing seismic sedimentologic methods in Zilaitun Oilfield, Huanghua Depression, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shan; Wang, Jiahao

    2015-04-01

    Shallow-water delta is characterized by widely distributed distributary channels from plentiful previous studies. But how to tenuously depict its planar geomorphology remains a difficult problem at present. This paper discussed the feasibility of seismic sedimentologic methods to interpret distributary channels distribution and summarized shallow-water delta characteristics. Huanghua Depression of Bohai Bay Basin is the Cenozoic rift basin in east China. Zilaitun Oilfield lies in the Kongdian buried-hill belt of Huanghua Depression. The oil layer is mainly distributed in the Paleocene Kongdian Formation. From core samples, 1st member of Kongdian Formation mainly consists of finer grain-size sandstone and amaranth mudstone, revealing a shallow-water environment. In the sandstone of distributary channels, sedimentary structures such as erosional surface, lag deposit, parallel bedding and trough cross-bedding are developed, illustrating an intensive hydrodynamic condition. Combining logging data, shallow-water delta mainly developed delta front subfacies. Microfacies of the delta front include subaqueous distributary channel, mouth bar and interdistributary bay in study area. A vertical discontinuous sequence was formed on account of the lack of distal bar. Subaqueous distributary channels are characterized by cylinder and conical well log curves. By extraction of RMS amplitudes from 3-D seismic data, seismic strata slices reveal banding distribution of sand bodies. Cylinder and conical logging curves demonstrated that these sand bodies are developed in distributary channels. The NE-trending anastomosing and dendritic distributary channels are widely developed in 1st member of Kongdian Formation. When the lake expanded, the river frequently bifurcated and diverted due to the rise of the relative lake-level, forming deep and wide anastomosing distributary channels. These channels extended as far as 13.2 km. The width is from 600 m to 1000 m. The average thickness of

  18. A Godunov-type method for the shallow water equations with discontinuous topography in the resonant regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFloch, Philippe G.; Thanh, Mai Duc

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the Riemann problem for the shallow water equations with variable and (possibly) discontinuous topography and provide a complete description of the properties of its solutions: existence; uniqueness in the non-resonant regime; multiple solutions in the resonant regime. This analysis leads us to a numerical algorithm that provides one with a Riemann solver. Next, we introduce a Godunov-type scheme based on this Riemann solver, which is well-balanced and of quasi-conservative form. Finally, we present numerical experiments which demonstrate the convergence of the proposed scheme even in the resonance regime, except in the limiting situation when Riemann data precisely belong to the resonance hypersurface.

  19. Energy invariant for shallow-water waves and the Korteweg-de Vries equation: Doubts about the invariance of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczewska, Anna; Rozmej, Piotr; Infeld, Eryk

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation has an infinite set of conserved quantities. The first three are often considered to represent mass, momentum, and energy. Here we try to answer the question of how this comes about and also how these KdV quantities relate to those of the Euler shallow-water equations. Here Luke's Lagrangian is helpful. We also consider higher-order extensions of KdV. Though in general not integrable, in some sense they are almost so within the accuracy of the expansion.

  20. A lattice Boltzmann-finite element model for two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction problems involving shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical method for the modeling of shallow waters interacting with slender elastic structures is presented. The fluid domain is modeled through the lattice Boltzmann method, while the solid domain is idealized by corotational beam finite elements undergoing large displacements. Structure dynamics is predicted by using the time discontinuous Galerkin method and the fluid-structure interface conditions are handled by the Immersed Boundary method. An explicit coupling strategy to combine the adopted numerical methods is proposed and its effectiveness is tested by computing the error in terms of the energy that is artificially introduced at the fluid-solid interface.

  1. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

  2. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  3. The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Wagner F.; Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Paiva, Paulo Cesar; Elias, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A large number multitentaculate cirratulids have been described worldwide but most are only known through the original descriptions. Type material, voucher and recently collected specimens from Brazil were revisited in order to reveal their true identity and confirm the records of widely distributed species in this region. Six species are described, three of which are new, Cirriformia capixabensis sp. nov., Cirriformia chicoi sp. nov. and Timarete ceciliae sp. nov. COI and 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. Timarete caribous is reported from several localities along the Brazilian coast and a new synonym, Cirratulus melanacanthus, is proposed. The species Timarete oculata, originally described from Brazil and lumped into the Timarete filigera species complex, is herein revalidated and redescribed. The occurrence of the species Timarete filigera and Cirriformia tentaculata is not confirmed from the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to genera and species are provided. PMID:25393759

  4. Biannual otolith-zone formation of young shallow-water hake Merluccius capensis in the northern Benguela: age verification using otoliths sampled by a top predator.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M R; Roux, J-P; Moloney, C L; Jarre, A

    2015-07-01

    Otoliths collected at least monthly from scat samples of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus are used to show that shallow-water hake Merluccius capensis from the northern Benguela develop three translucent zones in their first 1·5 years of life. The novel sampling approach provided otoliths that belonged to four M. capensis cohorts of approximate known age (hatched in 1996, 1998, 2002 and 2005), allowing age verification. Following spawning in austral winter, translucent zones consistently formed first in summer and autumn (T1), then in winter and spring (T2) and again in summer and autumn (T3), with no difference in appearance of the zones (biannuli) for the four cohorts considered. The second translucent zone is usually the first true annulus (year mark). It forms during July to September in fish of 15-20 cm total length (LT ). Formation of the translucent zones appears to be determined by fish length or age, rather than by exogenous cues. It is suggested that length measurements should be used to help determine the first age group; fish with a translucent zone marked at otolith lengths >7·5 mm should be termed 1 year-old fish. Ages of M. capensis used in previous stock assessment models have been overestimated. Biannuli are an unusual occurrence in fish otoliths in general, but have been observed in other Merluccius species. PMID:25990746

  5. Ranging bowhead whale calls in a shallow-water dispersive waveguide.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Shima H; Thode, Aaron M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Dowling, David R

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the performance of three methods for estimating the range of broadband (50-500 Hz) bowhead whale calls in a nominally 55-m-deep waveguide: Conventional mode filtering (CMF), synthetic time reversal (STR), and triangulation. The first two methods use a linear vertical array to exploit dispersive propagation effects in the underwater sound channel. The triangulation technique used here, while requiring no knowledge about the propagation environment, relies on a distributed array of directional autonomous seafloor acoustics recorders (DASARs) arranged in triangular grid with 7 km spacing. This study uses simulations and acoustic data collected in 2010 from coastal waters near Kaktovik, Alaska. At that time, a 12-element vertical array, spanning the bottom 63% of the water column, was deployed alongside a distributed array of seven DASARs. The estimated call location-to-array ranges determined from CMF and STR are compared with DASAR triangulation results for 19 whale calls. The vertical-array ranging results are generally within ±10% of the DASAR results with the STR results providing slightly better agreement. The results also indicate that the vertical array can range calls over larger ranges and with greater precision than the particular distributed array discussed here, whenever the call locations are beyond the distributed array boundaries. PMID:24993201

  6. Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, William Scott; Graham, D.D.; Lowery, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

  7. High frequency normal mode statistics in a shallow water waveguide: the effect of random linear internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2014-07-01

    Using transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulation, the statistical properties of mode propagation at a frequency of 1 kHz are studied in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves. The environment is typical of summer conditions in the mid-Atlantic bight during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Observables of interest include the second and fourth moments of the mode amplitudes, which are relevant to full-field mean intensity and scintillation index. It is found that mode phase randomization has a strong adiabatic component while at the same time mode coupling rates are significant. As a consequence, a computationally efficient transport theory is presented, which models cross-mode correlation adiabatically, but accounts for mode coupling using the mode energy equations of Creamer [(1996). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2825-2838]. The theory also has closed-form expressions for the internal wave scattering matrix and a correction for an edge effect. The hybrid transport theory is shown to accurately reproduce many statistical quantities from the Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24993196

  8. Pumping strategies for management of a shallow water table: The value of the simulation-optimization approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, P.M.; Wagner, B.J.; Belitz, K.

    1996-01-01

    The simulation-optimization approach is used to identify ground-water pumping strategies for control of the shallow water table in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, where shallow ground water threatens continued agricultural productivity. The approach combines the use of ground-water flow simulation with optimization techniques to build on and refine pumping strategies identified in previous research that used flow simulation alone. Use of the combined simulation-optimization model resulted in a 20 percent reduction in the area subject to a shallow water table over that identified by use of the simulation model alone. The simulation-optimization model identifies increasingly more effective pumping strategies for control of the water table as the complexity of the problem increases; that is, as the number of subareas in which pumping is to be managed increases, the simulation-optimization model is better able to discriminate areally among subareas to determine optimal pumping locations. The simulation-optimization approach provides an improved understanding of controls on the ground-water flow system and management alternatives that can be implemented in the valley. In particular, results of the simulation-optimization model indicate that optimal pumping strategies are constrained by the existing distribution of wells between the semiconfined and confined zones of the aquifer, by the distribution of sediment types (and associated hydraulic conductivities) in the western valley, and by the historical distribution of pumping throughout the western valley.

  9. Application of Airborne Hydrographic Laser Scanning for Mapping Shallow Water Riverine Environments in the Pacific Northwest, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Faux, R.

    2013-12-01

    Small-footprint, green wavelength airborne LiDAR systems can provide seamless topography across the land-water interface at very high spatial resolution. These data have the potential to improve floodplain modeling, fisheries habitat assessments, stream restoration efforts, and other applications by continuously mapping shallow water depths that are difficult or impossible to measure using traditional ground-based or water-borne survey techniques. WSI (Corvallis, Oregon) in collaboration with Dewberry, (Tampa, Florida) and Riegl (Orlando, Florida), deployed the Riegl VQ-820-G hydrographic airborne laser scanner to map riverine and lacustrine environments from Oregon to Minnesota. Discussion will focus on the ability to accurately map depth and underwater structure, as well as riparian vegetation and terrain under different conditions. Results indicate that depth penetration varies with both water (i.e. clarity and surface conditions) and bottom conditions (i.e. substrate, depth, and landform). Depth penetration was typically limited to 1 Secchi depth or less across selected project areas. As an example, the green LiDAR system effectively mapped 83% of a shallow water river system, the Sandy River, with typical depths ranging from 0-2.5 meters. WSI will show quantitative comparisons of Green LiDAR surveys against more traditional methods such as rod or sonar surveys. WSI will also discuss advantages and limitations of Green LiDAR surveys for bathymetric modeling including survey accuracy, density, and efficiency along with data processing challenges not inherent with traditional NIR LiDAR processing.

