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Sample records for alaska steller sea

  1. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  2. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sea Otter I. 1 58 31.5N 152 13.0W Shakun Rock 1 2 58 33.0N 153 41.5W Sud I. 1 58 54.0N 152 12.5W... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in.... 226, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 226—Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea...

  3. 75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... environmental baseline; Steller sea lions population trends, foraging behavior, and biology; and effects of the... foraging behavior of Steller sea lions in the Aleutian Islands subarea. The details of these standards are... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  4. Poxvirus infection of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burek, Kathy A; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Gelatt, Tom; Fraser, Woody; Bracht, Alexa J; Smolarek, Kara A; Romero, Carlos H

    2005-10-01

    Lesions suggestive of poxvirus infection were observed in two Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska during live capture-and-release studies during 2000 and 2001. Both of these animals, female pups in poor body condition, were from Prince William Sound; this population is part of the declining western stock. Umbilicated, typically ulcerated dermal nodules were present, primarily on the fore flippers in one case, and over most of the body in the second case. Histologically, there were discrete masses in the superficial dermis composed of epithelial cells, some of which contained eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Negative staining of skin biopsy homogenates demonstrated the presence of orthopoxvirus-like particles. Total DNA extracted from skin biopsies were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that targeted the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase genes. These primers directed the amplification of fragments 543 base pairs (bp) and 344 bp, respectively, whose deduced amino acid sequences indicated the presence of a novel poxvirus within the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. Comparison of these amino acid sequences with homologous sequences from members of the Chordopoxvirinae indicated highest identity with orthopoxviruses.

  5. Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation.

    PubMed

    Jemison, Lauri A; Pendleton, Grey W; Fritz, Lowell W; Hastings, Kelly K; Maniscalco, John M; Trites, Andrew W; Gelatt, Tom S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East.

  6. Inter-Population Movements of Steller Sea Lions in Alaska with Implications for Population Separation

    PubMed Central

    Jemison, Lauri A.; Pendleton, Grey W.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Hastings, Kelly K.; Maniscalco, John M.; Trites, Andrew W.; Gelatt, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15–30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000–2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either ‘West’ or ‘East’). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2–5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two ‘mixing zone’ rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

  7. Genomic characterization of novel marine vesiviruses from Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine vesiviruses were isolated in cell culture from oral and rectal swabs and vesicular fluids from Alaskan Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus). Further characterization by RT-PCR, complete genomic sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses are most closely related ...

  8. A longitudinal study of Steller sea lion natality rates in the Gulf of Alaska with comparisons to census data.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Parker, Pamela; Adkison, Milo D

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality) may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Steller Sea Lion Natality Rates in the Gulf of Alaska with Comparisons to Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, John M.; Springer, Alan M.; Parker, Pamela; Adkison, Milo D.

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality) may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery. PMID:25383865

  10. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Steller sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Steller sea lions... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Steller sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska...

  11. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  12. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  13. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  14. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  15. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  1. Assessment of Competition between Fisheries and Steller Sea Lions in Alaska Based on Estimated Prey Biomass, Fisheries Removals and Predator Foraging Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Tabitha C. Y.; Gryba, Rowenna; Gregr, Edward J.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    A leading hypothesis to explain the dramatic decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska during the latter part of the 20th century is a change in prey availability due to commercial fisheries. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the relationships between sea lion population trends, fishery catches, and the prey biomass accessible to sea lions around 33 rookeries between 2000 and 2008. We focused on three commercially important species that have dominated the sea lion diet during the population decline: walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Atka mackerel. We estimated available prey biomass by removing fishery catches from predicted prey biomass distributions in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska; and modelled the likelihood of sea lions foraging at different distances from rookeries (accessibility) using satellite telemetry locations of tracked animals. We combined this accessibility model with the prey distributions to estimate the prey biomass accessible to sea lions by rookery. For each rookery, we compared sea lion population change to accessible prey biomass. Of 304 comparisons, we found 3 statistically significant relationships, all suggesting that sea lion populations increased with increasing prey accessibility. Given that the majority of comparisons showed no significant effect, it seems unlikely that the availability of pollock, cod or Atka mackerel was limiting sea lion populations in the 2000s. PMID:25950178

  2. Assessment of Competition between Fisheries and Steller Sea Lions in Alaska Based on Estimated Prey Biomass, Fisheries Removals and Predator Foraging Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hui, Tabitha C Y; Gryba, Rowenna; Gregr, Edward J; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    A leading hypothesis to explain the dramatic decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska during the latter part of the 20th century is a change in prey availability due to commercial fisheries. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the relationships between sea lion population trends, fishery catches, and the prey biomass accessible to sea lions around 33 rookeries between 2000 and 2008. We focused on three commercially important species that have dominated the sea lion diet during the population decline: walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Atka mackerel. We estimated available prey biomass by removing fishery catches from predicted prey biomass distributions in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska; and modelled the likelihood of sea lions foraging at different distances from rookeries (accessibility) using satellite telemetry locations of tracked animals. We combined this accessibility model with the prey distributions to estimate the prey biomass accessible to sea lions by rookery. For each rookery, we compared sea lion population change to accessible prey biomass. Of 304 comparisons, we found 3 statistically significant relationships, all suggesting that sea lion populations increased with increasing prey accessibility. Given that the majority of comparisons showed no significant effect, it seems unlikely that the availability of pollock, cod or Atka mackerel was limiting sea lion populations in the 2000s.

  3. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 152°17.50 W 57°21.90 N 152°17.40 W 10, 3 Sea Otter I. Gulf of Alaska 58°31.15 N 152°13.30 W 10 Long I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  4. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 152°17.50 W 57°21.90 N 152°17.40 W 10, 3 Sea Otter I. Gulf of Alaska 58°31.15 N 152°13.30 W 10 Long I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  5. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 152°17.50 W 57°21.90 N 152°17.40 W 10, 3 Sea Otter I. Gulf of Alaska 58°31.15 N 152°13.30 W 10 Long I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  6. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 152°17.50 W 57°21.90 N 152°17.40 W 10, 3 Sea Otter I. Gulf of Alaska 58°31.15 N 152°13.30 W 10 Long I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  7. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 152°17.50 W 57°21.90 N 152°17.40 W 10, 3 Sea Otter I. Gulf of Alaska 58°31.15 N 152°13.30 W 10 Long I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  8. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  9. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  10. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  11. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  12. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in multiple tissues of free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Keogh, Mandy J; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Ylitalo, Gina M; Fadely, Brian S; Pitcher, Kenneth W

    2016-01-15

    The relationships of selected organochlorine (OC) contaminants between blubber, blood, feces, and milk of young, free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined. Both between and within each tissue there was considerable individual variation. In spite of the variation, similar patterns were observed across the tissues for most of the selected PCB congeners. In all four tissues, the major PCB congeners were PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, and PCB153. The most prominent congener, both as a weight (ng/g lipid) and as a percentage of summed PCBs (∑PCBs), was PCB 153. Comparisons between paired tissues showed that ∑DDTs in blubber samples were related to concentrations in blood, feces, and milk. The ∑PCBs in blubber were related to concentrations in milk and fecal samples, though the relationship with feces was weak. Our findings show milk samples, in particular, are useful for assessing OCs in young sea lions. Blubber concentrations of PCB101, PCB118, and PCB138 were an order of magnitude higher than those in milk, supporting the biomagnification of these PCB congeners in SSL tissues. The findings indicate alternative tissues may be used as indicators of relative contaminant exposure in lieu of surgical blubber biopsy.

  13. Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stegall, V.K.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Pitcher, K.W.; Rye, R.O.; Kester, C.L.; Stricker, C.A.; Bern, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

  14. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, John M.; Springer, Alan M.; Adkison, Milo D.; Parker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population) in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ) was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality. PMID:26488901

  15. Regional differences in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of oceanographic habitat used by Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Lander, Michelle E; Loughlin, Thomas R; Logsdon, Miles G; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Fadely, Brian S; Fritz, Lowell W

    2009-09-01

    Over the past three decades, the decline and altered spatial distribution of the western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska have been attributed to changes in the distribution or abundance of their prey due to the cumulative effects of fisheries and environmental perturbations. During this period, dietary prey occurrence and diet diversity were related to population decline within metapopulation regions of the western stock of Steller sea lions, suggesting that environmental conditions may be variable among regions. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine regional differences in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of oceanographic habitat used by Steller sea lions within the context of recent measures of diet diversity and population trajectories. Habitat use was assessed by deploying satellite-depth recorders and satellite relay data loggers on juvenile Steller sea lions (n = 45) over a five-year period (2000-2004) within four regions of the western stock, including the western, central, and eastern Aleutian Islands, and central Gulf of Alaska. Areas used by sea lions during summer months (June, July, and August) were demarcated using satellite telemetry data and characterized by environmental variables (sea surface temperature [SST] and chlorophyll a [chl a]), which possibly serve as proxies for environmental processes or prey. Spatial patterns of SST diversity and Steller sea lion population trends among regions were fairly consistent with trends reported for diet studies, possibly indicating a link between environmental diversity, prey diversity, and distribution or abundance of Steller sea lions. Overall, maximum spatial heterogeneity coupled with minimal temporal variability of SST appeared to be beneficial for Steller sea lions. In contrast, these patterns were not consistent for chl a, and there appeared to be an ecological threshold. Understanding how Steller sea lions respond to measures of environmental

  16. Persistence of forage fish ‘hot spots’ and its association with foraging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gende, Scott M.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2006-02-01

    Whereas primary and secondary productivity at oceanic 'hotspots' may be a function of upwelling and temperature fronts, the aggregation of higher-order vertebrates is a function of their ability to search for and locate these areas. Thus, understanding how predators aggregate at these productive foraging areas is germane to the study of oceanic hot spots. We examined the spatial distribution of forage fish in southeast Alaska for three years to better understand Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus) aggregations and foraging behavior. Energy densities (millions KJ/km 2) of forage fish were orders of magnitude greater during the winter months (November-February), due to the presence of schools of overwintering Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasi). Within the winter months, herring consistently aggregated at a few areas, and these areas persisted throughout the season and among years. Thus, our study area was characterized by seasonally variable, highly abundant but highly patchily distributed forage fish hot spots. More importantly, the persistence of these forage fish hot spots was an important characteristic in determining whether foraging sea lions utilized them. Over 40% of the variation in the distribution of sea lions on our surveys was explained by the persistence of forage fish hot spots. Using a simple spatial model, we demonstrate that when the density of these hot spots is low, effort necessary to locate these spots is minimized when those spots persist through time. In contrast, under similar prey densities but lower persistence, effort increases dramatically. Thus an important characteristic of pelagic hot spots is their persistence, allowing predators to predict their locations and concentrate search efforts accordingly.

  17. Spatial patterns and scaling behaviors of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) distributions and their environment.

    PubMed

    Lander, Michelle E; Logsdon, Miles L; Loughlin, Thomas R; Van Blaricom, Glenn R

    2011-04-07

    Fractal geometry and other multi-scale analyses have become popular tools for investigating spatial patterns of animal distributions in heterogeneous environments. In theory, changes in patterns of animal distributions with changes in scale reflect transitions between the controlling influences of one environmental factor or process over another. In an effort to find linkages between Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their environment, the objective of this study was to determine if the spatial distribution of Steller sea lions at sea displayed similar scaling properties to the variation of two environmental features, including bathymetry and sea surface temperature (SST). Additionally, distributions of Steller sea lion point patterns were examined with respect to measurements of bathymetric complexity. From February 2000 to May 2004, satellite transmitters were deployed on 10 groups of juvenile Steller sea lions (n=52) at eight different locations within the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Indices of fractal dimension were calculated for each group of sea lions using a unit square box-counting method, whereas indices of bathymetry and SST patchiness were derived by conducting a variance ratio analysis over the same scales. Distributions of Steller sea lions at sea displayed self-similar fractal patterns, suggesting that individuals were distributed in a continuous hierarchical set of clumps within clumps across scales, and foraging behavior was likely influenced by a scale invariant mechanism. Patterns of bathymetric variability also were self-similar, whereas patterns of SST variability were scale dependent and failed to retain self-similar spatial structure at larger scales. These results indicate that the distributions of Steller sea lions at sea were more influenced by bathymetry than SST at the scales examined, but scale-dependent patterns in the distribution of Steller sea lions at sea or linkages with SST may have been apparent if analyses

  18. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hülck, Kathrin; Hong, Su-Myeong; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X

    2011-01-01

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is [corrected] one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 μg/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects, further [corrected] suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock.

  19. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  20. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  1. No evidence of metabolic depression in Western Alaskan juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Lisa A; Rea, Lorrie D; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A J

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d(-1) and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied.

  2. No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Lisa A.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d−1 and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

  3. Movements and foraging effort of Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks wintering near Dutch Harbor, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.A.; Flint, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the movements and foraging effort of radio-marked Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to evaluate habitat quality in an area impacted by industrial activity near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Foraging effort was relatively low, with Steller's Eiders foraging only 2.7 ± 0.6 (SE) hours per day and Harlequin Ducks 4.1 ± 0.5 hours per day. Low-foraging effort during periods of high-energetic demand generally suggests high food availability, and high food availability frequently corresponds with reductions in home range size. However, the winter ranges of Harlequin Ducks did not appear to be smaller than usual, with the mean range size in our study (5.5 ± 1.1 km2) similar to that reported by previous investigators. The mean size of the winter ranges of Steller's Eiders was similar (5.1 ± 1.3 km2), but no comparable estimates are available. Eutrophication of the waters near Dutch Harbor caused by seafood processing and municipal sewage effluent may have increased populations of the invertebrate prey of these sea ducks and contributed to their low-foraging effort. The threat of predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that winter near Dutch Harbor may cause Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks to move further offshore when not foraging, contributing to an increase in range sizes. Thus, the movement patterns and foraging behavior of these ducks likely represent a balance between the cost and benefits of wintering in a human-influenced environment.

  4. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... site listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, whichever is greater, except on Marmot Island; and... kilometers) or within sight of the eastern shore of Marmot Island, including the Steller sea lion rookery... 16681 S quadrant. 2. Sugarloaf I. 58°53.0 N 152°02.0 W 16580 Whole island. 3. Marmot I. 58°14.5 N...

  5. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... site listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, whichever is greater, except on Marmot Island; and... kilometers) or within sight of the eastern shore of Marmot Island, including the Steller sea lion rookery... 16681 S quadrant. 2. Sugarloaf I. 58°53.0 N 152°02.0 W 16580 Whole island. 3. Marmot I. 58°14.5 N...

  6. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... site listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, whichever is greater, except on Marmot Island; and... kilometers) or within sight of the eastern shore of Marmot Island, including the Steller sea lion rookery... 16681 S quadrant. 2. Sugarloaf I. 58°53.0 N 152°02.0 W 16580 Whole island. 3. Marmot I. 58°14.5 N...

  7. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  8. Dive behaviour can predict metabolic expenditure in Steller sea lions

    PubMed Central

    Goundie, Elizabeth T.; Rosen, David A. S.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of costs associated with foraging contributes to understanding the energetic impact that changes in prey availability have on the energy balance of an animal and the fitness of populations. However, estimating the costs of foraging is difficult for breath-hold divers, such as Steller sea lions, that feed underwater. We developed models parameterized with data from free-diving captive Steller sea lions to estimate the costs incurred by wild animals while foraging. We measured diving metabolic rate of trained sea lions performing four types of dives to 10 and 40 m in the open ocean and estimated the separate costs of different dive components: surface time; bottom time; and transiting to and from depth. We found that the sea lions' diving metabolic rates were higher while transiting (20.5 ± 13.0 ml O2 min−1 kg−1) than while swimming at depth (13.5 ± 4.1 ml O2 min−1 kg−1), and both were higher than metabolism at the surface (9.2 ± 1.6 ml O2 min−1 kg−1). These values were incorporated into an energetic model that accurately predicted oxygen consumption for dives only (within 9.5%) and dive cycles (within 7.7%), although it consistently overestimated costs by 5.9% for dives and 21.8% for dive cycles. Differences in the costs of individual components of dives also explained differences in the efficiency of different dive strategies. Single dives were energetically less costly than bout dives; however, sea lions were more efficient at replenishing oxygen stores after bout dives and could therefore spend a greater portion of their time foraging than when undertaking single dives. The metabolic rates we measured for the different behavioural components of diving can be applied to time–depth recordings from wild Steller sea lions to estimate the energy expended while foraging. In turn, this can be used to understand how changes in prey availability affect energy balance and the health of individuals in

  9. Dive behaviour can predict metabolic expenditure in Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Goundie, Elizabeth T; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of costs associated with foraging contributes to understanding the energetic impact that changes in prey availability have on the energy balance of an animal and the fitness of populations. However, estimating the costs of foraging is difficult for breath-hold divers, such as Steller sea lions, that feed underwater. We developed models parameterized with data from free-diving captive Steller sea lions to estimate the costs incurred by wild animals while foraging. We measured diving metabolic rate of trained sea lions performing four types of dives to 10 and 40 m in the open ocean and estimated the separate costs of different dive components: surface time; bottom time; and transiting to and from depth. We found that the sea lions' diving metabolic rates were higher while transiting (20.5 ± 13.0 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1)) than while swimming at depth (13.5 ± 4.1 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1)), and both were higher than metabolism at the surface (9.2 ± 1.6 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1)). These values were incorporated into an energetic model that accurately predicted oxygen consumption for dives only (within 9.5%) and dive cycles (within 7.7%), although it consistently overestimated costs by 5.9% for dives and 21.8% for dive cycles. Differences in the costs of individual components of dives also explained differences in the efficiency of different dive strategies. Single dives were energetically less costly than bout dives; however, sea lions were more efficient at replenishing oxygen stores after bout dives and could therefore spend a greater portion of their time foraging than when undertaking single dives. The metabolic rates we measured for the different behavioural components of diving can be applied to time-depth recordings from wild Steller sea lions to estimate the energy expended while foraging. In turn, this can be used to understand how changes in prey availability affect energy balance and the health of individuals in

  10. Glacial refugia and the phylogeography of Steller's sea lion (Eumatopias jubatus) in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Harlin-Cognato, A; Bickham, J W; Loughlin, T R; Honeycutt, R L

    2006-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data were used to examine the phylogeographic history of Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in relation to the presence of Plio-Pleistocene insular refugia. Cytochrome b and control region sequences from 336 Steller's sea lions reveal phylogenetic lineages associated with continental refugia south of the ice sheets in North America and Eurasia. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the genetic structure of E. jubatus is the result of Pleistocene glacial geology, which caused the elimination and subsequent reappearance of suitable rookery habitat during glacial and interglacial periods. The cyclic nature of geological change produced a series of independent population expansions, contractions and isolations that had analogous results on Steller's sea lions and other marine and terrestrial species. Our data show evidence of four glacial refugia in which populations of Steller's sea lions diverged. These events occurred from approximately 60,000 to 180,000 years BP and thus preceded the last glacial maximum.

  11. The Effect of Novel Research Activities on Long-term Survival of Temporarily Captive Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Shuert, Courtney; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two novel research approaches were developed to facilitate controlled access to, and long-term monitoring of, juvenile Steller sea lions for periods longer than typically afforded by traditional fieldwork. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion Project at the Alaska SeaLife Center facilitated nutritional, physiological, and behavioral studies on the platform of temporary captivity. Temporarily captive sea lions (TJs, n = 35) were studied, and were intraperitoneally implanted with Life History Transmitters (LHX tags) to determine causes of mortality post-release. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for long-term impacts of temporary captivity and telemetry implants on the survival of study individuals. A simple open-population Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model was built in program MARK, incorporating resightings of uniquely branded study individuals gathered by several contributing institutions. A priori models were developed to weigh the evidence of effects of experimental treatment on survival with covariates of sex, age, capture age, cohort, and age class. We compared survival of experimental treatment to a control group of n = 27 free-ranging animals (FRs) that were sampled during capture events and immediately released. Sex has previously been show to differentially affect juvenile survival in Steller sea lions. Therefore, sex was included in all models to account for unbalanced sex ratios within the experimental group. Considerable support was identified for the effects of sex, accounting for over 71% of total weight for all a priori models with delta AICc <5, and over 91% of model weight after removal of pretending variables. Overall, most support was found for the most parsimonious model based on sex and excluding experimental treatment. Models including experimental treatment were not supported after post-hoc considerations of model selection criteria. However, given the limited sample size, alternate models including effects of experimental

  12. The Effect of Novel Research Activities on Long-term Survival of Temporarily Captive Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Shuert, Courtney; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two novel research approaches were developed to facilitate controlled access to, and long-term monitoring of, juvenile Steller sea lions for periods longer than typically afforded by traditional fieldwork. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion Project at the Alaska SeaLife Center facilitated nutritional, physiological, and behavioral studies on the platform of temporary captivity. Temporarily captive sea lions (TJs, n = 35) were studied, and were intraperitoneally implanted with Life History Transmitters (LHX tags) to determine causes of mortality post-release. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for long-term impacts of temporary captivity and telemetry implants on the survival of study individuals. A simple open-population Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model was built in program MARK, incorporating resightings of uniquely branded study individuals gathered by several contributing institutions. A priori models were developed to weigh the evidence of effects of experimental treatment on survival with covariates of sex, age, capture age, cohort, and age class. We compared survival of experimental treatment to a control group of n = 27 free-ranging animals (FRs) that were sampled during capture events and immediately released. Sex has previously been show to differentially affect juvenile survival in Steller sea lions. Therefore, sex was included in all models to account for unbalanced sex ratios within the experimental group. Considerable support was identified for the effects of sex, accounting for over 71% of total weight for all a priori models with delta AICc <5, and over 91% of model weight after removal of pretending variables. Overall, most support was found for the most parsimonious model based on sex and excluding experimental treatment. Models including experimental treatment were not supported after post-hoc considerations of model selection criteria. However, given the limited sample size, alternate models including effects of experimental

  13. At-sea and on-shore cycles of juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) derived from satellite dive recorders: A comparison between declining and increasing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Call, Katherine A.; Fadely, Brian S.; Greig, Angie; Rehberg, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We calculated the durations of time on-shore and at-sea for juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) using satellite dive recorders deployed between 2000 and 2002, and compared two genetically distinct populations; one increasing (eastern stock; n=42) and one that experienced an 80% decline in population since the mid-1970s (western stock; n=89). Data represented 24-h periods divided into 72 20-min increments indicating whether an animal was on-shore (dry) or at-sea (wet). Time apportioned between land and sea was described on a per-trip basis (rather than a 24-h cycle) and durations ranged from 20 min to several days. We tested differences in the durations of on-shore and at-sea events among sex, geographic region, year, and age at capture using mixed-effects models. Animal identifier was included as a random effect to account for repeated measures on the same individual. Sea lions from the eastern Aleutian Islands, central Aleutian Islands, and central Gulf of Alaska hauled out just after sunrise, and departure times coincided with dusk. For Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska animals, arrivals and departures occurred throughout the day and were not related to crepuscular period. Mean duration on-shore did not differ among sex, region, year or age, and was unrelated to previous trip duration. This may suggest a minimum rest period for juvenile Steller sea lions or that dependant animals are maximizing their time on-shore suckling. Time spent at-sea varied among individuals from both populations and development of maternal independence, inferred from significant increases in time spent at sea, occurred approximately 10 months later in individuals from Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska than in the other regions, suggesting environmental and developmental differences among regions.

  14. Annual survival and site fidelity of Steller's eiders molting along the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Dau, C.P.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) molting and wintering along the Alaska Peninsula have declined since the 1960's. We captured and marked a large sample of Steller's eiders molting in 2 lagoons along the Alaska Peninsula between 1975-97. We used mark-recapture analysis techniques to estimate annual survival and movement probabilities within and among lagoons for male and female eiders. Estimates of annual survival (??SE) were 0.899 ?? 0.032 for females and 0.765 ?? 0.044 for males. Both sexes showed high rates of fidelity to specific molting locations (>95%) within lagoons; yet we found no evidence that annual probability of survival differed among groups molting in different locations either within or among lagoons. We found weak evidence that annual survival decreased between the periods 1975-81 and 1991-97. The lower survival of males compared to females is unusual for waterfowl and may result in a female-biased sex ratio. We conclude that a decrease in adult survival may have initiated the long-term population decline. Further, a shortage of males may be limiting reproductive potential.

  15. Particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium are cytotoxic and genotoxic to Steller sea lion lung cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Shaffiey, Fariba; LaCerte, Carolyne; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2009-03-09

    Hexavalent chromium is an environmental contaminant. Within the environment, marine waters are a common site for hexavalent chromium deposition. We have recently reported significantly high levels of chromium in skin tissue from North Atlantic right whales. These findings demonstrate that marine species are being exposed to chromium. It is possible that such exposures may be playing a role in population declines evident among certain marine mammals, such as the Steller sea lion. We developed a Steller sea lion lung cell line from Steller sea lion lung tissue. Hexavalent chromium was cytotoxic to these primary lung fibroblasts as 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 25microM sodium chromate induced 104, 99, 92, 58 and 11% relative survival, respectively. It was also genotoxic as 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10microM sodium chromate damaged chromosomes in 6, 11, 21, 36, and 39% of metaphases and damaged 6, 12, 27, 49 and 57 total aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. We also considered the toxicity of particulate hexavalent chromium, as it is the more potent carcinogen in humans. We found that 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10microg/cm(2) particulate chromate induced 95, 88, 91, 70, and 52% relative cell survival, respectively. These concentrations were genotoxic and damaged chromosomes in 9, 13, 18, and 23% of metaphases and induced 9, 15, 20 and 30 total aberrations per 100 metaphases, respectively. These data indicate that if sufficiently exposed, chromium may adversely affect the struggling Steller sea lion population. It would be prudent to investigate the effects chromium has in other Steller sea lion organs in order to derive a better understanding of how chromium in the marine environment may be affecting the declining Steller sea lion population.

  16. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... in control of exploitation, management of habitat, conservation status, or regulatory mechanisms...-convened to evaluate the adequacy of ongoing research and management, and recommended recognizing two... expertise in population ecology and management of eastern DPS Steller sea lions. Peer reviewer comments...

  17. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  18. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER20DE04.109 ER20DE04.110 ER20DE04.111...

  19. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  20. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  1. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  2. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1 Table 1 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table...

  3. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sea Otter I. 1 58 31.5N 152 13.0W Shakun Rock 1 2 58 33.0N 153 41.5W Sud I. 1 58 54.0N 152 12.5W... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in.... 226, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea...

  4. Genetics of the Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas): A Study of Ancient Bone Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crerar, Lorelei D.

    Georg Wilhelm Steller was born 100 years before Darwin in 1709 and he was part of a vast exploration fifty years before Lewis and Clark explored America. Steller was important to the study of marine mammals because he was the only naturalist to see and describe the great northern sea cow ( Hydrodamalis gigas). Knowledge of an extinct population can be used to aid the conservation of a current population. Extraction of DNA from this extinct animal was performed in order to determine the population structure of the Steller's sea cow. A test was also developed that can definitively state whether or not a random bone sample came from H. gigas. This test could be used by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to examine material distributed in the North Pacific to determine whether samples are legally traded extinct Steller's sea cow or illegally traded extant marine mammal species protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA).

  5. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  6. Predicting synergistic effects of resources and predators on foraging decisions by juvenile Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Frid, Alejandro; Burns, Jennifer; Baker, Gregory G; Thorne, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that synergistic interactions between resources and predators influence foraging decisions and their fitness consequences. This framework, however, has been ignored almost completely by hypotheses on causes of the population decline of Steller sea lions (SSLs) (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska. By comparing predictions from a dynamic state variable model to empirical data on the behaviour of individuals instrumented with satellite-linked time-at-depth recorders, we develop and find preliminary support for the hypothesis that, during winter in Prince William Sound, juvenile SSLs (a) underutilise walleye pollock, a predictable resource in deep strata, due to predation risk from Pacific sleeper sharks, and (b) underutilise the potential energy bonanza of inshore aggregations of Pacific herring due to risk from either killer whales, larger conspecifics, or both. Further, under conditions of resource scarcity-induced by overfishing, long-term oceanographic cycles, or their combination-trade-offs between mortality risk and energy gain may influence demographic parameters. Accordingly, computer simulations illustrated the theoretical plausibility that a decline of Pacific herring in shallow strata would greatly increase the number of deep foraging dives, thereby increasing exposure to sleeper sharks and mortality rates. These results suggest that hypotheses on the decline of SSLs should consider synergistic effects of predators and resources on behaviour and mortality rates. Empirical support for our model, however, is limited and we outline tasks for empirical research that emerge from these limitations. More generally, in the context of today's conservation crises, our work illustrates that the greater the dearth of system-specific data, the greater the need to apply principles of behavioural ecology toward the understanding and management of large-scale marine systems.

  7. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Estes, James A; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F

    2016-01-26

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species.

