Science.gov

Sample records for alaskan crab meat

  1. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  12. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  13. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  14. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  15. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  16. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  17. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  18. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  19. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  20. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  1. Prevalence and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crab, 624 crab meat, and 624 environmental samples were tested by molecular and culture-based standard methods. Presumptive Liste...

  2. Prevalence, characterization and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Parveen, Salina; Rippen, Thomas; Luchansky, John B; Call, Jeffrey E; Tamplin, Mark L; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2012-09-01

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crabs, 624 cooked crab meat (crab meat) and 624 environmental samples were tested by standard methods. Presumptive Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.5% of raw crabs, 10.8% of crab meat, and 69.5% of environmental samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% of raw crabs, 0.2% of crab meat, and 2.1% of environmental samples. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the ten antibiotics tested. Eight different serotypes were found among 76 L. monocytogenes isolates tested with the most common being 4b, 1/2b and 1/2a. Automated EcoRI ribotyping differentiated 11 ribotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates. Based on ribotyping analysis, the distribution of the ribotypes in each processing plant had a unique contamination pattern. A total of 92 ApaI and 88 AscI pulsotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates were found and distinct pulsotypes were observed in raw crab, crab meat and environmental samples. Ribotypes and serotypes recovered from crab processing plants included subtypes that have been associated with listeriosis cases in other food outbreaks. Our findings suggest that molecular methods may provide critical information about sources of L. monocytogenes in crab processing plants and will augment efforts to improve food safety control strategies such as targeting specific sources of contamination and use of aggressive detergents prior to sanitizing.

  3. Arctic trichinosis: two Alaskan outbreaks from walrus meat.

    PubMed

    Margolis, H S; Middaugh, J P; Burgess, R D

    1979-01-01

    The arctic form of Trichinella spiralis that infects terrestrial and marine mammals is of importance in public health because persons living in arctic regions still depend on wild animals for economic subsistence. In 1975, an extended common-source epidemic of trichinosis attributed to consumption of walrus meat involved 29 persons in Barrow, Alaska. Of those persons eating this meat, 64% became ill, and the rate of infection of persons eating meat prepared with little or no cooking was four times as great as that of persons eating cooked meat. One year later a second outbreak occurred when a family ate partially cooked meat from an infected walrus. Clinical illness differed little from the disease acquired in temperature climates; however, only 70% had a positive bentonite flocculation titer, whereas 96% had eosinophilia. These epidemics of trichinosis are the first reported in Alaska to be associated with the consumption of walrus meat.

  4. Incorporating deep and shallow components of genetic structure into the management of Alaskan red king crab

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William Stewart; Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Observed patterns of genetic variability among marine populations are shaped not only by contemporary levels of gene flow, but also by divergences during historical isolations. We examined variability at 15 SNP loci and in mtDNA sequences (COI, 665 bp) in red king crab from 17 localities in the North Pacific. These markers define three geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (SNPs, FCT = 0.054; mtDNA ΦCT = 0.222): (i) Okhotsk Sea–Norton Sound–Aleutian Islands, (ii) southeastern Bering Sea–western Gulf of Alaska, and (iii) Southeast Alaska. Populations in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaska are genetically heterogeneous, but populations in the center of the range are homogeneous. Mitochondrial DNA diversity drops from h = 0.91 in the northwestern Pacific to h = 0.24 in the Southeast Alaska. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) indicate postglacial population expansions, presumably from ice-age refugia. BSPs of sequences simulated under a demographic model defined by late Pleistocene temperatures failed to detect demographic variability before the last glacial maximum. These results sound a note of caution for the interpretation of BSPs. Population fragmentation in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaskan waters requires population management on a small geographic scale, and deep evolutionary partitions between the three geographic groups mandate regional conservation measures. PMID:23346227

  5. Levels of Cadmium in White and Brown Meat of Warty Crab (Eriphia verrucosa).

    PubMed

    Ariano, A; Voi, A Lo; D'Ambola, M; Marrone, R; Cacace, D; Severino, L

    2015-12-01

    European Union regulations that establish the maximum cadmium (Cd) levels for crab take into account only concentrations found in crab muscle (white meat), mainly from appendages; therefore, other organs and tissues (brown meat) are excluded. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Cd levels in both white and brown crab meat, in order to achieve a more complete assessment of health risk related to human consumption of warty crab. Microwave digestion and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine Cd concentrations in warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) samples collected from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy. Cd concentrations in all samples of white crab meat were found to be very low (below the limit of quantification), although brown crab meat showed significantly higher Cd concentrations (up to 5.629 mg/kg wet weight; mean value, 1.465 mg/kg). Thus, the consumption of brown meat, common among certain populations of the Mediterranean region, where whole crustaceans are traditionally eaten, substantially increased Cd intake, resulting in alarmingly high estimated weekly intake values.

  6. Levels of Cadmium in White and Brown Meat of Warty Crab (Eriphia verrucosa).

    PubMed

    Ariano, A; Voi, A Lo; D'Ambola, M; Marrone, R; Cacace, D; Severino, L

    2015-12-01

    European Union regulations that establish the maximum cadmium (Cd) levels for crab take into account only concentrations found in crab muscle (white meat), mainly from appendages; therefore, other organs and tissues (brown meat) are excluded. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Cd levels in both white and brown crab meat, in order to achieve a more complete assessment of health risk related to human consumption of warty crab. Microwave digestion and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine Cd concentrations in warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) samples collected from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy. Cd concentrations in all samples of white crab meat were found to be very low (below the limit of quantification), although brown crab meat showed significantly higher Cd concentrations (up to 5.629 mg/kg wet weight; mean value, 1.465 mg/kg). Thus, the consumption of brown meat, common among certain populations of the Mediterranean region, where whole crustaceans are traditionally eaten, substantially increased Cd intake, resulting in alarmingly high estimated weekly intake values. PMID:26613922

  7. Comparison of automated BAX polymerase chain reaction and standard culture methods for detection of Listeria monocyogenes in blue crab meat (Callinectus sapidus) and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the BAX Polymerase Chain Reaction method (BAX PCR) with the Standard Culture Method (SCM) for detection of L. monocytogenes in blue crab meat and crab processing plants. The aim of this study was to address this data gap. Raw crabs, finished products and environmental sponge samp...

  8. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery.

  9. Predicting the distribution and ecological niche of unexploited snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) populations in Alaskan waters: a first open-access ensemble model.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sarah M; Lindgren, Michael; Konakanchi, Hanumantharao; Huettmann, Falk

    2011-10-01

    Populations of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) are widely distributed on high-latitude continental shelves of the North Pacific and North Atlantic, and represent a valuable resource in both the United States and Canada. In US waters, snow crabs are found throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic seas surrounding Alaska, north of the Aleutian Islands, yet commercial harvest currently focuses on the more southerly population in the Bering Sea. Population dynamics are well-monitored in exploited areas, but few data exist for populations further north where climate trends in the Arctic appear to be affecting species' distributions and community structure on multiple trophic levels. Moreover, increased shipping traffic, as well as fisheries and petroleum resource development, may add additional pressures in northern portions of the range as seasonal ice cover continues to decline. In the face of these pressures, we examined the ecological niche and population distribution of snow crabs in Alaskan waters using a GIS-based spatial modeling approach. We present the first quantitative open-access model predictions of snow-crab distribution, abundance, and biomass in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Multi-variate analysis of environmental drivers of species' distribution and community structure commonly rely on multiple linear regression methods. The spatial modeling approach employed here improves upon linear regression methods in allowing for exploration of nonlinear relationships and interactions between variables. Three machine-learning algorithms were used to evaluate relationships between snow-crab distribution and environmental parameters, including TreeNet, Random Forests, and MARS. An ensemble model was then generated by combining output from these three models to generate consensus predictions for presence-absence, abundance, and biomass of snow crabs. Each algorithm identified a suite of variables most important in predicting snow-crab distribution, including

  10. Predicting the distribution and ecological niche of unexploited snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) populations in Alaskan waters: a first open-access ensemble model.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sarah M; Lindgren, Michael; Konakanchi, Hanumantharao; Huettmann, Falk

    2011-10-01

    Populations of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) are widely distributed on high-latitude continental shelves of the North Pacific and North Atlantic, and represent a valuable resource in both the United States and Canada. In US waters, snow crabs are found throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic seas surrounding Alaska, north of the Aleutian Islands, yet commercial harvest currently focuses on the more southerly population in the Bering Sea. Population dynamics are well-monitored in exploited areas, but few data exist for populations further north where climate trends in the Arctic appear to be affecting species' distributions and community structure on multiple trophic levels. Moreover, increased shipping traffic, as well as fisheries and petroleum resource development, may add additional pressures in northern portions of the range as seasonal ice cover continues to decline. In the face of these pressures, we examined the ecological niche and population distribution of snow crabs in Alaskan waters using a GIS-based spatial modeling approach. We present the first quantitative open-access model predictions of snow-crab distribution, abundance, and biomass in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Multi-variate analysis of environmental drivers of species' distribution and community structure commonly rely on multiple linear regression methods. The spatial modeling approach employed here improves upon linear regression methods in allowing for exploration of nonlinear relationships and interactions between variables. Three machine-learning algorithms were used to evaluate relationships between snow-crab distribution and environmental parameters, including TreeNet, Random Forests, and MARS. An ensemble model was then generated by combining output from these three models to generate consensus predictions for presence-absence, abundance, and biomass of snow crabs. Each algorithm identified a suite of variables most important in predicting snow-crab distribution, including

  11. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) - effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen reindeer were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets containing soybean meal (SBM) or fishmeal (WFM) as protein source) on animal growth performance, feed efficiency and ultimate meat quality. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM...