  10. The growth of shallow water carbonates as controlled by the input of atmospheric dust: A paradigm change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P. K.; Oehlert, A. M.; Eberli, G. P.; Mackenzie, G.; Reijmer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Great Bahama Bank (GBB) is a large (>100,000 km2) shallow-water carbonate complex situated to the east the Florida Straits. The Bank has built up over at least the last 100 myrs as a result of the activities of carbonate secreting organisms and the inorganic precipitation of calcium carbonate. Based on measurements of the concentration of insoluble material, the Fe, Mn, and Al in the carbonate fraction, and the δ15N of the sedimentary organic matter, we propose a new paradigm for the formation of the Bahamas and other carbonate platforms. We believe that the Great Bahama Bank is currently and may in the past have been fertilized by atmospheric dust, promoting the fixation of atmospheric N2 by cyanobacteria. These cyanobacteria not only have provided a source of nitrogen to the remainder of the communities, imparting a δ15N signal characteristic of the atmosphere to the algae, sea grasses, and other organisms living there, but also have been responsible for the initiation of the precipitation of carbonate in the shallow waters leading to the production of large quantities of sediments. This phenomenon might be responsible for the formation of vast amounts of carbonates in the oceans, not only within recent times, but throughout geological history. For 1000s of millions of years, during the early history of the Earth, such precipitation may have been the only method of carbonate formation and therefore the processes occurring on GBB provide valuable insight into carbonate precipitation during the Proterozoic and earlier.

  11. Evaluation of the heat flux on the bottom boundary in shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debolskaya, Elena; Ivanov, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    is so small compared to the turbulent one) at different wind velocities W , will in any case not too low values of depths where the influence of the upper boundary condition is essential. It is easy to calculate that the effect of diurnal variations of temperature at the upper boundary depends on the wind velocity as follows: at W=0.5m/s K0=10-5m2/s, H=1.6 m; at W=1 m/s K0=2.6•10-4 m2/s, H=5m; at W=5 m/s K0=3•10-3 m2/s, H=16m. Further we can estimate the ability of the soil to respond to water temperature changes and to effect on the heat content of the overlying column of fluid, i.e., to serve as a source of stored heat. We consider a set of factors, that support such accumulation, namely, the shallow water with strong winds and calculate the relation of the temperature on the surface of the reservoir with depth H = 0.5 m and on the bottom during the daily fluctuation of temperature and upon the action of the wind with velocity of W = 5m / s. We obtain T(H,t)=0.95 T0, i.e. almost the whole water column warmed uniformly. Let us consider now the soil layer, on the surface of which there is a periodic variation of temperature of the overlying water with amplitude T(H,t)=0.95 T0. This problem is also described by the one-dimensional heat conduction equation with periodic boundary conditions at the upper boundary. The coefficient of thermal diffusivity of the soil at least one order of magnitude less than that of water. Let us find the value of soil depth (distance from the boundary "bottom -water"), where decrease in the amplitude of heat exposure is 10 times at daily fluctuations. We use the expression obtained above for water column and at the value of thermal diffusivity 10-7 m2/s and daily temperature variations with 86400 s, we obtain H = 0.12m. Below this depth the temperature remains relatively constant and heat flux is absent. Thus, the daily fluctuations of temperature, even for very small and well-mixed reservoir, can not propagate in depth of sediments to

  12. Diagnostic foraminiferal assemblages of Florida Bay and adjacent shallow waters: a comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, B.H.; Rose, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Ecologic studies of benthic Foraminifera in Florida Bay indicate that 1) the bay is a specialized restricted platform interior environment; 2) its fauna is divisible into 3 subfaunas: nearshore, mudbank, and "lake', 3) substrate, currents, wave intensity, and wave direction affect local distribution but do not alter regional patterns; and 4) faunal assemblages rather than individual species of Foraminifera are diagnostic environmental indicators as many species range over several faunal zones. -from Authors

  13. Biomarkers of PAH exposure in an intertidal fish species from Prince William Sound, Alaska: 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Robert J; Neff, Jerry M; Stegeman, John J; Woodin, Bruce; Parker, Keith R; Brown, John S

    2006-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure biomarkers were measured in high cockscomb prickleback (Anoplarchus purpurescens) fish collected from both previously oiled and unoiled shore in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to test the hypothesis that fish living in the nearshore environment of the sound were no longer being exposed to PAH from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Pricklebacks spend their entire lives in the intertidal zone of rocky shores with short-term movements during feeding and breeding restricted to an area of about 15 meters in diameter. Fish were assayed for the PAH exposure biomarkers, bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), and liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity (a measure of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) monooxygenase activity). Bile FAC concentrations and EROD activities were low and not significantly different in fish from previously oiled and unoiled sites. The similar low EROD activity and bile FAC concentrations in fish from oiled and unoiled shores, supports the hypothesis that these low-level biomarker responses were not caused by exposure of the fish to residues of the spilled oil. PMID:17120588

  14. Deferrisoma palaeochoriense sp. nov., a thermophilic, iron(III)-reducing bacterium from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Rawls, Matthew; Coykendall, D Katharine; Foustoukos, Dionysis I

    2016-02-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, mixotrophic bacterium, designated strain MAG-PB1T, was isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in Palaeochori Bay off the coast of the island of Milos, Greece. The cells were Gram-negative, rugose, short rods, approximately 1.0 μm long and 0.5 μm wide. Strain MAG-PB1T grew at 30-70 °C (optimum 60 °C), 0-50 g NaCl l- 1 (optimum 15-20 g l- 1) and pH 5.5-8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2.5 h. Optimal growth occurred under chemolithoautotrophic conditions with H2 as the energy source and CO2 as the carbon source. Fe(III), Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors. Peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, sucrose, yeast extract, d-fructose, α-d-glucose and ( - )-d-arabinose also served as electron donors. No growth occurred in the presence of lactate or formate. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this organism is closely related to Deferrisoma camini, the first species of a recently described genus in the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and on physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics, the strain was found to represent a novel species, for which the name Deferrisoma palaeochoriense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MAG-PB1T ( = JCM 30394T = DSM 29363T). PMID:26610851

  15. Deferrisoma paleochoriense sp. nov., a thermophilic, iron(III)-reducing bacterium from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Rodriguez, Ileana M.; Rawls, Matthew; Coykendall, Dolly K.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.

    2016-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, mixotrophic bacterium, designated strain MAG-PB1T, was isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in Palaeochori Bay off the coast of the island of Milos, Greece. The cells were Gram-negative, rugose, short rods, approximately 1.0 μm long and 0.5 μm wide. Strain MAG-PB1T grew at 30–70 °C (optimum 60 °C), 0–50 g NaCl l− 1 (optimum 15–20 g l− 1) and pH 5.5–8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2.5 h. Optimal growth occurred under chemolithoautotrophic conditions with H2 as the energy source and CO2 as the carbon source. Fe(III), Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors. Peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, sucrose, yeast extract, d-fructose, α-d-glucose and ( − )-d-arabinose also served as electron donors. No growth occurred in the presence of lactate or formate. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this organism is closely related to Deferrisoma camini, the first species of a recently described genus in the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and on physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics, the strain was found to represent a novel species, for which the name Deferrisoma palaeochoriense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MAG-PB1T ( = JCM 30394T = DSM 29363T). 

  16. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, James D.; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the ‘Coral Triangle’, little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis’ zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP. PMID:25349499

  17. Variational data assimilation with a semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit global shallow-water equation model and its adjoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Navon, I. M.; Courtier, P.; Gauthier, P.

    1993-01-01

    An adjoint model is developed for variational data assimilation using the 2D semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit (SLSI) shallow-water equation global model of Bates et al. with special attention being paid to the linearization of the interpolation routines. It is demonstrated that with larger time steps the limit of the validity of the tangent linear model will be curtailed due to the interpolations, especially in regions where sharp gradients in the interpolated variables coupled with strong advective wind occur, a synoptic situation common in the high latitudes. This effect is particularly evident near the pole in the Northern Hemisphere during the winter season. Variational data assimilation experiments of 'identical twin' type with observations available only at the end of the assimilation period perform well with this adjoint model. It is confirmed that the computational efficiency of the semi-Lagrangian scheme is preserved during the minimization process, related to the variational data assimilation procedure.

  18. Determining the effective parameters of a Shallow-Water bottom from wideband signal spectra under conditions of hydrodynamic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, V. A.; Katsnel'son, B. G.; Lynch, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a method for determining the effective parameters of the upper marine sediment layer on extended tracks from the spectra of wideband signals in conditions of hydrodynamic variability. As an example, we consider the Shallow Water 2006 experiment on the Atlantic shelf of the United States, which used signals with a band of 300 ± 30 Hz received by a vertical array. The length of the track was ~20 km at a sea depth of ~80 m. Frequency-mode analysis of the received signals showed that spatiotemporal fluctuations of the wave medium lead to random changes in mode amplitudes while retaining the relative stability of the mode phase difference. This is the basis of the proposed method, which makes it possible to determine the track-averaged values of the sound velocity in the bottom and density of the bottom under conditions of hydrodynamic variability.