  8. Distribution and diurnal behavior of Steller's Eiders wintering on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Metzner, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the distribution and activities of adult Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) during winter and spring on a deep-water embayment and a shallow lagoon along the Alaska Peninsula from September 1980 to May 1981. During the remigial molt, eiders were observed on Izembek Lagoon but not on Cold Bay. Following the flightless period, Izembek Lagoon continued to support 63-100% of eiders encountered during surveys. As ice cover on Izembek Lagoon increased, the number of birds decreased on Izembek Lagoon but increased on Cold Bay, suggesting that some eiders disperse to nearshore, deep-water habitats in close proximity to Izembek Lagoon during severe weather. Diurnal activity budgets indicated that the amount of time resting or engaged in aggression and alert activities was similar among locations, seasons, tidal stages, and sexes. In contrast, time spent foraging differed among seasons and locations but did not differ among tidal stages or sexes. Although time spent foraging was similar during winter and spring on Izembek Lagoon, eiders on Cold Bay foraged more during winter compared to spring. Synchronous diving was the dominant foraging strategy.

  9. Predation on an upper trophic marine predator, the Steller sea lion: evaluating high juvenile mortality in a density dependent conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2012-01-01

    The endangered western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)--the largest of the eared seals--has declined by 80% from population levels encountered four decades ago. Current overall trends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Aleutian Islands appear neutral with strong regional heterogeneities. A published inferential model has been used to hypothesize a continuous decline in natality and depressed juvenile survival during the height of the decline in the mid-late 1980's, followed by the recent recovery of juvenile survival to pre-decline rates. However, these hypotheses have not been tested by direct means, and causes underlying past and present population trajectories remain unresolved and controversial. We determined post-weaning juvenile survival and causes of mortality using data received post-mortem via satellite from telemetry transmitters implanted into 36 juvenile Steller sea lions from 2005 through 2011. Data show high post-weaning mortality by predation in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. To evaluate the impact of such high levels of predation, we developed a conceptual framework to integrate density dependent with density independent effects on vital rates and population trajectories. Our data and model do not support the hypothesized recent recovery of juvenile survival rates and reduced natality. Instead, our data demonstrate continued low juvenile survival in the Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords region of the Gulf of Alaska. Our results on contemporary predation rates combined with the density dependent conceptual framework suggest predation on juvenile sea lions as the largest impediment to recovery of the species in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. The framework also highlights the necessity for demographic models based on age-structured census data to incorporate the differential impact of predation on multiple vital rates.

  10. Predation on an Upper Trophic Marine Predator, the Steller Sea Lion: Evaluating High Juvenile Mortality in a Density Dependent Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    The endangered western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) – the largest of the eared seals – has declined by 80% from population levels encountered four decades ago. Current overall trends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Aleutian Islands appear neutral with strong regional heterogeneities. A published inferential model has been used to hypothesize a continuous decline in natality and depressed juvenile survival during the height of the decline in the mid-late 1980's, followed by the recent recovery of juvenile survival to pre-decline rates. However, these hypotheses have not been tested by direct means, and causes underlying past and present population trajectories remain unresolved and controversial. We determined post-weaning juvenile survival and causes of mortality using data received post-mortem via satellite from telemetry transmitters implanted into 36 juvenile Steller sea lions from 2005 through 2011. Data show high post-weaning mortality by predation in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. To evaluate the impact of such high levels of predation, we developed a conceptual framework to integrate density dependent with density independent effects on vital rates and population trajectories. Our data and model do not support the hypothesized recent recovery of juvenile survival rates and reduced natality. Instead, our data demonstrate continued low juvenile survival in the Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords region of the Gulf of Alaska. Our results on contemporary predation rates combined with the density dependent conceptual framework suggest predation on juvenile sea lions as the largest impediment to recovery of the species in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. The framework also highlights the necessity for demographic models based on age-structured census data to incorporate the differential impact of predation on multiple vital rates. PMID:22272296

  11. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Corrine S.; Luebbert, Joanne; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Schamber, Jason L.; Rosenberg, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations.

  12. Observations of wing-feather molt and summer feeding ecology of Steller's Eiders at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1980-01-01

    The population size, moult chronology, food habits, and feeding behaviour of Steller's Eiders Polysticta stelleri were studied at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska from May to October 1977. Sub-adults were flightless from late July to late August and the adult males were flightless from late August to mid September. Adult females were rarely flightless at Nelson Lagoon but commonly flightless at Izembek Bay. Steller's Eiders ate primarily bivalve mollusca and amphipod crustacea, with Mytilus edulis and Anisogammarus pugettensis the most important foods. Eiders took amphipoda prior to the wing-feather moult, bivalves during the wing-feather moult, and both types of invertebrates after the wing-feather moult. Steller's Eiders fed primarily at the low tide by diving (flock-feeding) or head-dipping, both during the day and at night. There was no difference in feeding behaviour between ages or sexes. Eiders fed almost exclusively by diving after the wing-feather moult and apparently fed more as the season progressed.

  13. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, John M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  14. Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; van Schie, Robbert; Verboom, Wim C.; de Haan, Dick

    2005-09-01

    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not. The signals were narrow-band, frequency-modulated stimuli with a duration of 600 ms and center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 32 kHz for the male and from 4 to 32 kHz for the female. Detection thresholds at each frequency were measured by varying signal amplitude according to the up-down staircase method. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for the male Steller sea lion showed the typical mammalian U-shape. His maximum sensitivity (77 dB re: 1 μPa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 16 kHz (4 octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 kHz and above 16 kHz. The maximum sensitivity of the female (73 dB re: 1 μPa, rms) occurred at 25 kHz. Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed for signals below 16 kHz and above 25 kHz. At frequencies for which both subjects were tested, hearing thresholds of the male were significantly higher than those of the female. The hearing sensitivity differences between the male and female Steller sea lion in this study may be due to individual differences in sensitivity between the subjects or due to sexual dimorphism in hearing.

  15. Monitoring glucocorticoid response to rehabilitation and research procedures in California and Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Petrauskas, Lisa; Atkinson, Shannon; Gulland, Frances; Mellish, Jo-Ann; Horning, Markus

    2008-03-01

    We used serum and fecal corticosteroid analysis to study the physiological response to a range of invasive and non-invasive procedures in sea lions. Four experimental groups of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus; Group A: restraint only [n=9], Group B: gas anesthesia without surgery [n=10], Group C: minimally invasive surgery [n=10], and Group D: invasive surgery [n=5]) were monitored for adrenal response. Feces were collected opportunistically from 72 hr before 72 hr post procedure for corticosterone analysis. All experimental groups showed substantial individual variation and no significant change in corticosterone levels after the procedures. Additional fecal and serum corticoid samples were collected from six free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in temporary captivity undergoing abdominal implantation of long-term telemetry devices. Only one sea lion exhibited a significant fecal corticosterone increase in response to the surgery. Capture and restraint appear to elicit a greater glucocorticoid response than invasive or non-invasive procedures.

  16. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals.

  17. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  18. Hormone changes indicate that winter is a critical period for food shortages in Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Kumagai, Saeko

    2008-07-01

    Given that many marine mammals display seasonal energetic priorities, it is important to investigate whether the impact of unexpected food restriction differs during the year. Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) fed restricted diets for up to 9 days during spring, summer, fall, and winter lost an average of 10% of their initial body mass. We tracked changes in the levels of three hormones (cortisol, total thyroxine-TT4, total triiodothyronine-TT3) and one blood metabolite (blood urea nitrogen-BUN) following a food restriction in relation to season, body mass, body composition, and metabolism. Degree of changes in cortisol, TT3, and BUN after food restriction was significantly affected by season. The greatest changes in cortisol (+231%), BUN (+11.4%), TT4 (-23.3%), and TT3 (-35.6%) occurred in the winter (November/December) when rates of body mass loss were also greatest. Changes in cortisol levels were positively related to total body mass loss, while changes in TT3 levels were negatively related. While greater increases in BUN were related to greater rates of mass loss, the use of BUN levels as an indicator of metabolic state is complicated by the type and level of food intake. The observed changes in hormone levels support morphological data suggesting Steller sea lions may be more strongly impacted by short-term, reduced energy intake during winter than at other times of the year.

  19. Assessing substitution patterns, rates and homoplasy at HVRI of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C D; Trujillo, R G; Gelatt, T S; Smolen, M J; Matson, C W; Honeycutt, R L; Patton, J C; Bickham, J W

    2009-08-01

    Despite the widely recognized incidence of homoplasy characterizing this region, the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mitochondrial control region is one of the most frequently used genetic markers for population genetic and phylogeographic studies. We present an evolutionary analysis of HVRI and cytochrome b sequences from a range-wide survey of 1031 Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus, to quantify homoplasy and substitution rate at HVRI. Variation in HVRI was distributed across 41 variable sites in the 238-bp segment examined. All variants at HVR1 were found to be transitions. However, our analyses suggest that a minimum of 101 changes have actually occurred within HVRI with as many as 18 substitutions occurring at a single site. By including this hidden variation into our analyses, several instances of apparent long-range dispersal were resolved to be homoplasies and 8.5-12% of observed HVRI haplotypes were found to have geographic distributions descriptive of convergent molecular evolution rather than identity by descent. We estimate the rate of substitution at HVRI in Steller sea lions to be approximately 24 times that of cytochrome b with an absolute rate of HVRI substitution estimated at 27.45% per million years. These findings have direct implications regarding the utility of HVRI data to generate a variety of evolutionary genetic hypotheses.

  20. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sea Otter I. 1 58 31.5N 152 13.0W Shakun Rock 1,2 58 33.0N 153 41.5W Sud I. 1 58 54.0N 152 12.5W... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in.... 226, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea...

  1. Phylogenetic position of mammoth and Steller's sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, T; Hayashi, S; Mikhelson, V M

    1997-04-01

    Here we report DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene segments (1,005 base pairs per species) for the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) and the extant Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), the Western Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the hyrax (Procavia capensis). These molecular data have allowed us to construct the phylogeny for the Tethytheria. Our molecular data resolve the trichotomy between the two species of living elephants and the mammoth and confirm that the mammoth was more closely related to the Asian elephant than to the African elephant. Our data also suggest that the sea cow-dugong divergence was likely as ancient as the dugong-manatee split, and it appears to have been much earlier (22 million years ago) than had been previously estimated (4-8 million years ago) by immunological comparison.

  2. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45 kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode.

  3. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  4. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ippei; Sato, Katsufumi; Fahlman, Andreas; Naito, Yasuhiko; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Trites, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) that made 186 dives. Our study animals were trained to dive to feed at fixed depths (10–50 m) under artificially controlled buoyancy and drag conditions. Buoyancy and drag were manipulated using a pair of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes attached to harnesses worn by the sea lions, and buoyancy conditions were designed to fall within the natural range of wild animals (∼12–26% subcutaneous fat). Drag conditions were changed with and without the PVC tubes, and swim speeds were recorded and compared during descent and ascent phases using an accelerometer attached to the harnesses. Generalized linear mixed-effect models with the animal as the random variable and five explanatory variables (body mass, buoyancy, dive depth, dive phase, and drag) showed that swim speed was best predicted by two variables, drag and dive phase (AIC = −139). Consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, the results of our study suggest that the optimal swim speed of Steller sea lions is a function of drag, and is independent of dive depth and buoyancy. PMID:24771620

  5. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ippei; Sato, Katsufumi; Fahlman, Andreas; Naito, Yasuhiko; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Trites, Andrew W

    2014-04-25

    Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) that made 186 dives. Our study animals were trained to dive to feed at fixed depths (10-50 m) under artificially controlled buoyancy and drag conditions. Buoyancy and drag were manipulated using a pair of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes attached to harnesses worn by the sea lions, and buoyancy conditions were designed to fall within the natural range of wild animals (∼12-26% subcutaneous fat). Drag conditions were changed with and without the PVC tubes, and swim speeds were recorded and compared during descent and ascent phases using an accelerometer attached to the harnesses. Generalized linear mixed-effect models with the animal as the random variable and five explanatory variables (body mass, buoyancy, dive depth, dive phase, and drag) showed that swim speed was best predicted by two variables, drag and dive phase (AIC = -139). Consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, the results of our study suggest that the optimal swim speed of Steller sea lions is a function of drag, and is independent of dive depth and buoyancy.

  6. High diving metabolism results in a short aerobic dive limit for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    The diving capacity of marine mammals is typically defined by the aerobic dive limit (ADL) which, in lieu of direct measurements, can be calculated (cADL) from total body oxygen stores (TBO) and diving metabolic rate (DMR). To estimate cADL, we measured blood oxygen stores, and combined this with diving oxygen consumption rates (VO2) recorded from 4 trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean to depths of 10 or 40 m. We also examined the effect of diving exercise on O2 stores by comparing blood O2 stores of our diving animals to non-diving individuals at an aquarium. Mass-specific blood volume of the non-diving individuals was higher in the winter than in summer, but there was no overall difference in blood O2 stores between the diving and non-diving groups. Estimated TBO (35.9 ml O2 kg(-1)) was slightly lower than previously reported for Steller sea lions and other Otariids. Calculated ADL was 3.0 min (based on an average DMR of 2.24 L O2 min(-1)) and was significantly shorter than the average 4.4 min dives our study animals performed when making single long dives-but was similar to the times recorded during diving bouts (a series of 4 dives followed by a recovery period on the surface), as well as the dive times of wild animals. Our study is the first to estimate cADL based on direct measures of VO2 and blood oxygen stores for an Otariid and indicates they have a much shorter ADL than previously thought.

  7. The effects of two analgesic regimes on behavior after abdominal surgery in Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kristen A; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Weary, Daniel M

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment protocols on the behavioral responses of juvenile Steller sea lions after abdominal surgery. Sea lions were randomly assigned to one of two treatments designed to control post-operative pain. The flunixin group (n=6) received flunixin meglumine (1mg/kg) administered as a single intramuscular (IM) injection before extubation from surgery. The carprofen group (n=5) received carprofen (4.4 mg/kg) as an IM injection before extubation, then orally at 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. Seven behaviors related to post-operative pain were monitored by observers, blinded to treatment, for a total of 10 days (3 days pre-, day of surgery, and 6 days post-surgery). All seven behaviors changed after surgery regardless of NSAID treatment, two of which returned to baseline within 6 days of surgery. Only one behavior was mildly affected by analgesic treatment: sea lions in the carprofen group tended to spend less time lying down in Days 1-3 following surgery (i.e., the days which they received oral carprofen). These results suggested that neither treatment, at the dose administered, was effective in controlling pain in the days following this surgery.

  8. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  9. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Debroy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L; Safine, David E; Schamber, Jason L; Riddle, Ann E; Trust, Kimberly A

    2011-04-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  10. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Debroy, C.; Flint, P.L.; Safine, D.E.; Schamber, J.L.; Riddle, A.E.; Trust, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n=122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n=21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n=48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds. ?? 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Aerial audiograms of several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) measured using single and multiple simultaneous auditory steady-state response methods.

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Reichmuth, Colleen; Gulland, Frances; Rosen, David A S; Finneran, James J

    2011-04-01

    Measurements of the electrophysiological auditory steady-state response (ASSR) have proven to be efficient for evaluating hearing sensitivity in odontocete cetaceans. In an effort to expand these methods to pinnipeds, ASSRs elicited by single and multiple simultaneous tones were used to measure aerial hearing thresholds in several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). There were no significant differences between thresholds measured using the single and multiple ASSR methods, despite the more rapid nature of data collection using the multiple ASSR method. There was a high degree of variability in ASSR thresholds among subjects; thresholds covered a range of ∼40 dB at each tested frequency. As expected, ASSR thresholds were elevated relative to previously reported psychophysical thresholds for California and Steller sea lions. The features of high-frequency hearing limit and relative sensitivity of most ASSR audiograms were, however, similar to those of psychophysical audiograms, suggesting that ASSR methods can be used to improve understanding of hearing demographics in sea lions, especially with respect to high-frequency hearing. Thresholds for one Steller sea lion were substantially elevated relative to all other subjects, demonstrating that ASSR methods can be used to detect hearing loss in sea lions.

  12. Variability in leptin and adrenal response in juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Mashburn, Kendall L; Atkinson, Shannon

    2008-01-15

    Eight free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (SSL; 6 males, 2 females; 14-20 months) temporarily held under ambient conditions at the Alaska SeaLife Center were physiologically challenged through exogenous administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Four individuals (3 males, 1 female) underwent ACTH challenge in each of two seasons, summer and winter. Following ACTH injection serial blood and fecal samples were collected for up to 3 and 96 h, respectively. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was validated for leptin, and using a previously validated RIA for cortisol, collected sera were analyzed for both cortisol and leptin. ACTH injection resulted in a 2.9-fold increase (P=0.164) in leptin which preceded a 3.2-fold increase (P=0.0290) in cortisol by 105 min in summer. In winter, a 1.7-fold increase in leptin (P=0.020) preceded a 2.1-fold increase (P=0.001) in serum cortisol by 45 min. Mean fecal corticosteroid maxima were 10.4 and 16.7-fold above baseline 28 and 12 h post-injection and returned to baseline 52 and 32 h post-injection, in summer and winter, respectively. Data indicate acute activity in juvenile adrenal glands is detectable in feces approximately 12-24 h post-stimulus in either season, with a duration of approximately 40 h in summer and 20 h in winter. Changes in serum cortisol proved statistically significant both seasons and elevated concentrations were detected by 30 min post-stimulus (baseline 64.8+/-4.2; peak 209.5+/-18.3 ng/ml: summer; baseline 87.0+/-15.7; peak 237.6+/-10.0 ng/ml: winter), whereas the changes that occurred in serum leptin proved to be significant only in winter (baseline 6.4+/-0.6; peak 18.7+/-7.0 ng/ml: summer; baseline 4.2+/-0.5; peak 7.5+/-0.6 ng/ml: winter). Changes in fecal corticosteroids proved significant only in summer (baseline 117.8+/-36.7; peak 1219.3+/-298.4 ng/g, P=0.038: summer; baseline 71.8+/-13.7; peak 1198.6+/-369.9 ng/g, P=0.053: winter) due to a high degree of individual variability in winter months. The

  13. Haptoglobin concentrations in free-range and temporarily captive juvenile steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Thomton, Jamie D; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2007-04-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver that circulates at elevated concentrations in response to tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection, and trauma. As part of a larger study, sera Hp concentrations were measured in temporarily captive (n = 21) and free-range (n = 38) western stock juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) sampled from 2003 to 2006. Baseline Hp concentration at time of capture was 133.3 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. Temporarily captive animals exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in Hp concentrations during the first 4 wk of captivity, followed by a return to entry levels by week 5. Haptoglobin levels were not influenced by age, season, or parasite load. There was a significant positive correlation between Hp concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and globulin levels (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation to red blood cell count and hematocrit (P < 0.001 for both). There was no correlation between Hp levels and platelet count (P = 0.095) or hemoglobin (P = 0.457). Routine blubber biopsies collected under gas anesthesia did not produce a measurable Hp response. One animal with a large abscess had an Hp spike of 1,006.0 mg/dl that returned to entry levels after treatment. In conclusion, serum Hp levels correlate to the stable clinical health status observed during captivity, with moderate Hp response during capture and initial acclimation to captivity and acute response to inflammation and infection.

  14. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  15. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  16. Physiological predictors of long-term survival in juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Shuert, C; Mellish, J; Horning, M

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on a continued effort to document potential long-term research impacts on the individual, as well as to identify potential markers of survival for use in a field framework. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion (TJ) project was developed as a novel framework to gain access to wild individuals. We used three analyses to evaluate and predict long-term survival in temporarily captive sea lions (n = 45) through Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population modelling techniques. The first analysis investigated survival in relation to the observed responses to handling stress through changes in six principal blood parameters over the duration of captivity. The second analysis evaluated survival compared with body condition and mass at entry and exit from captivity. Finally, the third analysis sought to evaluate the efficacy of single-point sampling to project similar survival trends for use in field sampling operations. Results from a priori models ranked through Akaike information criterion model selection methods indicated that mass gains (4.2 ± 12%) over captivity and increases in leucocytes (WBC, 1.01 ± 3.54 × 10(3)/mm(3)) resulted in a higher average survival rate (>3 years). Minor support was identified for the single-point measures of exit mass and entry WBC. A higher exit mass predicted a higher survival rate, whereas a higher WBC predicted a lower survival rate. While changes in mass and WBC appear to be the best predictors of survival when measured as a change over time, single-point sampling may still be an effective way to improve estimates of population health.

  17. Physiological predictors of long-term survival in juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Shuert, C.; Mellish, J.; Horning, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on a continued effort to document potential long-term research impacts on the individual, as well as to identify potential markers of survival for use in a field framework. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion (TJ) project was developed as a novel framework to gain access to wild individuals. We used three analyses to evaluate and predict long-term survival in temporarily captive sea lions (n = 45) through Cormack–Jolly–Seber open population modelling techniques. The first analysis investigated survival in relation to the observed responses to handling stress through changes in six principal blood parameters over the duration of captivity. The second analysis evaluated survival compared with body condition and mass at entry and exit from captivity. Finally, the third analysis sought to evaluate the efficacy of single-point sampling to project similar survival trends for use in field sampling operations. Results from a priori models ranked through Akaike information criterion model selection methods indicated that mass gains (4.2 ± 12%) over captivity and increases in leucocytes (WBC, 1.01 ± 3.54 × 103/mm3) resulted in a higher average survival rate (>3 years). Minor support was identified for the single-point measures of exit mass and entry WBC. A higher exit mass predicted a higher survival rate, whereas a higher WBC predicted a lower survival rate. While changes in mass and WBC appear to be the best predictors of survival when measured as a change over time, single-point sampling may still be an effective way to improve estimates of population health. PMID:27293728

  18. Sensitivity to hypercapnia and elimination of CO2 following diving in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2014-05-01

    The diving ability of marine mammals is a function of how they use and store oxygen and the physiological control of ventilation, which is in turn dependent on the accumulation of CO2. To assess the influence of CO2 on physiological control of dive behaviour, we tested how increasing levels of inspired CO2 (hypercarbia) and decreasing inspired O2 (hypoxia) affected the diving metabolic rate, submergence times, and dive recovery times (time to replenish O2 stores and eliminate CO2) of freely diving Steller sea lions. We also measured changes in breathing frequency of diving and non-diving individuals. Our findings show that hypercarbia increased breathing frequency (as low as 2 % CO2), but did not affect metabolic rate, or the duration of dives or surface intervals (up to 3 % CO2). Changes in breathing rates indicated respiratory drive was altered by hypercarbia at rest, but blood CO2 levels remained below the threshold that would alter normal dive behaviour. It took the sea lions longer to remove accumulated CO2 than it did for them to replenish their O2 stores following dives (whether breathing ambient air, hypercarbia, or hypoxia). This difference between O2 and CO2 recovery times grew with increasing dive durations, increasing hypercarbia, and was greater for bout dives, suggesting there could be a build-up of CO2 load with repeated dives. Although we saw no evidence of CO2 limiting dive behaviour, the longer time required to remove CO2 may eventually exhibit control over the overall time they can spend in apnoea and overall foraging duration.

  19. Alaska: Beaufort Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... to improving our knowledge and understanding of polar weather and long term climate fluctuations. These views from two satellite ... the same geographic area. To identify sea ice types, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ice Center ...

  20. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Rudis, Deborah D.; Roffe, Thomas J.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 μg/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  1. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region.

    PubMed Central

    Henny, C J; Rudis, D D; Roffe, T J; Robinson-Wilson, E

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsqaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stellei) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 micrograms/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants. PMID:7556023

  2. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  3. Effects of hot-iron branding on heart rate, breathing rate and behaviour of anaesthetised Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Walker, K A; Mellish, J E; Weary, D M

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the heart rate, breathing rate and behavioural responses of 12 juvenile Steller sea lions during hot-iron branding under isoflurane anaesthesia. Physiological and behavioural measures were recorded in four periods: baseline (five minutes), sham branding (one minute), branding (approximately 2.7 minutes) and postbranding (five minutes). No difference in heart rate was noted from baseline to sham branding, but heart rate increased from mean (sem) 78.3 (2.4) bpm in the baseline period to 85.6 (2.5) bpm in the branding period. Heart rate remained elevated in the postbranding period, averaging 84.7 (2.5) bpm. Breathing rate averaged 2.5 (1.0) breaths/minute in the baseline and sham branding periods increased to 8.9 (1.0) breaths/minute during branding, but returned to baseline by the postbranding period. Behaviourally, half of the sea lions exhibited trembling and head and shoulder movements during branding.

  4. Dive, food, and exercise effects on blood microparticles in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): exploring a biomarker for decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael J; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S; Haulena, Martin; Waller, Nigel; Neale, Troy; Yang, Ming; Thom, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of stranded marine mammals indicate that exposure to underwater military sonar may induce pathophysiological responses consistent with decompression sickness (DCS). However, DCS has been difficult to diagnose in marine mammals. We investigated whether blood microparticles (MPs, measured as number/μl plasma), which increase in response to decompression stress in terrestrial mammals, are a suitable biomarker for DCS in marine mammals. We obtained blood samples from trained Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus, 4 adult females) wearing time-depth recorders that dove to predetermined depths (either 5 or 50 meters). We hypothesized that MPs would be positively related to decompression stress (depth and duration underwater). We also tested the effect of feeding and exercise in isolation on MPs using the same blood sampling protocol. We found that feeding and exercise had no effect on blood MP levels, but that diving caused MPs to increase. However, blood MP levels did not correlate with diving depth, relative time underwater, and presumed decompression stress, possibly indicating acclimation following repeated exposure to depth.

  5. Deep genetic subdivision within a continuously distributed and highly vagile marine mammal, the Steller's sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J I; Matson, C W; Amos, W; Loughlin, T R; Bickham, J W

    2006-09-01

    The Steller's sea lion Eumetopias jubatus is an endangered marine mammal that has experienced dramatic population declines over much of its range during the past five decades. Studies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have shown that an apparently continuous population includes a strong division, yielding two discrete stocks, western and eastern. Based on a weaker split within the western stock, a third Asian stock has also been defined. While these findings indicate strong female philopatry, a recent study using nuclear microsatellite markers found little evidence of any genetic structure, implying extensive paternal gene flow. However, this result was at odds with mark-recapture data, and both sample sizes and genetic resolution were limited. To address these concerns, we increased analytical power by genotyping over 700 individuals from across the species' range at 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. We found a clear phylogenetic break between populations of the eastern stock and those of the western and Asian stocks. However, our data provide little support for the classification of a separate Asian stock. Our findings show that mtDNA structuring is not due simply to female philopatry, but instead reflects a genuine discontinuity within the range, with implications for both the phylogeography and conservation of this important marine mammal.

  6. Crossing to safety: dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

    PubMed

    O'Corry-Crowe, Greg; Gelatt, Tom; Rea, Lorrie; Bonin, Carolina; Rehberg, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Population growth typically involves range expansion and establishment of new breeding sites, while the opposite occurs during declines. Although density dependence is widely invoked in theoretical studies of emigration and colonization in expanding populations, few empirical studies have documented the mechanisms. Still fewer have documented the direction and mechanisms of individual transfer in declining populations. Here, we screen large numbers of pups sampled on their natal rookeries for variation in mtDNA (n = 1106) and 16 microsatellite loci (n = 588) and show that new Steller sea lion breeding sites did not follow the typical paradigm and were instead colonized by sea lions from both a declining (Endangered) population and an increasing population. Dispersing individuals colonized rookeries in the distributional hiatus between two evolutionarily distinct (Φ¯(st) = 0.222, R¯(st) = 0.053, K = 2) metapopulations recently described as separate subspecies. Hardy-Weinberg, mixed-stock and relatedness analysis revealed levels of interbreeding on the new rookeries that exclude (i) assortative mating among eastern and western forms, and (ii) inbreeding avoidance as primary motivations for dispersal. Positive and negative density dependence is implicated in both cases of individual transfer. Migration distance limits, and conspecific attraction and performance likely influenced the sequence of rookery colonizations. This study demonstrates that resource limitation may trigger an exodus of breeding animals from declining populations, with substantial impacts on distribution and patterns of genetic variation. It also revealed that this event is rare because colonists dispersed across an evolutionary boundary, suggesting that the causative factors behind recent declines are unusual or of larger magnitude than normally occur.

  7. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Gilbert J.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Massung, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

  8. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska...

  9. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska...