  12. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  13. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the physical and sensory quality and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in blue swimming crab meat (Portunas pelagicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suklim, Kannapha; Flick, George J.; Vichitphan, Kanit

    2014-10-01

    Blue swimming crab lump (backfin) meat were exposed to 2, 4, and 6 kGy doses of Co60 irradiation and evaluated for changes in physical, sensory properties, and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation. Irradiation up to 6 kGy resulted in no textural changes (p>0.05) in maximum shear forces; however, these exposures resulted in sensory quality changes (p<0.05) as determined by a triangle overall difference test (n=50) at each irradiation level. Irradiation had no effect (p>0.05) on L* color value. Irradiation at 4 and 6 kGy resulted in listericidal reductions greater than 6.65 (Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Health, Thailand, [DMST] 1783) and 7.56 logs (DMST 4553). Irradiation doses of 1 and 2 kGy resulted in a reduction of 2.10 and 5.35 logs respectively of L. monocytogenes DMST 1783 and 1.56 and 4.19 logs respectively of L. monocytogenes DMST 4553. The D10 values of L. monocytogenes DMST 1783 and 4553 were 0.35 and 0.45 kGy. The study indicated that low-dose gamma irradiation would increase the safety of blue swimming crab meat without unacceptable changes in texture and L* color value.

  15. Carcass composition and yield of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) steers and effects of electrical stimulation applied during field slaughter on meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty six adult reindeer steers (> 3 years old) were used in a study to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on the quality of hot-boned shoulder meat obtained immediately after slaughter, and then rapidly frozen; and of the striploin (M. longissimus, LD) from carcasses held in +3 °C ...

  16. Good Crab, Bad Crab

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are crabs friends or foes of marsh grass, benefit or detriment to the salt marsh system? We examined Uca pugilator (sand fiddler) and Sesarma reticulatum (purple marsh crab) with Spartina patens (salt marsh hay) at two elevations (10 cm below MHW and 10 cm above MHW) in mesocosms...

  17. IgE sensitization in snow crab-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Cartier, A; Malo, J L; Ghezzo, H; McCants, M; Lehrer, S B

    1986-08-01

    Occupational asthma is a highly prevalent disease among snow crab-processing workers, but its immunologic mechanism has not been identified. Prick skin tests with snow crab-meat extract, commercial extracts from other crab genera, and snow crab cooking water collected in 1984 were performed on 119 workers. Crab-specific IgE was assessed by RAST in sera from 115 workers with meat and water extracts. Both skin and RAST tests were performed in 58 individuals. Diagnosis of occupational asthma had previously been confirmed in 54 individuals. A highly significant relationship was demonstrated between the presence of immediate skin reactivity or increased serum levels of specific IgE to crab extracts and the occurrence of occupational asthma. There was good agreement between the results of skin and RAST tests with extracts of either meat or snow crab cooking water. Cooking water and snow crab-meat extracts were more sensitive than commercial preparations. Water extract was more potent and more sensitive than meat extract. We conclude that there is evidence that occupational asthma in snow crab-processing workers is mediated through an IgE mechanism.

  18. 50 CFR Table 3c to Part 680 - Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Product Codes for Economic Data... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3c Table 3c to Part 680—Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports Code Description 01 Whole crab. 80 Sections. 81 Meats. 97 Other (specify)....

  19. 50 CFR Table 3c to Part 680 - Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Product Codes for Economic Data... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3c Table 3c to Part 680—Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports Code Description 01 Whole crab. 80 Sections. 81 Meats. 97 Other (specify)....

  20. 50 CFR Table 3c to Part 680 - Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Product Codes for Economic Data... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3c Table 3c to Part 680—Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports Code Description 01 Whole crab. 80 Sections. 81 Meats. 97 Other (specify)....

  1. A comparison of different processing methods for picked blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Senkel, I Arthur; Jolbitado, Beverly; Butler, Erin M; Rippen, Thomas E

    2005-02-01

    Five methods for producing picked crab meat from cooked blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) were evaluated for internal food temperatures and bacterial numbers at various process points. Whole shell-on crabs, crab cores ("backed" crabs with carapace removed), and crab meat samples were analyzed for standard plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. For three of the processes, crabs were backed and washed a substantial time before picking; one of the processes used an ice slush dip to cool cooked crabs. Except for a single crab sample, bacteria were not isolated from crab and core samples. Standard plate count, E. coli, and S. aureus in crab meat samples from the different processes were statistically the same. Bacterial numbers in fresh picked crab meat samples exposed to an ambient temperature of 20 to 21.1 degrees C for 1.5 and 3.5 h and stored at 1 degrees C for 3 to 4 days and 7 to 8 days did not significantly differ (P < 0.05).

  2. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  3. An Alaskan legend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, H.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Jack Lee is a prominent personality, an Alaskan individualist and a skeptic worthy of remembrance if for no other reason than being inextricably associated with the catastrophic Katmai eruption in 1912. Jack remains a provocative reminder of Alaska's pre-1958 drilling and was quite possibly the earliest observer (excepting natives and possibly Russians) of the oil seeps in the area now encompassed by the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge. His observation of the impressive live oil seeps in the Ugashik and Becharof Lakes area, and his subsequent involvement in the early drilling entirely consumed his future interests. He is a firm believer that individualism and suspicion are powerful tools when forced to reconsider alternatives to readily accepted interpretations of modern exploration results. His individualism and sometimes annoying, but thought-provoking skepticism remains useful in any field where clich??s provide safe guards from new concepts.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Botton, Mark L

    2002-10-01

    Horseshoe crabs are one of evolution's success stories. These living fossils have contributed immensely to biomedical research, and their eggs are a critical link in the migration cycle of New World waders (shorebirds) Can they endure threats posed by a growing commercial fishery and the loss of essential spawning habitats?

  6. (Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklind, C.A.; Bennett, F.L. . Inst. of Northern Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology.

  7. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  8. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  9. Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, Marion; van der Lee, Martijn K; Mennes, Wim C; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-03-01

    Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43 pg TEQ g(-1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form.

  10. Metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs Cancer pagurus fed with blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs ( Cancer pagurus). The crabs were fed with blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) for 21 d then depurated for 42 d. We extracted the toxins from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group), and the meat of blue mussels using methanol. Extracts of the crab digestive glands were fractionated by liquid-liquid partitioning and solid phase extraction. The fractions were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). We detected a new PTX-like compound, designated as metabolite-1. The MS2 mass spectrum of the metabolite-1 [M+Na]+ ion at m/z 897.5 revealed fragment ions at m/z 853.5 and 555.5, typical of those exhibited by other pectenotoxins.

  11. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  12. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  15. Prevalence and distribution of three protozoan symbionts in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) populations across Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-11

    Louisiana has one of the largest blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fisheries in the USA, but little is known about blue crab diseases, parasites, and symbionts in this area. In 2013-2014, large juvenile and adult blue crabs were collected at 4 diverse sites to determine the prevalence of the protozoan symbionts associated with black gill disease (Lagenophrys callinectes), buckshot crabs (Urosporidium crescens), and bitter crab disease (Hematodinium perezi). A high aggregate prevalence of L. callinectes (93.2%) was identified across all seasons at all 4 collection sites regardless of salinity. A moderately low aggregate prevalence of U. crescens (22.4%) was identified across all seasons and sites. Prevalence of U. crescens depended on site salinity, with only 10% of infections detected at sites with <6.3 ppt salinity, and no infections detected at the low salinity site. While L. callinectes and U. crescens are commensal parasites of blue crabs, infections can result in unmarketable and unappealing meat. In the Louisiana fishery, H. perezi has been blamed circumstantially for adult mortalities in the low salinity nearshore fishing grounds. Despite this, H. perezi was not detected in any of the large crabs sampled, even from the low salinity sites. The prevalence data reported here for these 3 protozoans are the first to include blue crabs sampled seasonally at multiple locations along the Louisiana coast over the period of a year.