  19. Long-range multi-carrier acoustic communications in shallow water based on iterative sparse channel estimation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taehyuk; Song, H C; Hodgkiss, W S; Soo Kim, Jea

    2010-12-01

    Long-range orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) acoustic communications is demonstrated using data from the Kauai Acomms MURI 2008 (KAM08) experiment carried out in about 106 m deep shallow water west of Kauai, HI, in June 2008. The source bandwidth was 8 kHz (12-20 kHz), and the data were received by a 16-element vertical array at a distance of 8 km. Iterative sparse channel estimation is applied in conjunction with low-density parity-check decoding. In addition, the impact of diversity combining in a highly inhomogeneous underwater environment is investigated. Error-free transmission using 16-quadtrative amplitude modulation is achieved at a data rate of 10 kb/s. PMID:21218860

  20. The effects of the Asselin time filter on numerical solutions to the linearized shallow-water wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, R. E.; Johnson, D. R.; Uccellini, L. W.

    1983-01-01

    In the present investigation, a one-dimensional linearized analysis is used to determine the effect of Asselin's (1972) time filter on both the computational stability and phase error of numerical solutions for the shallow water wave equations, in cases with diffusion but without rotation. An attempt has been made to establish the approximate optimal values of the filtering parameter nu for each of the 'lagged', Dufort-Frankel, and Crank-Nicholson diffusion schemes, suppressing the computational wave mode without materially altering the physical wave mode. It is determined that in the presence of diffusion, the optimum filter length depends on whether waves are undergoing significant propagation. When moderate propagation is present, with or without diffusion, the Asselin filter has little effect on the spatial phase lag of the physical mode for the leapfrog advection scheme of the three diffusion schemes considered.

  1. First-order phase transition and high energy cyclonic spots in a shallow water model on a rapidly rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xueru; Lim, Chjan C.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical equilibrium theory based on the Lagrangian of the rotating shallow water equations is presented with applications to cooperative properties of large-scale features in the Jovian atmosphere when the flows have pronounced hemispherical asymmetry. Large planetary spin is shown to play a significant role in the orientation asymmetry or energy gap between cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity distributions. This suggests that angular momentum is the key physical factor behind the statistical preference for a cyclonic vorticity distribution at high levels of flow energy. Simulation results reported here show that for a range of high energy-to-enstrophy ratios at Jupiter's parameters, a broad-based cyclonic vortex forms in one of the hemisphere with few other coherent spots. Evidence that this cooperative phenomenon arise from a first-order phase transition is discussed.

  2. An energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations. [orography effects on atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference scheme for the solution of the shallow water momentum equations which accounts for the conservation of potential enstrophy in the flow of a homogeneous incompressible shallow atmosphere over steep topography as well as for total energy conservation is presented. The scheme is derived to be consistent with a reasonable scheme for potential vorticity advection in a long-term integration for a general flow with divergent mass flux. Numerical comparisons of the characteristics of the present potential enstrophy-conserving scheme with those of a scheme that conserves potential enstrophy only for purely horizontal nondivergent flow are presented which demonstrate the reduction of computational noise in the wind field with the enstrophy-conserving scheme and its convergence even in relatively coarse grids.

  3. On the advantage of well-balanced schemes for moving-water equilibria of the shallow water equations

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Shu, Chi-wang; Noelle, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This note aims at demonstrating the advantage of moving-water well-balanced schemes over still-water well-balanced schemes for the shallow water equations. We concentrate on numerical examples with solutions near a moving-water equilibrium. For such examples, still-water well-balanced methods are not capable of capturing the small perturbations of the moving-water equilibrium and may generate significant spurious oscillations, unless an extremely refined mesh is used. On the other hand, moving-water well-balanced methods perform well in these tests. The numerical examples in this note clearly demonstrate the importance of utilizing moving-water well-balanced methods for solutions near a moving-water equilibrium.

  4. Integration of the shallow water equations on the sphere using a vector semi-Lagrangian scheme with a multigrid solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. R.; Semazzi, F. H. M.; Higgins, R. W.; Barros, Saulo R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A vector semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit two-time-level finite-difference integration scheme for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. A C-grid is used for the spatial differencing. The trajectory-centered discretization of the momentum equation in vector form eliminates pole problems and, at comparable cost, gives greater accuracy than a previous semi-Lagrangian finite-difference scheme which used a rotated spherical coordinate system. In terms of the insensitivity of the results to increasing timestep, the new scheme is as successful as recent spectral semi-Lagrangian schemes. In addition, the use of a multigrid method for solving the elliptic equation for the geopotential allows efficient integration with an operation count which, at high resolution, is of lower order than in the case of the spectral models. The properties of the new scheme should allow finite-difference models to compete with spectral models more effectively than has previously been possible.

  5. A control volume method on an icosahedral grid for numerical integration of the shallow-water equations on the sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, I-Liang

    1994-08-01

    Two versions of a control volume method on a symmetrized icosahedral grid are proposed for solving the shallow-water equations on a sphere. One version expresses of the equations in the 3-D Cartersian coordinate system, while the other expresses the equations in the northern/southern polar sterographic coordinate systems. The pole problem is avoided because of these expressions in both versions and the quasi-homogenity of the icosahedral grid. Truncation errors and convergence tests of the numerical gradient and divergent operators associated with this method are studied. A convergence tests of the numerical gradient and divergent operators associated with this method are studied. A convergence test for a steady zonal flow is demonstrated. Several simulations of Rossby-Haurwitz waves with various numbers are also performed.

  6. Exact Periodic Wave Solution of Extended (2+1)-Dimensional Shallow Water Wave Equation with Generalized Dp¯-operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huan-He; Zhang, Yan-Feng

    2015-04-01

    With the aid of binary Bell polynomial and a general Riemann theta function, we introduce how to obtain the exact periodic wave solutions by applying the generalized Dp¯-operators in term of the Hirota direct method when the appropriate value of p¯ is determined. Furthermore, the resulting approach is applied to solve the extended (2+1)-dimensional Shallow Water Wave equation, and the periodic wave solution is obtained and reduced to soliton solution via asymptotic analysis. Supported by Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment & Disaster Prevention and Mitigation project under Grant No. 2012010, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11271007, Special Funds for Theoretical Physics of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11447205, Shandong University of Science and Technology Research Fund under Grant No. 2012KYTD105

  7. Ice berg cracking events as identified from underwater ambient noise measurements in the shallow waters of Ny-Alesund, Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokan, M.; Latha, G.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Raguraman, G.; Venkatesan, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the work carried out on the analysis of preliminary underwater ambient noise measurements in the shallow waters of Kongsfjorden fjord, Arctic in the summer season, in which the ice berg cracking noise is identified. In the summer period, the melting of ice cover is fast and hence the ice bergs are free to move and float in the ocean. Underwater ambient noise has been acquired in the Kongsfjorden fjord, Arctic sea on 19th July 2015 at 5 m water depth, where the ocean depth is 50 m. Due to the tensile cracks at the surface of the sea ice by thermal expansion, ice berg calving and bobbing occurred near the experiment site. Analysis of power spectra shows that ice berg calving noise falls in the frequency band 100 Hz-500 Hz and the ice berg bobbing noise falls in the frequency band 200 Hz-400 Hz.

  8. Middle Cretaceous to Oligocene rise of the Middle American landbridge - documented by south-eastwards younging shallow water carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Barat, Flore

    2013-04-01

    Basements of Southern Central America are oceanic in origin, including the southern half of the classical "Chortis Block" formed by subduction/accretion mélanges named Mesquito Composite Oceanic Terrane (MCOT). The rise of these oceanic basements into the photic zone and eventual emergence was controlled by convergent, collision tectonics, and/or arc development. In this context, shallow carbonate palaeo-environments were short-lived and formed not only on uplifted basements and arcs, but also on (now accreted) volcanic edifices of Pacific oceanic seamounts. From Northern Nicaragua (NW) to Eastern Panama (SE) we observe a systematic younging of the first shallow water carbonate facies encroaching on basements and/or older deep-water formations: In the Siuna area (NE-Nicaragua) Aptian-Albian shallow water limestones dated by rudists and Orbitolina texana rest unconformably on the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous Siuna Serpentinite Mélange, part of the MCOT. In N-Costa Rica, the assembly of several terranes (Santa Elena Ultramafic Unit, Nicoya Complex s. s., Matambu and Manzanillo Terranes) is overlapped by Late Campanian-Maastrichtian shallow water facies dated by rudists and Larger Foraminifera, such as Pseudorbitoides rutteni, Pseudorbitoides israelski, Sulcoperculina sp. and Sulcoperculina globosa. Reworked Campanian-Maastrichtian shallow water material including Larger Foraminifera was found in the Herradura Promontory (central Pacific coast of Costa Rica). It could be derived from an accreted seamount. No shallow carbonates are known so far from the early Palaeocene. The Tempisque Basin (N-Costa Rica) hosts the Barra Honda carbonate Platform (originally >900 km2) dated as late Palaeocene (Thanetian) by planktonic Foraminifera, 87Sr / 86Sr ratios and Ranikothalia spp. Other late Palaeocene shallow carbonates documented in S-Costa Rica/W-Panama (Quepos, Burica) are interpreted as insular carbonate shoals (atolls?) on now accreted seamounts. To the SE of the S

  9. The impact of implanted whale carcass on nematode communities in shallow water area of Peter the Great Bay (East Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.; Tarasov, Vitalyi G.

    2009-09-01

    In May, 2007 we sank the remains of a Minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea, Peter the Great Bay, at 30 m of water near the coast of Big Pelis Island. In the present study we describe the nematode communities in sediments under the implanted whale carcass. Abundance of nematodes increased with the distance from the carcass. Dominant trophic group was non-selective deposit feeders. The highest values of indexes of a specific diversity and evenness were noted in sediments under the whale, while domination index occurred at the highest distance from the whale. The suggestion is made that the cause of low density of nematodes in sediments under the whale is an extreme increase in number of macrofaunal animals, and predation and food competition between macro- and meiofauna. The changes noted in nematode assemblages living in an implanted whale in shallow waters are similar to those in deep-sea assemblages.

  10. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.82(d)(9)(i)(B), the Administrator... comprise the deep-water species fishery for the sideboard limit include deep-water flatfish, rex sole,...

  11. 75 FR 38937 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.82(d)(9)(i)(B), the Administrator... comprise the deep-water species fishery for the sideboard limit include deep-water flatfish, rex sole,...