  10. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  11. Surface Drifter Study - Beaufort Sea, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    34._ MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A I. REPORT NO: CG- C-33-82 C SURFACE DRIFTER STUDY - BEAUFORT SEA, ALASKA Ivan M. Lissauer ...6.Pefo~rmenq O, latzm, n Code _. Performing Orqanozat.on Report No. 7. AuANr’s) Ivan M. Lissauer 1 R Matthpwq CGRRDC 14/82 9. Pdfom4ing Oregaization...Springfield, Virginia. 63p. Hufford, G.L., I.M. Lissauer and J.P. Welsh, 1976. Movement of spilled oil over the Beaufort Sea Shelf - A forecast. United

  12. The influence of time in captivity, food intake and acute trauma on blood analytes of juvenile Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, John P; Tuomi, Pam A; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2015-01-01

    The Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, has experienced regionally divergent population trends over recent decades. One potential mechanism for this disparity is that local factors cause reduced health and, therefore, reduced survival of individuals. The use of blood parameters to assess sea lion health may help to identify whether malnutrition, disease and stress are important drivers of current trends, but such assessments require species-specific knowledge of how parameters respond to various health challenges. We used principal components analysis to identify which key blood parameters (principal analytes) best described changes in health for temporarily captive juvenile Steller sea lions in known conditions. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the changes in principal analytes with food intake, time in captivity and acute trauma associated with hot-iron branding and transmitter implant surgery. Of the 17 blood parameters examined, physiological changes for juvenile sea lions were best described using the following six principal analytes: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, globulin, platelets, glucose and total bilirubin. The white blood cell counts and total bilirubin declined over time in captivity, whereas globulin increased. Elevated red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and total bilirubin and reduced globulin values were associated with lower food intake. After branding, white blood cell counts were elevated for the first 30 days, while globulin and platelets were elevated for the first 15 days only. After implant surgery, red blood cell counts and globulin remained elevated for 30 days, while white blood cell counts remained elevated during the first 15 days only. Glucose was unassociated with the factors we studied. These results were used to provide expected ranges for principal analytes at different levels of food intake and in response to the physical challenges of branding and implant surgery

  13. The influence of time in captivity, food intake and acute trauma on blood analytes of juvenile Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, John P.; Tuomi, Pam A.; Mellish, Jo-Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    The Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, has experienced regionally divergent population trends over recent decades. One potential mechanism for this disparity is that local factors cause reduced health and, therefore, reduced survival of individuals. The use of blood parameters to assess sea lion health may help to identify whether malnutrition, disease and stress are important drivers of current trends, but such assessments require species-specific knowledge of how parameters respond to various health challenges. We used principal components analysis to identify which key blood parameters (principal analytes) best described changes in health for temporarily captive juvenile Steller sea lions in known conditions. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the changes in principal analytes with food intake, time in captivity and acute trauma associated with hot-iron branding and transmitter implant surgery. Of the 17 blood parameters examined, physiological changes for juvenile sea lions were best described using the following six principal analytes: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, globulin, platelets, glucose and total bilirubin. The white blood cell counts and total bilirubin declined over time in captivity, whereas globulin increased. Elevated red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and total bilirubin and reduced globulin values were associated with lower food intake. After branding, white blood cell counts were elevated for the first 30 days, while globulin and platelets were elevated for the first 15 days only. After implant surgery, red blood cell counts and globulin remained elevated for 30 days, while white blood cell counts remained elevated during the first 15 days only. Glucose was unassociated with the factors we studied. These results were used to provide expected ranges for principal analytes at different levels of food intake and in response to the physical challenges of branding and implant surgery

  14. Fish and Fisheries. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series VI. Alaska Sea Grant Report 83-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle; Barr, Nancy

    This curriculum guide is the fifth (Series VI) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. The book lends itself to the fifth-grade level but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Seven units contain 48 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) fish, their…

  15. Discovery: An Introduction. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Alaska Sea Grant Report 83-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle; And Others

    This curriculum guide is the first (Series I) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. As a basic introduction, this first book in the series lends itself to the kindergarten level but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Six units contain 32 activities with worksheets that…

  16. Shells and Insects. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series III. Alaska Sea Grant Report 84-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Claudia; And Others

    This curriculum guide is the third (Series III) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. The book lends itself to the second-grade level but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Ten units contain 77 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to…

  17. Dive behaviour impacts the ability of heart rate to predict oxygen consumption in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) foraging at depth.

    PubMed

    Young, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Hindle, Allyson G; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-07-01

    The predictive relationship between heart rate (f(H)) and oxygen consumption (VO2) has been derived for several species of marine mammals swimming horizontally or diving in tanks to shallow depths. However, it is unclear how dive activity affects the f(H):VO2 relationship and whether the existing equations apply to animals diving to deeper depths. We investigated these questions by simultaneously measuring the f(H) and VO2 of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) under different activity states (surface resting or diving), types of dives (single dives or dive bouts), and depths (10 or 40 m). We examined the relationship over dives only and also over dive cycles (dive + surface interval). We found that f(H) could only predict VO2 over a complete single dive cycle or dive bout cycle (i.e. surface intervals had to be included). The predictive equation derived for sea lions resting on the surface did not differ from that for single dive cycles. However, the equation derived over dive bout cycles (multiple dives + surface intervals) differed from those for single dive cycles or surface resting, with similar f(H) for multiple dive bout equations yielding higher predicted VO2 than that for single dive bout cycles (or resting). The f(H):VO2 relationships were not significantly affected by dive duration, dive depth, water temperature or cumulative food consumed under the conditions tested. Ultimately, our results demonstrate that f(H) can be used to predict activity-specific metabolic rates of diving Steller sea lions, but only over complete dive cycles that include a post-dive surface recovery period.

  18. Birds and Wetlands of Alaska. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Alaska Sea Grant Report 88-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James G.; King, Mary Lou

    This curriculum guide is the fourth (Series V) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. Twelve units contain 45 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) bird lists and field guides; (2) definitions of a bird; (3) parts of a bird; (4) bird watching; (5) bird migration; (6) wetland…

  19. Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Lucero; Rea, Lorrie D.; Bentzen, Rebecca; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets 1) highest [THg] was in hair, 2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and 3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ≤ 0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg]. PMID:24661459

  20. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular.

  1. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora)

    PubMed Central

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Perelman, Polina L.; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae–monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. PMID:26821159

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) in the Eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Flint, P.L.; Trust, K.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Spring, S.E.; Arrieta, D.E.; Hollmen, T.; Wilson, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Seaducks may be affected by harmful levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at seaports near the Arctic. As an indicator of exposure to PAHs, we measured hepatic enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) to determine cytochrome P4501A induction in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) from Unalaska, Popof, and Unga Islands (AK, USA) in 2002 and 2003. We measured PAHs and organic contaminants in seaduck prey samples and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in seaduck blood plasma to determine any relationship to EROD. Using Akaike's information criterion, species and site differences best explained EROD patterns: Activity was higher in Harlequin ducks than in Steller's eiders and higher at industrial than at nonindustrial sites. Site-specific concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels ([Mytilus trossilus] seaduck prey; PAH concentrations higher at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, than at other sites) also was important in defining EROD patterns. Organochlorine compounds rarely were detected in prey samples. No relationship was found between polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in avian blood and EROD, which further supported inferences derived from Akaike's information criterion. Congeners were highest in seaducks from a nonindustrial or reference site, contrary to PAH patterns. To assist in interpreting the field study, 15 captive Steller's eiders were dosed with a PAH known to induce cytochrome P4501A. Dosed, captive Steller's eiders had definitive induction, but results indicated that wild Steller's eiders were exposed to PAHs or other inducing compounds at levels greater than those used in laboratory studies. Concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels at or near Dutch Harbor (∼1,180–5,980 ng/g) approached those found at highly contaminated sites (∼4,100–7,500 ng/g).

  3. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  4. Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) have greater blood volumes, higher diving metabolic rates and a longer aerobic dive limit when nutritionally stressed.

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammal foraging behaviour inherently depends on diving ability. Declining populations of Steller sea lions may be facing nutritional stress that could affect their diving ability through changes in body composition or metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether nutritional stress (restricted food intake resulting in a 10% decrease in body mass) altered the calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL) of four captive sea lions diving in the open ocean, and how this related to changes in observed dive behaviour. We measured diving metabolic rate (DMR), blood O2 stores, body composition and dive behaviour prior to and while under nutritional restriction. We found that nutritionally stressed sea lions increased the duration of their single long dives, and the proportion of time they spent at the surface during a cycle of four dives. Nutritionally stressed sea lions lost both lipid and lean mass, resulting in potentially lower muscle O2 stores. However, total body O2 stores increased due to rises in blood O2 stores associated with having higher blood volumes. Nutritionally stressed sea lions also had higher mass-specific metabolic rates. The greater rise in O2 stores relative to the increase in mass-specific DMR resulted in the sea lions having a longer cADL when nutritionally stressed. We conclude that there was no negative effect of nutritional stress on the diving ability of sea lions. However, nutritional stress did lower foraging efficiency and require more foraging time to meet energy requirements due to increases in diving metabolic rates and surface recovery times.

  5. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  6. Animals of the Seas and Wetlands. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series II. Alaska Sea Grant Report 85-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle

    This curriculum guide is the second (Series II) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. This second book in the series lends itself to the first-grade level but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Nine units contain 30 activities with worksheets that cover the following…

  7. 76 FR 33171 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Alaska Plaice in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Alaska Plaice in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Alaska plaice total allowable catch (TAC) specified for the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200...

  8. 76 FR 33172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Alaska Plaice in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Alaska Plaice in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... of the non-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch of Alaska plaice in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the fisheries...

  9. Geotectonics of the Bering Sea area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    Plate tectonic interactions in the Bering Sea area have played a major role in its structural and geological history since Paleozoic time. The geotectonic style of different areas is similar due to the widespread influence of plate motions. Three major structural and depositional belts have been identified linking the Siberian area to Alaska across the Bering Sea. The northern belt, the Verkhoyansk-Chukotsk-Seward-Brooks, consists of early Mesozoic miogeosynclinal sediments. The middle belt, the Okhotsk-Chukotsk-Yukon-Kovyukuk, consists of a Mesozoic magmatic arc and numerous accreted allochthonous terranes. These features were formed as a result of convergence/subduction of a southern oceanic plate. The southern belt, the Koryak-Anadyr-Peninsular, consists of terranes accreted during Cretaceous time and forms the southern limit of Mesozoic subduction. During Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time, rifting in the Atlantic caused these belts to be oroclinally bent southward and resulted in a shift of the Mesozoic subduction zone to a more southerly location. During formation of the oroclinal fold, subduction along the Bering Shelf margin changed from direct to oblique subduction, then to transform motion. Major movement along this margin ceased as the current Aleutian Island arc system began to form. Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary structures with the Koryak-Anadyr-Peninsular area are potentially important for petroleum exploration because they could have formed concurrently with source and reservoir facies.

  10. Geotectonic evolution of Bering Sea area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, D.A.

    1985-02-01

    The geologic, structural, and tectonic history of the Bering Sea area since Paleozoic time is best viewed in terms of major plate-tectonic interactions. The geotectonic style of disparate areas is apparently related to the nature of plate motion at the time of tectonic imprint. Three major structural belts that have existed since the Mesozoic can be traced from the Siberian sector across the Bering Sea and into Alaska. The northern belt, the Verkhoyansk-Chukotsk-Seward-Brooks, consists of miogeosynclincal sediments that were deposited beginning in earliest Mesozoic time. The middle belt, the Okhotsk-Chukotsk-Yukon-Koyukuk, consists of a Mesozoic magmatic arc and numerous allochthonous terranes, formed due to the convergence-subduction of a southern oceanic plate. The southern belt, the Koryak-Anadyr-Peninsular, consists of terranes accreted during Cretaceous time and forms the southern limit of Mesozoic subduction. During Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time, these belts were oroclinically bent southward by an east-west compressional event, causing the subduction zone to shift to a more southerly location, thus forming the current Aleutian Island arc system, behind which the fragments of 2 Cretaceous oceanic plates were trapped. These oceanic plate fragments may consist of an Early Cretaceous plate and a portion of the Kula plate(.), which carried a northward-migrating arc system. The hypothesized Early Cretaceous plate may have had a counterpart separated by a spreading ridge, both of which have been subducted beneath the Beringian margin.

  11. Interordinal gene capture, the phylogenetic position of Steller's sea cow based on molecular and morphological data, and the macroevolutionary history of Sirenia.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Signore, Anthony V; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl P; Bauer, Cameron E; He, Kai; Crerar, Lorelei; Campos, Paula F; Murphy, William J; Meredith, Robert W; Gatesy, John; Willerslev, Eske; MacPhee, Ross D E; Hofreiter, Michael; Campbell, Kevin L

    2015-10-01

    The recently extinct (ca. 1768) Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was a large, edentulous North Pacific sirenian. The phylogenetic affinities of this taxon to other members of this clade, living and extinct, are uncertain based on previous morphological and molecular studies. We employed hybridization capture methods and second generation sequencing technology to obtain >30kb of exon sequences from 26 nuclear genes for both H. gigas and Dugong dugon. We also obtained complete coding sequences for the tooth-related enamelin (ENAM) gene. Hybridization probes designed using dugong and manatee sequences were both highly effective in retrieving sequences from H. gigas (mean=98.8% coverage), as were more divergent probes for regions of ENAM (99.0% coverage) that were designed exclusively from a proboscidean (African elephant) and a hyracoid (Cape hyrax). New sequences were combined with available sequences for representatives of all other afrotherian orders. We also expanded a previously published morphological matrix for living and fossil Sirenia by adding both new taxa and nine new postcranial characters. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data provide robust support for an association of H. gigas and D. dugon to the exclusion of living trichechids (manatees). Parsimony analyses of the morphological data also support the inclusion of H. gigas in Dugongidae with D. dugon and fossil dugongids. Timetree analyses based on calibration density approaches with hard- and soft-bounded constraints suggest that H. gigas and D. dugon diverged in the Oligocene and that crown sirenians last shared a common ancestor in the Eocene. The coding sequence for the ENAM gene in H. gigas does not contain frameshift mutations or stop codons, but there is a transversion mutation (AG to CG) in the acceptor splice site of intron 2. This disruption in the edentulous Steller's sea cow is consistent with previous studies that have documented inactivating mutations in

  12. Ice Types in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Determining the amount and type of sea ice in the polar oceans is crucial to improving our knowledge and understanding of polar weather and long term climate fluctuations. These views from two satellite remote sensing instruments; the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board the RADARSAT satellite and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), illustrate different methods that may be used to assess sea ice type. Sea ice in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska was classified and mapped in these concurrent images acquired March 19, 2001 and mapped to the same geographic area.

    To identify sea ice types, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ice Center constructs ice charts using several data sources including RADARSAT SAR images such as the one shown at left. SAR classifies sea ice types primarily by how the surface and subsurface roughness influence radar backscatter. In the SAR image, white lines delineate different sea ice zones as identified by the National Ice Center. Regions of mostly multi-year ice (A) are separated from regions with large amounts of first year and younger ice (B-D), and the dashed white line at bottom marks the coastline. In general, sea ice types that exhibit increased radar backscatter appear bright in SAR and are identified as rougher, older ice types. Younger, smoother ice types appear dark to SAR. Near the top of the SAR image, however, red arrows point to bright areas in which large, crystalline 'frost flowers' have formed on young, thin ice, causing this young ice type to exhibit an increased radar backscatter. Frost flowers are strongly backscattering at radar wavelengths (cm) due to both surface roughness and the high salinity of frost flowers, which causes them to be highly reflective to radar energy.

    Surface roughness is also registered by MISR, although the roughness observed is at a different spatial scale. Older, rougher ice areas are predominantly backward scattering to

  13. 77 FR 22750 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...: Notice; intent to prepare an environmental impact statement, request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, in... environmental impact statement (EIS) on Steller sea lion protection measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) groundfish fisheries, in accordance with the National Environmental...

  14. Physiological constraints and energetic costs of diving behaviour in marine mammals: a review of studies using trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Hindle, Allyson G; Gerlinsky, Carling D; Goundie, Elizabeth; Hastie, Gordon D; Volpov, Beth L; Trites, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Marine mammals are characterized as having physiological specializations that maximize the use of oxygen stores to prolong time spent under water. However, it has been difficult to undertake the requisite controlled studies to determine the physiological limitations and trade-offs that marine mammals face while diving in the wild under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. For the past decade, Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) trained to swim and dive in the open ocean away from the physical confines of pools participated in studies that investigated the interactions between diving behaviour, energetic costs, physiological constraints, and prey availability. Many of these studies measured the cost of diving to understand how it varies with behaviour and environmental and physiological conditions. Collectively, these studies show that the type of diving (dive bouts or single dives), the level of underwater activity, the depth and duration of dives, and the nutritional status and physical condition of the animal affect the cost of diving and foraging. They show that dive depth, dive and surface duration, and the type of dive result in physiological adjustments (heart rate, gas exchange) that may be independent of energy expenditure. They also demonstrate that changes in prey abundance and nutritional status cause sea lions to alter the balance between time spent at the surface acquiring oxygen (and offloading CO2 and other metabolic by-products) and time spent at depth acquiring prey. These new insights into the physiological basis of diving behaviour further our understanding of the potential scope for behavioural responses of marine mammals to environmental changes, the energetic significance of these adjustments, and the consequences of approaching physiological limits.

  15. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Stephen Aleutian I. 51°52.50 N 177°12.70 E 51°53.50 N 177°12.00 E Y Kiska I./Lief Cove Aleutian I. 51°57... W 59°21.00 N 150°24.50 W Y Wooded I. (Fish I.) Gulf of Alaska 59°52.90 N 147°20.65 W Seal...

  16. Seasonal influence on the response of the somatotropic axis to nutrient restriction and re-alimentation in captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Richmond, Julie P; Jeanniard du Dot, Tiphaine; Rosen, David A S; Zinn, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Fluctuations in availability of prey resources can impede acquisition of sufficient energy for maintenance and growth. By investigating the hormonal mechanisms of the somatotropic axis that link nutrition, fat metabolism, and lean tissue accretion, we can assess the physiological impact of decreased nutrient intake on growth. Further, species that undergo seasonal periods of reduced intake as a part of their normal life history may have a differential seasonal response to nutrient restriction. This experiment evaluated the influence of season and age on the response of the somatotropic axis, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-binding proteins (BP), to reduced nutrient intake and re-alimentation in Steller sea lions. Eight captive females (five juveniles, three sub-adults) were subject to 28-day periods of food restriction, controlled re-feeding, and ad libitum recovery in summer (long-day photoperiod) and winter (short-day photoperiod). Hormone concentrations were insensitive to type of fish fed (low fat pollock vs. high fat herring), but sensitive to energy intake. Body mass, fat, and IGF-I declined, whereas GH and IGFBP-2 increased during feed restriction. Reduced IGF-I and IGFBP with increased GH during controlled re-feeding suggest that animals did not reach positive energy balance until fed ad libitum. Increased IGF-I, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and reduced GH observed in summer reflected seasonal differences in energy partitioning. There was a strong season and age effect in the response to restriction and re-alimentation, indicating that older, larger animals are better able to cope with stress associated with energy deficit, regardless of season.

  17. Marine Mammals, Coastal and River Issues. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series VII. Alaska Sea Grant Report 84-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle

    This curriculum guide is the last (Series VII) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. The guide lends itself to the sixth-grade curriculum but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Eight units contain 43 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) the values…

  18. Stock structure of sea otters (Enhydra Lutris Kenyoni) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorbics, C.S.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Sea otters in Alaska are recognized as a single subspecies (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and currently managed as a single, interbreeding population. However, geographic and behavioral mechanisms undoubtably constrain sea otter movements on much smaller scales. This paper applies the phylogeographic method (Dizon et al. 1992) and considers distribution, population response, phenotype and genotype data to identify stocks of sea otters within Alaska. The evidence for separate stock identity is genotypic (all stocks), phenotypic (Southcentral and Southwest stocks), and geographic distribution (Southeast stock), whereas population response data are equivocal (all stocks). Differences in genotype frequencies and the presence of unique genotypes among areas indicate restricted gene flow. Genetic exchange may be limited by little or no movement across proposed stock boundaries and discontinuities in distribution at proposed stock boundaries. Skull size differences (phenotypic) between Southwest and Southcentral Alaska populations further support stock separation. Population response information was equivocal in either supporting or refuting stock identity. On the basis of this review, we suggest the following: (1) a Southeast stock extending from Dixon Entrance to Cape Yakataga; (2) a Southcentral stock extending from Cape Yakataga to Cape Douglas including Prince William Sound and Kenai peninsula coast; and (3) a Southwest stock including Alaska Peninsula coast, the Aleutians to Attu Island, Barren, Kodiak, Pribilof Islands, and Bristol Bay.

  19. 77 FR 52674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public scoping meeting for an environmental impact statement; request for...), will hold a public scoping meeting and accept written comments from the public to determine the issues... cumulative impacts to be addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Steller Sea...

  20. Methane in coastal sea water, sea ice, and bottom sediments, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes data acquired from 1990 to 1994 for the gas-hydrate portion of the USGS project 'Permafrost and gas hydrate as possible sources of methane' of the USGS Global Change and Climate History program. The objective of this project has been to test the hypothesis that gas hydrate deposits of the Beaufort Sea continental shelf are destabilized by the ~10?C temperature increase that has resulted from the Holocene transgression of the Arctic Ocean. To test this idea we have selected an area off the north coast of Alaska centered on Harrison Bay. We have measured the concentration of methane in surficial sediments, in the water column when ice is present and absent, and in seasonal sea ice. Our results show that more methane is present in the water when ice is present than when ice is absent, and that methane is also present within the ice itself, often at higher concentrations than in the water. Thus the Beaufort Sea shelf of Alaska is a seasonal source of methane. The primary source of this methane has not yet been defined, but gas hydrate is a reasonable candidate.

  1. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions

    PubMed Central

    Trites, Andrew W.; Rosen, David A. S.; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion—an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric—Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal—and they should

  2. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal-and they should also

  3. 77 FR 34350 - November 2010 Biological Opinion on the Effects of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries on Steller Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, and the public concerning new and relevant scientific... conference room. The CIE contract statement of work (SOW) and terms of reference (TORs) and documents subject... scientific information used for, and analysis contained in, the Final Biop; and new scientific...

  4. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter N/A in the required fields, if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments...

  5. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

  6. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  7. The epipelagic fish community of Beaufort Sea coastal waters, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvela, L.E.; Thorsteinson, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    A three-year study of epipelagic fishes inhabiting Beaufort Sea coastal waters in Alaska documented spatial and temporal patterns in fish distribution and abundance and examined their relationships to thermohaline features during summer. Significant interannual, seasonal, and geographical differences in surface water temperatures and salinities were observed. In 1990, sea ice was absent and marine conditions prevailed, whereas in 1988 and 1991, heavy pack ice was present and the dissolution of the brackish water mass along the coast proceeded more slowly. Arctic cod, capelin, and liparids were the most abundant marine fishes in the catches, while arctic cisco was the only abundant diadromous freshwater species. Age-0 arctic cod were exceptionally abundant and large in 1990, while age-0 capelin dominated in the other years. The alternating numerical dominances of arctic cod and age-0 capelin may represent differing species' responses to wind-driven oceanographic processes affecting growth and survival. The only captures of age-0 arctic cisco occurred during 1990. Catch patterns indicate they use a broad coastal migratory corridor and tolerate high salinities. As in the oceanographic data, geographical anti temporal patterns were apparent in the fish catch data, but in most cases these patterns were not statistically testable because of excessive zero catches. The negative binomial distribution appeared to be a suitable statistical descriptor of the aggregated catch patterns for the more common species.

  8. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  9. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and... Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  10. Sea otter population structure and ecology in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    one reaching its peak about 1800 and averaging about 15,000 per year and a second about 1870, averaging about 4,000 per year. The causes for this harvest pattern are unknown, but it may represent two distinct periods of overexploitation separated by a brief period of population recovery.By 1890 the species had been eliminated throughout most of its range, persisting in small numbers at 13 isolated locations in California, Alaska, and Russia. The number of sea otters that survived the fur trade is unknown, but available data suggest that some remnant populations may have been as small as a few dozen individuals. In 1911, sea otters were afforded protection under the International Fur Seal Treaty, and populations apparently responded by gradually increasing in abundance. The rates of population recovery varied among locations, averaging 9% annually and ranging from 6 to 13%. The population at Amchitka Island in the central Aleutians had the highest growth rate among those surviving, apparently reaching carrying capacity by about 1950.Efforts to aid the recovery of the species into the vast unoccupied habitats between California and Prince William Sound began in 1965. Sea otters from Amchitka and Prince William Sound were translocated to Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and several locations in southeastern Alaska. With the exception of Oregon, these translocations have resulted in the establishment of successful colonies. Population growth rates of translocated sea otters have been significantly greater than among remnant populations, averaging 21% and ranging from 18 to 24%. We don’t know why the growth rates of the remnant and translocated populations are so different, but it may be partly because of the abundant food and space available at the translocated sites.The varying patterns of sea otter population decline and recovery provide a unique and powerful tool for studying the effects of historic reductions on populations, as well as how populations respond to varying

  11. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program...://www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . The... the NMFS Alaska Region Web site at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . Written comments regarding...

  12. Demersal fish assemblages of the northeastern Chukchi Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, W.E.; Smith, R.L.; Vallarino, M.; Meyer, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    We documented the distribution and abundance of demersal fishes in the northeastern Chukchi Sea, Alaska, in 1990 and 1991, and described 1990 demersal fish assemblages and their relationship to general oceanographic features in the area. We collected samples using an otter trawl at 48 stations in 1990 and 16 in 1991, and we identified a total of 66 species in 14 families. Gadids made up 83% and 69% of the abundance in 1990 and 1991, respectively. Cottids, pleuronectids, and zoarcids together made up 15% of the species in 1990, 28% in 1991. The number of species, species diversity (H), and evenness (V') generally were greater inshore than offshore and greater in the south than in the north. There were significant differences in ranks of species, species diversity, and evenness at 3 of 8 stations sampled beth years. From data collected in 1990, 3 nearshore and 3 offshore station groupings were defined. The northern offshore assemblages had the fewest species, lowest diversity and evenness, and least abundance, whereas two southern assemblages had the most species, highest diversity and evenness, and greatest abundance. We determined that bottom salinity and percent gravel were probably the primary factors influencing assemblage arrangement.

  13. New Approach to Sea Level Monitoring Tested at Shemya, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, G. W.; Medbery, A. H.; Burgy, M. C.

    2003-12-01

    Due to the prohibitive installation cost to replace a storm damaged stilling well type tide gauge at Earickson Air Force Station on Shemya Island, Alaska, an alternative sea-level gauge was sought by the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC). An Omart-Vega radar system was chosen as the alternative, since it had low power needs, did not require a stilling well and its design included observation of rough surface liquids. The Omart-Vega radar system works by emitting a 5 gHz radar wave which reflects off the water surface and then back to the unit at a specified rate. This information is then telemetered directly to a computer which records the sample. Although the cost of the Vega system (3500USD) was similar to that of the stilling well unit (2500USD), the comparison of the installation costs of the two different units was an issue. To install the stilling well system, two certified under-water welding divers were required at a cost of 40K-USD or more. In comparison, the installation of the Vega system simply required an arm constructed so as to hang and support the Vega unit off the pier at Shemya. This arm assembly would also house the unit to protect it from surf and weather. The arm was designed in-house and built by a local metal contractor for less than 500USD. This portable unit was sent to Shemya via C-130 aircraft. The arm assembly and housed radar tide gauge was installed by one person. The circuitry to run the Vega was developed and tested at the WCATWC. Software was designed and tested there as well, although the software was written by Omart at no cost to the Warning Center. The circuitry allows for direct remote reconfiguration from Palmer to the radar system. The Vega is accessed by software directly from the WCATWC computer to sample the water level at numerous settable sample rates, which include one second, five second, fifteen second, and thirty second. After nearly one year of operation at Earickson, which included many major

  14. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  15. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  16. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 (Lease Sale 237) MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... addressed in this Call (``Program Area'') is located offshore Alaska in the Chukchi Sea Planning Area....

  17. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  18. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  19. Model of inner shelf shoal development, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, P.; Nummedal, D.; Reimnitz, E.

    1985-01-01

    At least two types of inner shelf shoals exist in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. One type is located up to 40 km from the shoreline in an average water depth of 20m and oriented obliquely to the coast. A second type of shoals occur adjacent to existing barrier islands where minimum water depth over the shoal crest may be as little as 30-50cm. The development of shallow water shoals is believed to be a result of barrier island submergence. Dinkum Sands is an example of a shallow water shoal. This linear sand body is located between Cross and Narwhal Islands, 25km northeast of Prudhoe Bay. The shoal complex is 8 km long and less than 2 km wide and has a maximum relief of 5m. Historical data reveal submergence of an island over at least a 25 year period. The proposed initial stage of shoal development occurs when longshore sediment transport between barrier islands is disrupted by numerous events of downdrift tidal inlet breaching. Reduction in the amount of available sediment to each island results in significant coastal erosion (stage 2), manifest as a landward migration of the shoreline and a reduction in barrier elevation. The final stage of the model is barrier submergence. At present the greatest accumulation of sediment on Dinkum Sands occur at the distal extremities of the shoal. These are believed to represent the location of recurved spits at either end of the island prior to submergence. Application of the submergence model to explain deepwater shoal development must await the collection of shallow (10m) whole core data.

  20. 77 FR 65838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  1. 75 FR 68726 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  2. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  3. Sea level variations in relation to coastal flow around the Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.K.; Schumacher, J.D.

    1981-07-20

    Adjusted sea level deviations at six tide stations around the Gulf of Alaska were examined in light of our recent knowledge of the flow regime. On the east side of the gulf a maximum in the deviations seems to be caused by winter barotropic flow on the shelf. On the north side of the gulf, the maximum in fall is apparently produced by a marked increase in flow of the baroclinic coastal current. Farther west the seasonal sea level signal is appreciably reduced.