  16. Helping Kids Succeed--Alaskan Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Alaska School Boards, Juneau.

    The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for individuals helping to make Alaskan communities places where youth can grow up to be strong, capable, and caring. The book is built around the Search Institute's Youth Developmental Assets Framework, which is comprised of the key building blocks in youth development. The book notes 40 assets that…

  17. Identification of tropomyosin and arginine kinase as major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab).

    PubMed

    Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Zailatul, H M Y; Noormalin, A; Normilah, I

    2012-09-01

    Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.

  18. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  19. The Crab Nebula's progenitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, K.; Sugimoto, D.; Sparks, W. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Gull, T. R.; Miyaji, S.

    1982-01-01

    The initial mass of the Crab Nebula's progenitor star is estimated by comparing the observed nebular chemical abundances with detailed evolutionary calculations for 2.4- and 2.6-solar-mass helium cores of stars with masses of 8 to 10 solar masses. The results indicate that the mass of the Crab's progenitor was between the upper limit of about 8 solar masses for carbon deflagration and the lower limit of about 9.5 solar masses set by the dredge-up of the helium layer before the development of the helium-burning convective region. A scenario is outlined for the evolution of the progenitor star. It is suggested that the Crab Nebula was probably the product of an electron-capture supernova.

  20. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of planktonic red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius 1815)) larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Pamela C.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Morado, J. Frank; Eckert, Ginny L.

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) fishery was once one of the most economically important single-species fisheries in the world, but is currently depressed. This fishery would benefit from improved stock assessment capabilities. Larval crab distribution is patchy temporally and spatially, requiring extensive sampling efforts to locate and track larval dispersal. Large-scale plankton surveys are generally cost prohibitive because of the effort required for collection and the time and taxonomic expertise required to sort samples to identify plankton individually via light microscopy. Here, we report the development of primers and a dual-labeled probe for use in a DNA-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the red king crab, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I for the detection of red king crab larvae DNA in plankton samples. The assay allows identification of plankton samples containing crab larvae DNA and provides an estimate of DNA copy number present in a sample without sorting the plankton sample visually. The assay was tested on DNA extracted from whole red king crab larvae and plankton samples seeded with whole larvae, and it detected DNA copies equivalent to 1/10,000th of a larva and 1 crab larva/5mL sieved plankton, respectively. The real-time polymerase chain reaction assay can be used to screen plankton samples for larvae in a fraction of the time required for traditional microscopial methods, which offers advantages for stock assessment methodologies for red king crab as well as a rapid and reliable method to assess abundance of red king crab larvae as needed to improve the understanding of life history and population processes, including larval population dynamics.

  1. Heavy metals and POPs in red king crab from the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Valdersnes, Stig; Duinker, Arne; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sundet, Jan H; Maage, Amund

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the food safety of the red king crab from Norwegian waters and obtain information on possible geographical and gender differences. Samples of claw and leg meat of 185 red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus), collected from 23 positions in the Barents Sea, were analysed for dioxins, furans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated alkyl substances and elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals were low compared to maximum levels laid down in European regulations. Hence, red king crab is a safe food. Significant differences in the concentrations of metals among different areas, and between male and female crabs, were found. Positive correlations were found between carapace length and mercury, methylmercury and cadmium concentrations, and between fat and arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  2. The Crab Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The Crab Nebula, along with its central pulsar and its explosive originin SN 1054, plays a crucial role in our understanding of the linkbetween supernovae and pulsar formation and activity.Yet, there are fundamental uncertainties in the nature of the event thathave not been settled in more than two decades of investigation.The observed mass in the nebula and pulsar is nearly half of theexpected initial stellar mass and the observed energy {much of whichmay come from the central pulsar} is only a fewpercent of the typical supernova energy.An attractive solution to this ``missing mass'' problem is that this massis in a high velocity envelope around the observed Crab Nebula.The envelope would have most of the energy of the explosion {roughly 10^{51} ergs}, bringing the energy up to that typical of a Type II supernova. The fact that the Crab filaments have a measured acceleration and show no deceleration at the outer edge is consistent with this hypothesis. The lack of an interaction region created by the fast shell can be attributed to a very low density around the supernova. We propose to search for the fast shell by taking a COS spectrum of the Crab pulsar in the region of the C IV 1550 line. We have carried out time-dependent ionization calculations that show that this line should produce a detectable broad, blueshifted absorption if the shell is present.

  3. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  4. Authentication of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Ballin, N Z

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, interest in meat authenticity has increased. Many consumers are concerned about the meat they eat and accurate labelling is important to inform consumer choice. Authentication methods can be categorised into the areas where fraud is most likely to occur: meat origin, meat substitution, meat processing treatment and non-meat ingredient addition. Within each area the possibilities for fraud can be subcategorised as follows: meat origin-sex, meat cuts, breed, feed intake, slaughter age, wild versus farmed meat, organic versus conventional meat, and geographic origin; meat substitution-meat species, fat, and protein; meat processing treatment-irradiation, fresh versus thawed meat and meat preparation; non-meat ingredient addition-additives and water. Analytical methods used in authentication are as diverse as the authentication problems, and include a diverse range of equipment and techniques. This review is intended to provide an overview of the possible analytical methods available for meat and meat products authentication. In areas where no authentication methods have been published, possible strategies are suggested.

  5. Crab allergen exposures aboard five crab-processing vessels.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Nancy; Brodkin, C Andrew; Stover, Bert; Daroowalla, Feroza; Flack, Joy; Doherty, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Aerosolized crab allergens are suspected etiologic agents for asthma among crab-processing workers. The objectives of this study were to characterize crab allergen concentrations and respiratory symptom prevalence among processing workers aboard crab-processing vessels. A cross-sectional survey of five crab-processing vessels was conducted near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Crab allergen concentrations were quantified during specific work activities with 25 personal air samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene filters and analyzed by a competitive IgE immunoassay technique. Two standardized respiratory questionnaires were used to assess respiratory symptoms suggestive of bronchitis or asthma in 82 workers. Aerosolized crab allergen concentrations ranged from 79 ng/m3 to 21,093 ng/m3 (mean = 2797 ng/m3, SD = 4576 ng/m3). The highest concentrations were measured at butchering/degilling work stations, which were combined on the smallest vessel. A significant percentage of workers reported development of respiratory symptoms during the crab-processing season. Cough developed in 28% of workers, phlegm in 11% of workers, and wheeze and other asthma-like symptoms developed in 4% of workers. Despite variations in crab allergen levels, respiratory symptom prevalence was similar across all job categories. Substantial concentrations of crab allergen exposure were measured, as well as the potential for wide variability in exposure during crab processing aboard vessels. The high prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms across all job categories suggests potential adverse respiratory effects that should be further characterized by prospective studies using pulmonary function and serology testing, and rigorous exposure characterization.

  6. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  7. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  8. Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives Since 1867.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Thomas Robert

    The study compiles and records the history of the administration of education for Alaskan natives since the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1876. Chapter 1, An Overview of the Development of the Alaskan Native, covers the development of missionary and government schools, the growth and development of Native education from 1906…

  9. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or crab sections. 2 Smaller size crab or crab sections, e.g., snow crab less than 4 inches....

  10. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or crab sections. 2 Smaller size crab or crab sections, e.g., snow crab less than 4 inches....

  11. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or crab sections. 2 Smaller size crab or crab sections, e.g., snow crab less than 4 inches....

  12. 40 CFR 408.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401 shall... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat...

  13. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  18. 40 CFR 408.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401 shall... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat...

  19. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 408.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401 shall... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat...

  1. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  2. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 408.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401 shall... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat...

  4. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  5. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  6. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for the Alaskan Arctic from four recent model intercomparison projects - NACP (North American Carbon Program) site and regional syntheses, TRENDY (Trends in net land atmosphere carbon exchanges), and WETCHIMP (Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project) - we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) for each quantity that follows. Mean annual absolute uncertainty was largest for soil carbon (14.0 ± 9.2 kg C m-2), then gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01 ± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), and CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). There were no consistent spatial patterns in the larger Alaskan Arctic and boreal regional carbon stocks and fluxes, with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic and larger boreal region.