  12. Rainfall/runoff simulation with 2D full shallow water equations: Sensitivity analysis and calibration of infiltration parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pato, Javier; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; García-Navarro, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    One of the most difficult issues in the development of hydrologic models is to find a rigorous source of data and specific parameters to a given problem, on a given location that enable reliable calibration. In this paper, a distributed and physically based model (2D Shallow Water Equations) is used for surface flow and runoff calculations in combination with two infiltration laws (Horton and Green-Ampt) for estimating infiltration in a watershed. This technique offers the capability of assigning a local and time-dependent infiltration rate to each computational cell depending on the available surface water, soil type or vegetation. We investigate how the calibration of parameters is affected by transient distributed Shallow Water model and the complexity of the problem. In the first part of this work, we calibrate the infiltration parameters for both Horton and Green-Ampt models under flat ponded soil conditions. Then, by means of synthetic test cases, we perform a space-distributed sensitivity analysis in order to show that this calibration can be significantly affected by the introduction of topography or rainfall. In the second part, parameter calibration for a real catchment is addressed by comparing the numerical simulations with two different sets of experimental data, corresponding to very different events in terms of the rainfall volume. We show that the initial conditions of the catchment and the rainfall pattern have a special relevance in the quality of the adjustment. Hence, it is shown that the topography of the catchment and the storm characteristics affect the calibration of infiltration parameters.

  13. Collecting single and multichannel seismic-reflection data in shallow water near Aberdeen Proving Ground, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Haeni, F.P.; Banks, W.L.; Versteeg, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    In August and September 1994, single- and multi-channel seismic-reflection data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), to support a regional hydrogeologic framework study at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. Data were collected in Chesapeake Bay, as well as in the Bush, Gunpowder, and Sassafras Rivers, which are tributaries to Chesapeake Bay. Data were collected along the shoreline in very shallow water, usually less than 1 m. Approximately 100 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were collected using a water gun and an electromechanical plate as sound sources; about 50 percent of these data contained usable geologic information. A prominent channel in the Quaternary sediments at a depth of 61 m is clearly evident, and the depth to bedrock ranges from approximately 184 to 223 m. Approximately 14 km of multi-channel data were collected in the Gunpowder and Bush Rivers and in Chesapeake Bay; about 40 percent of these data showed subsurface reflectors, often in small, discontinuous segments. Data were processed using established processing techniques. Numerous reflectors were present in the data that were continuous over long distances. The multi-channel data contained more detail and significantly less noise than the single-channel data. The quality and continuity of the single- and multi-channel data were best in shallow water (less than 1 m) where the presence of gassing organic sediments was at a minimum.

  14. Strangelove Ocean and Deposition of Unusual Shallow-Water Carbonates After the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The severe mass extinction of marine and terrestrial organisms at the end of the Permian Period (approx. 251 Ma) was accompanied by a rapid negative excursion of approx. 3 to 4 per mil in the carbon-isotope ratio of the global surface oceans and atmosphere that persisted for some 500,000 into the Early Triassic. Simulations with an ocean-atmosphere/carbon-cycle model suggest that the isotope excursion can be explained by collapse of ocean primary productivity (a Strangelove Ocean) and changes in the delivery and cycling of carbon in the ocean and on land. Model results also suggest that perturbations of the global carbon cycle resulting from the extinctions led to short-term fluctuations in atmospheric pCO2 and ocean carbonate deposition, and to a long-term (>1 Ma) decrease in sedimentary burial of organic carbon in the Triassic. Deposition of calcium carbonate is a major sink of river-derived ocean alkalinity and for CO2 from the ocean/atmosphere system. The end of the Permian was marked by extinction of most calcium carbonate secreting organisms. Therefore, the reduction of carbonate accumulation made the oceans vulnerable to a build-up of alkalinity and related fluctuations in atmospheric CO2. Our model results suggest that an increase in ocean carbonate-ion concentration should cause increased carbonate accumulation rates in shallow-water settings. After the end-Permian extinctions, early Triassic shallow-water sediments show an abundance of abiogenic and microbial carbonates that removed CaCO3 from the ocean and may have prevented a full 'ocean-alkalinity crisis' from developing.

  15. Magnetostratigraphy of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates: Preliminary results from the Middle Jurassic of the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aissaoui, D.M.; Kirschvink, J.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of sedimentary paleomagnetism has enhanced greatly our understanding of the timing of deposition and diagenesis of Cenozoic platform and reefal carbonates. Its application to similar but older deposits will have direct implications for economic exploration and development. The authors report here preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin (France). The samples consist mainly of bioclastic and oolitic limestones deposited in ancient counterpart of the shallow-water environments of the Bahama platform. The Jurassic samples are stable to progressive, incremental demagnetization and exhibit magnetization patterns identical to Cenozoic rocks from the Bahama platform or Mururoa Atoll. The natural remanent magnetization of these limestones is weak and comprised between 7.7 x 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.8 x 10{sup {minus}8} AM{sup 2}/kg. Magnetic components of both normal and reversed polarity are observed. Paired isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and alternating field demagnetization experiments show that most of the remanence is lost between 20 and 45 mT, which is typical of single-domain biogenic magnetite or maghemite. The ratio of IRM at H{sub RG} to the saturation IRM ranges from 35 to 42% indicating a moderate to low interparticle interaction. This is confirmed by the anhysteretic remanent magnetization as compared with intact, freeze-dried cells of magnetotactic bacteria and chiton teeth. Magnetic minerals extracted from the Jurassic samples are examined to further confirm the occurrence of SD magnetite within the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin. The preliminary results suggest that the strata should be good for the paleomagnetic investigation of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates.

  16. Influence of open ocean nitrogen supply on the skeletal δ15N of modern shallow-water scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen T.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Cohen, Anne L.; Sinclair, Daniel J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Cobb, Kim M.; Erler, Dirk V.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Ren, Haojia

    2016-05-01

    The isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in shallow-water scleractinian corals (hereafter, CS-δ15N) is an emerging tool for studying the marine nitrogen cycle in the past. The CS-δ15N has been shown to reflect the δ15N of nitrogen (N) sources to corals, with most applications to date focusing on the anthropogenic/terrestrial N inputs to reef environments. However, many coral reefs receive their primary N sources from the open ocean, and the CS-δ15N of these corals may provide information on past changes in the open ocean regional and global N cycle. Using a recently developed persulfate/denitrifier-based method, we measured CS-δ15N in modern shallow-water scleractinian corals from 8 sites proximal to the open ocean. At sites with low open ocean surface nitrate concentrations typical of the subtropics and tropics, measured CS-δ15N variation on seasonal and annual timescales is most often less than 2‰. In contrast, a broad range in CS-δ15N (of ∼10‰) is measured across these sites, with a strong correlation between CS-δ15N and the δ15N of the deep nitrate supply to the surface waters near the reefs. While CS-δ15N can be affected by other N sources as well and can vary in response to local reef conditions as well as coral/symbiont physiological changes, this survey indicates that, when considering corals proximal to the open ocean, the δ15N of the subsurface nitrate supply to surface waters drives most of the CS-δ15N variation across the global ocean. Thus, CS-δ15N is a promising proxy for reconstructing the open ocean N cycle in the past.

  17. FEUDX: a two-stage, high-accuracy, finite-element FORTRAN program for solving shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, I. M.

    A FORTRAN computer program is presented and documented which implements a new, two-stage finite-element Numerov-Galerkin method for integrating the nonlinear shallow-water equations on a β-plane limited-area domain. In this method high accuracy is obtained by combining the Galerkin product with a high-order compact (hence the name Numerov) difference approximation to derivatives in the nonlinear advection operator. Conservation of integral invariants is obtained by nonlinear constrained optimization using the Augmented-Lagrangian method, allowing perfect conservation of the integral invariants for long-term integrations. Program options include the use of a weighted selective lumping scheme in the finite-element method, use of either a Gauss-Seidel or a successive overrelaxation (S.O.R.) iterative method for solving the resulting systems of linear equations, a line-printer plot of the fields contours and finally, determination at each time-step of the values of three integral invariants of the shallow-water equations. A solver for periodic pentadiagonal matrices resulting from the application of the high-order difference approximation is included. Long-term numerical integrations (10-20 days) have been performed using this program. Smallscale noise was eliminated using a Shuman filter, periodically applied to one component of the velocity field. The method was determined to exhibit a consistently higher accuracy than the single-stage finite-element method and can be use to advantage by meteorologists and oceanographers. Due to the code being modular and flexible it can be changed easily to suit the aims of different researchers. A vectorized version of the code, operative on a CYBER-205 also is available.

  18. Assessment of resource selection models to predict occurrence of five juvenile flatfish species (Pleuronectidae) over the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew T.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Cooper, Dan W.

    2016-05-01

    According to the nursery size hypothesis, flatfish recruitment is constrained by nursery area. Thus, if resource selection models can be shown to accurately predict the location and geographic extent of flatfish nursery areas, they will become important tools in the management and study of flatfish population dynamics. We demonstrate that some resource selection models derived previously to predict the presence and absence of juvenile flatfishes near shore were applicable to the broader continental shelf. For other age-species groups, derivation of new models for the continental shelf was necessary. Our study was conducted in the western Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during October 2011 on four groups of age-0 juvenile flatfishes: Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon); and three groups of age-1 juvenile flatfishes: northern rock sole, flathead sole, and yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera). Sampling occurred at 33 sites across the continental shelf. Fish were collected using a 3-m beam trawl, and a midwater trawl. Environmental data were collected on sediment composition and water temperature and depth. Many of the age-species groups co-occurred in the Shumagin and Barnabus sea valleys; however, age-0 arrowtooth flounder occurred at more locations than other juveniles, perhaps due to a relatively broad tolerance of environmental conditions and to the utilization of midwater habitat. Thus, the large nursery area of arrowtooth flounder may be one reason why they are currently the most abundant GoA flatfish. In fact, among all species, mean recruitment at age 3 increased with the percent occurrence of age-0 juveniles at the 33 sites, a proxy for relative nursery area, in accordance with the nursery size hypothesis, suggesting that mean recruitment among GoA flatfishes is structured by nursery size.