  4. Phocine distemper virus in northern sea otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Burek, Kathy A; Hammond, John A

    2009-06-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.

  5. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  6. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  7. Arctic continental shelf morphology related to sea-ice zonation, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Toimil, L.; Barnes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-1 and NOAA satellite imagery for the winter 1972-1973, and a variety of ice and sea-floor data were used to study sea-ice zonation and dynamics and their relation to bottom morphology and geology on the Beaufort Sea continental shelf of arctic Alaska. In early winter the location of the boundary between undeformed fast ice and westward-drifting pack ice of the Pacific Gyre is controlled by major coastal promontories. Pronounced linear pressure- and shear-ridges, as well as hummock fields, form along this boundary and are stabilized by grounding, generally between the 10- and 20-m isobaths. Slippage along this boundary occurs intermittently at or seaward of the grounded ridges, forming new grounded ridges in a widening zone, the stamukhi zone, which by late winter extends out to the 40-m isobath. Between intermittent events along the stamukhi zone, pack-ice drift and slippage is continuous along the shelf edge, at average rates of 3-10 km/day. Whether slippage occurs along the stamukhi zone or along the shelf edge, it is restricted to a zone several hundred meters wide, and ice seaward of the slip face moves at uniform rates without discernible drag effects. A causal relationship is seen between the spatial distribution of major ice-ridge systems and offshore shoals downdrift of major coastal promontories. The shoals appear to have migrated shoreward under the influence of ice up to 400 m in the last 25 years. The sea floor seaward of these shoals within the stamukhi zone shows high ice-gouge density, large incision depths, and a high degree of disruption of internal sedimentary structures. The concentration of large ice ridges and our sea floor data in the stamukhi zone indicate that much of the available marine energy is expended here, while the inner shelf and coast, where the relatively undeformed fast ice grows, are sheltered. There is evidence that anomalies in the overall arctic shelf profile are related to sea-ice zonation, ice dynamics, and bottom

  8. Status of sea otter populations in southcentral and southeast Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Maldini, Daniela; Calkins, Donald; Atkinson, Shannon; Meehan, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    During the years 2002-2004 estimated sea otter population sizes were calculated for Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, and the Kenai Peninsula and Cook Inlet regions of Alaska. Aerial surveys were conducted by a single observer from a float-equipped Bellanca Scout fixed-wing aircraft flying at 91 m altitude and 65 mph. The surveys followed protocols written by Bodkin and Udevitz (1999). The survey design consisted of systematic sampling of 400 m wide transects that were uniformly placed throughout the survey area. Selection and sampling of transects was proportional to expected sea otter abundance, with most effort taking place in transects over waters 0-40 m in depth. Intensive searches were periodically conducted within transects to estimate the proportion of sea otters not detected on strips. To obtain an adjusted population size estimate, strip counts are adjusted for the area not surveyed and by a correction factor.

  9. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less... catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time...

  10. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041)....

  11. 76 FR 40628 - Groundfish Fisheries of the EEZ Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut Fisheries; CDQ Program; Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Coonstripe 864 Humpy 963 Northern (pink) 961 Sidestripe 962 Spot 965 Snails 890 Urchin, green sea 893 Urchin... EEZ Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut Fisheries; CDQ Program; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP). With Federal oversight, the State of...

  12. 76 FR 71913 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Flatfish” in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Flatfish'' in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for ``other flatfish'' in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of ``other flatfish'' in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  13. 78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland...

  14. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to fully use the 2010 A season total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these...

  15. 75 FR 3873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 A season total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these...

  16. 77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Groundfish Retention Standard... (BSAI) management area by removing certain regulatory requirements mandating minimum levels of... Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the fishery management plan, and other applicable law....

  17. Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Anthony A; Echelmeyer, Keith A; Harrison, William D; Lingle, Craig S; Valentine, Virginia B

    2002-07-19

    We have used airborne laser altimetry to estimate volume changes of 67 glaciers in Alaska from the mid-1950s to the mid-1990s. The average rate of thickness change of these glaciers was -0.52 m/year. Extrapolation to all glaciers in Alaska yields an estimated total annual volume change of -52 +/- 15 km3/year (water equivalent), equivalent to a rise in sea level (SLE) of 0.14 +/- 0.04 mm/year. Repeat measurements of 28 glaciers from the mid-1990s to 2000-2001 suggest an increased average rate of thinning, -1.8 m/year. This leads to an extrapolated annual volume loss from Alaska glaciers equal to -96 +/- 35 km3/year, or 0.27 +/- 0.10 mm/year SLE, during the past decade. These recent losses are nearly double the estimated annual loss from the entire Greenland Ice Sheet during the same time period and are much higher than previously published loss estimates for Alaska glaciers. They form the largest glaciological contribution to rising sea level yet measured.

  18. Geological and operational summary, North Aleutian Shelf Coast No. 1 well, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses the first continental offshore stratigraphic test well drilled in the North Aleutian Basin Planning Area, Bering Sea, Alaska. The well was drilled to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the area. The report covers drilling operations; lithology and core data; velocity analysis; geologic setting and tectonic framework; seismic stratigraphy; well-log interpretation and lithostratigraphy; paleontology and biostratigraphy; geothermal gradient; organic geochemistry; abnormal formation pressure; geologic hazards and shallow geology; and environmental considerations.

  19. Activity patterns and time budgets of the declining sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelatt, Thomas S.; Siniff, Donald B.; Estes, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Time budgets of predators may reflect population status if time spent foraging varies with local prey abun- dance. We assumed that the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA, had been at equilibrium since the early 1960s and collected time budgets of otters to be used to represent future conditions of currently expanding sea otter populations. We used radiotelemetry to monitor activity-time budgets of otters from August 1992 to March 1994. Sea otter activity was directly linked to sex, age, weather condition, season, and time of day. Sea otters differed in percent time foraging among cohorts but not within cohorts. Percent time foraging ranged from 21% for females with very young (≤ 3weeks of age) dependent pups to 52% for females with old (≥10 weeks of age) pups. Otters foraged more and hauled out more as local sea conditions worsened. Adult males spent less time foraging during winter and spring, consistent with seasonal changes in prey selection. Time spent for- aging was similar to that reported for otters in California and an established population in Prince William Sound, Alaska, but greater than that of otters in recently established populations in Oregon and Alaska. Despite current evidence indicating that the population was in decline during our study, we were unable to recognize this change using time budgets. Our results illustrate the importance of stratifying analyses of activity patterns by age and sex cohorts and the complexity inherent in comparisons of behavioral data between different populations relying on distinct prey bases.

  20. Shallow-water habitat use by Bering Sea flatfishes along the central Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Flatfishes support a number of important fisheries in Alaskan waters and represent major pathways of energy flow through the ecosystem. Despite their economic and ecological importance, little is known about the use of habitat by juvenile flatfishes in the eastern Bering Sea. This study describes the habitat characteristics of juvenile flatfishes in coastal waters along the Alaska Peninsula and within the Port Moller-Herendeen Bay system, the largest marine embayment in the southern Bering Sea. The two most abundant species, northern rock sole and yellowfin sole, differed slightly in habitat use with the latter occupying slightly muddier substrates. Both were more common along the open coastline than they were within the bay, whereas juvenile Alaska plaice were more abundant within the bay than along the coast and used shallow waters with muddy, high organic content sediments. Juvenile Pacific halibut showed the greatest shift in distribution between age classes: age-0 fish were found in deeper waters (~ 30 m) along the coast, whereas older juveniles were found in the warmer, shallow waters within the bay, possibly due to increased thermal opportunities for growth in this temperature-sensitive species. Three other species, starry flounder, flathead sole, and arrowtooth flounder, were also present, but at much lower densities. In addition, the habitat use patterns of spring-spawning flatfishes (northern rock sole, Pacific halibut, and Alaska plaice) in this region appear to be strongly influenced by oceanographic processes that influence delivery of larvae to coastal habitats. Overall, use of the coastal embayment habitats appears to be less important to juvenile flatfishes in the Bering Sea than in the Gulf of Alaska.

  1. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Rapid divergence and postglacial colonization in western North American Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri).

    PubMed

    Burg, Theresa M; Gaston, Anthony J; Winker, Kevin; Friesen, Vicki L

    2005-10-01

    Post-Pleistocene avian colonization of deglaciated North America occurred from multiple refugia, including a coastal refugium in the northwest. The location of a Pacific Coastal refugium is controversial; however, multiple lines of evidence suggest that it was located near the Queen Charlotte Islands (also known as Haida Gwaii). The Queen Charlotte Islands contain a disproportionately large number of endemic plants and animals including the Steller's jay Cyanocitta stelleri carlottae. Using five highly variable microsatellite markers, we studied population structure among eight populations of Steller's jay (N = 150) from geographical areas representing three subspecies in western North America: C. s. carlottae, C. s. stelleri and C. s. annectens. Microsatellite analyses revealed genetic differentiation between each of the three subspecies, although more extensive sampling of additional C. s. annectens populations is needed to clarify the level of subspecies differentiation. High levels of population structure were found among C. s. stelleri populations with significant differences in all but two pairwise comparisons. A significant isolation by distance pattern was observed amongst populations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. In the C. s. carlottae population, there was evidence of reduced genetic variation, higher number of private alleles than northern C. s. stelleri populations and higher levels of divergence between Queen Charlotte Island and other populations. We were unable to reject the hypothesis that the Queen Charlotte Islands served as a refugium during the Pleistocene. Steller's jay may have colonized the Queen Charlotte Islands near the end of the last glaciation or persisted throughout the Pleistocene, and this subspecies may thus represent a glacial relic. The larger number of private alleles, despite reduced genetic variation, morphological distinctiveness and high divergence from other populations suggests that the Queen Charlotte Island

  3. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... of the 2010 rock sole total allowable catch (TAC) specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the 2010 total allowable catch of rock sole to...

  4. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  5. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources... Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) and the CR Program to... the amendment is available for public review and comment. The king and Tanner crab fisheries in...

  6. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands are managed under the FMP. The FMP was prepared by the... ecological conditions warrant doing so. Amendment 39 modifies the existing snow crab rebuilding plan...

  7. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National... the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP) to NMFS for review. If approved... review and comment. NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  8. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... non-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch of squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... 679. The 2012 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of squid in the BSAI was established as 361...

  9. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  10. 75 FR 55288 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200...

  11. 78 FR 42891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rougheye Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch of rougheye rockfish... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rougheye Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and...

  12. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been...

  13. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... fully use the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in the CAI by vessels participating...

  14. Use of the Beaufort Sea by king eiders breeding on the North Slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.; Taylor, E.J.; Rexstad, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    We estimated areas used by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, how distributions of used areas varied, and characteristics that explained variation in the number of days spent at sea, to provide regulatory agencies with baseline data needed to minimize impacts of potential offshore oil development. We implanted sixty king eiders with satellite transmitters at nesting areas on the North Slope of Alaska, USA, in 2002-2004. More than 80% of marked eiders spent >2 weeks staging offshore prior to beginning a postbreeding molt migration. During postbreeding staging and migration, male king eiders had much broader distributions in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea than female eiders, which were concentrated in Harrison and Smith Bays. Distribution did not vary by sex during spring migration in the year after marking. Shorter residence times of eiders and deeper water at locations used during spring migration suggest the Alaskan Beaufort Sea might not be as critical a staging area for king eiders during prebreeding as it is postbreeding. Residence time in the Beaufort Sea varied by sex, with female king eiders spending more days at sea than males in spring and during postbreeding. We conclude the Alaskan Beaufort Sea is an important staging area for king eiders during postbreeding, and eider distribution should be considered by managers when mitigating for future offshore development. We recommend future studies examine the importance of spring staging areas outside the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  15. Impacts of Recent Perennial Sea Ice Reduction on BrO Observations at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Nghiem, S. V.; Friess, U.; Platt, U.

    2013-12-01

    Polar sunrise in the Arctic has been associated with production of reactive halogens from sea salt(e.g. Br, BrO). While effects of these halogen species are well known(e.g. ozone depletion, mercury deposition), their production is not fully understood, but thought to be linked to heterogeneous chemistry taking place on saline ice surfaces(e.g saline snow, first year sea ice). Given the recent decline of perennial sea ice in the Arctic, it is imperative to understand the role of younger, more saline, first year ice in halogen activation processes. We used multiple axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy(MAX-DOAS) at Barrow, Alaska to observe BrO during the spring/early summer of 2008,2009,2012, and 2013. While average BrO boundary layer vertical column densities(BL-VCD) agreed within error during 2008 and 2009, the average observed BL-VCD doubled from 1e13 mol/cm^2 in 2008 and 2009, to 2e13 mol/cm^2 in 2012. We explore potential explanations for this observed increase using satellite maps of synoptic sea ice classes, MODIS imagery of local sea ice features, and back trajectory modelling. Potential impacts of the 2012 record minimum sea ice extent on observed halogen activation during the spring of 2013 are also discussed.

  16. Status and Trends of Sea Otter Populations in Southeast Alaska, 1969-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esslinger, George G.; Bodkin, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Aerial surveys of all known sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat in Southeast Alaska (SE AK) in 2002-2003 indicated a population size of 8,949 otters [Standard Error (SE) = 899] at an average density of 0.92 otters per square kilometer. These findings on sea otter distribution and abundance were compared to results from several previous surveys. Sea otters have expanded their range beyond the outer coast of SE AK and currently occupy inside waters such as Glacier Bay and Sumner Strait. This range expansion, along with archeological evidence, supports the hypothesis that sea otters are capable of colonizing inside waters in SE AK. Inside Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, in northern SE AK, sea otter abundance has increased from 5 in 1995 to 1,266 (SE = 196) in 2002, more than doubling on an average annual basis, indicating immigration and reproduction as factors contributing to population growth. In the remainder of northern SE AK, the estimated abundance has declined from 2,295 in 1987 to 1,838 (SE = 307) in 2002. In southern SE AK, the abundance of sea otters increased from 2,167 in 1988 to 5,845 (SE = 821) in 2003. Overall, population growth rates for sea otters in SE AK between 1987 and 2003 are much lower than rates from previous studies and were unexpected given the amount of unoccupied habitat available in SE AK. Divergent population trajectories were evident between the southern (6.6 percent per year) and northern areas of SE AK (2.0 percent per year). These differences suggest variation in reproductive or survival rates between the areas. Harvest levels between 1989 and 2003 may have had a measurable effect on sea otter populations in SE AK. Available data on age and sex specific fecundity and survival rates could be used to develop age- and sex-structured population matrix models to help guide management and conservation of sea otter populations.

  17. Seismic evidence of evaporite diapirs in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, D.K.; Lothamer, R.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An area of {approximately}500 km{sup 2} on the central Chukchi shelf contains diapirs and related structural features, including withdrawal synclines, pillow structures, and radial faults. These features were formed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time. The diapirs rise to the sea floor from a large north-trending graben of Tertiary age and pierce more than 5,500m of overlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. The diapirs exhibit a columnar cross section and a circular plan view in their upper part, but are continuous or ridgelike near their base. Mobile material appears to emanate from strata of the upper Paleozoic lower Ellesmerian sequence which floor the graben. On the basis of seismic stratigraphy, structural associations, and morphology, the authors propose that these diapirs are composed of mobilized upper Paleozoic evaporites.

  18. Monitoring population status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: options and considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esslinger, George; Esler, Daniel N.; Howlin, S.; Starcevich, L.A.

    2015-06-25

    After many decades of absence from southeast Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are recolonizing parts of their former range, including Glacier Bay, Alaska. Sea otters are well known for structuring nearshore ecosystems and causing community-level changes such as increases in kelp abundance and changes in the size and number of other consumers. Monitoring population status of sea otters in Glacier Bay will help park researchers and managers understand and interpret sea otter-induced ecosystem changes relative to other sources of variation, including potential human-induced impacts such as ocean acidification, vessel disturbance, and oil spills. This report was prepared for the National Park Service (NPS), Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network following a request for evaluation of options for monitoring sea otter population status in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. To meet this request, we provide a detailed consideration of the primary method of assessment of abundance and distribution, aerial surveys, including analyses of power to detect interannual trends and designs to reduce variation around annual abundance estimates. We also describe two alternate techniques for evaluating sea otter population status—(1) quantifying sea otter diets and energy intake rates, and (2) detecting change in ages at death. In addition, we provide a brief section on directed research to identify studies that would further our understanding of sea otter population dynamics and effects on the Glacier Bay ecosystem, and provide context for interpreting results of monitoring activities.

  19. Population demographics, survival, and reporduction: Alaska sea otter research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Bodkin, James L.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.; Tinker, M.T.; Siniff, D.B.; Maldini, Daniela; Calkins, Donald; Atkinson, Shannon; Meehan, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental force behind population change is the balance between age-specific survival and reproductive rates. Thus, understanding population demographics is crucial when trying to interpret trends in population change over time. For many species, demographic rates change as the population’s status (i.e., relative to prey resources) varies. Indices of body condition indicative of individual energy reserves can be a useful gauge of population status. Integrated studies designed to measure (1) population trends; (2) current population status; and (3) demographic rates will provide the most complete picture of the factors driving observed population changes. In particular, estimates of age specific survival and reproduction in conjunction with measures of population change can be integrated into population matrix models useful in explaining observed trends. We focus here on the methods used to measure demographic rates in sea otters, and note the importance of comparable methods between studies. Next, we review the current knowledge of the influence of population status on demographic parameters. We end with examples of the power of matrix modeling as a tool to integrate various types of demographic information for detecting otherwise hard to detect changes in demographic parameters.

  20. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Bodkin, James L.; Costa, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    Boat-based surveys have been commonly used to monitor sea otter populations, but there has been little quantitative work to evaluate detection biases that may affect these surveys. We used ground-based observers to investigate sea otter detection probabilities in a boat-based survey of Prince William Sound, Alaska. We estimated that 30% of the otters present on surveyed transects were not detected by boat crews. Approximately half (53%) of the undetected otters were missed because the otters left the transects, apparently in response to the approaching boat. Unbiased estimates of detection probabilities will be required for obtaining unbiased population estimates from boat-based surveys of sea otters. Therefore, boat-based surveys should include methods to estimate sea otter detection probabilities under the conditions specific to each survey. Unbiased estimation of detection probabilities with ground-based observers requires either that the ground crews detect all of the otters in observed subunits, or that there are no errors in determining which crews saw each detected otter. Ground-based observer methods may be appropriate in areas where nearly all of the sea otter habitat is potentially visible from ground-based vantage points.

  1. Foods of Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri in the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Piatt, J.F.; Trust, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The winter diet of Spectacled Eiders living in marine habitats is known only from two individuals described by Cottam (1939). Here we examine marine diets from 36 stomachs collected near St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska, during May-June in 1987 and 1992. All Spectacled Eiders ate Mollusca, including Gastropoda (snails; frequency of occurrence 20.0%; sole taxon 0.0%) and Bivalvia (bivalves; 80.0%; 48.0%), and Crustacea (barnacles, amphipods and crabs; 30.6%; 0.0%). One bird ate a cod. The predominant species group eaten was Macoma Clams (72.0%; 36.0%). Prey species of Spectacled Eiders occur predominantly in waters 25-60 m deep in the Bering Sea. To obtain these prey, especially the bivalves, on the winter area Spectacled Eiders must forage in waters exceeding 40 m. We speculate that Spectacled Eiders regularly forage at depths of 45-70 m throughout winter.

  2. Spatial Variability of Land-Sea Carbon Exchange at a Coastal Area in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.

    2007-12-01

    Relatively cold and low salinity sea water of the Arctic Ocean was considered to be a sink for atmospheric CO2 (Takahashi et al., 1997) because the solubility of CO2 in seawater increases as temperature decreases, and the arctic sea water transports CO2 to greater depths. However, carbon exchange in the Arctic sea is not well evaluated yet, because available data is very limited (Semiletov et al., 2007). Also, terrestrial inflows, such as thawing permafrost and coastal erosion, also affect oceanic air-sea CO2 exchange especially in the Arctic (ACIA., 2004) creating a variety of regional carbon cycles (Semiletov et al., 2007). Our aim is to quantify an air-sea CO2 exchange of a spatially wide coastal sea area, in Barrow, Alaska and to extrapolate the future carbon cycle in response to climate change. Boat cruises for pCO2 measurements operated from July 29 to August 5, 2007. The surveyed area was mainly divided into three parts: Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Elson Lagoon. Conductivity of sea surface (CS) and sea surface temperature (SST) were also measured together with pCO2. The result showed distinct differences in pCO2 among three areas. Average delta pCO2 (dpCO2) (a difference between an atmospheric CO2 and pCO2), CS, and SST were -114.9 ppm, 47.0 mScm-1, and 8.0 C at Chukchi Sea, -53.1 ppm, 43.5 mScm-1, and 8.9 C at Beaufort Sea, and 43.7 ppm, 41.1 mScm-1, and 9.5 C at Elson Lagoon. Relatively high dpCO2 value in the Beaufort Sea implies a large terrestrial input from Elson Lagoon where dpCO2 value is positive. This is supported by lower CS in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Laggon than in the Chukchi Sea. Sea currents from Pacific Ocean, which continuously flow through the Chukchi Sea, are thought to carry warmer water. However, SST was lower in the Chukchi Sea than in the Beaufort Sea. This may be because a prevailing wind from north east creates Ekman transport causing an upwelling along the Chukchi Sea coast and this upwelling carries deep cold water to the

  3. Shallow geology of north Aleutian shelf area, Bering Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hoose, P.J.; Ashenfelter, K.H.

    1983-03-01

    In 1981, the geological hazards analysis group of the US Geological Survey's Conservation Division collected 4009 line-km (2491 line-mi) of high-resolution seismic reflection data in the south-central Bering Sea. The US Department of the Interior has tentatively selected this area for inclusion in Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sale 92 scheduled to be held in 1985. This study was part of the surface and shallow subsurface geological investigation of the sale area. A bathymetric map constructed from these data reveals a prominent, 20-m (33 ft) high, gentle scarp which trends obliquely across the survey area. Several linear moraine deposits, and several sag depressions related to the presence of near-surface faults were also found in the area. A Holocene isopach map reveals that sediment distribution is current-controlled. Contemporary current-related features consist of ripple marks, sediment waves, and scour zones. These features generally occur within 60 km (37 mi) of the shore and in water depths of less than 70 m (230 ft). Although current flow generally parallels the shore, side-scan sonographs indicate that the current direction which produced these features is strongly influenced by small and intermediate scale bathymetric features. Faults are present in the southwestern portion of the survey area where they occur in a 30 km (19 mi) wide, east-west trending zone. Within it, faults trend approximately east-west and sense of movement is exclusively normal. There are also several examples of growth faults. Acoustic anomalies, which may represent gas, are present throughout much of the survey area and occur at two different relatively shallow depths.

  4. Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, Victor C.; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75–90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means.

  5. Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, V.C.; McNamara, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75-90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Temporal variability in abundance of Marbled Murrelets at sea in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Springer, Alan M.; Piatt, John F.; Thomas, Dana

    2000-01-01

    We examined effects of season, time of day, tide stage, tidal oscillation, and sea surface temperature on Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) abundance and distribution at sea. We also evaluated whether constraining surveys to specific time periods or tide stages would reduce temporal variability in counts. Murrelets were surveyed daily from small boats and from shore in Auke Bay and Fritz Cove, Alaska, from May through August in 1992 and 1993. Murrelet numbers were high before egg-laying, declined by more than half during egg-laying and incubation and were highly variable during chick-rearing and fledging. Murrelet numbers were highest in early and late morning and declined throughout the day, sometimes increasing slightly in the evening. Peak murrelet numbers occurred on high or falling morning tides, especially in shallow areas where Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) were abundant. Differences between years in murrelet abundance and breeding phenology probably resulted from interannual differences in the pattern of seasonal warming and subsequent effects on production at lower trophic levels. We recommend that surveys for trends in abundance in Southeast Alaska be conducted in early morning, in June, at high or falling tides. Power analyses indicated that surveys conducted in this manner would minimize the number of years required to detect a significant change in abundance.

  7. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  8. Sea Ice Rubble Formations in the Bering Sea and Norton Sound, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, Juneau, Alaskh, Vol. 1. 6. Hunter, R.E., D.R. Thor and M.L. Swisher (1980...Resources (D.w. Hood and J.A. Calder, Eds.). U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment...Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, Juneau, Alaska, Vol. 1. 17. Sallenger, A.H., Jr., J.R

  9. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by... 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for catcher vessels less than 60 feet...

  10. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot... use the 2011 total allowable catch of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet...

  11. 76 FR 467 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2011 Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2011 Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Pacific Cod Total... (BSAI) Pacific cod fishery. This action is necessary because NMFS has ] determined this TAC is incorrectly specified. This action will ensure the BSAI Pacific cod TAC is the appropriate amount, based...

  12. 75 FR 50716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule... a processor with West designated IPQ in the West region of the Aleutian Islands. An emergency exists because, due to a recent unforeseen event, no crab processing facility is open in the West region....

  13. 76 FR 5556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources...-designated golden king crab IFQ to be delivered to a processor in the West region of the Aleutian Islands... king crab fishery, while providing for the sustained participation of municipalities in the...

  14. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule... with West designated IPQ in the West region of the Aleutian Islands. An emergency exists, because... West region, but due to a recent unforeseen event, no processing facility is open in the West...

  15. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering...

  16. 78 FR 13813 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications for... criteria set out at Sec. 679.21(e)(1)(i), the 2013 and 2014 PSC limit of red king crab in Zone 1 for trawl...)(ii), the calculated 2013 and 2014 C. bairdi crab PSC limit for trawl gear is 980,000 animals in...

  17. 77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...) Crab Economic Data Reports (EDR) currently required from catcher vessels, catcher/processors, shoreside processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating in the BSAI Crab Rationalization Program... Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Economic Data Reports...

  18. 77 FR 46641 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Flatfish” in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Flatfish'' in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area and... amounts of the non-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of ``other flatfish'' in.... The 2012 ITAC of ``other flatfish'' in the BSAI was established as 2,720 metric tons (mt), and...

  19. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  20. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  1. 75 FR 63504 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  2. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI... Act requires that conservation and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011...

  3. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels participating in the...

  4. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels participating in the...

  5. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... A season allocation of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels participating in...

  6. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2011 Atka mackerel total allowable catch...

  7. 75 FR 53606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closures and openings. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas...

  8. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in the CAI allocated to...

  9. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... to prevent exceeding the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated...

  10. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these...

  11. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the... season allowance of the 2012 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in the CAI allocated to...

  12. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  13. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... the CR Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  14. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  15. 78 FR 49200 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC803 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  16. Limited genetic differentiation among breeding, molting, and wintering groups of the threatened Steller's eider: The role of historic and contemporary factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Talbot, S.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Rearick, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Due to declines in the Alaska breeding population, the Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened in North America in 1997. Periodic non-breeding in Russia and Alaska has hampered field-based assessments of behavioral patterns critical to recovery plans, such as levels of breeding site fidelity and movements among three regional populations: Atlantic-Russia, Pacific-Russia and Alaska. Therefore, we analyzed samples from across the species range with seven nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and cytochrome b mitochondrial (mt)DNA sequence data to infer levels of interchange among sampling areas and patterns of site fidelity. Results demonstrated low levels of population differentiation within Atlantic and Pacific nesting areas, with higher levels observed between these regions, but only for mtDNA. Bayesian analysis of microsatellite data from wintering and molting birds showed no signs of sub-population structure, even though band-recovery data suggests multiple breeding areas are present. We observed higher estimates of F-statistics for female mtDNA data versus male data, suggesting female-biased natal site fidelity. Summary statistics for mtDNA were consistent with models of historic population expansion. Lack of spatial structure in Steller's eiders may result largely from insufficient time since historic population expansions for behaviors, such as natal site fidelity, to isolate breeding areas genetically. However, other behaviors such as the periodic non-breeding observed in Steller's eiders may also play a more contemporary role in genetic homogeneity, especially for microsatellite loci. 

  17. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  18. The Effects of Changing Sea Ice on Marine Mammals and Their Hunters in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Quakenbush, L.; Nelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information and insight relevant to ecological understanding, conservation action, and the regulation of human activity. We interviewed hunters in villages from northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, focusing on bowhead whales, walrus, and ice seals. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice, with resulting effects on the timing of marine mammal migrations, the distribution and behavior of the animals, and the efficacy of certain hunting methods, for example the difficulty of finding ice thick enough to support a bowhead whale for butchering. At the same time, hunters acknowledged impacts and potential impacts from changing technology such as more powerful outboard engines and from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. Hunters have been able to adapt to some changes, for example by hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring on St. Lawrence Island, or by focusing their hunt in a shorter period in Nuiqsut to accommodate work schedules and worse weather. Other changes, such as reduced availability of ice seals due to rapid retreat of pack ice after spring break-up, continue to defy easy responses. Continued environmental changes, increased disturbance from human activity, and the introduction of new regulations for hunting may further challenge the ability of hunters to provide food as they have done to date, though innovation and flexibility may also provide new sources of adaptation.