  7. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  8. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  9. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  10. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king crab Paralithodes platypus. 923 Golden (brown) king crab Lithodes aequispinus. 924 Scarlet king...

  11. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king crab Paralithodes platypus. 923 Golden (brown) king crab Lithodes aequispinus. 924 Scarlet king...

  12. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king crab Paralithodes platypus. 923 Golden (brown) king crab Lithodes aequispinus. 924 Scarlet king...

  13. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  14. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  15. SPERMIOGENESIS IN CANCER CRABS

    PubMed Central

    Langreth, Susan G.

    1969-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Cancer crabs was studied by light and electron microscopy. The sperm are aflagellate, and when mature consist primarily of a spherical acrosome surrounded by the nucleus with its short radiating arms. The acrosome forms by a coalescence of periodic acid-Schiff-positive (PAS-positive) vesicles. During spermiogenesis one edge of the acrosomal vesicle invaginates to form a PAS-negative central core. The inner region of the acrosome bounding the core contains basic proteins which are not complexed to nucleic acid. The formation of an elaborate lattice-like complex of fused membranes, principally from membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, is described. These membranes are later taken into the nucleus and subsequently degenerate. In late spermatids, when most of the cytoplasm is sloughed, the nuclear envelope and the cell membrane apparently fuse to become the limiting boundary over most of the sperm cell. In the mature sperm the chromatin of the nucleus and arms, which is Feulgen-positive, contains no detectable protein. The chromatin filaments appear clumped, branched, and anastomosed; morphologically, they resemble the DNA of bacterial nuclei. Mitochondria are absent or degenerate in mature sperm of Cancer crabs, but the centrioles persist in the nucleoplasm at the base of the acrosome. PMID:4187136

  16. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  17. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, A. M.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) against the mean (x\\bar) for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x\\bar) was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), then net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m-2). The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity) analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β) and climate (γ), which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  18. What regulates crab predation on mangrove propagules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nedervelde, Fleur; Cannicci, Stefano; Koedam, Nico; Bosire, Jared; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2015-02-01

    Crabs play a major role in some ecosystems. To increase our knowledge about the factors that influence crab predation on propagules in mangrove forests, we performed experiments in Gazi Bay, Kenya in July 2009. We tested whether: (1) crab density influences propagule predation rate; (2) crab size influences food competition and predation rate; (3) crabs depredate at different rates according to propagule and canopy cover species; (4) vegetation density is correlated with crab density; (5) food preferences of herbivorous crabs are determined by size, shape and nutritional value. We found that (1) propagule predation rate was positively correlated to crab density. (2) Crab competitive abilities were unrelated to their size. (3) Avicennia marina propagules were consumed more quickly than Ceriops tagal except under C. tagal canopies. (4) Crab density was negatively correlated with the density of A. marina trees and pneumatophores. (5) Crabs prefer small items with a lower C:N ratio. Vegetation density influences crab density, and crab density affects propagule availability and hence vegetation recruitment rate. Consequently, the mutual relationships between vegetation and crab populations could be important for forest restoration success and management.

  19. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  20. Subacute necrotising encephalopathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A; Robinson, T; Cooper, B J; Brenner, O; O'Toole, T D; Olson, J; Beckman, K B; Glass, E; Reynolds, A J

    1999-12-01

    A 29-month-old female Alaskan husky was presented recumbent, tetraparetic and in a state of dementia, with blindness and cranial nerve deficits. The dog's progress was followed for over two months, as the signs resolved to an non-progressive mild hypermetria with slight proprioceptive ataxia, a diminished menace response and inability to prehend food. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cavitation extending from the thalamus to the medulla, with less pronounced degenerative lesions in the caudate nucleus, putamen and claustrum. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations were in their normal ranges. Necropsy and histological examination confirmed the MRI findings as well as neuronal degeneration of the cerebellar cortex in the vermis and degenerative changes in the neocortex at the depths of the cerebral sulci. In view of the similarity of lesions to subacute necrotising encephalomyelopathy, known as Leigh's disease in humans, a tentative diagnosis of a mitochondrial encephalopathy was made.

  1. Gastritis in Alaskan racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, J W; Davis, M S; Breshears, M A; Willard, M D; Williamson, K K; Royer, C M; Payton, M E; Cragun, A S

    2011-07-01

    Alaskan racing sled dogs are a well-established model of exercise-induced gastric disease. The aim of this study was to define the temporal development of microscopical gastric lesions during long distance racing. Two groups of dogs were examined: group I comprised conditioned dogs that were exercising and group II were conditioned dogs not exercising. The gastric mucosa was examined endoscopically and sampled for routine histopathology and microscopical scoring, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and detection of apoptotic epithelial cells. Overall, group I dogs exhibited more significant epithelial lesions, including ulcers, compared with dogs in group II. Group II dogs exhibited the most severe mucosal inflammatory infiltrates. Although the intensity of inflammation differed, the nature of the inflammation was similar between groups, consisting of diffuse lymphocytic infiltration and a unique interface-type infiltrate that obscured the basement membrane zone and was accompanied by intraepithelial infiltration of lymphocytes. IHC confirmed the presence of CD3(+) T and CD79(+) B lymphocytes within the mucosal infiltrates; however, most of the intraepithelial and interface infiltrates were CD3(+) T cells. Spiral-shaped bacterial organisms were seen in the gastric tissues; however, their presence did not correlate with either the severity of epithelial lesions, inflammation or the pattern of interface inflammation. The number of apoptotic epithelial cells was widely variable and not significantly different between groups. These findings confirm previous observations that gastric ulcers develop in conditioned dogs under racing stress. The unique nature of the interface-type gastric inflammation is similar to that of human lymphocytic gastritis and may suggest an immune-mediated mechanism for the changes seen in Alaskan racing sled dogs.

  2. The Great Crab Nebula Superflare

    NASA Video Gallery

    There are strange goings-on in the Crab Nebula. On April 12, 2011, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the most powerful in a series of gamma-ray flares occurring somewhere within the s...

  3. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  4. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  5. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis

  6. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  7. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on:(1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  8. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to Electron Cloud and Global Crabbing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2008-08-01

    Crab cavities may be used improve the luminosity in colliding beam colliders with crab crossing. In a global crab crossing correction, only one crab cavity is installed in each ring and the crab cavities generate a horizontally titled bunch oscillating around the ring. The electron cloud in positively charged rings may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This paper briefly estimates the distortion of positron bunch due to the electron cloud with global crab and estimates the effect in the KEKB and possible LHC upgrades.

  9. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 3: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    The third book in a series of natural science handbooks for Alaskan students focuses on Alaskan plantlife. The first chapter, on trees, gives general information about trees and explains how to identify and locate trees in the three main Alaskan tree families: pine, willow, and birch. The second chapter, on plants, describes 14 kinds of edible…

  10. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  12. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  13. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  2. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  4. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  6. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  7. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, Albert; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  8. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  9. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation. PMID:22060722

  10. A selective biomarker for confirming nitrofurazone residues in crab and shrimp using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Guo, Yuanming; Yan, Zhongyong; Sun, Xiumei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Reliably detecting nitrofurazone (NFZ) residues in farmed crab and shrimp was previously hindered by lack of appropriately specific analytical methodology. Parent NFZ rapidly breaks down in meat, and the commonly used side-chain metabolite, semicarbazide (SEM), is non-specific as it occurs naturally in crustacean shell often leading to 'false positive' detections in meat. Using 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (NF) as marker metabolite, following pre-column derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis in negative electrospray ionization mode enabled confirmation of NFZ residues in deliberately treated whole crab, crab meat and shrimp meat, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) below 1 ng g(-1). Meanwhile, the derivatives of DNPH-NF were synthesized for the first time, purified by preparative liquid chromatography and structure characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). The purity of derivative was checked by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tunable ultraviolet (UPLC-TUV), and the contents were beyond 99.9%. For comparison purposes, crustacean samples were analysed using both NF and SEM marker metabolites. NFZ treatment was revealed by both NF and SEM marker metabolites, but untreated crab also showed measurable levels of SEM which could potentially be misinterpreted as evidence of illegal NFZ use.