  19. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  20. Arsenic metabolism by microbial communities from an arsenic-rich shallow-water hydrothermal system in Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Chancho, M.; Pichler, T.; Amend, J. P.; Akerman, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic, although toxic, is used as an energy source by certain microbes, some of which can catalyse the reduction of arsenate by using different electron donors, while others oxidize arsenite with oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptors. The marine shallow-water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea is ideal for investigating the metabolism of microbes involved in arsenic cycling, because there hydrothermal vents discharge fluids with arsenite concentrations as high as 950 μg/L. Vent fluids are hot (˜100°C), slightly acidic (pH˜6) and reducing. Upon mixing with colder and oxygen-rich seawater the fluid chemistry changes rapidly within a few meters from the hydrothermal source. The objective of this work was to study arsenic metabolism due to microbial activity in Tutum Bay. Sediments collected at 7.5 and 30 m along a transect beginning at a hydrothermal vent were used as inocula in the microbial culturing experiments. Media were designed using chemical analyses of the hydrothermal fluids. Following culture experiments, arsenic species identification and quantification were performed for the growth media with HPLC-ICP(HR)MS, using anion exchange and reversed phase chromatography. Quality control included mass balance calculations and spiking experiments. A fast reduction of arsenate to arsenite was observed in the first 24 hours leading to the conclusion that the microbial communities were capable of reducing arsenic. However, mass balance calculations revealed that more than 30% of the arsenic had been transformed to one or more unknown species, which could not be detected by ion exchange chromatography. The addition of peroxide combined with reversed phase chromatography revealed the presence of several unknown species. Following the addition of peroxide some of the unknown species were identified to be thio-arsenic compounds, because they were oxidized to their oxo-analogues. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of unknown

  1. Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

  2. Origins of chromite and magnetite in sedimentary rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Itoh, S.; Yurimoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    *Otake, T. totake@eng.hokudai.ac.jp Div. of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Sakamoto, Y. yu.sakamoto12@gmail.com Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Itoh, S. sitoh@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Yurimoto. H. yuri@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Kakegawa, T. kakegawa@m.tohoku.ac.jp Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Geochemical data from ferruginous chemical sedimentary rocks (e.g., Banded Iron Formation: BIF) have been used to reconstruct the surface environments of early Earth. However, only a few studies have investigated the geochemical characteristics of BIFs deposited in a shallow water environment during the Archean, which may have differed from those deposited in a deep water environment. Therefore, we investigated geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics of ferruginous rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the Moodies group, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We obtained ferruginous rock samples in the Moodies group from both an outcrop and underground gold mine, and compared the characteristics of these samples. The 70 sedimentary rock samples were divided into groups based on the dominant Fe minerals they contain: Hematite-rich jaspilite (HM group), Magnetite-rich iron formation/shale/sandstone (MT group), and Siderite-rich sandstone (SD group). Samples in the HM group are predominantly composed of fine-grained quartz (< 20 μm) and hematite (< 5 μm), which are interpreted to be chemical precipitates. Samples in the MT group contain quartz, magnetite, siderite, ankerite, chlorite, biotite and chromite. The grain size of magnetite is much larger (20-150 μm) than that of hematite in the HM group. The magnetite is interpreted as a secondary mineral transformed from hematite during early diagenesis. Results of in situ oxygen isotope analysis by

  3. Barotropic, baroclinic, and inertial instabilities of the easterly Gaussian jet on the equatorial β-plane in rotating shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribstein, Bruno; Zeitlin, Vladimir; Tissier, Ann-Sophie

    2014-05-01

    A detailed linear stability analysis of an easterly barotropic Gaussian jet centered at the equator is performed in the long-wave sector in the framework of one- and two-layer shallow-water models on the equatorial β-plane. It is shown that the dominant instability of the jet is due to phase-locking and resonance between Yanai waves, although the standard barotropic and baroclinic instabilities due to the resonance between Rossby waves are also present. In the one-layer case, this dominant instability has non-zero growth rate at zero wavenumber for high enough Rossby and low enough Burger numbers, thus reproducing the classical symmetric inertial instability. Yet its asymmetric counterpart has the highest growth rate. In the two-layer case, the dominant instability may be barotropic or baroclinic, the latter being stronger, with the maximum of the growth rate shifting towards smaller downstream wavenumbers as Rossby number increases at fixed Burger number, and given thickness and density ratios. At large enough Rossby numbers this instability has a non-zero growth rate limit at zero wavenumber, giving the baroclinic symmetric inertial instability. Again, the maximal growth rate is achieved at small but non-zero wavenumbers, corresponding to the asymmetric inertial instability. At high enough Rossby number and low enough Burger number not only the baroclinic, but also the barotropic symmetric instability appears, as well as higher meridional modes of the baroclinic symmetric instability. Still, all of them are dominated by their asymmetric counterparts. Direct numerical simulations of the saturation of the leading instabilities are performed, showing that the barotropic species of the instability saturates by forming a double vortex street subject to nonlinear oscillations, while the baroclinic, the most vigorous one, saturates by producing strong vertical shears and related dissipation and mixing.

  4. Deferrisoma paleochoriense sp. nov., a thermophilic, iron(III)-reducing bacterium from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Rodriguez, Ileana; Rawls, Matthew; Coykendall, Dolly K.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.

    2016-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, mixotrophic bacterium, designated strain MAG-PB1T, was isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in Paleochori Bay off the coast of Milos Island, Greece. The cells were Gram-negative, rugose short rods approximately 1.0 μm in length and 0.5 μm in width. Strain MAG-PB1T grew between 30 and 70°C (optimum 60°C), 0 and 50 g NaCl l-1 (optimum 15-20 g l-1) and pH 5.5 and 8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2.5 hours. Optimal growth occurred under chemolithoautotrophic conditions with H2 as the energy source and CO2 as the carbon source. Fe(III), Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors. Peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, dextrose, sucrose, yeast extract, D-fructose, α-D-glucose and D-(-)-arabinose also served as electron donors. No growth occurred in the presence of lactate or formate. G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this organism is closely related to Deferrisoma camini, a recently described genus in the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on the 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis and on physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics, the strain was found to represent a novel species for which the name Deferrisoma paleochoriense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Deferrisoma paleochoriense is MAG-PB1T (=JCM 30394 T; = DSM 29363T).

  5. Snailfishes of the Careproctus rastrinus complex (Liparidae): redescriptions of seven species in the North Pacific Ocean region, with the description of a new species from the Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Orr, James Wilder; Kai, Yoshiaki; Nakabo, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein we review and recognize as valid all previously described species of the Careproctus rastrinus complex based on morphological evidence, provide diagnoses and descriptions of all species, describe a new species from the Beaufort Sea, and address the misapplication of several names throughout the area. In particular, the name C. rastrinus is restricted to populations of the western Pacific and is known conclusively only from the Sea of Okhotsk. Careproctus acanthodes, from the Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk, and C. pellucidus, from the Pacific Ocean side of northern Japan, are resurrected from synonymy with C. rastrinus. Populations of the eastern Pacific previously routinely identified as C. rastrinus are recognized under two names: C. scottae, a name that is applied to deeper water Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and eastern Pacific populations having a postorbital pore, and Careproctus phasma, applied to shallow water populations of the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska lacking a postorbital pore. Although we consider Careproctus spectrum valid, the species has been routinely misidentified and is presently known only from the type series. Careproctus lerikimae is a new species described from the Beaufort Sea, diagnosed from other species of the C. rastrinus complex by the absence of the postorbital pore and higher median fin and vertebral counts. PMID:26624044

  6. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  7. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  8. [Principal stages in the Cenozoic diversification of shallow-water molluscan faunas in the North Pacific].

    PubMed

    Kafanov, A I

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analysis of bivalve species recorded in Cenozoic deposits in Sakhalin Island, western Kamchatka, Hokkaido, and California was used to determine geological age of the modem North Pacific biogeographic region and its constituent subregions (Japan-Mandchurian, Beringian, and Oregon-Sitkan). The North Pacific region developed during the Paleogene-Neogene transition due to Drake Passage opening to deep-water movement, formation of the deep-water Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the change in climate from greenhouse to psychospheric. Differentiation of the three subregions within the North Pacific Region seems to have occurred in late Miocene-early Pliocene, about 5.6 millions years ago and was probably due to the flooding of the Bering Land Bridge and development of the present configuration of circulation in the North Pacific. In the Northwest Pacific, during Paleogene and early Neogene, the faunal diversification occurred more rapidly and was more extensive than in the Northeast Pacific. PMID:17205791

  9. Benthic Trophic Interactions in an Antarctic Shallow Water Ecosystem Affected by Recent Glacier Retreat

    PubMed Central

    Pasotti, Francesca; Saravia, Leonardo Ariel; De Troch, Marleen; Tarantelli, Maria Soledad; Sahade, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing strong environmental changes as a consequence of ongoing regional warming. Glaciers in the area are retreating rapidly and increased sediment-laden meltwater runoff threatens the benthic biodiversity at shallow depths. We identified three sites with a distinct glacier-retreat related history and different levels of glacial influence in the inner part of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), a fjord-like embayment impacted since the 1950s by a tidewater glacier retreat. We compared the soft sediment meio- and macrofauna isotopic niche widths (δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis) at the three sites to investigate possible glacier retreat-related influences on benthic trophic interactions. The isotopic niches were locally shaped by the different degrees of glacier retreat-related disturbance within the Cove. Wider isotopic niche widths were found at the site that has become ice-free most recently, and narrower niches at the older ice-free sites. At an intermediate state of glacier retreat-related disturbance (e.g. via ice-growler scouring) species with different strategies could settle. The site at the earliest stage of post-retreat development was characterized by an assemblage with lower trophic redundancy. Generally, the isotopic niche widths increased with increasing size spectra of organisms within the community, excepting the youngest assemblage, where the pioneer colonizer meiofauna size class displayed the highest isotopic niche width. Meiofauna at all sites generally occupied positions in the isotopic space that suggested a detrital-pool food source and/or the presence of predatory taxa. In general ice scour and glacial impact appeared to play a two-fold role within the Cove: i) either stimulating trophic diversity by allowing continuous re-colonization of meiofaunal species or, ii) over time driving the benthic assemblages into a more compact trophic structure with increased