  19. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A; Tuomi, Pam; Monson, Daniel; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A; Dunn, J Lawrence; Field, Cara; Johnson, Christine; Jessup, David A; Bodkin, James; Doroff, Angela M

    2011-07-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (<5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990 s.

  20. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004–2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (>5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990s.

  1. The influence of year, laying date, egg fertility and incubation, individual hen, hen age and mass and clutch size on maternal immunoglobulin Y concentration in captive Steller's and spectacled eider egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Maniscalco, John M; Bozza, Maryann; Hendon, Jill M; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-09-01

    Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03-0.48 mg ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10-0.51 mg ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders.

  2. Alaska shorefast ice: Interfacing geophysics with local sea ice knowledge and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckenmiller, Matthew L.

    This thesis interfaces geophysical techniques with local and traditional knowledge (LTK) of indigenous ice experts to track and evaluate coastal sea ice conditions over annual and inter-annual timescales. A novel approach is presented for consulting LTK alongside a systematic study of where, when, and how the community of Barrow, Alaska uses the ice cover. The goal of this research is to improve our understanding of and abilities to monitor the processes that govern the state and dynamics of shorefast sea ice in the Chukchi Sea and use of ice by the community. Shorefast ice stability and community strategies for safe hunting provide a framework for data collection and knowledge sharing that reveals how nuanced observations by Inupiat ice experts relate to identifying hazards. In particular, shorefast ice break-out events represent a significant threat to the lives of hunters. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to combine local and time-specific observations of ice conditions by both geophysical instruments and local experts, and to evaluate how ice features, atmospheric and oceanic forces, and local to regional processes interact to cause break-out events. Each year, the Barrow community builds trails across shorefast ice for use during the spring whaling season. In collaboration with hunters, a systematic multi-year survey (2007--2011) was performed to map these trails and measure ice thickness along them. Relationships between ice conditions and hunter strategies that guide trail placement and risk assessment are explored. In addition, trail surveys provide a meaningful and consistent approach to monitoring the thickness distribution of shorefast ice, while establishing a baseline for assessing future environmental change and potential impacts to the community. Coastal communities in the region have proven highly adaptive in their ability to safely and successfully hunt from sea ice over the last 30 years as significant changes have been observed in the ice zone

  3. Pollen evidence for late pleistocene bering land bridge environments from Norton Sound, Northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Phillips, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    After more than half a century of paleoenvironmental investigations, disagreements persist as to the nature of vegetation type and climate of the Bering land bridge (BLB) during the late Wisconsin (Sartan) glacial interval. Few data exist from sites on the former land bridge, now submerged under the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Two hypotheses have emerged during the past decade. The first, based on pollen data from Bering Sea islands and adjacent mainlands of western Alaska and Northeast Siberia, represents the likely predominant vegetation on the Bering land bridge during full-glacial conditions: graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation associated with cold, dry winters and cool, dry summer climate. The second hypothesis suggests that dwarf birch-shrub-herb tundra formed a broad belt across the BLB, and that mesic vegetation was associated with cold, snowier winters and moist, cool summers. As a step towards resolving this controversy, a sediment core from Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea was radiocarbon dated and analyzed for pollen content. Two pollen zones were identified. The older, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of 29,500 and 11,515 14C yr BP, contains pollen assemblages composed of grass, sedge, wormwood, willow, and a variety of herb (forb) taxa. These assemblages are interpreted to represent graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation that developed under an arid, cool climate regime. The younger pollen zone sediments were deposited about 11,515 14C yr BP, when rising sea level had begun to flood the BLB. This younger pollen zone contains pollen of birch, willow, heaths, aquatic plants, and spores of sphagnum moss. This is interpreted to represent a Lateglacial dwarf birch-heath-willow-herb tundra vegetation, likely associated with a wetter climate with deeper winter snows, and moist, cool summers. This record supports the first hypothesis, that graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation extended into the lowlands of the BLB during full glacial conditions of the

  4. Reproduction, preweaning survival, and survival of adult sea otters at Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotelemetry methods were used to examine the demographic characteristics of sea otters inhabiting the leading edge of an expanding population on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fifteen male and 30 female sea otters were instrumented and followed from 1986 to 1990. Twenty-one percent of females were sexually mature (had pupped) at age 2, 57% by age 3, 88% by age 4, and 100% by age 5. Fifteen females produced 26 pups, an overall reproduction rate of 94% for mature females. The reproduction rate was 17, 45, 66, and 100% for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. Eighty-five percent of observed pups survived to weaning (120 days), and the percentage of pups weaned ranged from 34% for pups of 2-year-olds to 100% for pups of 5-year-olds. At least three of four known pup losses occurred within a month of parturition. The mean pup dependency period for weaned pups was 153 days and the mean gestation period was 218 days. No synchrony in pupping activity was observed. Mean annual survival of adults was high. Estimates of survival ranged from 89 to 96% for females and 86 to 91% for males. Human harvest was the primary source of known mortality of adults. Our estimates of reproductive rates and survival of adults are at the high end of those reported for sea otters, but preweaning survival stands out as being particularly high. Abundant food resources and the availability of protected water presumably contributed to the high reproductive success observed in this recently established sea otter population.

  5. Soluble chromophores in marine snow, seawater, sea ice and frost flowers near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beine, Harry; Anastasio, Cort; Domine, Florent; Douglas, Thomas; Barret, Manuel; France, James; King, Martin; Hall, Sam; Ullmann, Kirk

    2012-07-01

    We measured light absorption in 42 marine snow, sea ice, seawater, brine, and frost flower samples collected during the OASIS field campaign between February 27 and April 15, 2009. Samples represented multiple sites between landfast ice and open pack ice in coastal areas approximately 5 km west of Barrow, Alaska. The chromophores that are most commonly measured in snow, H2O2, NO3-, and NO2-, on average account for less than 1% of sunlight absorption in our samples. Instead, light absorption is dominated by unidentified "residual" species, likely organic compounds. Light absorption coefficients for the frost flowers on first-year sea ice are, on average, 40 times larger than values for terrestrial snow samples at Barrow, suggesting very large rates of photochemical reactions in frost flowers. For our marine samples the calculated rates of sunlight absorption and OH production from known chromophores are (0.1-1.4) × 1014 (photons cm-3 s-1) and (5-70) × 10-12 (mol L-1 s-1), respectively. Our residual spectra are similar to spectra of marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting that CDOM is the dominant chromophore in our samples. Based on our light absorption measurements we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Barrow seawater and frost flowers as approximately 130 and 360 μM C, respectively. We expect that CDOM is a major source of OH in our marine samples, and it is likely to have other significant photochemistry as well.

  6. Investigating trophic relationships of pinnipeds in Alaska and Washington using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobson, Keith A.; Sease, John L.; Merrick, Richard L.; Piatt, John F.

    1997-01-01

    We measured stable-nitrogen (δ15N) and stable-carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in muscle and hair from 7 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, and 27 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and 14 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Gulf of Alaska and coast of Washington State, in order to contrast dietary information derived from isotopic vs. available conventional dietary studies. Stable-nitrogen-isotope analysis of muscle revealed that harbor seals were enriched over sea lions (mean δ15N = 18.6‰vs. 17.5‰) which were in turn enriched over northern fur seals (mean δ15N = 16.6‰). Trophic segregation among these species likely results primarily from differential reliance on herring (Clupea harengus), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and large vs. small walleye pollock (Theregra chalcogramma). According to their δ15N values, adult male Steller sea lions showed a higher trophic position than adult females (mean δ15N: 18.0‰ vs. 17.2‰), whereas adult female northern fur seals were trophically higher than juvenile male fur seals (mean δ15N: 16.5‰vs. 15.0‰). Each of these observed differences likely resulted from differential reliance on squid or differences in the size range of pollock consumed. Three northern fur seal pups showed higher δ15N enrichment over adults (mean 17.7‰vs. 15.8‰) due to their reliance on their mother's milk. Stable-carbon isotope measurements of hair revealed a cline toward more negative values with latitude. Segregation in hair δ13C between Steller sea lions and harbor seals off the coast of Washington (mean δ13C: -13.6‰ vs. -15.0‰) reflected the greater association of harbor seals with freshwater input from the Columbia River. Our study demonstrates the utility of the stable isotope approach to augment conventional dietary analyses of pinnipeds and other marine mammals.

  7. Ice erosion of a sea-floor knickpoint at the inner edge of the stamukhi zone, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, P.W.; Asbury, J.L.; Rearic, D.M.; Ross, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1981 and 1982, detailed bathymetric and side-scan sonar surveys were made of an area of the sea floor north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to study the changing characteristics of the seabed at the inner boundary of the stamukhi zone, the coast-parallel zone of grounded ice ridges that occurs in water depths between 15 and 50 m in the arctic. The fathograms and sonographs resolved 10-cm features and electronic navigation gave relocations accurate to about 10 m. Year after year an ice boundary develops at the inner edge of the stamukhi zone where major shear and pressure deformation occur in about the same location. Associated with this ice boundary, the bathymetry shows a pronounced break in slope - the knickpoint - on the shelf profile at about 20 m depth. The 2-3 m-high knickpoint is cut in a consolidated gravelly mud of pre-Holocene age. A well-defined gravel and cobble shoal a few meters high usually occurs at the inshore edge of the knickpoint. The sonograph mosaic shows that seaward of the knickpoint, ice gouges saturate the sea floor and are well defined; inshore the gouges are fewer in number and are poorly defined on the records. Few gouges can be traced from the seaward side of the knickpoint across the shoals to the inshore side of the knickpoint. Studies of ice gouging rates in two seabed corridors that cross the stamukhi zone reveal the highest rates of gouging seaward of the knickpoint. We believe that the knickpoint results from ice erosion at the inner boundary of the stamukhi zone. Intensified currents associated with this boundary winnow away fine sediments. Ice bulldozing and currents shape the shoals, which perch atop the knickpoint. The knickpoint helps to limit ice forces on the seabed inshore of the stamukhi zone. ?? 1987.

  8. Monitoring Sea Ice Conditions and Use in Arctic Alaska to Enhance Community Adaptation to Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Eicken, H.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice changes in the coastal zone, while less conspicuous in relation to the dramatic thinning and retreat of perennial Arctic sea ice, can be more readily linked to local impacts. Shorefast ice is a unique area for interdisciplinary research aimed at improving community adaptation to climate through local-scale environmental observations. Here, geophysical monitoring, local Iñupiat knowledge, and the documented use of ice by the Native hunting community of Barrow, Alaska are combined to relate coastal ice processes and morphologies in the Chukchi Sea to ice stability and community adaption strategies for travel, hunting, and risk assessment. A multi-year effort to map and survey the community’s seasonal ice trails, alongside a detailed record of shorefast ice conditions, provides insight into how hunters evaluate the evolution of ice throughout winter and spring. Various data sets are integrated to relate the annual accretion history of the local ice cover to both measurements of ice thickness and topography and hunter observations of ice types and hazards. By relating changes in the timing of shorefast ice stabilization, offshore ice conditions, and winter wind patterns to ice characteristics in locations where spring bowhead whaling occurs, we are working toward an integrated scientific product compatible with the perspective of local ice experts. A baseline for assessing future change and community climate-related vulnerabilities may not be characterized by single variables, such as ice thickness, but rather by how changes in observable variables manifest in impacts to human activities. This research matches geophysical data to ice-use to establish such a baseline. Documenting human-environment interactions will allow future monitoring to illustrate how strategies for continued community ice-use are indicative of or responsive to change, and potentially capable of incorporating science products as additional sources of useable information.

  9. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  10. Temporal patterns in the foraging behavior of sea otters in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esslinger, George G.; Bodkin, James L.; Breton, André R.; Burns, Jennifer M.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Activity time budgets in apex predators have been proposed as indicators of population status relative to resource limitation or carrying capacity. We used archival time-depth recorders implanted in 15 adult female and 4 male sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from the northernmost population of the species, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to examine temporal patterns in their foraging behavior. Sea otters that we sampled spent less time foraging during summer (females 8.8 hr/day, males 7.9 hr/day) than other seasons (females 10.1–10.5 hr/day, males 9.2–9.5 hr/day). Both sexes showed strong preferences for diurnal foraging and adjusted their foraging effort in response to the amount of available daylight. One exception to this diurnal foraging mode occurred after females gave birth. For approximately 3 weeks post-partum, females switched to nocturnal foraging, possibly in an effort to reduce the risk of predation by eagles on newborn pups. We used multilevel mixed regression models to assess the contribution of several biological and environmental covariates to variation in the daily foraging effort of parous females. In the random effects only model, 87% of the total variation in foraging effort was within-otter variation. The relatively small among-otter variance component (13%) indicates substantial consistency in the foraging effort of sea otters in this northern population. In the top 3 models, 17% of the within-otter variation was explained by reproductive stage, day length, wind speed, air temperature and a wind speed × air temperature interaction. This study demonstrates the potential importance of environmental and reproductive effects when using activity budgets to assess population status relative to carrying capacity.

  11. Experimental recovery of sea otter carcasses at Kodiak Island, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Doroff, Angela M.; Monson, Daniel H.

    1994-01-01

    ound,  Alaska,  spilling  approximately  11  million  barrels  of  crude  oil.  Oil  wasdeposited  on  beaches  nearly  700  km  from  the  spill  site  (Galt  and  Payton  1990,Piatt  et  al.  1990),  affecting  thousands  of  hectares  of  sea  otter(Enhydra  lutris)habitat.  Two  of  the  principal  limitations  in  determining  the  initial  effects  of  theExxon  Valdez  oil  spill  on  sea  otter  populations  were  a  lack  of  recent  populationdata,  and  a  lack  of  information  on  the  proportion  of  the  total  number  of  seaotters  killed  by  the  spill  that  were  actually  recovered.ound,  Alaska,  spilling  approximately  11  million  barrels  of  crude  oil.  Oil  wasdeposited  on  beaches  nearly  700  km  from  the  spill  site  (Galt  and  Payton  1990,Piatt  et  al.  1990),  affecting  thousands  of  hectares  of  sea  otter(Enhydra  lutris)habitat.  Two  of  the  principal  limitations  in  determining  the  initial  effects  of  theExxon  Valdez  oil  spill  on  sea  otter  populations  were  a  lack  of  recent  populationdata,  and  a  lack  of  information  on  the  proportion  of  the  total  number  of  seaotters  killed  by  the  spill  that  were  actually  recovered.On 24 March 1989, the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling approximately 11 million barrels of crude oil. Oil was deposited on beaches nearly 700 km from the spill site (Galt and Payton 1990, Piatt et al. 1990), affecting thousands of hectares of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat. Two of the principal limitations in determining the initial effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otter populations were a lack of recent population data, and a lack of information on the proportion of the total number of sea otters killed by the spill that were actually recovered.In late

  12. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  14. The origin, distribution, and depositional history of gravel deposits on the Beaufort Sea Continental Shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodeick, Craig A.

    1979-01-01

    Two distinct gravel populations are present on the Beaufort Sea continental shelf. First, a geographically arcuate deposit that is convex seaward has been designated as the Chert Facies. This deposit is restricted to landward of the 10 meter bathymetric contour and west of Heald Point. The Chert Facies, originally a fluvial gravel deposit and probably part of the basal transgressive, represents reworked Gubik Formation. The Chert Facies is derived from the Brooks Range. The second population is the Dolomite Facies. This facies is a blanket deposit covering much of the shelf and occurs in most water depths greater than 10 meters. The Dolomite Facies extends on land into the Quaternary Gubik Formation east of Prudhoe Bay and probably to Point Barrow. Rocks of the Dolomite Facies are exotic to Alaska and represent ice rafted clasts. The distribution of the Dolomite Facies shelf gravel indicates an easterly source compatible with a proposed provenance surrounding the Amundsen Gulf of the Canadian Archipelago. Radiocarbon dates from undisturbed sediment underlying the gravel on the upper slope indicate that low Holocene sedimentation rates are the reason for gravel exposure in this region and on the outer shelf. Considerations of sea level fluctuations, possible times available for the transportation of gravel from the proposed source area to the study area, and radiocarbon dates indicate influxes of ice rafted debris during the mid-Wisconsin transgression and probably between 15, 000-10,000 years B. P. Correlation of the Gubik Formation at Heald Point with the Barrow unit of the Gubik Formation at Point Barrow on the basis of incorporated dolomite and orthoquartzite clasts is suggested.

  15. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  16. Ultraviolet radiation-specific DNA damage and embryonic viability in sea urchins from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorakis, C.; Anderson, S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ripe ova and sperm were obtained from Green Sea Urchins (Strongvlocentrotus drochbachiensis) collected from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska, and ova were fertilized in vitro. Embryos were immediately placed in plastic bags secured to floating racks deployed in the bay. The bags were suspended just below the surface of the water and at 1 and 2 meter depths for up to 120 hours. Bags were either left uncovered, covered with Mylar plastic (which blocks out UV-B but not UV-A radiations), or covered with dark plastic. The number of damaged DNA sites was determined by digesting the DNA with enzymes isolated from the bacterium Micrococcus luteus which cleave the DNA at damaged sites. It was found that DNA damage was present in a dose-dependent fashion with the amount of damage in embryos from the uncovered bags > Mylar covered bags > dark covered bags. No dimers were detected from embryos at 1 or 2 m. depths. Also, the number of damaged sites varied from day to day. Finally, the number of damaged sites was positively correlated with percent abnormal embryos in each bag. The results are discussed with relation to monitoring UV-B effects and ecological consequences of enhanced UV-B radiation.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2010-10-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically ∑polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ∑DDTs, ∑hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], ∑polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], ∑chlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ∑DDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ∑DDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ∑PCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  19. Southern Alaska glaciations recorded in deep-sea diamicts: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 341 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, E. A.; Forwick, M.; Bahlburg, H.; Childress, L. B.; Moy, C. M.; Müller, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Ridgway, K. D.; Expedition 341 Scientific Party, I.

    2013-12-01

    A major objective of IODP Expedition 341 is to explore the sediment record to document the dynamics of the Southern Alaskan Cordilleran Ice Sheet. To this end, three sites were drilled along a transect from the distal Surveyor Fan (U1417), to the proximal Surveyor Fan (U1418), to a slope basin adjacent to the continental shelf (U1419). Shipboard identification of the Gauss/Matuyama Boundary at Site U1417 confirms that glacimarine sedimentation commenced at approximately 2.58 Ma. Since then, the depositional environment of the Gulf of Alaska was strongly influenced by tidewater glaciers and deposition from turbid meltwater plumes, icebergs, and sea ice. More than 750 m of Miocene to Holocene sediments were recovered from Site U1417. A 30 m-thick interval of thin-bedded diamict interbedded with bioturbated mud is the earliest visible occurrence of ice-rafted debris (IRD) near the Plio-Pleistocene boundary. The diamict contains gravel size, subangular to subrounded clasts in a muddy matrix with gradational lower contacts. In individual beds, clast abundance increases upward to a sharp upper contact. Deposition in the early Pleistocene is marked by mud interbedded with turbidite sand and silt beds, followed by early to middle Pleistocene deposition of reoccuring intervals of diatom ooze and barren gray mud. IRD occurs as dispersed lonestones. Site U1418 recovered early Pleistocene to Holocene sediments. Diamict deposition dominated from the early to middle Pleistocene (250 to 800 m composite depth below the sea floor), followed by deposition of interbedded silt and mud with lonestones. Diamict ranges from massive clast-poor beds up to 150 cm thick to thin beds of coarse sand and granules that are interbedded with laminated mud. Laminated sequences have gradational contacts and range from sub-millimeter (a few coarse silt grains) to 2 mm thickness. Packages of laminae are bounded by regularly spaced thin layers of coarse sand and granules. One interpretation is that the

  20. Meltwater Origin of the 2005 Mount Steller Landslide Confirmed by Analysis of Global Fiducials Program Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Angeli, K.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska's Mt. Steller, a 3,236 m Chugach Mountains peak, is one of the target areas of the Bering Glacier Global Fiducials Program (GFP) site. On September 14, 2005, a large mass of rock, glacier ice, and snow, with a volume of ~50 million cubic meters, fell from just below Mt. Steller's south-facing summit and landed on the surface of a tributary to Bering Glacier, nearly 2,500 m below. The slide, which extended ~8 km down-glacier, was actually an ice-rock avalanche. The impact generated a seismic signal recorded with a magnitude of up to 5.2. Oblique aerial photography of the mountain, the head scarp, and the slide mass was collected for the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) on September 15, 2005. The photography delineated the morphology of the failed south-facing slope of the mountain and showed details of the sheared, near-summit hanging glacier and snow mass. Based on the photography, the AVO calculated the slide volume and length. Several weeks later, the AVO provided the first author with digital copies of the September 15 photography. These images were enhanced and examined in order to determine properties of the slide and to evaluate if the cause of the event could be determined. A number of features observed led to the conclusion that meltwater was probably responsible for destabilizing the glacier ice-bedrock contact and triggering the landslide. Specifically, a 10-15 m diameter englacial stream channel was seen in the truncated glacier ice that comprised the east wall of the landslide scarp and a water-polished channel opening was noted on the west wall scarp. Additionally, several depressions were noted that might have temporarily stored water. To confirm these observations, new cloud-free GFP imagery was obtained on October 24 and 28, 2005. Analysis of both sets of imagery documented that: (1) more than a month after the event, meltwater was exiting the east wall scarp channel and flowing down the face of the mountain; (2) the

  1. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  2. Temporal trends (1992-2007) of perfluorinated chemicals in Northern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from South-Central Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kimberly; Gill, Verena A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-04-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in abiotic and biotic matrices worldwide, including the Arctic Ocean. Considering these chemicals' persistent and bioaccumulative potentials, it was expected that levels of PFCs, like those of many legacy organic pollutants, would respond slowly to the restrictions in production and usage. Temporal trend studies in remote areas, such as the Arctic, can help determine the chronology of contamination and the response of the environment to regulations on PFCs. Prior to this study, temporal trends of PFCs in Alaskan coastal waters had not been examined. In the present study, concentrations of six PFCs were determined in livers of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) collected from three areas in south-central Alaska (Prince William Sound, n = 36; Resurrection Bay, n = 7; Kachemak Bay, n = 34) from 1992 to 2007. Additionally, previously published profiles and concentrations of PFCs in southern sea otters from California and Asian sea otters from Kamchatka (Russia) were compared to our new data, to determine the geographical differences in PFC profiles among these three regions in the Pacific Ocean. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the predominant PFCs found in the livers of northern sea otters from 1992 to 2007. Other PFCs, such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), were detected less frequently, and at low concentrations. Overall, from 2001 to 2007, a decrease in concentrations of PFOS was found in northern sea otters, suggesting an immediate response to the phase-out in 2000 of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based compounds by a major producer in the United States. In contrast, concentrations of PFNA in northern sea otters increased by 10-fold from 2004 to 2007. These results indicate that the contribution by PFNA to SigmaPFC concentrations is increasing in northern sea otters. The profiles (i

  3. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  4. Limited effects of a keystone species: Trends of sea otters and kelp forests at the Semichi Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Sea otters are well known as a keystone species because of their ability to transform sea urchin-dominated communities into kelp-dominated communities by preying on sea urchins and thus reducing the intensity of herbivory. After being locally extinct for more than a century, sea otters re-colonized the Semichi Islands in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska in the early 1990s. Here, otter populations increased to about 400 individuals by 1994, but rapidly declined to about 100 by 1997. Roughly 7 yr after initial otter re-colonization, there were only marginal changes in sea urchin biomass, mean maximum test size, and kelp density. These small changes may be the first steps in the cascading effects on community structure typically found with the invasion of a keystone species. However, no wholesale change in community structure occurred following re-colonization and growth of the sea otter population. Instead, this study describes a transition state and identifies factors such as keystone species density and residence time that can be important in dictating the degree to which otter effects are manifested.

  5. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  6. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  7. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  8. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews

    PubMed Central

    Quakenbush, Lori T.; Nelson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience. PMID:27555644

  9. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience.

  10. A new genus and species of Thyasiridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from deep-water, Beaufort Sea, northern Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Valentich-Scott, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; II; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Edwards, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bivalve mollusk shells were collected in 2350 m depth in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean off northern Alaska. Initial identification suggested the specimens were a member of the bivalve family Thyasiridae, but no known eastern Pacific or Arctic living or fossil thyasirid resembled these deep-water specimens. Comparisons were made with the type of the genera Maorithyas Fleming, 1950, Spinaxinus Oliver & Holmes, 2006, Axinus Sowerby, 1821, and Parathyasira Iredale, 1930. We determined the Beaufort Sea species represents a new genus, herein described as Wallerconcha. These specimens also represent a new species, herein named Wallerconcha sarae. These new taxa are compared with known modern and fossil genera and species of thyasirds. PMID:25589851

  11. Cytochrome P450 1A induction in sea ducks inhabiting nearshore areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trust, Kimberly A.; Esler, Daniel N.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Following the Exxon-Valdez oil spill, hepatic rates of EROD activity and thus, P450 1A expression, were significantly higher in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) and Barrow’s goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) from oiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska when compared to birds from unoiled sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure did not account for areal differences in P450 1A induction in harlequin ducks. Background hydrocarbon levels in Prince William Sound were negligible prior to the 1989 oil spill, but remnant Exxon-Valdez oil was still present in nearshore habitats of the spill zone coincident with our study. We conclude that P450 1A induction in sea ducks from areas oiled during the Exxon-Valdez oil spill was likely due to exposure to residual oil. We speculate that biochemical and physiological changes in individuals chronically exposed to oil may be constraining population recovery of some sea duck species affected by the spill.

  12. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough`s Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 214}Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected.

  13. Stopover ecology of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at coastal deltas of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchwell, Roy T.

    Avian migration is one of the wonders of the natural world. Stored fats are the main source of nutrients and fuel for avian migration and it is assumed the fat deposition at stopover sites is a critical component of a successful migration. Stopover sites are crucial in the successful migration of many birds, but particularly for arctic-breeding shorebirds that migrate long distances from breeding to wintering grounds. Despite the importance of stopover sites, it is often difficult to determine the importance of these sites to migrating shorebirds. I investigated three aspects of stopover ecology of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) foraging at coastal deltas on the Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska. First, I quantified the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the benthic macroinvertebrate community living within the mudflats. I found that there were two ecological groups of macroinvertebrates using river deltas, one originated in terrestrial freshwater habitats and most importantly could withstand freezing in delta sediments over the winter, and the other originated from the marine environment, could not withstand freezing and had to migrate to intertidal habitats each summer from deeper water areas that did not freeze over the winter. Stable isotope analysis allowed me to describe the origin of carbon consumed by invertebrates in intertidal habitats. I predicted freshwater invertebrates would consume terrestrial carbon, and marine invertebrates would consume marine carbon, but I found that both groups utilized the same carbon, which was a mixture of terrestrial and marine sources. My second research question determined the importance of delta foraging habitat for fall migrating Semipalmated Sandpipers. I mapped the temporal distribution and abundance of birds and quantified this relationship to invertebrate distribution and abundance. I researched fattening rates of shorebirds by measuring triglycerides in the blood of shorebirds I captured. I

  14. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice ( Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Wilderbuer, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    We examined the patterns of abundance and distribution of Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to better understand factors controlling transport and recruitment of flatfish in the Bering Sea. Ichthyoplankton data were derived from plankton surveys conducted in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Temperature, salinity, depth, and abundance of microzooplankton were measured concurrently. Eggs and larvae were primarily collected from depths < 200 m, with the majority occurring over bottom depths ranging 50-100 m. Eggs were present throughout the water column, though densities of preflexion stage larvae were concentrated at depths 10-20 m. There was no evidence of vertical migration for pre-flexion stages. Spawning in Alaska plaice occurs primarily east of Port Moller in April and May, and eggs and larvae appear to drift to the north and northeast, an observation based on satellite-tracked drifter information, model output, and collections of older, later-stage postlarvae. Connectivity between spawning areas and nursery habitats is likely influenced by wind forcing, so climate-mediated changes to dispersal trajectory or timing is expected to have significant impacts on recruitment in this species, though entrainment in consistent, directional currents may modify these effects.