  11. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  12. Twisted Crab fingers revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlqvist, Per

    2015-05-01

    Narrowband images of the Crab Nebula captured by the Hubble Space Telescope have earlier shown that the nebula does not only present a network of broad, bright filaments crossing the nebula but also numerous so-called fingers mostly pointing inwards. Using archival Hubble images we have in some detail studied the morphology of a great number of such fingers. This scrutiny has revealed that practically all the fingers are made up of filaments. Most of the larger fingers show overall shapes that are similar to either of the two letters V and Y. In many of these fingers it is also possible to see internal details. Interestingly, a number of the larger, Y-shaped fingers turn out to have a stem that consists of intertwined filaments. By contrast with this, the smaller fingers usually appear only as diffuse and sometimes incomplete pegs. In none of the smaller fingers is it possible to find any plain, internal structure. The observational results obtained are compared with the properties of a previously proposed model of the fingers. The model suggests that the fingers have evolved out of magnetized filaments. The evolution should lead to fingers with overall shapes that are similar to either a V or a Y, very much in agreement with the observations. In addition to this, the model prescribes that the stems of the Y-shaped fingers should be made up of intertwined filaments. From all these points of agreement we conclude that the properties of the fingers observed lend strong support to the model.

  13. Strength and deformation characteristics of Alaskan offshore silts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive series of undrained shear tests were performed on representative samples of Alaskan silts in both the normally consolidated and overconsolidated state. The type of tests performed were triaxial compression and extension, torvane and miniature laboratory vane tests. It was found that the Alaskan silt exhibited dilative behavior during undrained shear. Also, the silt is highly anisotropic with respect to the stress-strain characteristics and the undrained shear strength. Sample disturbance reduced the measured strength in the unconsolidated undrained tests. The normalized strength parameter was shown to vary from one silt to another. The importance of evaluating the properties of each new silt deposit are described.

  14. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  15. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  16. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  17. 50 CFR 253.30 - Crab IFQ loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 CFR Part 680, Table 8; and (4) Who, at the time of initial application, meets all other applicable... Island (BSAI) King and Tanner Crab. (2) Crab FMP means the Fishery Management Plan for BSAI King and Tanner Crab. (3) Crab quota share means a BSAI King and Tanner Crab permit, the base amount of which...

  18. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  19. Policy Statements on Collection Development. A Compendium from Alaskan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Carol, Ed.

    Developed as part of a statewide coordinated collection development effort, this document is a compendium of the narrative statements of collection development policies from 19 Alaskan university, public, school, and special libraries. Only the basic narrative plus any unique appendices are included for each policy, and some of the policies are…

  20. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  1. Definition of Alaskan Aviation Training Requirements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, M. K.; And Others

    Because of high accident rates and the unique conditions faced in Arctic flying, a project was conducted to develop a training program for airline pilots flying over Alaska. Data were gathered, through the critical incident method in conjunction with traditional job-analysis procedures, about how experienced Alaskan pilots learned to cope with the…

  2. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  3. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  4. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  5. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  6. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Science. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Gary; Costello, Bill

    STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th graders on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been using…

  7. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  8. Accumulation and depuration of okadaic acid esters in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) during a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Cold, Ulrik; Fischer, Knud

    2008-03-01

    Soft shell crab is a seafood delicacy in many parts of the world. In Denmark, it has been investigated whether a commercial production of soft shell European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) would be feasible. In relation to this, a feeding study was performed to examine if occurrence of DSP toxins in the product could be a food safety problem. The crabs were fed with mussels containing DSP toxins (2500 microg total okadaic acid equivalents/kg) for 17 days and then fasted for 19 days. The content of total okadaic acid equivalents in the digestive organs was on average 27 times higher than the corresponding content in the body meat. The highest level of total okadaic acid equivalents measured was 12 microg/kg in body meat and 503 microg/kg in digestive organs. The results show that the content of DSP toxins in a commercial product of soft shell European green crab (without digestive organs) could be regarded as negligible. PMID:17983637

  9. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fisheries for any... Bristol Bay red king crab (BBR) 3 years of the 3-year QS base period beginning on: (1... king crab (EAG) 4 years of the 4-year base period beginning on: (1) September 1, 1996 through December... Bristol Bay red king crab fishery during the qualifying years established for that fishery....

  10. Two quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Eischeid, Anne C; Kim, Bang-hyun; Kasko, Sasha M

    2013-06-19

    Food allergen detection methods must be able to specifically detect minute quantities of an allergenic food in a complex food matrix. One technique that can be used is real-time PCR. For the work described here, real-time PCR assays were developed to detect penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens. The method was tested using shrimp meat and crab meat spiked into several types of foods, including canned soups, deli foods, meat, seafood, and prepared seafood products. Foods were spiked with either shrimp or crab at levels ranging from 0.1 to 10⁶ parts per million (ppm) and analyzed either raw or cooked by a variety of methods. Real-time PCR data were used to generate linear standard curves, and assays were evaluated with respect to linear range and reaction efficiency. Results indicate that both assays performed well in a variety of food types. High reaction efficiencies were achieved across a linear range of 6-8 orders of magnitude. Limits of detection were generally between 0.1 and 1 ppm. Cooking methods used to simulate thermal processing of foods had little effect on assay performance. This work demonstrates that real-time PCR can be a valuable tool in the detection of crustacean shellfish.

  11. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  12. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  13. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  14. Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

    2008-12-01

    Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

  15. CHANGES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are learning more about how pulsars work by studying a series of Hubble Space Telescope images of the heart of the Crab Nebula. The images, taken over a period of several months, show that the Crab is a far more dynamic object than previously understood. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar. The pulsar is a tiny object by astronomical standards -- only about six miles across -- but has a mass greater than that of the Sun and rotates at a rate of 30 times a second. As the pulsar spins its intense magnetic field whips around, acting like a sling shot, accelerating subatomic particles and sending them hurtling them into space at close to the speed of light. The tiny pulsar and its wind are the powerhouse for the entire Crab Nebula, which is 10 light-years across -- a feat comparable to an object the size of a hydrogen atom illuminating a volume of space a kilometer across. The three pictures shown here, taken from the series of Hubble images, show dramatic changes in the appearance of the central regions of the nebula. These include wisp-like structures that move outward away from the pulsar at half the speed of light, as well as a mysterious 'halo' which remains stationary, but grows brighter then fainter over time. Also seen are the effects of two polar jets that move out along the rotation axis of the pulsar. The most dynamic feature seen -- a small knot that 'dances around' so much that astronomers have been calling it a 'sprite' -- is actually a shock front (where fast-moving material runs into slower-moving material)in one of these polar jets. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using a filter that passes light of wavelength around 550 nanometers, near the middle of the visible part of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  16. Hereditary encephalomyelopathy and polyneuropathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A

    2009-12-01

    An Alaskan husky puppy was examined for a neurologic disease which began at six weeks of age with generalised paresis that progressed resulting in recumbency by 18 weeks. Thoracic limbs primarily exhibited lower motor neuron signs that included distal muscle atrophy and persistent elbow and carpal flexion that resisted manual extension. Pelvic limb signs primarily exhibited upper motor neuron and general proprioceptive deficits, but also included lower motor neuron signs. Abnormal vocalisation suggested a laryngeal paresis. Histopathologic lesions included a diffuse axonopathy and secondary demyelination in the nerves of the limbs and larynx and a similar bilaterally symmetrical degeneration in the spinal cord white matter suggestive of a dying back axonopathy. In addition, a degenerative process was present in nuclei in the brain stem and cerebellum. Recognition of this disease through clinical and pathologic examination in other related Alaskan Huskies suggested an autosomal recessive inherited disorder.

  17. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOEpatents

    Delayen, Jean

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  18. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  19. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Smith, J. D.A.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; Delayen, J.; Calaga, R.

    2009-05-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

  20. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  1. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries are... complete. Use these tables to complete the EDRs described in this section: Table 1, Crab...

  2. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries are... complete. Use these tables to complete the EDRs described in this section: Table 1, Crab...

  3. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries are... complete. Use these tables to complete the EDRs described in this section: Table 1, Crab...

  4. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that golden crab on that vessel...

  5. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that golden crab on that vessel...

  6. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  7. Heavy metal levels in mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from East Bataan Coast.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Chona Camille E Vince; Ramos, Gliceria; Ablan-Lagman, Ma Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal levels (Pb and Cu) on adult mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from the East Bataan Coast were determined. Muscle tissue from each crab was processed through nitric acid digestion and analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The average concentrations in the samples were 3.37 × 10(-3) and 1.01 mg/L-both within WHO acceptable limits. These were contrasted with the levels found in sediments from catch and grow-out sites (17.9, 14.5, 37.8, and 31.3 mg/L) and were found to be significantly lower in concentration. It takes 3-8 months before adult mud crabs can be harvested from grow-out ponds, and the data suggests that the organisms, even when constantly exposed to high levels of Pb and Cu, do not bio-accumulate toxic levels of these heavy metals. Mud crabs constitute a major economic natural resource in the Philippines and in the province of Bataan. Commanding high prices due to the quality of its meat, it is also a preferred culture product due to its impressive size, rapid growth rate, and high flesh content. Mud crab culture in Bataan is primarily driven by grow-out of captured juveniles in pen or pond cultures sourced from nearby bodies of water-making them vulnerable to prolonged exposure to pollutants. The East Bataan Coast shares its waters with the polluted Manila Bay, giving rise to the concern of the quality of seafood acquired from the area.