  10. Benthic Trophic Interactions in an Antarctic Shallow Water Ecosystem Affected by Recent Glacier Retreat.

    PubMed

    Pasotti, Francesca; Saravia, Leonardo Ariel; De Troch, Marleen; Tarantelli, Maria Soledad; Sahade, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing strong environmental changes as a consequence of ongoing regional warming. Glaciers in the area are retreating rapidly and increased sediment-laden meltwater runoff threatens the benthic biodiversity at shallow depths. We identified three sites with a distinct glacier-retreat related history and different levels of glacial influence in the inner part of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), a fjord-like embayment impacted since the 1950s by a tidewater glacier retreat. We compared the soft sediment meio- and macrofauna isotopic niche widths (δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis) at the three sites to investigate possible glacier retreat-related influences on benthic trophic interactions. The isotopic niches were locally shaped by the different degrees of glacier retreat-related disturbance within the Cove. Wider isotopic niche widths were found at the site that has become ice-free most recently, and narrower niches at the older ice-free sites. At an intermediate state of glacier retreat-related disturbance (e.g. via ice-growler scouring) species with different strategies could settle. The site at the earliest stage of post-retreat development was characterized by an assemblage with lower trophic redundancy. Generally, the isotopic niche widths increased with increasing size spectra of organisms within the community, excepting the youngest assemblage, where the pioneer colonizer meiofauna size class displayed the highest isotopic niche width. Meiofauna at all sites generally occupied positions in the isotopic space that suggested a detrital-pool food source and/or the presence of predatory taxa. In general ice scour and glacial impact appeared to play a two-fold role within the Cove: i) either stimulating trophic diversity by allowing continuous re-colonization of meiofaunal species or, ii) over time driving the benthic assemblages into a more compact trophic structure with increased

  11. Ecological values of shallow-water habitats: Implications for the restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, C.B.; Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Little, A.J.; Lucas, L.V.; Thompson, J.K.; Burau, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A presumed value of shallow-habitat enhanced pelagic productivity derives from the principle that in nutrient-rich aquatic systems phytoplankton growth rate is controlled by light availability, which varies inversely with habitat depth. We measured a set of biological indicators across the gradient of habitat depth within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California) to test the hypothesis that plankton biomass, production, and pelagic energy flow also vary systematically with habitat depth. Results showed that phytoplankton biomass and production were only weakly related to phytoplankton growth rates whereas other processes (transport, consumption) were important controls. Distribution of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea was patchy, and heavily colonized habitats all supported low phytoplankton biomass and production and functioned as food sinks. Surplus primary production in shallow, uncolonized habitats provided potential subsidies to neighboring recipient habitats. Zooplankton in deeper habitats, where grazing exceeded phytoplankton production, were likely supported by significant fluxes of phytoplankton biomass from connected donor habitats. Our results provide three important lessons for ecosystem science: (a) in the absence of process measurements, derived indices provide valuable information to improve our mechanistic understanding of ecosystem function and to benefit adaptive management strategies; (b) the benefits of some ecosystem functions are displaced by water movements, so the value of individual habitat types can only be revealed through a regional perspective that includes connectedness among habitats; and (c) invasive species can act as overriding controls of habitat function, adding to the uncertainty of management outcomes. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  12. Shallow-water sloshing in a moving vessel with variable cross-section and wetting-drying using an extension of George's well-balanced finite volume solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi Ardakani, Hamid; Bridges, Thomas J.; Turner, Matthew R.

    2016-06-01

    A class of augmented approximate Riemann solvers due to George (2008) [12] is extended to solve the shallow-water equations in a moving vessel with variable bottom topography and variable cross-section with wetting and drying. A class of Roe-type upwind solvers for the system of balance laws is derived which respects the steady-state solutions. The numerical solutions of the new adapted augmented f-wave solvers are validated against the Roe-type solvers. The theory is extended to solve the shallow-water flows in moving vessels with arbitrary cross-section with influx-efflux boundary conditions motivated by the shallow-water sloshing in the ocean wave energy converter (WEC) proposed by Offshore Wave Energy Ltd. (OWEL) [1]. A fractional step approach is used to handle the time-dependent forcing functions. The numerical solutions are compared to an extended new Roe-type solver for the system of balance laws with a time-dependent source function. The shallow-water sloshing finite volume solver can be coupled to a Runge-Kutta integrator for the vessel motion.

  13. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  14. Carbon-Isotope Stratigraphy Of A Paleogene Pacific Ocean Guyot And The Response Of The Shallow-Water Carbonate Factory To The PETM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The shallow-water carbonate platforms found on many Pacific guyots potentially provide ‘dipsticks’ for shallow-water environmental and climatic conditions unhindered by the influence of clastic input. They thus represent ideal sites at which to assess the extent to which past changes in surface-ocean physical and chemical conditions (e.g. temperature, nutrification, pH) affected the sustainability of shallow-water carbonate producers. The PETM and other Paleogene hyperthermal events are associated with major carbon-cycle perturbations and deep-sea carbonate dissolution, yet the effect in shallow-water carbonate environments is more poorly constrained. This is in part due to complications arising from variations in sea level causing major facies changes in many coastal shelf settings and also difficulties in providing robust age controls for some carbonate platforms. The basaltic edifice of Limalok Guyot (ODP Site 871) in the southwest Pacific Ocean was flooded in the late Paleocene and accumulated shallow-water carbonate sediments until the middle Eocene, when the platform drowned and was buried under a pelagic cap. A new carbon-isotope stratigraphy for the platform carbonates will be presented which reveals stratigraphic variations that are consistent with the long-term late Paleocene-Eocene pattern known from deep-sea carbonates. Through a consideration of the larger benthic foraminiferal record, and other micropalaeontological datums, it will be argued that the carbon-isotope stratigraphy captures the negative carbon isotope excursion associated with the PETM thereby allowing discussion of the effects of this event on shallow-water guyot environments. Although core recovery is extremely poor, it will be suggested that Site 871 provides an opportunity to examine the response of the shallow ocean carbonate factory to changes in carbon-cycle dynamics during the Early Cenozoic and assess any associated shallow water biotic and environmental changes. Identifying

  15. Methane Seep in Shallow-Water Permeable Sediment Harbors High Diversity of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities, Elba, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ruff, S Emil; Kuhfuss, Hanna; Wegener, Gunter; Lott, Christian; Ramette, Alban; Wiedling, Johanna; Knittel, Katrin; Weber, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy). We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g(-1) day(-1) indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20-50 cm below seafloor) as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3, and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise distinct

  16. Methane Seep in Shallow-Water Permeable Sediment Harbors High Diversity of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities, Elba, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, S. Emil; Kuhfuss, Hanna; Wegener, Gunter; Lott, Christian; Ramette, Alban; Wiedling, Johanna; Knittel, Katrin; Weber, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy). We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g-1 day-1 indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20–50 cm below seafloor) as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3, and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise distinct

  17. Coral habitat in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska: depth distribution, fine-scale species associations, and fisheries interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. P.

    2006-05-01

    The first in situ exploration of Aleutian Island coral habitat was completed in 2002 to determine the distribution of corals, to examine fine-scale associations between targeted fish species and corals, and to investigate the interaction between the areas’ diverse fisheries and coral habitat. Corals, mostly gorgonians and hydrocorals, were present on all 25 seafloor transects and at depths between 27 and 363 m, but were most abundant between 100 and 200 m depth. Mean coral abundance (1.23 colonies m-2) far exceeded that reported for other high-latitude ecosystems and high-density coral gardens (3.85 colonies m-2) were observed at seven locations. Slope and offshore pinnacle habitats characterized by exposed bedrock, boulders, and cobbles generally supported the highest abundances of coral and fish. Overall, 85% of the economically important fish species observed on transects were associated with corals and other emergent epifauna. Disturbance to the seafloor from bottom-contact fishing gear was evident on 88% of the transects, and approximately 39% of the total area of the seafloor observed had been disturbed. Since cold-water corals appear to be a ubiquitous feature of seafloor habitats in the Aleutian Islands, fisheries managers face clear challenges integrating coral conservation into an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  18. Urban flood modeling with porous shallow-water equations: A case study of model errors in the presence of anisotropic porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byunghyun; Sanders, Brett F.; Famiglietti, James S.; Guinot, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Porous shallow-water models (porosity models) simulate urban flood flows orders of magnitude faster than classical shallow-water models due to a relatively coarse grid and large time step, enabling flood hazard mapping over far greater spatial extents than is possible with classical shallow-water models. Here the errors of both isotropic and anisotropic porosity models are examined in the presence of anisotropic porosity, i.e., unevenly spaced obstacles in the cross-flow and along-flow directions, which is common in practical applications. We show that porosity models are affected by three types of errors: (a) structural model error associated with limitations of the shallow-water equations, (b) scale errors associated with use of a relatively coarse grid, and (c) porosity model errors associated with the formulation of the porosity equations to account for sub-grid scale obstructions. Results from a unique laboratory test case with strong anisotropy indicate that porosity model errors are smaller than structural model errors, and that porosity model errors in both depth and velocity are substantially smaller for anisotropic versus isotropic porosity models. Test case results also show that the anisotropic porosity model is equally accurate as classical shallow-water models when compared directly to gage measurements, while the isotropic model is less accurate. Further, results show the anisotropic porosity model resolves flow variability at smaller spatial scales than the isotropic model because the latter is restricted by the assumption of a Representative Elemental Volume (REV) which is considerably larger than the size of obstructions. These results point to anisotropic porosity models as being well-suited to whole-city urban flood prediction, but also reveal that point-scale flow attributes relevant to flood risk such as localized wakes and wave reflections from flow obstructions may not be resolved.