  15. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    2009-05-01

    Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Alaska, are assessed on the basis of the recent volcanic history of the island. The long-term frequency of volcanic eruptions is estimated using a count of 40 identifiable vents considered to represent separate eruptions. Assuming regular temporal spacing of these events during the period 360,000 to 3230 y.b.p., the estimated mean recurrence time is 0.11 × 10 - 3 eruption/year and the eruptive interval is approximately 8900 years. Volcano hazards on St. Paul are associated exclusively with the eruption of low viscosity alkali basaltic magma. The most important are lava flows, tephra fallout, and base surges. Other hazards include volcanic gases, seismicity and ground deformation associated with dike intrusion beneath rift zones, and explosive lava-water interactions along coastal regions and water-saturated ground. The general characteristics of past volcanism on St. Paul indicate that the most likely styles of future eruptions will be (1) Hawaiian-style eruptions with fire fountains and pahoehoe lava flows issuing from one of two polygenetic shield volcanoes on the island; (2) Strombolian-style, scoria cone-building eruptions with associated tephra fallout and eruption of short pahoehoe lava flows; and (3) explosive Surtseyan-style, phreatomagmatic eruptions initiating at some point along St. Paul's insular shelf. Given the relatively restricted range in volcanic phenomena on St. Paul, the most significant question regarding volcano hazard and risk assessment is whether future eruptions will be confined to the same region on the island as the most recent activity. If future activity follows the recent past, resulting volcano hazards will most likely be located at inland areas sufficiently far from habitation that they will pose little threat to life or property. An important caveat, however, is that St. Paul is constructed almost entirely from the products of volcanic eruptions with vents located all over

  16. Deep-sea fan deposition of the lower Tertiary Orca Group, eastern Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    The Orca Group is a thick, complexly deformed, sparsely fossiliferous sequence of flysch-like sedimentary and tholeiitic volcanic rocks of middle or late Paleocene age that crops out over an area of. roughly 21,000 km2 in the Prince William Sound region and the adjacent Chugach Mountains. The Orca Group also probably underlies a large part of the Gulf of Alaska Tertiary province and the continental shelf south of the outcrop belt; coextensive rocks to the southwest on Kodiak Island are called the Ghost Rocks and Sitkalidak Formations. The Orca Group was pervasively faulted, tightly folded, and metamorphosed regionally to laumontite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies prior to, and perhaps concurrently with, intrusion of early Eocene granodiorite and quartz monzonite plutons. In eastern Prince William Sound, 95% of the Orca sedimentary rocks are interbedded feldspathic and lithofeldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone turbidites. Lithic components vary widely in abundance and composition, but labile sedimentary and volcanic grains dominate. A widespread yet minor amount of the mudstone is hemipelagic or pelagic, with scattered foraminifers. Pebbly mudstone with rounded clasts of exotic lithologies and locally conglomerate with angular blocks of deformed sandstone identical to the enclosing matrix are interbedded with the turbidites. Thick and thin tabular bodies of altered tholeiitic basalt are locally and regionally conformable with the sedimentary rocks, and constitute 15-20% of Orca outcrops in eastern Prince William Sound. The basalt consists chiefly of pillowed and nonpillowed flows, but also includes minor pillow breccia, tuff, and intrusive rocks. Nonvolcanic turbidites are interbedded with the basalt; lenticular bioclastic limestone, red and green mudstone, chert, and conglomerate locally overlie the basalt, but are supplanted upward by turbidites. From west to east, basalts within the Orca Group become increasingly fragmental and amygdaloidal. Such

  17. Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provides lack of evidence for epidemiological peak of infection.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wasley, Jeff; Esler, Daniel N.; Stalknecht, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provided no evidence for an epidemiologic peak of infection. Isolates were recovered, however, that provide information on viral diversity and dispersal that may not be realized through sampling efforts focused on other avian taxa.

  18. From the Pacific to the Arctic: Paleoclimatic History of the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Davies, M. H.; Praetorius, S.; Cook, M. S.; Prahl, F. G.; Schmittner, A.; Asahi, H.; Belanger, C. L.; Stoner, J. S.; St-Onge, G.; Jaeger, J. M.; Gulick, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Gateway to the Arctic, ranging from the high North Pacific through the Bering Sea and Bering Strait, remains among the poorest known components of the global climate system; its paleoclimate record is undersampled, misunderstood, and filled with controversy. We know relatively little about the history of Cordilleran ice beyond the last deglaciation; there are vigorous disagreements about the sign, let alone the magnitude, of sea-surface temperate changes and sea-ice cover. The causes of subsurface ocean change and linkages to surface climate are debated, and various models disagree on many aspects. This region is a sensitive part of the climate system, potentially poised near a threshold and with the power to influence North American and global heat and moisture transports through its influence on westerly winds and planetary waves. Little deep or intermediate water forms here today due to excess freshwater input relative to evaporation, but this may have changed in the past, with major consequences for oceanic heat transports, chemical budgets, and the global carbon cycle. Here we compare the records from the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea from the sea surface to the abyss. The Gulf of Alaska, recently drilled by IODP Expedition 341, is dominated by massive input of terrigenous sediments, freshwater flows off the continent that fuels a vigorous coastal current, and boundary downwelling adjacent to the iron-limited subpolar gyre. This region offers a high-resolution view of dynamic advances and retreats of the seaward outlets of Cordilleran Ice Sheet; isostatic responses of the shelf to ice loading reduces the local influence of global sealevel sealevel. In contrast, the Bering Sea, drilled in 2009 by IODP Expedition 323, is a relatively isolated basin, highly biogenic in character, and displays a response to global sealevel change relative to its mostly unglaciated shelf and intermittent subaerial exposure of Beringia, with more frequent intervals

  19. Alaska harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) contaminants: A review with annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Papa, R.S.; Becker, P.R.

    1998-10-01

    The numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) have declined steadily and substantially over the last two decades in the Central and Western Gulf of Alaska, including Prince William Sound. Although the reasons for this decline have not been identified, hypotheses have included fishery interactions, changes in availability of food resources, human harvests, disease, increase in predation, increase in disturbance, and pollution. Although the presence of contaminants has been suggested as one possible causative factor in the decline of both the harbor seal and Steller sea lion, very little information is readily available on contaminant concentrations in these animals. As an initial step in the development of a database that can be used to define the types of studies needed to address the possible role of anthropogenic contaminants in the decline of this species, existing data and information on levels of contaminants in the harbor seals of Alaska, the contiguous U.S., and other areas of the world were reviewed. This report provides references and current scientific literature, as well as gray literature and unpublished databases. This report is divided into three sections: (1) a synthesis of information based on the review, (2) tables that summarize the published data, and (3) an annotated bibliography.

  20. Fish: A Study Guide for the Fifth Grade. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smid, Tamara

    The history, management, and importance of Alaska's fisheries are the focus of this elementary school unit. Through the science, social studies, English, mathematics, and art activities included, students investigate Alaskan fisheries and the biology and ecology of commercially important fish species. Among the topics covered are tides, life…

  1. Birds: A Study Guide for the Fourth Grade. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James G.; King, Mary Lou

    Southeast Alaska's birds and wetlands are the subject of this elementary school teacher's guide and student workbook. Included are classroom activities and field investigations which address: (1) bird identification, habitats, adaptation, and conservation; and (2) the inhabitants, ecology and value of estuaries. Workbook activities involve the…

  2. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Lensink, Calvin J.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  3. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  4. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  5. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... extension of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  6. Dose Estimates from Ingestion of Marine and Terrestrial Animals Harvested in the Beaufort Sea and Northwestern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. T. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci; D. W. Efurd; M. E. Ennis; M. J. Hameedi; J. M. Inkret; T. H. T. Little; G. Miller

    2000-11-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, marine and terrestrial animal samples were collected from the Beaufort Sea and northwest Alaska. These samples were analyzed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the presence of the anthropogenic radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The measurement data were combined with food consumption rates based on survey results for populations residing in three northwest Alaskan communities and published age-dependent ingestion dose coefficients to estimate potential radiological impacts from the consumption of traditional animal foods harvested in this region. The results of this study indicate that committed equivalent doses to adults from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, due to consumption of traditional food sources are consistent with currently accepted estimates of average doses to adults in North America due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout.

  7. Toward a Predictive Model of Arctic Coastal Retreat in a Warming Climate, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    local decadal time series of sea ice coverage and sea surface temperature. Sea ice concentrations have been analyzed using Nimbus 7-SMMR /SSM/I and...As a first step we used Nimbus 7-SMMR /SSM/I and DMSP SSMI Passive Microwave data to assess sea ice concentration around the Drew Point coast...Fetch Length at at Drew Point for different stages over the summer season 2008 is reconstructed from Nimbus -7 Passive microwave data, 2008 has open

  8. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  9. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kimberlee Beckmen,; Gay Sheffield,; Kathy Kuletz,; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  10. Genetic variation, relatedness, and effective population size of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Amstrup, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are unique among bears in that they are adapted to the Arctic sea ice environment. Genetic data are useful for understanding their evolution and can contribute to management. We assessed parentage and relatedness of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska, with genetic data and field observations of age, sex, and mother-offspring and sibling relationships. Genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci for 226 bears indicate that genetic variation is comparable to other populations of polar bears with mean number of alleles per locus of 7.9 and observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.71. The genetic data verified 60 field-identified mother-offspring pairs and identified 10 additional mother-cub pairs and 48 father-offspring pairs. The entire sample of related and unrelated bears had a mean pairwise relatedness index (rxy) of approximately zero, parent-offspring and siblings had rxy of approximately 0.5, and 5.2% of the samples had rxy values within the range expected for parent-offspring. Effective population size (Ne = 277) and the ratio of Ne to total population size (Ne/N = 0.182) were estimated from the numbers of reproducing males and females. Ne estimates with genetic methods gave variable results. Our results verify and expand field data on reproduction by females and provide new data on reproduction by males and estimates of relatedness and Ne in a polar bear population. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2009. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel poxvirus infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris neiris), Alaska and California, USA.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Pamela A; Murray, Michael J; Garner, Michael M; Goertz, Caroline E C; Nordhausen, Robert W; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Getzy, David M; Nielsen, Ole; Archer, Linda L; Maness, Heather T D; Wellehan, James F X; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-07-01

    Small superficially ulcerated skin lesions were observed between October 2009 and September 2011 during captive care of two orphaned sea otter pups: one northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska and one southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California. Inclusions consistent with poxviral infection were diagnosed by histopathology in both cases. Virions consistent with poxvirus virions were seen on electron microscopy in the northern sea otter, and the virus was successfully propagated in cell culture. DNA extraction, pan-chordopoxviral PCR amplification, and sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene revealed that both cases were caused by a novel AT-rich poxvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses found that the virus is divergent from other known poxviruses at a level consistent with a novel genus. These cases were self-limiting and did not appear to be associated with systemic illness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a poxvirus in a mustelid species. The source of this virus, mode of transmission, zoonotic potential, and biological significance are undetermined.

  12. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in buffer areas. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (i) No owner or operator of a....5 W 58°10.0 N 151°51.0 W 16580 SE quadrant. 4. Chirikof I. 55°46.5 N 155°39.5 W 55°46.5 N 155°43.0 W... 52°10.5 N 175°29.0 W 16480 N half of island. 21. Adak I. 51°36.5 N 176°59.0 W 51°38.0 N 176°59.5...

  13. Sarcomas in three free-ranging northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burek-Huntington, Kathy A; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Doroff, Angela M; Johnson, Todd O

    2012-04-01

    Three sarcomas were diagnosed in wild northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) during the mid- to late 1990s. Histologically, the tumors were a chondrosarcoma and two low-grade fibrosarcomas with myofibroblastic cell differentiation. The three sea otters were surviving in the wild and were killed by hunters.

  14. Toward a Predictive Model of Arctic Coastal Retreat in a Warming Climate, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    conditions. We used Nimbus 7-SMMR /SSM/I and DMSP SSMI Passive Microwave data to assess sea ice concentration around the Drew Point coast. This...Figure 4. Fetch Length at Drew Point for different stages over the summer season 2008 is reconstructed from Nimbus -7 Passive microwave... cloud events. The air temperatures distinctly lag the insolation pattern, as the presence or absence of sea ice governs the continentality of the

  15. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yun, Se Hun; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations.

  17. An oilspill risk analysis for the Beaufort Sea, Alaska (proposed sale 71)outer continental shelf lease area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuels, W.B.; Hopkins, Dorothy; Lanfear, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, (Proposed Sale 71) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The probability of spill occurrences, likely movement of oil slicks, and locations of resources vulnerable to spilled oil were analyzed. The model predicted movement of the center of spill mass and estimated the times between spill occurrence and contact with various resources, to allow a qualitative assessment of oil characteristics at the time of contact; no direct computation was made of weathering and cleanup. The model also assumed that any oil spilled under ice would remain in place, unchanged, until spring breakup. Ice movements, or travel of oil under ice, if occurring, would affect the results in a manner not directly predictable at this time. The combined results of spill occurrence and spill movement predictions yielded estimates of the overall risks associated with development of the proposed lease area. Assuming that oil exists in the lease area (a 99.3-percent chance) it is estimated that the leasing of the tracts proposed for OCS Sale 71 will result in an expected 9.2 oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) over the lease lifetime of 25 years. This estimate is based on historic oilspill accident data for platforms and pipelines on the U.S. OCS (Gulf of Mexico and California). The estimated probability that land will be contacted by one or more oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) that have been at sea less than 30 days (not counting any time trapped under ice) is greater than 99.5 percent. If oilspill accident data for Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, is used in the analysis, it is estimated that 5.6 oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger) will occur over the lease lifetime. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger)will occur and contact land is99 percent. The results of a recent experimental cleanup operation for

  18. Toxic elements and organochlorines in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), Kodiak, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Calkins, D.G.; Coon, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Marine and estuarine habitats near urban or industrialized regions are vulnerable to contaminated runoff. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), which occur throughout much of the northern hemisphere, are useful mammalian biomonitors because they feed, reproduce, and rest near or on shore and are high-level trophic consumers. They have often been monitored for contaminants in Europe (Wagemann and Muir 1984). To date, no studies have been reported on contaminants in harbor seals from industrialized areas of Alaska. In the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska's largest urban and industrial city, harbor seals are sedentary and limited to coastal waters; some movements have been documented but there is no evidence of extensive migrations. Although some harbor seals in the Kodiak Archipelago move up to 100 km along the shore, strong fidelity to specific haulout sites is more common (Pitcher and Calkins 1979). These seals eat mainly non-migratory fishes and octopi. Harbor seal numbers have declined substantially from unknown causes in the southern part of the Kodiak Archipelago. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) suggested that the decline is a trend for the entire Kodiak region and other Alaskan waters. Contaminants have been suggested as a possible reason for the precipitous decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the region (Braham et al. 1980), and were suspected in the decline of harbor seals. In this study, harbor seals were sampled from throughout the Kodiak Archipelago to determine concentrations of certain metals, metalloids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides, and to determine if these concentrations varied by sex or accumulated with age. All seals were collected within 75 km of Cook Inlet, an estuary next to Anchorage. The targeted elements or compounds were known to be toxic to a wide spectrum of organisms (e.g., MARC 1980; Eisler 1986).

  19. Tidally generated sea-floor lineations in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, M. S.; Stevenson, A. J.; Chezar, H.; McConnaughey, R. A.

    1999-12-01

    Highly reflective linear features occur in water depths of 20-30 m in northern Bristol Bay (Alaska, USA) and are, in places, over 600 m in length. Their length-to-width ratio is over 100:1. The lineations are usually characterized by large transverse ripples with wavelengths of 1-2 m. The lineations trend about N60°E, and are spaced between 20 and 350 m. Main tidal directions near the lineations are N60°E (flood) and S45°W (ebb), which are parallel to subparallel to the lineations. They suggest that the lineations may be tidally generated. The lineations may be bright sonar reflections from a winnowed lag concentrate of coarse sand.

  20. Tidally generated sea-floor lineations in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Stevenson, A.J.; Chezar, H.; McConnaughey, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Highly reflective linear features occur in water depths of 20-30 m in northern Bristol Bay (Alaska, USA) and are, in places, over 600 m in length. Their length-to-width ratio is over 100:1. The lineations are usually characterized by large transverse ripples with wavelengths of 1-2 m. The lineations trend about N60??E, and are spaced between 20 and 350 m. Main tidal directions near the lineations are N60??E (flood) and S45??W (ebb), which are parallel to subparallel to the lineations. They suggest that the lineations may be tidally generated. The lineations may be bright sonar reflections from a winnowed lag concentrate of coarse sand.

  1. Sea Water Radiocarbon Evolution in the Gulf of Alaska: 2002 Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Roark, E B; Quay, P D; Flood-Page, S R; Moy, C

    2005-04-08

    Oceanic uptake and transport of bomb radiocarbon as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s has been a useful diagnostic to determine the carbon transfer between the ocean and atmosphere. In addition, the distribution of radiocarbon in the ocean can be used as a tracer of oceanic circulation. Results obtained from samples collected in the Gulf of Alaska in the summer of 2002 provide a direct comparison with results in the 1970s during GEOSECS and in the early 1990s during WOCE. The open gyre values are 20-40{per_thousand} more negative than those documented in 1991 and 1993 (WOCE) although the general trends as a function of latitude are reproduced. Surface values are still significantly higher than pre-bomb levels ({approx}-105{per_thousand} or lower). In the central gyre, we observe {Delta}{sup 14}C-values that are lower in comparison to GEOSECS (stn 218) and WOCE P16/P17 to a density of {approx}26.8{sigma}t. This observation is consistent with the overall decrease in surface {Delta}{sup 14}C values, and reflects the erosion of the bomb-{sup 14}C transient. We propose that erosion of the bomb-{sup 14}C transient is accomplished by entrainment of low {sup 14}C water via vertical exchange within the Gulf of Alaska and replenishment of surface and sub-thermocline waters with waters derived from the far northwest Pacific.

  2. Correlates to survival of juvenile sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1992-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.; Howlin, S.; Doroff, A.M.; Rebar, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survival of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) for 1 year post weaning during 1992-1993 in Prince William Sound (PWS), location of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. We sampled 38 pups in eastern PWS (EPWS), an unoiled area occupied by sea otters for 25 years. We compared survival between areas, sexes, and condition groups. We also examined the relation of blood parameters to survival. Survival was estimated at 0.74 in EPWS and 0.52 in WPWS. Female survival was 0.86 in EPWS and 0.64 in WPWS, whereas male survival was lower, 0.61 in EPWS and 0.44 in WPWS. Sea otters from EPWS were in better condition (mass/length) than WPWS sea otters. Pups in better condition had higher survival in EPWS but not in WPWS. Foraging success was greater in EPWS than in WPWS, consistent with either an effect of length of occupation or the effects of oil on the prey base or a combination of these effects. Area differences in blood parameters suggested liver damage in WPWS sea otters, perhaps resulting from continued exposure to oil. Thus, both length of occupation and oiling history likely influenced juvenile survival in PWS.

  3. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69,p < 0.001) to this lake regime shift. To understand how and to what extent sea ice affects lakes, we conducted model experiments to simulate winters with years of high (1991/92) and low (2007/08) sea ice extent for which we also had field measurements and satellite imagery characterizing lake ice conditions. A lake ice growth model forced with Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter 'ocean-effect' snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  4. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69, p < 0.001) to this lake regime shift. To understand how and to what extent sea ice affects lakes, we conducted model experiments to simulate winters with years of high (1991/92) and low (2007/08) sea ice extent for which we also had field measurements and satellite imagery characterizing lake ice conditions. A lake ice growth model forced with Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter ‘ocean-effect’ snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  5. Mortality and reproduction of female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-13. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six female sea otters were instrumeted with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 1989-1990. Females in eastern Prince William Sound exhibited a lower survival rate than those in western Prince William Sound. No differences were observed between rates of pupping or between rates of survival of dependent pups for sea otters in the two areas.

  6. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  7. Topography and flooding of coastal ecosystems on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Implications for sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Torre; Ely, Craig R.

    2001-01-01

    We measured surface elevations, stage of annual peak flooding, and sedimentation along 10 toposequences across coastal ecosystems on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta in western Alaska during 1994-1998 to assess some of the physical processes affecting ecosystem distribution. An ecotype was assigned to each of 566 points, and differences in elevations among 24 ecotypes were analyzed within individual toposequences and across the 40 x 40-km study area. Elevations of vegetated ecotypes along the longest toposequence rose only ~1 m over a distance of 7.5 km, and mean elevations of most ecotype across the study area were within 0.5 m of mean higher-high water (1.47 m). During 1994 to 1998, monitoring of annual peak stage using crest gauges revealed flooding from the highest fall storm surge reached 2.58 m (1.11 m above mean higher-high tide). In each year, only the highest surface was unaffected by flooding. Mean annual sedimentation rates for the various ecotypes were 8.0 ram/y on tidal flats, 1.4 to 3.8 mm/y on the active floodplain, 0.1-0.2 mm/y on the inactive floodplain, and 0 mm/ on the abandoned floodplain. If sea levels in the Bering Sea rise ~0.5 m by 2100, as predicted by some on a global basis, large portions of the coastal margin of the delta could be regularly inundated by water during high tides, and even the highest ecotypes could be affected by storm surges. Predicting the extent of future inundation is difficult, however, because of the changes in the ground-surface elevation through sedimentation, organic matter accumulation, and permafrost development.

  8. Genetic variation, relatedness, and effective population size of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Amstrup, Steven C; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Amstrup, Kristin S

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are unique among bears in that they are adapted to the Arctic sea ice environment. Genetic data are useful for understanding their evolution and can contribute to management. We assessed parentage and relatedness of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska, with genetic data and field observations of age, sex, and mother-offspring and sibling relationships. Genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci for 226 bears indicate that genetic variation is comparable to other populations of polar bears with mean number of alleles per locus of 7.9 and observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.71. The genetic data verified 60 field-identified mother-offspring pairs and identified 10 additional mother-cub pairs and 48 father-offspring pairs. The entire sample of related and unrelated bears had a mean pairwise relatedness index (r(xy)) of approximately zero, parent-offspring and siblings had r(xy) of approximately 0.5, and 5.2% of the samples had r(xy) values within the range expected for parent-offspring. Effective population size (N(e) = 277) and the ratio of N(e) to total population size (N(e)/N = 0.182) were estimated from the numbers of reproducing males and females. N(e) estimates with genetic methods gave variable results. Our results verify and expand field data on reproduction by females and provide new data on reproduction by males and estimates of relatedness and N(e) in a polar bear population.

  9. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and... communities and monitors the ``economic stability for harvesters, processors, and coastal communities.'' The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides specific guidance on the CR Program's mandatory economic data...

  10. 75 FR 5945 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Cooperatives in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA) was signed into law in October of 1998. The AFA established an allocation program for the pollock fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). The AFA established... at 50 CFR part 679, subpart F. The original purposes of the AFA were to tighten United...

  11. Sea-surface circulation, sediment transport, and marine mammal distribution, Alaska continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.; Burns, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Even though nonsynchronous, the ERTS-1 imagery of November 4, 1972, showed a striking similarity to the ground truth data obtained in late August and September, 1972. The comparison of the images with ground truth data revealed that the general water circulation pattern in Lower Cook Inlet is consistent through the Fall season and that ERTS-1 images in MSS bands 4 and 5 are capable of delineating water masses with a suspended load as low as 1 mg/liter. The ERTS-1 data and the ground truth data demonstrate clearly that the coriolis effect dominates circulation in Lower Cook Inlet. The configuration of plumes in Nushagak and Kuskokwim bays further indicates the influence of the coriolis effect on the movement of sea water at high latitudes. Comparison of MSS bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 suggest MSS-1 penetration of several meters into the water column. Sea ice analysis of available imagery was exceptionally rewarding. The imagery provided a rapid method to delineate and describe the ice types apparent in the photos. The ice types ranged from newly formed grease ice to heavy flows of disintegrating shore-fast ice. Sea ice maps showing the extent of different ice zones in the Chukchi Sea are being compiled.

  12. Ice-gouged microrelief on the floor of the eastern Chukchi Sea, Alaska: a reconnaissance survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toimil, Lawrence J.

    1978-01-01

    Side-scan sonar and bathymetric records obtained from 1,800 km of trackline from the eastern Chukchi Sea continental shelf, between water depths of 20 and 70 m show the ubiquitous presence of furrow-like linear depressions produced by gouging of the sea bed by ice keels. These sea bed micro-features are regionally widespread but are not uniformly distributed. Furthermore, the microrelief, texture, and lithologic structure of sea bed sediments have been significantly modified by the disruptive processes associated with ice gouge formation. An analysis of some 10,.200 individual gouges shows that the density of ice gouges increases with increasing latitude, increasing slope gradients, and decreasing water depth. Across the northern half of the shelf few trackline segments are free of ice gouges; in the southern portion numerous segments contain no ice gouges. However, ice gouges extend at least as far south as Cape Prince of Wales Shoal. Densities of over 200 gouges per km of trackline are not uncommon in water depths less than 30 m ,but no values higher than 50 km are encountered in water deeper than 50 m. No ice gouges have been observed in water depths exceeding 58 m. Saturation ice gouge densities (greater than 300/Pan) occur along the eastern side 6f Barrow Sea Valley and the northeast flank of Hanna Shoal. Maximum gouge incision depths per km of trackline are greatest in water 36 to 50 m deep . A maximum incision depth of 4.5 m occurs in the 35-40 m water depth interval. Individual ice gouge events wider than 100 m, most produced by multi-keeled ice fragments, are found between 31 and 45 m depths. The dominant azimuth of gouge furrows shows no preferred orientation on the Chukchi Sea shelf; only locally does bathmetric control of the trend of gouges appear. The occurrence of current-produced bedforms within individual ice gouges suggests an interaction between slow-moving grounded or gouging ice keels and swift currents. In other cases, current

  13. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  14. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Johnson, Charles B; Garshelis, David L; Parker, Keith R

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001-2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI.

  15. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  16. Shrinking Sea Ice, Thawing Permafrost, Bigger Storms, and Extremely Limited Data - Addressing Information Needs of Stakeholders in Western Alaska Through Participatory Decisions and Collaborative Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Reynolds, J.

    2015-12-01

    Communities, Tribes, and decision makers in coastal western Alaska are being impacted by declining sea ice, sea level rise, changing storm patterns and intensities, and increased rates of coastal erosion. Relative to their counterparts in the contiguous USA, their ability to plan for and respond to these changes is constrained by the region's generally meager or non-existent information base. Further, the information needs and logistic challenges are of a scale that perhaps can be addressed only through strong, strategic collaboration. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are fundamentally about applied science and collaboration, especially collaborative decision making. The Western Alaska LCC has established a process of participatory decision making that brings together researchers, agency managers, local experts from Tribes and field specialists to identify and prioritize shared information needs; develop a course of action to address them by using the LCC's limited resources to catalyze engagement, overcome barriers to progress, and build momentum; then ensure products are delivered in a manner that meets decision makers' needs. We briefly review the LCC's activities & outcomes from the stages of (i) collaborative needs assessment (joint with the Alaska Climate Science Center and the Alaska Ocean Observing System), (ii) strategic science activities, and (iii) product refinement and delivery. We discuss lessons learned, in the context of our recent program focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and Their Impacts' and current collaborative efforts focused on delivery of Coastal Resiliency planning tools and results from applied science projects. Emphasis is given to the various key interactions between scientists and decision makers / managers that have been promoted by this process to ensure alignment of final products to decision maker needs.

  17. 77 FR 44501 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ..., Assistant Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian..., Assistant Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian. Fax comments to 907-586-7557. Hand delivery to the Federal Building: Address written comments to...

  18. Status and trend of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, J.F.; Arimitsu, M.; Drew, G.; Madison, E.N.; Bodkin, J.; Romano, Marc D.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted standardized surveys for marine birds in Glacier Bay in seven years between 1991 and 2008. From our most recent survey, a combination of line- and strip-transect methods completed in 2008, we estimated that 4981 (95% CI 1293-8670) Kittlitz's Murrelets Brachyramphus brevirostris resided in Glacier Bay during the month of June, together with 12 195 (5607-18 783) Marbled Murrelets B. marmoratus. When counts were prorated to assign unidentified Brachyramphus murrelets to species, population estimates increased to 5641 Kittlitz's Murrelets and 13 810 Marbled Murrelets. Our surveys of bird numbers in Glacier Bay between 1991 and 2008 revealed that Kittlitz's Murrelet declined by ???85% during this period. Trend analysis suggested a rate of decline between -10.7% and -14.4% per year. No direct human impacts (e.g., bycatch, oil pollution, vessel disturbance) in our study area could fully account for a decline of this magnitude. Widespread declines of Brachyramphus murrelets and Harbor Seals Phoca vitulina in the Gulf of Alaska during the 1980s-1990s suggest large-scale influences on these marine predators, perhaps related to climate-mediated cycles in food supply. Other natural factors that may impact Glacier Bay populations include predation by avian and terrestrial predators, widespread glacial retreat and its effect on nesting and foraging habitats, and competition for food with marine predators whose abundance in Glacier Bay has increased markedly in recent years (Humpback Whales Megaptera novaeangliae and Steller Sea Lions Eumetopias jubatus).

  19. Erosional history of Cape Halkett and contemporary monitoring of bluff retreat, Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Beck, Richard A.; Grosse, Guido; Webster, James M.; Urban, Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    Cape Halkett is located along the Beaufort Sea at the end of a low-lying tundra landscape. The area has been subject to major modifications over the last century as a result of erosion and migration of the coastline inland. Long-term mean annual erosion rates (1955-2009) for the entire cape are 7.6 m/yr, with a gradual increase in rates over the first five time periods of remotely sensed imagery analyzed and a large increase during the most recent time period. Division of the cape into three distinct coastal zones shows very different erosional patterns: the northeast-facing segment (Zone 1) showing a consistent and large increase; the southeast-facing segment (Zone 3) showing a gradual increase with recent, heightened erosion rates; and the east-facing segment (Zone 2) showing decreased rates due to the reformation of a sand and gravel spit. Monitoring of bluff erosion with time-lapse photography, differential GPS surveys, terrestrial and bathymetric surveys, and water level, sea and permafrost temperature data provide insights into the processes driving contemporary patterns of erosion and will provide valuable information for the prediction of future shoreline positions.