  8. Heavy metal levels in mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from East Bataan Coast.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Chona Camille E Vince; Ramos, Gliceria; Ablan-Lagman, Ma Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal levels (Pb and Cu) on adult mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from the East Bataan Coast were determined. Muscle tissue from each crab was processed through nitric acid digestion and analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The average concentrations in the samples were 3.37 × 10(-3) and 1.01 mg/L-both within WHO acceptable limits. These were contrasted with the levels found in sediments from catch and grow-out sites (17.9, 14.5, 37.8, and 31.3 mg/L) and were found to be significantly lower in concentration. It takes 3-8 months before adult mud crabs can be harvested from grow-out ponds, and the data suggests that the organisms, even when constantly exposed to high levels of Pb and Cu, do not bio-accumulate toxic levels of these heavy metals. Mud crabs constitute a major economic natural resource in the Philippines and in the province of Bataan. Commanding high prices due to the quality of its meat, it is also a preferred culture product due to its impressive size, rapid growth rate, and high flesh content. Mud crab culture in Bataan is primarily driven by grow-out of captured juveniles in pen or pond cultures sourced from nearby bodies of water-making them vulnerable to prolonged exposure to pollutants. The East Bataan Coast shares its waters with the polluted Manila Bay, giving rise to the concern of the quality of seafood acquired from the area. PMID:25697551

  9. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  10. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  17. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  20. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  1. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  2. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  3. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  4. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  5. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  6. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  7. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  8. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  9. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  10. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  11. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  12. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  13. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  14. An Authentic Voice in the Technocratic Wilderness: Alaskan Natives and the "Tundra Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick; James, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Examines a pair of critical challenges to the cultural integrity of Alaskan Natives around 1960 as pivotal episodes in the process of native resistance to U. S. dominance. Historically evaluates the fragility of native culture in terms of the political, scientific, and economic interests expressed in the mainstream Alaskan press, particularly the…

  15. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... live Alaskan reindeer may pass to the deceased owner's Native heirs by descent or devise. (b) In...

  16. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  17. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  18. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  19. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  20. 78 FR 40696 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Crab Cost Recovery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Crab Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab includes the Crab Rationalization (CR) Program, a limited access system that allocates BSAI Crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities....

  1. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability.

  2. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  3. Metals in horseshoe crabs from Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Dixon, C; Shukla, T; Tsipoura, N; Jensen, H; Fitzgerald, M; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the eggs, leg muscle, and apodeme (carapace musculature) in horseshoe crabs ( Limulus polyphemus) from eight places on the New Jersey and Delaware sides of Delaware Bay to determine whether there were locational differences. Although there were locational differences, the differences were not great. Further, contaminant levels were generally low. The levels of contaminants found in horseshoe crabs were well below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or in organisms that consume them or their eggs. Contaminant levels have generally declined in the eggs of horseshoe crabs from 1993 to 2001, suggesting that contaminants are not likely to be a problem for secondary consumers or a cause of their decline.

  4. Transportation of Oyster Drills by Horseshoe "Crabs".

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, C L

    1962-07-01

    Horseshoe "crabs" (Limulus polyphemus) collected in New Haven Harbor, Long Island Sound, had large numbers of oyster drills attached to them. Since these animals migrate long distances, they may be important distributors of oyster drills.

  5. Wakefield Damping for the CLIC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ambattu, P.K.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Carter, R.G.; Khan, V.; Jones, R.M.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively.

  6. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  7. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery 9 Table 9 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680,...

  8. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery 9 Table 9 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680,...

  9. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery 7 Table 7 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table...

  10. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery 9 Table 9 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680,...

  11. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery 7 Table 7 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table...

  12. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery 7 Table 7 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table...

  13. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used to calculate QS for each QS fishery is: 1. Bristol Bay red king crab (BBR) 4 years of the 5-year... through February 8, 2002. 4 years 3. Eastern Aleutian Islands golden king crab (EAG) 5 years of the 5-year... the last 3 seasons prior to June 10, 2002 in the Eastern Aleutian Island golden (brown) king...

  14. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  15. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  16. Phlorotannins from Alaskan seaweed inhibit carbolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-10-22

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  17. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  18. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  19. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation

  20. Hermit to king, or hermit to all: multiple transitions to crab-like forms from hermit crab ancestors.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ahyong, Shane T; Chu, Ka Hou

    2011-10-01

    The Anomura presents the greatest degree of morphological disparity in the decapod Crustacea, with body forms ranging from the symmetrical and asymmetrical hermit crabs to squat lobsters and king crabs. The phylogeny of the anomurans has been fraught with controversy. Recent debate has focused primarily on the phenomenon of carcinization, the evolution of crab-like form from a non-crab-like ancestor, focused chiefly on derivation of king crabs from asymmetrical hermit crabs--the "hermit to king" hypothesis. We show by phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear protein-coding gene sequences that hermit crabs have a single origin, but surprisingly, that almost all other major clades and body forms within the Anomura, are derived from within the hermit crabs. The crab-like form and squat lobster form have each evolved at least twice from separate symmetrical hermit crab ancestors. In each case, a carcinization trend can be posited via a transition series from the initial symmetrical long-tailed hermit crab form, through the intermediate squat lobster or asymmetrical hermit crab form, to the final crab-like form. Adaptation to dextral shell habitation evolved at least twice, once in an exclusively deep-water clade and once in the common ancestor of all other asymmetrical hermit crabs (from which king crabs are derived). These remarkable cases of parallelism suggest considerable phenotypic flexibility within the hermit crab ground plan, with a general tendency toward carcinization. Rather than having a separate origin from other major clades, hermit crabs have given rise to most other major anomuran body types.

  1. 76 FR 59422 - Proposed Information Collection; Horseshoe Crab Tagging Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... crabs at their facilities. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate is derived from crab blood, which has no synthetic substitute, and is used by pharmaceutical companies to test sterility of products. Finally,...

  2. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  3. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  4. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  5. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). (a) Requirements. (1) Any owner or leaseholder of a vessel or processing plant, or a holder of a registered crab receiver permit that harvested,...

  6. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). (a) Requirements. (1) Any owner or leaseholder of a vessel or processing plant, or a holder of a registered crab receiver permit that harvested,...

  7. Magnetic dissipation in the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic dissipation is frequently invoked as a way of powering the observed emission of relativistic flows in Gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. Pulsar Wind Nebulae provide closer to home cosmic laboratories which can be used to test the hypothesis. To this end, we reanalyze the observational data on the spindown power of the Crab pulsar, energetics of the Crab nebula and its magnetic field. We show that unless the magnetic inclination angle of the Crab pulsar is very close to 90 degrees the overall magnetization of the striped wind after total dissipation of its stripes is significantly higher than that deduced in the Kennel-Coroniti model and recent axisymmetric simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae. On the other hand, higher wind magnetization is in conflict with the observed low magnetic field of the Crab nebula, unless it is subject to efficient dissipation inside the nebula as well. For the likely inclination angle of 45 degrees the data require magnetic dissipation on the time-scale of about 80 years, which is short compared to the lifetime of the nebula but long compared to the time-scale of Crab's gamma-ray flares.

  8. Crab Waist Collision at DAFNE

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; Pellegrino, L.; /Frascati /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Rome U. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Rome3 /SLAC

    2011-11-30

    DAFNE is an accelerator complex consisting of a double ring lepton collider working at the c.m. energy of the {Phi}-resonance (1.02 GeV) and an injection system. In its original configuration the collider consisted of two independent rings, each {approx}97 m long, sharing two 10 m long interaction regions (IR1 and IR2) where the KLOE and FINUDA or DEAR detectors were respectively installed. A full energy injection system, including an S-band linac, 180 m long transfer lines and an accumulator/damping ring, provides fast and high efficiency electron positron injection also in topping-up mode during collisions. Recently the DAFNE collider has been upgraded in order to implement a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and cancellation of the synchro-betatron resonances by means of electromagnetic sextupoles (Crab-Waist compensation). The novel approach has proved to be effective in improving beam-beam interaction and collider luminosity.