  19. Conventional versus pre-balanced forms of the shallow-water equations solved using finite-volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinhua; Xie, Shengbai

    2016-05-01

    In the existing literature, various forms of governing equations have been proposed to solve the shallow-water equations (SWEs). Recently, attention has been dedicated to the so-called "pre-balanced" form, because finite-volume schemes that are designed on this basis satisfy the well-balanced property. In this study, we theoretically investigate the relationship between numerical schemes devised using approximate Riemann solvers in the framework of finite-volume methods for solving the conventional form of the SWEs and its "pre-balanced" variant. We find that the numerical schemes for solving these two forms of the SWEs turn out to be identical when some widely employed upwind or centered approximate Riemann solvers are adopted for the numerical flux evaluations, such as the HLL (Harten, Lax, and van Leer), HLLC (HLL solver with restoring the contact surface), FORCE (first-order centered), and SLIC (slope limited centered) schemes. Some numerical experiments are performed, which verify the validity of the result of our theoretical analysis. The theoretical and numerical results suggest that the "pre-balanced" SWEs variant is not superior to the conventional one for solving the SWEs using approximate Riemann solvers.

  20. Identifying sensitive areas of adaptive observations for prediction of the Kuroshio large meander using a shallow-water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guang'an; Wang, Qiang; Mu, Mu

    2016-09-01

    Sensitive areas for prediction of the Kuroshio large meander using a 1.5-layer, shallow-water ocean model were investigated using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) and first singular vector (FSV) methods. A series of sensitivity experiments were designed to test the sensitivity of sensitive areas within the numerical model. The following results were obtained: (1) the eff ect of initial CNOP and FSV patterns in their sensitive areas is greater than that of the same patterns in randomly selected areas, with the eff ect of the initial CNOP patterns in CNOP sensitive areas being the greatest; (2) both CNOP- and FSV-type initial errors grow more quickly than random errors; (3) the eff ect of random errors superimposed on the sensitive areas is greater than that of random errors introduced into randomly selected areas, and initial errors in the CNOP sensitive areas have greater eff ects on final forecasts. These results reveal that the sensitive areas determined using the CNOP are more sensitive than those of FSV and other randomly selected areas. In addition, ideal hindcasting experiments were conducted to examine the validity of the sensitive areas. The results indicate that reduction (or elimination) of CNOP-type errors in CNOP sensitive areas at the initial time has a greater forecast benefit than the reduction (or elimination) of FSV-type errors in FSV sensitive areas. These results suggest that the CNOP method is suitable for determining sensitive areas in the prediction of the Kuroshio large-meander path.

  1. Detection of Direct-path Arrivals for Multi-Narrowband Sequences (3-30 kHz) In Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoksimovski, A.; de Moustier, C.

    2004-11-01

    In an effort to measure underwater acoustic transmission loss over direct-path lengths ranging from a few hundred meters to ten kilometers in shallow water, a sequence of 16 gated pure tones (3-30 kHz) was transmitted every 10 s from a lowed source and received at moored sonobuoys. The magnitude of multipath arrivals often exceeded that of direct-path arrivals, resulting in variable detection performance of simple matched filtering techniques. More reliable signal recognition was obtained via iterative least square time constraints on the arrival times across all frequencies in a sequence, based on the known time intervals between transmitted tones. Signal detection improvement was obtained also by searching for the direct-path arrival near the global maximum of the sum of the rectified correlograms of the received sequences. These methods allowed detection in environments characterized by multipath interferences, as well as low signal-to-noise ratio and fading, and in the presence of other unrelated sonar signals that cause large detection errors. It also improved the direct-path signal strength estimation, and associated transmission loss computation, by bounding the time interval over which to compute the signals' autocorrelations and estimate their power. These algorithms were tested on a limited data set recorded in the Southern California Offshore Range, confirming that frequencies below 6 kHz suffered less direct-path transmission losses than higher frequencies (7-30 kHz).

  2. Specific dynamic action affects the hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow-water spider crab Maja brachydactyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, Sven; Robinson, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    The bathymetric distribution of marine benthic invertebrates is likely governed by a combination of ecological and physiological factors. The present study investigates oxygen consumption and heartbeat rate in response to attempted feeding at 1, 100 and 150 atm in the shallow-water spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, from temperate European waters. No significant difference was evident between the resting heartbeat rate of specimens at 1 or 100 atm, which were 56 and 65 bpm, respectively (Mann-Whitney, U = 5382.0; n = 95, 98; p = 0.079). However, at 150 atm the resting heartbeat rate was significantly higher than that observed for 100 atm at 108 bpm (Mann-Whitney, U = 149.0; n = 45, 98; p < 0.001). At 150 atm, feeding was never observed and coupled with the elevated resting heartbeat rate; it is suggested by 150 atm continued survival is unfeasible. At 1 and 100 atm, feeding instigated a distinct increase in heartbeat rate, which remained elevated for over 30 h. This increase peaked within 1 h at 1 atm. At 100 atm, this required 4 h and postprandial oxygen consumption was significantly higher than at 1 atm (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 85.036; df = 2; p < 0.001). Elevated hydrostatic pressure is hypothesized to extend the duration and the total metabolic energy devoted to specific dynamic action. The metabolic requirements of feeding under hyperbaric conditions may even reach such a critical demand that feeding is entirely inhibited.

  3. Specific dynamic action affects the hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow-water spider crab Maja brachydactyla.

    PubMed

    Thatje, Sven; Robinson, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    The bathymetric distribution of marine benthic invertebrates is likely governed by a combination of ecological and physiological factors. The present study investigates oxygen consumption and heartbeat rate in response to attempted feeding at 1, 100 and 150 atm in the shallow-water spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, from temperate European waters. No significant difference was evident between the resting heartbeat rate of specimens at 1 or 100 atm, which were 56 and 65 bpm, respectively (Mann-Whitney, U = 5382.0; n = 95, 98; p = 0.079). However, at 150 atm the resting heartbeat rate was significantly higher than that observed for 100 atm at 108 bpm (Mann-Whitney, U =  49.0; n = 45, 98; p < 0.001). At 150 atm, feeding was never observed and coupled with the elevated resting heartbeat rate; it is suggested by 150 atm continued survival is unfeasible. At 1 and 100 atm, feeding instigated a distinct increase in heartbeat rate, which remained elevated for over 30 h. This increase peaked within 1 h at 1 atm. At 100 atm, this required 4 h and postprandial oxygen consumption was significantly higher than at 1 atm (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 85.036; df = 2; p < 0.001). Elevated hydrostatic pressure is hypothesized to extend the duration and the total metabolic energy devoted to specific dynamic action. The metabolic requirements of feeding under hyperbaric conditions may even reach such a critical demand that feeding is entirely inhibited. PMID:21344261

  4. A marching in space and time (MAST) solver of the shallow water equations. Part II: The 2D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, C.; Nasello, C.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2007-05-01

    A novel methodology for the solution of the 2D shallow water equations is proposed. The algorithm is based on a fractional step decomposition of the original system in (1) a convective prediction, (2) a convective correction, and (3) a diffusive correction step. The convective components are solved using a Marching in Space and Time (MAST) procedure, that solves a sequence of small ODEs systems, one for each computational cell, ordered according to the cell value of a scalar approximated potential. The scalar potential is sought after computing first the minimum of a functional via the solution of a large linear system and then refining locally the optimum search. Model results are compared with the experimental data of two laboratory tests and with the results of other simulations carried out for the same tests by different authors. A comparison with the analytical solution of the oblique jump test has been also considered. Numerical results of the proposed scheme are in good agreement with measured data, as well as with analytical and higher order approximation methods results. The growth of the CPU time versus the cell number is investigated successively refining the elements of an initially coarse mesh. The CPU specific time, per element and per time step, is found out to be almost constant and no evidence of Courant-Friedrichs-Levi (CFL) number limitation has been detected in all the numerical experiments.

  5. Using a coherent hydrophone array for observing sperm whale range, classification, and shallow-water dive profiles.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duong D; Huang, Wei; Bohn, Alexander C; Wang, Delin; Gong, Zheng; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2014-06-01

    Sperm whales in the New England continental shelf and slope were passively localized, in both range and bearing, and classified using a single low-frequency (<2500 Hz), densely sampled, towed horizontal coherent hydrophone array system. Whale bearings were estimated using time-domain beamforming that provided high coherent array gain in sperm whale click signal-to-noise ratio. Whale ranges from the receiver array center were estimated using the moving array triangulation technique from a sequence of whale bearing measurements. Multiple concurrently vocalizing sperm whales, in the far-field of the horizontal receiver array, were distinguished and classified based on their horizontal spatial locations and the inter-pulse intervals of their vocalized click signals. The dive profile was estimated for a sperm whale in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Maine with 160 m water-column depth located close to the array's near-field where depth estimation was feasible by employing time difference of arrival of the direct and multiply reflected click signals received on the horizontal array. By accounting for transmission loss modeled using an ocean waveguide-acoustic propagation model, the sperm whale detection range was found to exceed 60 km in low to moderate sea state conditions after coherent array processing. PMID:24907798

  6. Gamma- and epsilonproteobacterial ectosymbionts of a shallow-water marine worm are related to deep-sea hydrothermal vent ectosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Ruehland, Caroline; Dubilier, Nicole

    2010-08-01

    The marine oligochaete worm Tubificoides benedii is often found in high numbers in eutrophic coastal sediments with low oxygen and high sulfide concentrations. A dense biofilm of filamentous bacteria on the worm's tail end were morphologically described over 20 years ago, but no further studies of these epibiotic associations were done. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and protein-coding genes to characterize the microbial community of the worm's tail ends. The presence of genes involved in chemoautotrophy (cbbL and cbbM) and sulfur metabolism (aprA) indicated the potential of the T. benedii microbial community for chemosynthesis. Two filamentous ectosymbionts were specific to the worm's tail ends: one belonged to the Leucothrix mucor clade within the Gammaproteobacteria and the other to the Thiovulgaceae within the Epsilonproteobacteria. Both T. benedii ectosymbionts belonged to clades that consisted almost exclusively of bacteria associated with invertebrates from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Such close relationships between symbionts from shallow-water and deep-sea hosts that are not closely related to each other are unusual, and indicate that biogeography and host affiliation did not play a role in these associations. Instead, similarities between the dynamic environments of vents and organic-rich mudflats with their strong fluctuations in reductants and oxidants may have been the driving force behind the establishment and evolution of these symbioses. PMID:21966922

  7. Analysis of the Turkel-Zwas scheme for the two-dimensional shallow water equations in spherical coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, B.; Giraldo, F.X.; Navon, I.M.