  20. Ice gouge obliteration and sediment redistribution event: 1977-1978, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1979-01-01

    In 1978 major changes in shelf morphology were observed during a routine re-survey of part of the inner shelf region of the central Beaufort Sea. Regional observations are coupled with a detailed diving and side-scan study of a single ice gouge of known age to develop a detailed description of the altered seabed conditions. Hydrodynamic activity has caused extensive sediment reworking, obliterating ice gouges to water depths of at least 13 m and has caused ponding of sediment in ice gouge terrain in deeper waters. Ponded sediment is characterized as a soft, sometimes very poorly consolidated, mud unit underlain by a stiffer, more consolidated, silty clay. In places, stiff silty clay is exposed in windows in the sediment pond and displays a fine-textured ice gouge morphology. Rates of sediment reworking and redisposition from apparently episodic events are an order of magnitude greater than the average sediment accumulation rates on the Beaufort Sea shelf. Reported maximum ice gouge incision depths are not representative of maximum ice keel penetrations into the seabed because these sedimentation events preferentially infill gouges. Furthermore, because these sedimentation events concentrate sediments in gouge troughs, a series of overlapping and interfingering 'shoestring' deposits is developed which should characterize the ice gouge stratigraphy. The specific hydraulic mechanisms for sediment redistribution and sediment compaction observed in this study are only poorly understood.

  1. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    PubMed

    Murata, Satoko; Takahashi, Shin; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins>total octyltins> or = total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years.

  2. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, S.; Takahashi, S.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Kannan, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100 ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins ??? total octyltins ??? total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geology of Norton Basin and continental shelf beneath northwestern Bering Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.; Patton, W.W. Jr.; Holmes, M.L.

    1982-03-01

    The rocks that floor the Norton basin and the northwestern Bering Sea are most likely of Precambrian and Paleozoic age, like those rocks that crop out around the basin. A maximum of 6.5 km of mainly Cenozoic strata lie over basement in the basin. On the basis of the geometry of reflections in seismic data, it is believed alluvial fans to be present deep in the basin and to border major basement fault blocks. These fans are the lowest units of the basin fill in many areas and consist of uppermost Cretaceous or lower Paleogene, possibly coal- and volcanic-rich rocks. Mainly clastic nonmarine sedimentary rocks overlie the fan deposits. The Neogene and Quaternary basin rocks apparently were deposited in a marine environment.

  4. Breeding and moulting locations and migration patterns of the Atlantic population of Steller's eiders Polysticta stelleri as determined from satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Bustnes, J.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the spring, summer, autumn, and early winter distribution, migration routes, and timing of migration of the Atlantic population of Steller's eiders Polysticta stelleri. Satellite transmitters were implanted in 20 eiders captured in April 2001 at Vads??, Norway, and their locations were determined from 5 May 2001 to 6 February 2002. Regions where birds concentrated from spring until returning to wintering areas included coastal waters from western Finnmark, Norway, to the eastern Taymyr Peninsula, Russia. Novaya Zemlya, Russia, particularly the Mollera Bay region, was used extensively during spring staging, moult, and autumn staging; regions of the Kola, Kanin, and Gydanskiy peninsulas, Russia, were used extensively during spring and moult migrations. Steller's eiders migrated across the Barents and Kara seas and along the Kara Sea and Kola Peninsula coastal waters to nesting, moulting, and wintering areas. The majority of marked eiders (9 of 15) were flightless in near-shore waters along the west side of Novaya Zemlya. Eiders were also flightless in northern Norway and along the Kanin and at Kola Peninsula coasts. We compare and contrast natural history characteristics of the Atlantic and Pacific populations and discuss evolutionary and ecological factors influencing their distribution. © Journal of Avian Biology.

  5. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  6. Selective occurrence of Rhizobiales in frost flowers on the surface of young sea ice near Barrow, Alaska and distribution in the polar marine rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J S; Larose, C; Vogel, T M; Deming, J W

    2013-08-01

    Frost flowers are highly saline ice structures that grow on the surface of young sea ice, a spatially extensive environment of increasing importance in the Arctic Ocean. In a previous study, we reported organic components of frost flowers in the form of elevated levels of bacteria and exopolymers relative to underlying ice. Here, DNA was extracted from frost flowers and young sea ice, collected in springtime from a frozen lead offshore of Barrow, Alaska, to identify bacteria in these understudied environments. Evaluation of the distribution of 16S rRNA genes via four methods (microarray analysis, T-RFLP, clone library and shotgun metagenomic sequencing) indicated distinctive bacterial assemblages between the two environments, with frost flowers appearing to select for Rhizobiales. A phylogenetic placement approach, used to evaluate the distribution of similar Rhizobiales sequences in other polar marine studies, indicated that some of the observed strains represent widely distributed members of the marine rare biosphere in both the Arctic and Antarctic.

  7. Modern erosion rates and loss of coastal features and sites, Beaufort Sea coastline, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Arp, C.D.; Eisner, Wendy R.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents modern erosion rate measurements based upon vertical aerial photography captured in 1955, 1979, and 2002 for a 100 km segment of the Beaufort Sea coastline. Annual erosion rates from 1955 to 2002 averaged 5.6 m a-1. However, mean erosion rates increased from 5.0 m a-1 in 1955-79 to 6.2 m a-1 in 1979-2002. Furthermore, from the first period to the second, erosion rates increased at 60% (598) of the 992 sites analyzed, decreased at 31% (307), and changed less than ?? 30 cm at 9% (87). Historical observations and quantitative studies over the past 175 years allowed us to place our erosion rate measurements into a longer-term context. Several of the coastal features along this stretch of coastline received Western place names during the Dease and Simpson expedition in 1837, and the majority of those features had been lost by the early 1900s as a result of coastline erosion, suggesting that erosion has been active over at least the historical record. Incorporation of historical and modern observations also allowed us to detect the loss of both cultural and historical sites and modern infrastructure. U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps reveal a number of known cultural and historical sites, as well as sites with modern infrastructure constructed as recently as the 1950s, that had disappeared by the early 2000s as a result of coastal erosion. We were also able to identify sites that are currently being threatened by an encroaching coastline. Our modern erosion rate measurements can potentially be used to predict when a historical site or modern infrastructure will be affected if such erosion rates persist. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  8. GLORIA mosaic of the Gulf of Alaska and the British Columbia margin: Deep-sea channels, margin deformation, and the Queen Charlotte fault

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, T.R.; Carlson, P.R.; Stevenson, A.J.; Fisher, M.A.; Ryan, H.F.; Mann, D.M. ); Dobson, M. ); Huggett, Q.; Parson, L. ); Fannin, N.G.T. )

    1990-05-01

    GLORIA images collected from 1986 to 1989 show sea-floor morphology from the shelf break seaward to 400 km in the Gulf of Alaska and a 70-km-wide swath along British Columbia. Along the Aleutian convergent margin sediment is dominantly trapped in mid-slope basins, where few canyons reach the trench. Accretionary wedge structures range from highly discontinuous to long and continuous. The Yakutat transition margin is either extensively cut by dendritic drainages or, at sea-valley mouths, covered by glacially derived sediment. Young structures underlie the slope from Middleton Island to Pamplona Spur, but are absent from Pamplona Spur to Cross Sound. Along the southeast Alaska transform margin the Queen Charlotte fault is imaged as a narrow linear feature. The fault steps westward at Tuzo Wilson Knolls, which likely is a spreading ridge segment. Large anticlines lie seaward of and trend parallel to the fault. On the abyssal plain off the Shumagin margin inherited structural and bathymetric features trend parallel to magnetic anomalies, and trench parallel features reflect faulting as the ocean plate bends into the trench. To the north, three turbidite systems drain the margin. The Surveyor system begins between Pamplona Spur and Alsek Canyon and empties into the Aleutian Trench. The Chirikof system arises near Cross Sound and ends in turbidite fans south of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount chain, a relic Chirikov channel that once carried sediment westward to the Aleutian Trench. The Mukluk and Horizon channels start along southeast Alaska and end 1,000 km away on the Tufts abyssal plain.

  9. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  10. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  11. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  12. Annual survival and site fidelity of Stellar's Eiders molting along the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Dau, C.P.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Steller?s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) molting and wintering along the Alaska Peninsula have declined since the 1960's. We captured and marked a large sample of Steller's eiders molting in 2 lagoons along the Alaska Peninsula between 1975-97. We used mark-recapture analysis techniques to estimate annual survival and movement probabilities within and among lagoons for male and female eiders. Estimates of annual survival (?SE) were 0.899 ? 0.032 for females and 0.765 ? 0.044 for males. Both sexes showed high rates of fidelity to specific molting locations (>95%) within lagoons; yet we found no evidence that annual probability of survival differed among groups molting in different locations either within or among lagoons. We found weak evidence that annual survival decreased between the periods 1975-81 and 1991-97. The lower survival of males compared to females is unusual for waterfowl and may result in a female-biased sex ratio. We conclude that a decrease in adult survival may have initiated the long-term population decline. Further, a shortage of males may be limiting reproductive potential.

  13. UAFSmoke Modeling in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Grell, G.; Freitas, S.; Newby, G.

    2008-12-01

    Alaska wildfires have strong impact on air pollution on regional Arctic, Sub-Arctic and even hemispheric scales. In response to a high number of wildfires in Alaska, emphasis has been placed on developing a forecast system for wildfire smoke dispersion in Alaska. We have developed a University of Alaska Fairbanks WRF/Chem smoke (UAFSmoke) dispersion system, which has been adapted and initialized with source data suitable for Alaska. UAFSmoke system modules include detection of wildfire location and area using Alaska Fire Service information and satellite remote sensing data from the MODIS instrument. The fire emissions are derived from above ground biomass fuel load data in one-kilometer resolution. WRF/Chem Version 3 with online chemistry and online plume dynamics represents the core of the UAFSmoke system. Besides wildfire emissions and NOAA's Global Forecast System meteorology, WRF/Chem initial and boundary conditions are updated with anthropogenic and sea salt emission data from the Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model. System runs are performed at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center's Sun Opteron cluster "Midnight". During the 2008 fire season once daily UAFSmoke runs were presented at a dedicated webpage at http://smoke.arsc.edu. We present examples from these routine runs and from the extreme 2004 Alaska wildfire season.

  14. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  15. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... (DMR) for halibut, is available from the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http... Sebastolobus species except for Pacific ocean perch, northern, dark, shortraker, and rougheye rockfish. \\8... be posted on the Alaska Region Web site at http://www.alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . Table 3 also...

  16. 76 FR 11139 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... development of ABCs and overfishing levels (OFLs) involves sophisticated statistical analyses of fish... require the cooperation of several agencies, including NMFS, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and...), Central Aleutian District (CAI), and Western Aleutian District (WAI). \\2\\ The proposed rule split...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  2. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  3. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  4. Aerial surveys of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Grotefendt, R.A.; Chapman, D.G.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea to determine the abundance, distribution, and habitat use patterns of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals. Four species of cetaceans listed by the Federal Government as endangered were observed: gray, humpback, finback, and sperm whales. Sightings were also made to seven nonendangered species of cetaceans: minke, Cuvier's beaked, Baird's beaked, belukha, and killer whales, and Dall and harbor porpoises. Results show that the project area is an important feeding ground for relatively large numbers of humpback and finback whales and lower numbers of gray whale migration route between seasonal ranges. The project area also supports a variety of other marine mammals both seasonally and annually.

  5. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  6. Comparison of spring-time phytoplankton community composition in two cold years from the western Gulf of Alaska into the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Beth A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; McKee, Kali T.; do Rosario Gomes, Helga; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea is a highly productive ecosystem providing the main oceanographic connection between the North Pacific and Arctic oceans. The atmospheric connection with the Arctic Ocean leads to seasonal sea ice formation in the Bering Sea, the areal extent and timing of retreat of which have important implications for primary productivity and phytoplankton community composition in this region. Hydrographic data from cruises and satellite sea ice and sea surface temperature data in spring 2011 and 2012 suggest classification of these years as relatively warmer and colder years, respectively. Locations in the western Gulf of Alaska (Pavlof Bay), at the north end of an eastern pass through the Aleutian Islands (Unimak Pass), and on the continental shelf of the Bering Sea (M2) were visited in both years. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in 2012, while the water column was comparatively well-mixed at other locations in both years. Phytoplankton biomass was highest in 2011 overall and specifically on the shelf in both years, while minimal biomass was measured within the well-mixed Unimak Pass in 2012. Surface phytoplankton size distributions included substantial contributions of picoplankton (<3 μm) in 2011 (21-35%), while micro- (20-200 μm) and nanoplankton (3-20 μm) comprised 79% and 95% of biomass in Pavlof Bay and at M2, respectively, in 2012. Analyses of similarity revealed spatial variability in the phytoplankton assemblages within each year (2011: R=0.588, p<0.004; 2012: R=0.646, p<0.004). Additionally, between-year variability had a strong and significant effect on differences between assemblages across all locations (R=0.579, p<0.0003), likely masking differences between sites when years were grouped (R=0.134, p<0.079). These differences were likely driven by the dominance (up to 75% in Unimak Pass) of the colonial prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis sp. at all sites in 2011, resulting in reduced community diversity, compared to more widespread abundance of

  7. Promoting invasive species control and eradication in the sea: options for managing the tunicate invader Didemnum vexillum in Sitka, Alaska.

    PubMed

    McCann, Linda D; Holzer, Kimberly K; Davidson, Ian C; Ashton, Gail V; Chapman, Marnie D; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2013-12-15

    Bioinvasions are a significant force of change--and economic and ecological threat--in marine ecosystems. The threat now encroaches on Alaska, which has had relatively few invasions compared to other global regions, prompting need to develop new incursion response tools. We appraised five 'eco-friendly' immersion treatment options (dilute acetic acid, dilute bleach, freshwater, brine and hypoxia) at either minute- or hour-scale exposures to kill the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum. Data revealed 100% treatment efficacy after two minutes in acetic acid, ten minutes in bleach, four hours in freshwater and over four hours in brine solution. We also demonstrated the importance of monitoring D. vexillum recovery for at least three weeks, since seemingly destroyed colonies rebounded during this timeframe. Combined, these findings provide insights towards a bay-scale eradication and post-border management plan applicable to the recent D. vexillum incursion in Whiting Harbor, Alaska and other shallow, inshore invasion sites.

  8. Steller Sex: Infidelity and Sexual Selection in a Social Corvid (Cyanocitta stelleri)

    PubMed Central

    Overeem, Katlin R.; Gabriel, Pia O.; Zirpoli, Jeff A.; Black, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of avian mating systems has revealed that more than 70% of monogamous species show incidence of offspring parentage that does not match the social partner. Extra-pair parentage (EPP) has been linked to a variety of factors, including size and symmetry of ornamental traits, coloration, resource availability, and local conspecific density. We examined how ornamental plumage traits of individual Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) and territory characteristics influence genetic fidelity of socially monogamous pairs. We used seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to 79 offspring, and identified 12 (15.2%) as extra-pair young (EPY). Steller's jays with extra-pair young had significantly lower values of feather brightness and hue, indicating more ultraviolet-blue shifted coloration, and nested in closer proximity to the forest edge than Steller's jays with no detected EPY. Body size, crest height, asymmetry of ornamental crest stripes, as well as vegetative composition of territories and their proximity to supplemental feeders appeared to have little relationship to EPP. These results indicate that extra-pair parentage plays a role in the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics in both sexes, and suggest local density and availability of resources may influence Steller's jay mating dynamics. PMID:25148039

  9. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  10. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  11. Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA variation in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Scribner, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    Radiotelemetry data have shown that polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) occur in separate subpopulations in the Chukchi Sea and the southern Beaufort Sea. However, segregation is not absolute, and there is overlap of ranges of animals in each subpopulation. We used genetic variation at eight microsatellite DNA loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to further assess the degree of spatial structure of polar bears from the Chukchi and southern Beaufort seas. Microsatellite allele frequencies and mtDNA haplotype frequencies of bears from the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas did not differ significantly. Lack of differentiation at both maternally inherited mtDNA and bi-parentally inherited microsatellite loci suggests that gene flow between the two areas is mediated by both sexes. The genetic data indicate that polar bears in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas compose one interbreeding population. However, there is considerable fidelity to ranges in each area, particularly by adult females. The combined genetic and movement data suggest that polar bears could be managed as Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea subpopulations of a combined southern Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea population. ?? 2006 NRC.

  12. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  13. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed rule would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to modify the criteria for forming and participating in a harvesting cooperative. This action is necessary to encourage greater......

  14. 76 FR 45219 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP) would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to modify the criteria for forming and participating in a harvesting cooperative. This action is necessary to encourage greater participation in harvesting cooperatives, which enable members to more......

  15. 76 FR 68354 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...NMFS issues regulations implementing Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). These regulations amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to modify the criteria for forming and participating in a harvesting cooperative. This action is necessary to encourage greater participation in harvesting......

  16. 76 FR 81876 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2012 Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) amount for the Bering Sea pollock fishery. This action is necessary because NMFS has determined this TAC is incorrectly ] specified. This action will ensure the Bering Sea pollock TAC is the appropriate amount based on the best available scientific information for pollock...

  17. 76 FR 466 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2011 Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) amount for the Bering Sea pollock fishery. This action is necessary because NMFS has determined this TAC is incorrectly specified. This action will ensure the Bering Sea pollock TAC is the appropriate amount based on the best available scientific information for pollock...

  18. 76 FR 76902 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...: NMFS apportions amounts of the non-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch of sculpins in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action...

  19. 78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total...

  20. 75 FR 37371 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... nonpelagic trawl gear to directed fish for flatfish in the Bering Sea subarea and would change the boundaries... boundaries of the Northern Bering Sea Research Area (NBSRA) to establish the Modified Gear Trawl Zone (MGTZ... match the southern ] boundary of Statistical Area 400 at the Bering Strait. Area 514 of the Bering...

  1. Sediment transport and fan deposition in the Gulf of Alaska: Effects of transform motion on deep sea sedimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.J.; Bruns, T.R.; Carlson, P.R. ); Dobson, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    GLORIA side-scan sonar images and two channel seismic profiles recently collected in the Gulf of Alaska reveal a major site of late Miocene to Recent terrigenous sediment accumulation on the oceanic plate adjacent to the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform and the Yakutat Terrane. Sediment moving across this margin has formed several large channel dominated fan systems that blanket the entire gulf and spill westward onto the Tufts Abyssal Plain. The Surveyor Fan, fed by the glaciers of the Yakutat Terrane and insulated from transform sediment source offset by the Terrane, has maintained a single channel course over the entire life of the fan. The Chirikov and Baranof fans receive their sediment supply from glaciofluvial point sources along the SE Alaska margin, separated from the fans by an active transform. The fans show a southward younging of channel ages consistent with the sense of plate motion. Early (late Miocene) deposition within the gulf was limited to the structural basin between the continental margin and the Kodiak-Bowie seamount chain. The geometry of these early depositional systems is poorly known, but available data suggest their channels were oriented NW-SE. Subsequent establishment of a depositional slope between the margin and the seamount chain, coupled with the filling of the basin, led to a reorganization into SW-NE channel systems. The fan bodies of the Gulf of Alaska are members of a distinct class of fans that are characterized by long distributary channels which persist to near the fan limits. This type of fan morphology is most often attributed to a predominantly fine-grained sediment supply. This is difficult to reconcile with the obvious proximal glacial source for much of the sediment supplied to these fans.

  2. Geologic report for the Beaufort Sea planning area, Alaska: regional geology, petroleum geology, environmental geology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.D.; Sherwood, K.W.; Johnson, P.P.

    1985-12-01

    The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation is based on high-quality, gridded seismic reflection data and publicly available exploration wells. Seven regional seismic lines, released by Western Geophysical Company for this report, illustrate the geology of the petroleum provinces within the planning area. Hydrocarbon play concepts for large, untested areas of the continental margin off northern Alaska are developed from a detailed analysis of the structural and stratigraphic evolution. Environmental geology is described along with implications for future offshore petroleum activities.

  3. Enumeration of Pacific Walrus Carcasses on Beaches of the Chukchi Sea in Alaska Following a Mortality Event, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischbach, A.S.; Monson, D.H.; Jay, C.V.

    2009-01-01

    On September 14, 2009, we encountered substantial numbers of fresh walrus carcasses on the Alaskan shores of the Chukchi Sea near Icy Cape. We enumerated 131 carcasses using geo-referenced strip transect photography and visual counts of solitary carcasses. All appeared to be young animals based on review of aerial photographs and reference to 12 carcasses that we examined on the ground. The events that led to the death of these animals are unknown, but appear to be related to the loss of sea ice over the Chukchi Sea continental shelf. In years prior to this event, other investigators have linked walrus deaths at other Chukchi Sea coastal haulouts to trampling, exhaustion from prolonged exposure to open sea conditions, and separation of calves from their mothers.

  4. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Off Alaska; Chinook ] Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  5. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  6. Kittlitz's and Marbled Murrelets in Kenai Fjords National Park, South-Central Alaska: At-Sea Distribution, Abundance, and Foraging Habitat, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.; Madison, E.N.; Conaway, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris) and marbled murrelets (B. marmoratus) are small diving seabirds and are of management concern because of population declines in coastal Alaska. In 2006-08, we conducted a study in Kenai Fjords National Park, south-central Alaska, to estimate the recent population size of Brachyramphus murrelets, to evaluate productivity based on juvenile to adult ratios during the fledgling season, and to describe and compare their use of marine habitat. We also attempted a telemetry study to examine Kittlitz's murrelet nesting habitat requirements and at-sea movements. We estimated that the Kittlitz's murrelet population was 671 ? 144 birds, and the marbled murrelet population was 5,855 ? 1,163 birds. Kittlitz's murrelets were limited to the heads of three fjords with tidewater glaciers, whereas marbled murrelets were more widely distributed. Population estimates for both species were lower in 2007 than in 2006 and 2008, possibly because of anomalous oceanographic conditions that may have delayed breeding phenology. During late season surveys, we observed few hatch-year marbled murrelets and only a single hatch-year Kittlitz's murrelet over the course of the study. Using radio telemetry, we found a likely Kittlitz's murrelet breeding site on a mountainside bordering one of the fjords. We never observed radio-tagged Kittlitz's murrelets greater than 10 kilometer from their capture sites, suggesting that their foraging range during breeding is narrow. We observed differences in oceanography between fjords, reflecting differences in sill characteristics and orientation relative to oceanic influence. Acoustic biomass, a proxy for zooplankton and small schooling fish, generally decreased with distance from glaciers in Northwestern Lagoon, but was more variable in Aialik Bay where dense forage fish schools moved into glacial areas late in the summer. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Pacific sand lance

  7. Age distributions of sea otters found dead in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-15. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, D.H.; Ballachey, B.

    1995-06-01

    Age distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches in western Prince William Sound Alaska, from 1976 to 1984, were compared to those of sea otters found dead from 1989 to 1993, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The age distribution of sea otters recovered in western Prince William Sound prior to the spill was bimodal and composed of primarily young and old animals. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered immediately following the spill indicates significant losses occurred within a segment of the population which normally experiences very low mortality. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered in 1990-1991 may be evidence of a prolonged, spill-related effect on the western Prince William Sound sea otter population.

  8. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, J. Chris

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  9. Paleoecology of late-glacial peats from the bering land bridge, Chukchi Sea shelf region, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Phillips, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Insect fossils and pollen from late Pleistocene nonmarine peat layers were recovered from cores from the shelf region of the Chukchi Sea at depths of about 50 m below sea level. The peats date to 11,300-11,000 yr B.P. and provide a limiting age for the regional Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgression. The insect fossils are indicative of arctic coastal habitats like those of the Mackenzie Delta region (mean July temperatures = 10.6-14??C) suggesting that 11,000 yr ago the exposed Chukchi Sea shelf had a climate substantially warmer than modern coastal regions of the Alaskan north slope. The pollen spectra are consistent with the age assignment to the Birch Interval (14,000-9000 yr B.P.). The data suggest a meadow-like graminoid tundra with birch shrubs and some willow shrubs growing in sheltered areas. ?? 1992.

  10. An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Pierce, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    On March 31, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced a national strategy for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development. In that announcement, the Administration outlined a three-pronged approach (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010a): Development: "...expand development and production throughout the Gulf of Mexico, including resource-rich areas of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico..." Exploration: "...expand oil and gas exploration in frontier areas, such as the Arctic Ocean and areas in the Atlantic Ocean, to gather the information necessary to develop resources in the right places and the right ways." Conservation: "...calls for the protection of special areas like Bristol Bay in Alaska...national treasure[s] that we must protect for future generations." In a companion announcement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010b), within the Administration's "Exploration" component, the Secretary asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct an initial, independent evaluation of the science needs that would inform the Administration's consideration of the right places and the right ways in which to develop oil and gas resources in the Arctic OCS, particularly focused on the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (fig. 1).

  11. 78 FR 63951 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... the hook-and-line C/Ps active in the GOA that are not FLCC members. The Council noted that although... at subpart H of 50 CFR part 600. Background The proposed action would amend the BSAI FMP and revise... licenses that allow vessels to catch and process at-sea are assigned a catcher/processor (C/P)...

  12. 77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...NMFS publishes regulations to implement Amendment 97 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). Amendment 97 allows the owner of a trawl catcher/processor vessel authorized to participate in the Amendment 80 catch share program to replace that vessel with a vessel that meets certain requirements. This action establishes the......

  13. 76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA) vessels with historical participation in the Bering Sea snow crab fishery because these vessels are subject to GOA harvesting and processing restrictions under the AFA and the implementing regulations for the AFA (Sec. 679.64(b)). Vessels subject to the sideboards are referred to as ``non-AFA...

  14. 75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... available data and finds that the ITAC for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea needs to be... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the apportionment of the non-specified reserves of... plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet and...

  15. 76 FR 81873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2012 Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    .... SUMMARY: NMFS is adjusting the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) amount for the Bering Sea and Aleutian... this TAC is incorrectly specified. This action will ensure the BSAI Atka mackerel TAC is the... appear at subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2012 Atka mackerel TAC in the BSAI...

  16. 76 FR 1539 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2011 Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    .... SUMMARY: NMFS is adjusting the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) amount for the Bering Sea and Aleutian... this TAC is incorrectly specified. This action will ensure the BSAI Atka mackerel TAC is the... appear at subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2011 Atka mackerel TAC in the BSAI...

  17. 78 FR 53158 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...) to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for... Lion Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hooper Bay, Alaska, and are located in:...

  18. High-Precision 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology and Geology of St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska: Implications for Eruption Rates in the Bering Sea Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Cosca, M. A.; Hamblock, J. M.; Underwood, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    New high-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages and geologic mapping establish an eruptive chronology for St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. St. George is part of the Bering Sea basalt province (BSBP), a group of 15 late Cenozoic (mostly < 6 Ma) alkalic to tholeiitic basaltic volcanic fields widely distributed on islands in the Bering Sea, along the west coast of Alaska, and along the coast of northeast Russia. Twelve samples of washed, but otherwise untreated, whole-rock basalts from St. George were cut with a micro-wire saw into chips ~3 mm3 in size and irradiated for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. The chips were incrementally heated with a CO2 laser equipped with an integrator lens, and analyzed using a NU Instruments Noblesse mass spectrometer equipped with a Faraday cup and two ion counting electron multipliers. Detector intercalibration was done using automated air pipettes. A minimum of 20 heating steps were measured per sample, with the data often defining age plateaux. Isochron plots of the data yield ages ranging from 1.57 ± 0.04 to 2.89 ± 0.11 Ma, with trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios ranging from 312 to 330. The stratigraphic positions of the dated rocks are known directly from field relations and there are no discrepancies between the 40Ar/39Ar ages and this sequence. Geochemical data combined with the age data indicate no progressive petrologic trends during evolution of the magmatic system, except for intermittent eruption of distinctive plagioclase-phyric basalts with low to moderate MgO contents (7 - 5 wt%) beginning at ~2.0 Ma. The new age data combined with volume estimates indicate an average subaerial eruption rate of ~107 m3km-2yr-1, which is adjusted for 3% sedimentary and ultramafic basement rocks beneath the volcanic pile, an average vesicularity of 5%, and an assumed surficial erosion value of 20%. This rate is identical to the estimate (110 m3km-2yr-1) by Mukasa et al. (JGR 112, 2007) for St. George Island. Both estimates, however, do not account for

  19. Dendrochronology and late Holocene history of Bering piedmont glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, G.C.; Post, A.; Muller, E.H.; Molnia, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Fluctuations of the piedmont lobe of Bering Glacier and its sublobe Steller Glacier over the past two millennia are reconstructed using 34 radiocarbon dates and tree-ring data from 16 sites across the glaciers' forelands. The general sequence of glacial activity is consistent with well-dated fluctuations of tidewater and land-terminating glaciers elsewhere along the Gulf of Alaska. Extensive forested areas along 25 km of the Bering ice margin were inundated by glacio-lacustrine and glacio-fluvial sediments during a probable ice advance shortly before 500 cal yr A.D. Regrowth of forests followed the retreating ice as early as the 7th century A.D., with frequent interruptions of tree growth due to outwash aggradation. Forests overrun by ice and buried in outwash indicate readvance about 1080 cal yr A.D. Retreat followed, with ice-free conditions maintained along the distal portions of the forefield until the early 17th century after which the ice advanced to within a few kilometers of its outer Neoglacial moraine. Ice reached this position after the mid-17th century and prior to 200 yr ago. Since the early 20th century, glacial retreat has been punctuated by periodic surges. The record from forests overrun by the nonsurging Steller Lobe shows that this western ice margin was advancing by 1250 A.D., reaching near its outer moraine after 1420 cal yr A.D. Since the late 19th century, the lobe has dominantly retreated.