  9. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). PMID:15927927

  10. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  11. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Brown rock crab, red rock crab, and yellow crab

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.C. ); Winn, R.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Rock crab'' is the common name designating three similar species of edible crabs: brown rock crab (Cancer antennarius), red rock crab (C. productus), and yellow crab (C. anthonyi). The three species co-occur in shallow coastal waters throughout the Pacific Southwest region. The yellow crab is most common in southern California on sand substrate, and the red rock crab in northernmost areas on rock or gravel substrates; the brown rock crab occurs on rock or sand substrates in all areas. Rock crabs are sought commercially to fill an increasing market demand for whole crabs that approached 2 million pounds annually in 1986. Most of the catch comes from the region of Morro Bay south to Los Angeles, including the Channel Islands. Egg-bearing females are commonly found during winter, although they may occur throughout the year.Rock crabs go through five zoeal stages and one megalopal stage during a larval period that generally requires 90--120 days. Metamorphosis and settlement of the first crab stage is on either sand or rock, and crabs may reach maturity within 1--2 years. All three species are predators on a variety of shelled mollusks, but are also considered scavengers. They are a major food for many commercially and recreationally important fishes, as well as for the threatened southern sea otter, Enhydra lutris. 63 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  14. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  15. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  16. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  17. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  18. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Lingwood, C.; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  19. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  20. Linkage among Vegetation, Microbes and Methanogenic Pathways in Alaskan Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sidelinger, W.; Shu, H.; Varner, R. K.; Hines, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands are thought to account for one third of the naturally emitted CH4. However, methane production pathways in northern peatlands are poorly understood, yet are predicted to change in response to vegetation shifts due to warming. Previous studies noted that acetate conversion to methane (acetoclastic methanogenesis, AM) in northern wetlands is largely impeded and acetate accumulates, however AM tends to increase with minerotrophy. To understand methanogenic pathways and to provide linkage among pathways, we studied Alaskan wetlands in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, laboratory incubations were conducted in three peatlands representing trophic gradients from bogs to fens. During 2014, 37 different sites in Fairbanks and Anchorage were studied that represented wetlands with pH values from 3.5 to 5.5 and vegetation from primarily Sphagnum to sedges. Measurements in 2014 included vegetation composition, gases (CH4, CO2, H2, and CO), 13CH4 and 13CO2, volatile fatty acids, DOC, other electron acceptors. Further incubation studies are being conducted to decipher controls on decomposition pathways. Gene sequencing was used to characterize microbial community composition, and metagenomic and transcriptomics were conducted to describe community activity. Results showed that methanogenesis was higher in fens than bogs, but hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (HM) was dominant at all sites. End product ratios showed that AM was occurring in fens, albeit slowly. Fermentation was an important end-point in decomposition and microbial syntrophy was weak. These data, regardless of trophic status, differed greatly from data obtained from temperate wetlands in which terminal respiratory processes were strong and C flow through syntrophy was important. Trophic status influenced C flow in the Alaskan sites, but terminal processes were weak and end product formation tended to end at primary fermentation, which dominated as the terminal step in decomposition.

  1. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat.

  2. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  3. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  4. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to the Electron Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    In order to improve the luminosity, two crab cavities have been installed in KEKB HER and LER [1]. Since there is only one crab cavity in each ring, the crab cavity generates a horizontally titled bunch along the whole ring. The achieved specific luminosity with crabbed bunch is higher, but it is not as high as that from beam-beam simulation [2]. One of the suspicions is the electron cloud. The electron cloud in LER (positron beam) may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This note briefly estimates the bunch shape distortion due to the electron cloud in KEKB LER.

  5. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant. PMID:24060243

  6. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant.

  7. Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) Foraging Efficiency Reduced by Fast Flows

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth M.; Smee, Delbert L.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Predators can strongly influence prey populations and the structure and function of ecosystems, but these effects can be modified by environmental stress. For example, fluid velocity and turbulence can alter the impact of predators by limiting their environmental range and altering their foraging ability. We investigated how hydrodynamics affected the foraging behavior of the green crab (Carcinus maenas), which is invading marine habitats throughout the world. High flow velocities are known to reduce green crab predation rates and our study sought to identify the mechanisms by which flow affects green crabs. We performed a series of experiments with green crabs to determine: 1) if their ability to find prey was altered by flow in the field, 2) how flow velocity influenced their foraging efficiency, and 3) how flow velocity affected their handling time of prey. In a field study, we caught significantly fewer crabs in baited traps at sites with fast versus slow flows even though crabs were more abundant in high flow areas. This finding suggests that higher velocity flows impair the ability of green crabs to locate prey. In laboratory flume assays, green crabs foraged less efficiently when flow velocity was increased. Moreover, green crabs required significantly more time to consume prey in high velocity flows. Our data indicate that flow can impose significant chemosensory and physical constraints on green crabs. Hence, hydrodynamics may strongly influence the role that green crabs and other predators play in rocky intertidal communities. PMID:21687742

  8. Evolution of metabolomics profile of crab paste during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Juanjuan; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Crab paste is regularly consumed by people in the coastal area of China. The fermentation time plays a key role on the quality of crab paste. Here, we investigated the dynamic evolution of metabolite profile of crab paste during fermentation by combined use of NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that crab paste quality was significantly affected by fermentation. The quality change was manifested in the decline of lactate, betaine, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, trigonelline, inosine, adenosine diphosphate, and 2-pyridinemethanol, and in the fluctuation of a range of amino acids as well as in the accumulation of glutamate, sucrose, formate, acetate, trimethylamine, and hypoxanthine. Trimethylamine production and its increased level with fermentation could be considered as a freshness index of crab paste. These results contribute to quality assessment of crab paste and confirm the metabolomics technique as a useful tool to provide important information on the crab paste quality.

  9. Modeling Crabbing Dynamics in an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Castilla, Alejandro; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Satogata, Todd J.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2015-09-01

    A local crabbing scheme requires π/2 (mod π) horizontal betatron phase advances from an interaction point (IP) to the crab cavities on each side of it. However, realistic phase advances generated by sets of quadrupoles, or Final Focusing Blocks (FFB), between the crab cavities located in the expanded beam regions and the IP differ slightly from π/2. To understand the effect of crabbing on the beam dynamics in this case, a simple model of the optics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) including local crabbing was developed using linear matrices and then studied numerically over multiple turns (1000 passes) of both electron and proton bunches. The same model was applied to both local and global crabbing schemes to determine the linear-order dynamical effects of the synchro-betatron coupling induced by crabbing.

  10. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red crab possession and landing... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight....

  11. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Red crab possession and landing... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight....

  12. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Red crab possession and landing... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight....

  13. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Red crab possession and landing... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight....

  14. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  15. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  17. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  18. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  19. Power coupler for the ILC crab cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Jenkins, R.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Bellantoni, Leo; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The ILC crab cavity will require the design of an appropriate power coupler. The beam-loading in dipole mode cavities is considerably more variable than accelerating cavities, hence simulations have been performed to establish the required external Q. Simulations of a suitable coupler were then performed and were verified using a normal conducting prototype with variable coupler tips.

  20. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue. PMID:26353409

  1. A HYPERSPECTRAL VIEW OF THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Binette, L. E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.c

    2010-05-15

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the H{beta}, [O III] {lambda}4959, {lambda}5007, H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}6548, {lambda}6584, and [S II] {lambda}6717, {lambda}6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Cadez et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/H{alpha}, [S II]/H{alpha}, and [S II] {lambda}6717 /[S II] {lambda}6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  2. The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Cinquilli, M.; Servoli, L.; Lacaprara, S.; Fanzago, F.; Dorigo, A.; Merlo, M.; Farina, F.; Fanfani, A.; Codispoti, G.; Bacchi, W.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U /CERN /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Trieste /Fermilab

    2008-01-22

    The CMS experiment will produce several Pbytes of data every year, to be distributed over many computing centers geographically distributed in different countries. Analysis of this data will be also performed in a distributed way, using grid infrastructure. CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) is a specific tool, designed and developed by the CMS collaboration, that allows a transparent access to distributed data to end physicist. Very limited knowledge of underlying technicalities are required to the user. CRAB interacts with the local user environment, the CMS Data Management services and with the Grid middleware. It is able to use WLCG, gLite and OSG middleware. CRAB has been in production and in routine use by end-users since Spring 2004. It has been extensively used in studies to prepare the Physics Technical Design Report (PTDR) and in the analysis of reconstructed event samples generated during the Computing Software and Analysis Challenge (CSA06). This involved generating thousands of jobs per day at peak rates. In this paper we discuss the current implementation of CRAB, the experience with using it in production and the plans to improve it in the immediate future.