    1997-05-01

    A linear analysis of the shallow water equations in spherical coordinates for the Turkel-Zwas (T-Z) explicit large time-step scheme is presented. This paper complements the results of Schoenstadt, Neta and Navon, and others in 1-D, and of Neta and DeVito in 2-D, but applied to the spherical coordinate case of the T-Z scheme. This coordinate system is more realistic in meteorology and more complicated to analyze, since the coefficients are no longer constant. The analysis suggests that the T-Z scheme must be staggered in a certain way in order to get eigenvalues and eigenfunctions approaching those of the continuous case. The importance of such an analysis is the fact that it is also valid for nonconstant coefficients and thereby applicable to any numerical scheme. Numerical experiments comparing the original (unstaggered) and staggered versions of the T-Z scheme are presented. These experiments corroborate the analysis by showing the improvements in accuracy gained by staggering the Turkel-Zwas scheme. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. High-frequency normal-mode statistics in shallow water: the combined effect of random surface and internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2015-05-01

    In an earlier article, the statistical properties of mode propagation were studied at a frequency of 1 kHz in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves, using a hybrid transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulations. Here, the analysis is extended to include the effects of random linear surface waves, in isolation and in combination with internal waves. Mode coupling rates for both surface and internal waves are found to be significant, but strongly dependent on mode number. Mode phase randomization by surface waves is found to be dominated by coupling effects, and therefore a full transport theory treatment of the range evolution of the cross mode coherence matrix is needed. The second-moment of mode amplitudes is calculated using transport theory, thereby providing the mean intensity while the fourth-moment is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, which provides the scintillation index. The transport theory results for second-moment statistics are shown to closely reproduce Monte Carlo simulations. Both surface waves and internal waves strongly influence the acoustic field fluctuations. PMID:25994721

  9. Assimilation of TOPEX Sea Level Measurements with a Reduced-Gravity, Shallow Water Model of the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumori, Ichiro

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface height variability measured by TOPEX is analyzed in the tropical Pacific Ocean by way of assimilation into a wind-driven, reduced-gravity, shallow water model using an approximate Kalman filter and smoother. The analysis results in an optimal fit of the dynamic model to the observations, providing it dynamically consistent interpolation of sea level and estimation of the circulation. Nearly 80% of the expected signal variance is accounted for by the model within 20 deg of the equator, and estimation uncertainty is substantially reduced by the voluminous observation. Notable features resolved by the analysis include seasonal changes associated with the North Equatorial Countercurrent and equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves. Significant discrepancies are also found between the estimate and TOPEX measurements, especially near the eastern boundary. Improvements in the estimate made by the assimilation are validated by comparisons with independent tide gauge and current meter observations. The employed filter and smoother are based on approximately computed estimation error covariance matrices, utilizing a spatial transformation and an symptotic approximation. The analysis demonstrates the practical utility of a quasi-optimal filter and smoother.

  10. Multiscale/fractional step schemes for the numerical simulation of the rotating shallow water flows with complex periodic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauberteau, F.; Temam, R. M.; Tribbia, J.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we study several multiscale/fractional step schemes for the numerical solution of the rotating shallow water equations with complex topography. We consider the case of periodic boundary conditions (f-plane model). Spatial discretization is obtained using a Fourier spectral Galerkin method. For the schemes presented in this paper we consider two approaches. The first approach (multiscale schemes) is based on topography scale separation and the numerical time integration is function of the scales. The second approach is based on a splitting of the operators, and the time integration method is function of the operator considered (fractional step schemes). The numerical results obtained are compared with the explicit reference scheme (Leap-Frog scheme). With these multiscale/fractional step schemes the objective is to propose new schemes giving numerical results similar to those obtained using only one uniform fine grid N×N and a time step Δt, but with a CPU time near the CPU time needed when using only one coarse grid N1×N1, N1Δt.

  11. Impulsive plunging wave breaking downstream of a bump in a shallow water flume—Part II: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bonguk; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2012-07-01

    Part II of this two-part paper presents the simulation results of the plunging wave-breaking generated by impulsive flow over a submerged bump fixed in a shallow water flume using the exact experimental initial and boundary conditions provided in Part I of this study. The overall plunging wave breaking process is described with major wave breaking events identified: jet plunge, oblique splash and vertical jet. These major events repeat up to four times before entering the chaotic breaking phase. The plunging wave breaking process of the simulations shows a similar time line as the experiments consisting of startup, steep wave formation, plunging wave, and chaotic wave breaking swept downstream time phases. Wave breaking profile, air entrainment, velocity, vorticity, flume bottom pressure, and energy are analyzed and compared with the experimental results. The simulations qualitatively predict all four time phases, all four plunging events and their sub-events. The wave profile and location at the maximum height is very close to the experiment results. The flume flow and velocity demonstrate the same flow trend as the experiments but with reduced velocity magnitudes. The simulations show similar bottom pressure to the experiments but with large oscillations, and the post-breaking water elevations are larger as compared to the experimental results.

  12. Numerical modeling of long waves in shallow water using LRBF-DQ and hybrid DQ/LRBF-DQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshfetrat, A.; Abedini, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    A computational algorithm based on coupling the differential quadrature (DQ) method and the local radial basis function-based differential quadrature (LRBF-DQ) method is used to solve the shallow water equations. The proposed method that is named 'hybrid DQ/LRBF-DQ' has the advantages of DQ such as simplicity and low computational cost and the advantages of LRBF-DQ, like mesh free and Kronecker delta function properties. Contrary to the DQ method, this method can be used in problems with irregular domain with less computational cost and less sensitivity to shape parameter(s) compared to the LRBF-DQ method. The proposed method is employed to simulate the complex and irregularly shaped waterway of the Oresund strait which is located between Sweden and Denmark. Implementation of the proposed method leads to good results for water depth. In comparison with the LRBF-DQ method, the results show that the proposed method is less sensitive to the shape parameter and the range of acceptable shape parameter in the proposed method is wider.

  13. Tsunami Simulator Integrating the Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Method and the Nonlinear Shallow Water Wave Model with High Performance Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, T.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.; Ogasawara, K.; Watanabe, M.; Hirahara, T.

    2014-12-01

    A tsunami simulator integrating a 3-D fluid simulation technology that runs on large-scale parallel computers using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been developed together with a 2-D tsunami propagation simulation technique using a nonlinear shallow water wave model. We use the 2-D simulation to calculate tsunami propagation of scale of about 1000km from epicenter to near shore. The 3-D SPH method can be used to calculate the water surface and hydraulic force that a tsunami can exert on a building, and to simulate flooding patterns at urban area of at most km scale. With our simulator we can also see three dimensional fluid feature such as complex changes a tsunami undergoes as it interacts with coastal topography or structures. As a result it is hoped that, e.g. , effect of the structures to dissipate waves energy passing over it can be elucidated. The authors utilize the simulator in the third of five fields of the Strategic Programs for Innovative Research, "Advanced Prediction Researches for Natural Disaster Prevention and Reduction," or the theme "Improvement of the tsunami forecasting system on the HPCI computer." The results of tsunami simulation using the K computer will be reported. We are going to apply it to a real problem of the disaster prevention in future.

  14. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  15. Firedrake-Fluids v0.1: numerical modelling of shallow water flows using an automated solution framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, C. T.; Piggott, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    This model description paper introduces a new finite element model for the simulation of non-linear shallow water flows, called Firedrake-Fluids. Unlike traditional models that are written by hand in static, low-level programming languages such as Fortran or C, Firedrake-Fluids uses the Firedrake framework to automatically generate the model's code from a high-level abstract language called Unified Form Language (UFL). By coupling to the PyOP2 parallel unstructured mesh framework, Firedrake can then target the code towards a desired hardware architecture to enable the efficient parallel execution of the model over an arbitrary computational mesh. The description of the model includes the governing equations, the methods employed to discretise and solve the governing equations, and an outline of the automated solution process. The verification and validation of the model, performed using a set of well-defined test cases, is also presented along with a road map for future developments and the solution of more complex fluid dynamical systems.

  16. Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Montilla, A.; Murillo, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, an ADER type finite volume numerical scheme is proposed as an extension of a first order solver based on weak solutions of RPs with source terms. The type of source terms considered here are a special but relevant type of source terms: their spatial integral is discontinuous. The relevant difference with other previously defined ADER schemes is that it considers the presence of the source term in the solutions of the DRP. Unlike the original ADER schemes, the proposed numerical scheme computes the RPs of the high order terms of the DRP departing from time derivatives of the fluxes as initial conditions for these RPs. Weak solutions of the RPs defined for the DRP are computed using an augmented version of the Roe solver that includes an extra wave that accounts for the contribution of the source term. The discretization done over the source term leads to an energy balanced numerical scheme that allows to obtain the exact solution for steady cases with independence of the grid refinement. In unsteady problems, the numerical scheme ensures the convergence to the exact solution. The numerical scheme is constructed with an arbitrary order of accuracy, and has no theoretical barrier. Numerical results for the Burger's equation and the shallow water equations are presented in this work and indicate that the proposed numerical scheme is able to converge with the expected order of accuracy.

  17. Well-balanced central-upwind scheme for a fully coupled shallow water system modeling flows over erodible bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Kurganov, Alexander; Infante Sedano, Julio Angel

    2015-11-01

    Intense sediment transport and rapid bed evolution are frequently observed under highly-energetic flows, and bed erosion sometimes is of the same magnitude as the flow itself. Simultaneous simulation of multiple physical processes requires a fully coupled system