  20. 76 FR 6083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Sea CDQ DFA. The remaining 12,500 mt of pollock is apportioned to the AFA Inshore sector (50 percent), AFA catcher/processor sector (40 percent), and the AFA mothership sector (10 percent). The 2011...,588 76,260 ICA \\1\\ 24,768 n/a n/a n/a 33,804 n/a n/a n/a AFA Inshore 353,466 140,486 98,340...

  1. 78 FR 14932 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Sea CDQ DFA. The remaining 10,500 mt of pollock is apportioned to the AFA Inshore sector (50 percent), AFA catcher/processor sector (40 percent), and the AFA mothership sector (10 percent). The 2013.../a 33,669 n/a n/a n/a AFA Inshore 549,551 219,820 153,874 329,730 544,316 217,726 152,408 326,589...

  2. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  3. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 2. Bering Sea. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Downsview, clouds, waves, and such supplemental informa- of potential impact by oil and gas exploration Ontario. Data summaries were made possible tion...exception of icebreakers and other specially designed ships. It makes the /1 cleanup of oil spills difficult, if not impossible, Kotlik by hampering...the operation of cleanup equip- " p LJ 172’ 170" 168" 166"* 1n 6n ment and by trapping oil under the ice. Sea ice 1 1 1 t She PointU also has

  4. At-sea observations of marine birds and their habitats before and after the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, G.S.; Dragoo, Donald E.; Renner, M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi volcano, an island volcano in the Aleutian chain, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. The resulting ash and pyroclastic flows blanketed the island, covering terrestrial habitats. We surveyed the marine environment surrounding Kasatochi Island in June and July of 2009 to document changes in abundance or distribution of nutrients, fish, and marine birds near the island when compared to patterns observed on earlier surveys conducted in 1996 and 2003. Analysis of SeaWiFS satellite imagery indicated that a large chlorophyll-a anomaly may have been the result of ash fertilization during the eruption. We found no evidence of continuing marine fertilization from terrestrial runoff 10 months after the eruption. At-sea surveys in June 2009 established that the most common species of seabirds at Kasatochi prior to the eruption, namely crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) and least auklets (Aethia pusilla) had returned to Kasatochi in relatively high numbers. Densities from more extensive surveys in July 2009 were compared with pre-eruption densities around Kasatochi and neighboring Ulak and Koniuji islands, but we found no evidence of an eruption effect. Crested and least auklet populations were not significantly reduced by the initial explosion and they returned to attempt breeding in 2009, even though nesting habitat had been rendered unusable. Maps of pre- and post-eruption seabird distribution anomalies indicated considerable variation, but we found no evidence that observed distributions were affected by the 2008 eruption. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Pierce, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to conduct an initial, independent evaluation of the science needs that would inform the Administration's consideration of the right places and the right ways in which to develop oil and gas resources in the Arctic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), particularly focused on the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Oil and gas potential is significant in Arctic Alaska. Beyond petroleum potential, this region supports unique fish and wildlife resources and ecosystems, and indigenous people who rely on these resources for subsistence. This report summarizes key existing scientific information and provides initial guidance of what new and (or) continued research could inform decision making. This report is presented in a series of topical chapters and various appendixes each written by a subset of the USGS OCS Team based on their areas of expertise. Three chapters (Chapters 2, 3, and 4) provide foundational information on geology; ecology and subsistence; and climate settings important to understanding the conditions pertinent to development in the Arctic OCS. These chapters are followed by three chapters that examine the scientific understanding, science gaps, and science sufficiency questions regarding oil-spill risk, response, and impact (Chapter 5), marine mammals and anthropogenic noise (Chapter 6), and cumulative impacts (Chapter 7). Lessons learned from the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill are included to identify valuable "pre-positioned" science and scientific approaches to improved response and reduced uncertainty in damage assessment and restoration efforts (appendix D). An appendix on Structured Decision Making (appendix C) is included to illustrate the value of such tools that go beyond, but incorporate, science in looking at what can/should be done about policy and implementation of Arctic development. The report provides a series of findings and recommendations for consideration developed during the independent examination of

  6. Habitat use and foraging patterns of molting male Long-tailed Ducks in lagoons of the central Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Reed, John; Deborah Lacroix,; Richard Lanctot,

    2016-01-01

    From mid-July through September, 10 000 to 30 000 Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) use the lagoon systems of the central Beaufort Sea for remigial molt. Little is known about their foraging behavior and patterns of habitat use during this flightless period. We used radio transmitters to track male Long-tailed Ducks through the molt period from 2000 to 2002 in three lagoons: one adjacent to industrial oil field development and activity and two in areas without industrial activity. We found that an index to time spent foraging generally increased through the molt period. Foraging, habitat use, and home range size showed similar patterns, but those patterns were highly variable among lagoons and across years. Even with continuous daylight during the study period, birds tended to use offshore areas during the day for feeding and roosted in protected nearshore waters at night. We suspect that variability in behaviors associated with foraging, habitat use, and home range size are likely influenced by availability of invertebrate prey. Proximity to oil field activity did not appear to affect foraging behaviors of molting Long-tailed Ducks.

  7. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  8. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section between August 1 and December 1 in any year, in the Washington counties of Clark, Cowlitz, and Lewis; and the Oregon counties of Benton, Clackamas, Lane, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Washington, and Yamhill. (b) That scrub jays and Steller's jays taken pursuant to this section shall not...

  9. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  10. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  11. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  12. High rates of bedload transport measured from infilling rate of large strudelscour craters in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, Erk; Kempema, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Strudel scours are craters as much as 20 m wide and 4 m deep, that are excavated by vertical drainage flow during the yearly spring flooding of vast reaches of fast ice surrounding arctic deltas; they form at a rate of about 2.5 km^-2 yr^-1. Monitoring two such craters in the Beaufort Sea, we found that in relatively unprotected sites they fill in by deposition from bedload in 2 to 3 years. Net westward sediment transport results in sand layers dipping at the angle of repose westward into the strudel-scour crater, whereas the west wall of the crater remains steep to vertical. Initially the crater traps almost all bedload: sand, pebbles, and organic detritus; as infilling progresses, the materials are increasingly winnowed, and bypassing must occur. Over a 20-m-wide sector, an exposed strudel scour trapped 360 m3 of bedload during two seasons; this infilling represents a bedload transport rate of 9 m3 yr^-1 m^-1. This rate should be applicable to a 4.5-km-wide zone with equal exposure and similar or shallower depth. Within this zone, the transport rate is 40,500 m3 yr^-1, similar to estimated longshore transport rates on local barrier beaches. On the basis of the established rate of cut and fill, all the delta-front deposits should consist of strudel-scour fill. Vibracores typically show dipping interbedded sand and lenses of organic material draped over very steep erosional contacts, and an absence of horizontal continuity of strata--criteria that should uniquely identify high-latitude deltaic deposits. Given a 2- to 3-year lifespan, most strudel scours seen in surveys must be old. The same holds true for ice gouges and other depressions not adjusted to summer waves and currents, although these features record events of only the past few years. In view of such high rates of bottom reworking of the shallow shelf, any human activities creating turbidity, such as dredging, would have little effect on the environment. However, huge amounts of transitory material

  13. Pre to Post-Bomb Seawater 14C History in the Gulf of Alaska Inferred From a Deep Sea Coral: Isididae sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roark, B.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fallon, S.; Dunbar, R. B.; McCulloch, M.

    2006-12-01

    Deep-sea corals are an important archive of intermediate and deep-water variability, and provide the means to explore decadal to century-scale ocean dynamics in regions and time periods heretofore unexplored. We present a reconstruction of pre to post-bomb surface and interior water Δ14C based on analysis of deep-sea Isididae (bamboo) corals collected live at ~700 meters in June 2002 at Warwick Seamount, Gulf of Alaska. Concurrent isotope analyses of polyp/tissue and outermost portion of the hard horny proteinaceous gorgonin nodes compared with in situ dissolved inorganic carbon indicates that the gorgonin portion is derived exclusively from recently fixed/exported particulate organic carbon and thus a record of the surface water 14C/12C history. This is in contrast to the carbonate internode portion which is primarily derived from in situ dissolved inorganic carbon, and thus a record of the in situ 14C/12C. Radiocarbon analysis of gorgonin nodal sections captures the surface water D14C evolution. Pre-bomb values are -105‰ reaching a maximum of 100‰ before decreasing to collection values of 20‰. We anticipate that the post-bomb maximum will be in the early 1970s consistent with other mid to high latitude records and that the pre/post bomb transition initiates near 1956. If we utilize the gorgonin pre/post bomb transition as a tie-point and assume a linear growth rate the Isididae used in this study are 75- 125 years old. Carbonate Δ14C shows a 25‰ increase from -215 to -190‰ reflecting the penetration of bomb-14C in the sub-polar North Pacific. To place the carbonate time-series on a fixed timescale we determined the minor element chemistry and tested the inter-species reproducibility. The distribution of Sr is quite homogenous whereas Mg is not with higher Mg concentrations associated with centers of calcification. Age estimates using what appear to be annual Sr/Ca cycles, which we hypothesize are related to biomineralization cycles associated with a

  14. 77 FR 65843 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to IFQ Program Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska, and other applicable laws. DATES: Comments on the... Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ... Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska. The fixed-gear sablefish fishery is subject to the same IFQ Program...

  15. Potential Impact of USAF Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (ait) Launches from the Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Monitoring of Noise Levels During the Launch of ait-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-05

    launch site boundary, launch stool, geographic areas discussed in the text, and pinniped hauling sites...triggering event for long-term evacuation of the spit (they stayed in the water until at least 1500h). In other studies, pinnipeds have reacted similarly...launch stool, geographic areas dis- cussed in the text, and pinniped hauling sites. Site Boundary Launch Stool Narrow Cape Ug ak Pas s Steller sea

  16. Exploring Experimental Design: An Excel-Based Simulation Using Steller Sea Lion Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Wendy L.; St. Iago-McRae, Ezry

    2016-01-01

    Experimentation is the foundation of science and an important process for students to understand and experience. However, it can be difficult to teach some aspects of experimentation within the time and resource constraints of an academic semester. Interactive models can be a useful tool in bridging this gap. This freely accessible simulation…

  17. Sharing Ideas. Southeast Alaska Cultures: Teaching Ideas and Resource Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Kay, Comp.; Kleinert, Jean, Comp.

    The product of two 1975 workshops held in Southeastern Alaska (Fairbanks and Sitka), this publication presents the following: (1) papers (written by the educators in attendance at the workshops) which address education methods and concepts relevant to the culture of Southeastern Alaska ("Tlingit Sea Lion Parable"; "Using Local…

  18. Marine bird and sea otter population abundance of Prince william sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1989-93. Restoration project 93045. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to estimate marine bird and sea otter (Enhdra lutris) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March and July 1993, using methods developed for the 1989-91 surveys (Klosiewski and Laing 1994). During 1993, we recorded 65 birds and 13 mammal species. We estimated that 402,760 + or - 167,697 marine birds were in the Sound during March 1993, an increase of >200,000 birds over 1990 and 1991. To examine trends in our marine bird population estimates from 1989-93, we assumed that in the absence of oil spill effects, population estimates in the oiled zone would change at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we examined population trends from 1989-1993, using regression analyses. We also examined the relative abundance of the species groups seen in Prince William Sound from 1972 to 1993. Sea otter populations in 1993 were estimated at 6,813 + or - 1,861 for March and 8,216 + or - 2,435 for July. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1989-93 for either the March or July population estimates. There was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1989-93.

  19. Winter marine bird and sea otter abundance of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill from 1990-94. Restoration project 94159. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to determine population abundance of marine birds and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March 1994. We observed 45 bird and 8 mammal species in Prince William Sound, and we estimated that 320,470 + or - 63,640 marine birds were present. We estimated trends in the March population estimates from 1990-94 by determining whether estimates in the oiled zone changed at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we also examined the population trends from 1990-94 using regression analyses. We found significant positive trends for harlequin duck (Histrionicus), goldeneye, merganser, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and gull (Larus and Rissa spp.) populations. We also examined the relative abundance of marine bird species groups from 1972 to 1994. During March 1994, we estimated that the sea otter population was 7,746 + or - 2,073 otters. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1990-94, and there was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1990-94.

  20. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  1. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  2. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the…

  3. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  4. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  5. 77 FR 61300 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of the 2012 Atka mackerel incidental catch allowance (ICA) for the Bering Sea subarea and... mackerel to be fully harvested. DATES: Effective October 3, 2012, through 2400 hrs, Alaska local time...

  6. Native Alaska's Floating Factoryship--She Plies the Pacific Ocean for Native Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassaja, The Indian Historian, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the history of the Al-Ind-Esk-A Sea, a floating fish processing factory representing a major hope for the economic independence of Alaska Natives residing outside the state. Discusses employment practices in effect on the ship. Notes interesting facts about the ship's engines and fittings. (SB)

  7. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Nathan L; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-03-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  8. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  9. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  10. Regional Observations of Alaska Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska glaciers contribute more to sea level rise than any other glacierized mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex glacier flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many glaciers throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure glacier surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard Glaciers and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "melt-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent glacier mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.

  11. Trial aerial survey of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93043-2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1996-05-01

    We developed an aerial survey method for sea otters, using a strip transect design where otters observed in a strip along one side of the aircraft are counted. Two strata are sampled, one lies close to shore and/or in shallow. The other strata lies offshore and over deeper water. We estimate the proportion of otters not seen by the observer by conducting intensive searches of units (ISU`s) within strips when otters are observed. The first study found no significant differences in sea otter detection probabilities between ISU`s initiated by the sighting of an otter group compared to systematically located ISU`s. The second study consisted of a trial survey of all of Prince William Sound, excluding Orca Inlet. The survey area consisted of 5,017 sq km of water between the shore line and an offshore boundary based on shoreline physiography, the 100 m depth contour or a distance of 2 km from the shore. From 5-13 August 1993, two observers surveyed 1,023 linear km of high density sea otter habitat and 355 linear km of low density habitat.

  12. Alaska climate divisions based on objective methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloff, H.; Bieniek, P. A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Thoman, R.; Walsh, J. E.; Daly, C.; Shulski, M.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska is vast geographically, is located at high latitudes, is surrounded on three sides by oceans and has complex topography, encompassing several climate regions. While climate zones exist, there has not been an objective analysis to identify regions of homogeneous climate. In this study we use cluster analysis on a robust set of weather observation stations in Alaska to develop climate divisions for the state. Similar procedures have been employed in the contiguous United States and other parts of the world. Our analysis, based on temperature and precipitation, yielded a set of 10 preliminary climate divisions. These divisions include an eastern and western Arctic (bounded by the Brooks Range to the south), a west coast region along the Bering Sea, and eastern and western Interior regions (bounded to the south by the Alaska Range). South of the Alaska Range there were the following divisions: an area around Cook Inlet (also including Valdez), coastal and inland areas along Bristol Bay including Kodiak and Lake Iliamna, the Aleutians, and Southeast Alaska. To validate the climate divisions based on relatively sparse station data, additional sensitivity analysis was performed. Additional clustering analysis utilizing the gridded North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was also conducted. In addition, the divisions were evaluated using correlation analysis. These sensitivity tests support the climate divisions based on cluster analysis.

  13. 77 FR 47371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Interagency Electronic Reporting System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... current information collection. eLandings and seaLandings are data entry components of the Alaska... and production data for Fishery Management Plan species in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). ADF&G collects harvest data for groundfish species taken in the State of Alaska waters, and has...

  14. Forest Fires Produce Dense Smoke over Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On August 14, 2005, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this stunning image of forest fires raging across the width of Alaska. Smoke from scores of fires (marked in red) filled the state's broad central valley and poured out to sea. Hemmed in by mountains to the north and the south, the smoke spreads westward and spills out over the Bering and Chukchi Seas (image left). More than a hundred fires were burning across the state as of August 14. Air quality warnings have been issued for about 90 percent of the Interior, according to the August 12 report from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation's Division of Air Quality. Conditions have ranged from 'very unhealthy' to 'hazardous' over the weekend in many locations, including Fairbanks. A large area of high atmospheric pressure spread over much of the state, keeping temperatures high and reducing winds that would clear the air.

  15. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  16. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  17. 77 FR 2998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). These lands lie entirely within the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Refuge......

  18. 75 FR 5760 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Alaska Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... patsy.bearden@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Community Development Quota (CDQ... communities the opportunity to participate and invest in Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

  19. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  20. Geologic framework of the Aleutian arc, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, Tracy L.; Scholl, David W.; Fisher, Michael A.; Bruns, Terry R.; Wilson, Frederic H.; von Huene, Roland E.; Stevenson, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    The Aleutian arc is the arcuate arrangement of mountain ranges and flanking submerged margins that forms the northern rim of the Pacific Basin from the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) eastward more than 3,000 km to Cooke Inlet (Fig. 1). It consists of two very different segments that meet near Unimak Pass: the Aleutian Ridge segment to the west and the Alaska Peninsula-the Kodiak Island segment to the east. The Aleutian Ridge segment is a massive, mostly submerged cordillera that includes both the islands and the submerged pedestal from which they protrude. The Alaska Peninsula-Kodiak Island segment is composed of the Alaska Peninsula, its adjacent islands, and their continental and insular margins. The Bering Sea margin north of the Alaska Peninsula consists mostly of a wide continental shelf, some of which is underlain by rocks correlative with those on the Alaska Peninsula.There is no pre-Eocene record in rocks of the Aleutian Ridge segment, whereas rare fragments of Paleozoic rocks and extensive outcrops of Mesozoic rocks occur on the Alaska Peninsula. Since the late Eocene, and possibly since the early Eocene, the two segments have evolved somewhat similarly. Major plutonic and volcanic episodes, however, are not synchronous. Furthermore, uplift of the Alaska Peninsula-Kodiak Island segment in late Cenozoic time was more extensive than uplift of the Aleutian Ridge segment. It is probable that tectonic regimes along the Aleutian arc varied during the Tertiary in response to such factors as the directions and rates of convergence, to bathymetry and age of the subducting Pacific Plate, and to the volume of sediment in the Aleutian Trench.The Pacific and North American lithospheric plates converge along the inner wall of the Aleutian trench at about 85 to 90 mm/yr. Convergence is nearly at right angles along the Alaska Peninsula, but because of the arcuate shape of the Aleutian Ridge relative to the location of the plates' poles of rotation, the angle of convergence

  1. Do oil and gold mix in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.V.

    1985-04-01

    Excellent potential for sea-floor-placer heavy mineral deposits exists locally along the coast of Alaska within lands owned by the state. Aspen Exploration first applied for precious metal offshore prospecting permits (OPPs) from the state in 1980 for certain lands in Cook Inlet, including lands that are prospective for oil and gas production. Exploration to date has included geologic mapping, beach sampling at many locations, and a 6400 mile low-level aeromagnetic survey. More than 20,000 ft of sediments underlie areas that appear most prospective for placer gold deposits, thereby facilitating geophysical interpretation of sea-floor magnetic anomalies. Work to date, now suspended, suggests large, linear, offshore heavy mineral concentrations, which likely include gold. Obtaining permits in Alaska is difficult, frustrating, and expensive. After 5 years of effort, no permits have been issues to Aspen. Primary opposition has come from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, which has taken the position that insufficient biological resource information is available in the prospect areas. These same offshore areas, however, are held under oil and gas leases from the state by various companies. The difficulties encountered by smaller oil companies in attempting to carry out exploration in Alaska, which have forced virtually all of them to abandon their efforts in this state, are compared with difficulties hard-mineral companies are encountering. It is important to recognize that income to the state of Alaska from oil royalties and taxes is of such magnitude, that needed support for hard-mineral exploration and mining is being suppressed by a hostile bureaucracy and by preservationists.

  2. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  3. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  4. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  5. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  6. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation.

  7. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  8. 75 FR 8396 - Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Nelson Lagoon in Alaska. We will announce these meeting dates, times, and locations locally, at least 10... valleys, glacial moraines, low tundra wetlands, lakes, sand dunes, and lagoons. Elevations range from sea.... Several major lagoons are within the Izembek Refuge boundary. These lagoons contain some of the...

  9. Summer spawning in the fourhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus quadricornis, from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, S.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; West, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Histological ovarian analysis indicates summer spawning occurs in Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Fourhorn Sculpin) from Alaska. Previous studies have shown this species spawns during winter in the Baltic Sea; the data presented herein suggests that geographical variation may occur in the timing of spawning of this species.

  10. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  11. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  12. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  13. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  14. Alaska Resource Data File, Juneau quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, John C.; Miller, Lance D.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  15. 78 FR 9327 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of Pacific cod from vessels using jig gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3... Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective February 5, 2013, through 2400 hours, Alaska local time...

  16. 77 FR 8176 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of Pacific cod from vessels using jig gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3... Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective February 8, 2012, through 2400 hrs, Alaska local time...

  17. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  18. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. F.; Burgess, E.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Johnson, A. J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-07-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of -75 ± 11 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  19. Hawkweed Control in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several hawkweed species from Europe have escaped ornamental planting and have colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. These plants form near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was conducted ...

  20. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller’s sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species. PMID:26504217

  1. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  2. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  3. 75 FR 5251 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  4. 78 FR 5144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  5. 76 FR 4081 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  6. 77 FR 3157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  7. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... 50 animals of each of the following species: Harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandica; hooded seal... captive Steller Sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus. Samples may be from subsistence-harvested animals in Alaska... of Canada, Norway, the United Kingdom, and in international waters. Samples may be...

  8. Field surveying and topographic mapping in Alaska: 1947-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    This circular retraces surveying and topographic mapping by the Geological Survey in Alaska from 1947 to 1983 and describes camp life and some of the unusual happenings involved in working in virtually uninhabited country, adverse weather, and difficult terrain. A year-by-year recap of activities documents the transition from early small-scale mapping efforts to more accurate and detailed 1:63,360-scale mapping for Alaska except the Aleutian Islands and isolated islands in the Bering Sea. Recent 1:25,000-scale metric mapping and the preparation of orthophotographs and special mapping efforts for other Government agencies also are recounted.

  9. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  10. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  11. Geophysical Identification and Geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

  12. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor, and the…

  13. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  14. Paleozoic tectonic history of the Arctic basin north of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.

    1969-01-01

    The geology of the margin of the Canada Basin, together with geophysical data, leads me to reject the continental subsidence theory for the origin of the deep Canada Basin. Instead, the Canada Basin is, I believe, a true and probably very ancient ocean basin floored by oceanic crust and rimmed by an early Paleozoic geosynclinal belt. In the Upper Devonian, uplifts in this circumarctic geosyncline, accompanied by granitic intrusion, produced a wedge of coarse clastic sediments (exogeosyncline) that spread southward onto adjoining areas of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia. In both northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands, thick sequences of upper Paleozoic and younger strata were deposited unconformably on the rocks of the early Paleozoic geosyncline, showing a similarity in tectonic history between the areas. The Paleozoic history of the southern rim of the Canada Basin resembles that of other mobile belts bordering North America. The movement of the floor of the Arctic Ocean against the continental crust of North America (sea-floor spreading) would provide a mechanism to account for the long history of orogenic activity along the basin margin. The sharp bend in the structural elements of southern Alaska (the Alaska orocline) has been cited as evidence of clockwise rotation of the Arctic Islands of Canada from Alaska and the Soviet Arctic to their present position during the Mesozoic. However, the geologic and geophysical evidence available indicates that the Arctic basin has a longer history, extending into the Paleozoic, and that this bend in Alaskan structures may have been largely caused by spreading of the Pacific sea floor against the continental margin in the Gulf of Alaska.

  15. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  16. Local sources of pollution and their impacts in Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molders, N.

    2013-12-01

    The movie 'Into the Wilde' evoke the impression of the last frontier in a great wide and pristine land. With over half a million people living in Alaska an area as larger as the distance from the US West to the East Coast, this idea comes naturally. The three major cities are the main emission source in an otherwise relative clean atmosphere. On the North Slope oil drilling and production is the main anthropogenic emission sources. Along Alaska's coasts ship traffic including cruises is another anthropogenic emission source that is expected to increase as sea-ice recedes. In summer, wildfires in Alaska, Canada and/or Siberia may cause poor air quality. In winter inversions may lead poor air quality and in spring. In spring, aged polluted air is often advected into Alaska. These different emission sources yield quite different atmospheric composition and air quality impacts. While this may make understanding Alaska's atmospheric composition at-large a challenging task, it also provides great opportunities to examine impacts without co-founders. The talk will give a review of the performed research, and insight into the challenges.

  17. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  18. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  19. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  20. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  1. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  2. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  3. Chariot, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-16

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. This region is about 125 miles north of (inside) the Arctic Circle and is bounded on the southwest by the Chukchi Sea. The closest populated areas are the Inupiat villages of Point Hope, 32 miles northwest of the site, and Kivalina,41 miles to the southeast. The site is accessible from Point Hope by ATV in the summer and by snowmobile in the winter. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site was cancelled because of strong public opposition. No nuclear explosions were conducted at the site.

  4. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season apportionment of the 2010 Pacific cod...

  5. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  6. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and... allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to catcher/processors using...

  7. 77 FR 19147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  8. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season apportionment of the 2013 Pacific cod...

  9. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  10. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., thereby undermining the conservation and management objectives of the FMP. The AA further finds, pursuant... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Correction... Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery published on August 30, 2010. These corrections amend...

  11. 76 FR 63204 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the 2011 total allowable catch of yellowfin sole to... Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... of the 2011 yellowfin sole total allowable catch (TAC) assigned to the Bering Sea and...

  12. 76 FR 29671 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to allow the 2011 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be...

  13. 75 FR 55689 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the 2010 total allowable catch of... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of the 2010 yellowfin sole total allowable catch (TAC) assigned to the Bering Sea...

  14. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the B season apportionment of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC)...

  15. 76 FR 65972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  16. 77 FR 39440 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  17. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  18. 77 FR 34262 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  19. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  20. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective...

  1. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  2. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  3. 76 FR 22057 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  4. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  5. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  6. Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility science data processing architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Bicknell, Thomas; Miller, Carol L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at Fairbanks, being developed to generate science data products for supporting research in sea ice motion, ice classification, sea-ice-ocean interaction, glacier behavior, ocean waves, and hydrological and geological study areas. Special attention is given to the individual substructures of the ASF: the Receiving Ground Station (RGS), the SAR Processor System, and the Interactive Image Analysis System. The SAR data will be linked to the RGS by the ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2, the Japanese ERS-1, and the Canadian Radarsat.

  7. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  8. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  9. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  10. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska A Appendix A to Part 679... Appendix A to Part 679—Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska Table of Contents 1.Introduction 2.Belt Scales 2.1Applicability...

  11. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska A Appendix A to Part 679... Appendix A to Part 679—Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska Table of Contents 1.Introduction 2.Belt Scales 2.1Applicability...

  12. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska A Appendix A to Part 679... Appendix A to Part 679—Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska Table of Contents 1.Introduction 2.Belt Scales 2.1Applicability...

  13. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska A Appendix A to Part 679... Appendix A to Part 679—Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska Table of Contents 1.Introduction 2.Belt Scales 2.1Applicability...

  14. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska A Appendix A to Part 679... Appendix A to Part 679—Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska Table of Contents 1.Introduction 2.Belt Scales 2.1Applicability...

  15. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  16. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  17. Alaska provides icy training ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-04-01

    Offshore oil drilling platforms and oil exploration off the coast of Alaska are discussed. Sohio is investigating the feasibility of platform supporters from shore such as icebreakers and air-cushion vehicles. At Prudhoe Bay Arco is embarking on the first tertiary oil recovery project to take place on Alaska's North Slope.

  18. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  19. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  20. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan continental shelf. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 19

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This is a compilation of 7 final reports on the following subjects: selected annotated references on marine mammals of Alaska, trophic relationships among ice-inhabiting phocid seals in the Chukchi Sea, biology of the harbor seal in the Gulf of Alaska, natural history and ecology of the bearded seal, measurements and localization of underwater sounds from the Prudhoe Bay region, March 1981; population, assessment, ecology, and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska; harvest of Pacific walruses by the pelagic whaling industry 1848-1914.