  3. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Luke F.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. PMID:26108629

  4. Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Morris, Steve; Towle, David W

    2004-12-01

    The excretory transport of toxic ammonia across epithelia is not fully understood. This review presents data combined with models of ammonia excretion derived from studies on decapod crabs, with a view to providing new impetus to investigation of this essential issue. The majority of crabs preserve ammonotely regardless of their habitat, which varies from extreme hypersaline to freshwater aquatic environments, and ranges from transient air exposure to obligate air breathing. Important components in the excretory process are the Na+/K+(NH4+)-ATPase and other membrane-bound transport proteins identified in many species, an exocytotic ammonia excretion mechanism thought to function in gills of aquatic crabs such as Carcinus maenas, and gaseous ammonia release found in terrestrial crabs, such as Geograpsus grayi and Ocypode quadrata. In addition, this review presents evidence for a crustacean Rhesus-like protein that shows high homology to the human Rhesus-like ammonia transporter both in its amino acid sequence and in its predicted secondary structure. PMID:15579545

  5. Tarantula and Hermit Crab Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Marnell, Cinthia

    2016-05-01

    Tarantulas and hermit crabs are commonly kept pets and are underappreciated in veterinary medicine. Safe handling, biology and husbandry, diagnostic techniques, anesthesia, fluid therapy, disorders, and euthanasia are covered in this article. Current research is applied to these topics to keep practitioners abreast with the best medicine for these creatures. PMID:27131164

  6. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  7. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    PubMed Central

    Vinuthinee, Naidu; Azreen-Redzal, Anuar; Juanarita, Jaafar; Zunaina, Embong

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. PMID:25678769

  8. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour.

  9. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  10. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  12. Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide

  13. Accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-06-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of marine algal toxins. In this study, the accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus were investigated. Crabs were fed with toxic blue mussels Mytilus edulis for 21 days and then depurated for 42 days. Toxins were extracted with methanol from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group) and from blue mussels for comparison. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of PTX-2, PTX-2 SA, 7- epi-PTX-2 SA, and PTX-12 were analyzed in two batches of toxic blue mussels and the crabs. A one-compartment model was applied to describe the depuration of PTXs. The half-life of PTXs was estimated to be 6-7.5 days. After depuration for 42 days, the amount of PTXs measured in the crab digestive glands was less than 1 μg/kg.

  14. Ghost fishing activity in derelict blue crab traps in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Julie A; Alford, Amy B

    2014-02-15

    Derelict crab traps impact the coastal ecosystem through continued catch of target species and species of conservation, economic, or recreational importance. During volunteer-supported crab trap cleanups in 2012 and 2013, we quantified ghost fishing activity in derelict crab traps in coastal Louisiana through a citizen scientist program. Volunteers removed 3607 derelict traps during these events, and over 65% of traps analyzed by citizen scientists were actively ghost fishing. Additionally, volunteers identified 19 species enmeshed in derelict traps, including a combination of fresh and saltwater species. We also detected a significant difference in the number of blue crab in actively ghost fishing derelict traps across removal locations with estimated catches varying between 2.4 and 3.5 crabs/trap. Our instantaneous estimates of ghost fishing activity are greater than those previously thought in Louisiana, further justifying current derelict crab trap prevention and removal extension and outreach programs in Louisiana and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.

  15. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2003-11-13

    About 70% of North American large mammal species were lost at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. The causes of this extinction--the role of humans versus that of climate--have been the focus of much controversy. Horses have figured centrally in that debate, because equid species dominated North American late Pleistocene faunas in terms of abundance, geographical distribution, and species variety, yet none survived into the Holocene epoch. The timing of these equid regional extinctions and accompanying evolutionary changes are poorly known. In an attempt to document better the decline and demise of two Alaskan Pleistocene equids, I selected a large number of fossils from the latest Pleistocene for radiocarbon dating. Here I show that horses underwent a rapid decline in body size before extinction, and I propose that the size decline and subsequent regional extinction at 12,500 radiocarbon years before present are best attributed to a coincident climatic/vegetational shift. The present data do not support human overkill and several other proposed extinction causes, and also show that large mammal species responded somewhat individualistically to climate changes at the end of the Pleistocene.

  16. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models (DEMs), we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Our ice elevation changes reveal that glacier dynamics (surges, phase of the tidewater cycle, etc...) have a profound effect on the wastage of Alaska glaciers. 3D satellite view of Columbia glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. (Copyright CNES 2007, Distribution Spot Image, processing E. Berthier CNRS)

  17. Quantifying seismic survey reverberation off the Alaskan North Slope.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Melania; Thode, Aaron M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Michael Macrander, A

    2011-11-01

    Shallow-water airgun survey activities off the North Slope of Alaska generate impulsive sounds that are the focus of much regulatory attention. Reverberation from repetitive airgun shots, however, can also increase background noise levels, which can decrease the detection range of nearby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems. Typical acoustic metrics for impulsive signals provide no quantitative information about reverberation or its relative effect on the ambient acoustic environment. Here, two conservative metrics are defined for quantifying reverberation: a minimum level metric measures reverberation levels that exist between airgun pulse arrivals, while a reverberation metric estimates the relative magnitude of reverberation vs expected ambient levels in the hypothetical absence of airgun activity, using satellite-measured wind data. The metrics are applied to acoustic data measured by autonomous recorders in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in 2008 and demonstrate how seismic surveys can increase the background noise over natural ambient levels by 30-45 dB within 1 km of the activity, by 10-25 dB within 15 km of the activity, and by a few dB at 128 km range. These results suggest that shallow-water reverberation would reduce the performance of nearby PAM systems when monitoring for marine mammals within a few kilometers of shallow-water seismic surveys.

  18. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most concentrated plumes. Ice features are most clearly seen on MSS 7 imagery; fracture patterns and the movement of specific floes can be used to map circulation in the winter when runoff is restricted, if appropriate allowance is made for wind influence. Current patterns interpreted from satellite data are only two-dimensional, but since most biological activity and pollution are concentrated near the surface, the information developed can be of direct utility. Details of Alaska inshore circulation of importance to coastal engineering, navigation, pollution studies, and fisheries development have been clarified with satellite data. ERTS has made possible the analysis of circulation in many parts of the Alaskan coast.

  19. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  20. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  1. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  2. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  3. Quantifying seismic survey reverberation off the Alaskan North Slope.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Melania; Thode, Aaron M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Michael Macrander, A

    2011-11-01

    Shallow-water airgun survey activities off the North Slope of Alaska generate impulsive sounds that are the focus of much regulatory attention. Reverberation from repetitive airgun shots, however, can also increase background noise levels, which can decrease the detection range of nearby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems. Typical acoustic metrics for impulsive signals provide no quantitative information about reverberation or its relative effect on the ambient acoustic environment. Here, two conservative metrics are defined for quantifying reverberation: a minimum level metric measures reverberation levels that exist between airgun pulse arrivals, while a reverberation metric estimates the relative magnitude of reverberation vs expected ambient levels in the hypothetical absence of airgun activity, using satellite-measured wind data. The metrics are applied to acoustic data measured by autonomous recorders in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in 2008 and demonstrate how seismic surveys can increase the background noise over natural ambient levels by 30-45 dB within 1 km of the activity, by 10-25 dB within 15 km of the activity, and by a few dB at 128 km range. These results suggest that shallow-water reverberation would reduce the performance of nearby PAM systems when monitoring for marine mammals within a few kilometers of shallow-water seismic surveys. PMID:22087932

  4. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  5. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  9. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  10. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  11. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  12. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  13. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  14. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( δ13C and δ15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  15. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  16. 40 CFR 408.43 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 408.43 Section 408.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.43...

  17. 40 CFR 408.53 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 408.53 Section 408.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.53...

  18. 40 CFR 408.43 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 408.43 Section 408.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.43...

  19. 40 CFR 408.53 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 408.53 Section 408.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.53...

  20. 40 CFR 408.53 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 408.53 Section 408.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.53...

  1. 40 CFR 408.53 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 408.53 Section 408.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.53...

  2. 40 CFR 408.43 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 408.43 Section 408.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.43...

  3. 40 CFR 408.43 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 408.43 Section 408.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.43...

  4. 40 CFR 408.43 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 408.43 Section 408.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.43...

  5. 40 CFR 408.53 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 408.53 Section 408.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.53...

  6. A 150-million-year-old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Martin, Joel W; Haug, Carolin

    2015-03-09

    True crabs (Brachyura) are the most successful group of decapod crustaceans. This success is most likely coupled to their life history, including two specialised larval forms, zoea and megalopa. The group is comparably young, starting to diversify only about 100 million years ago (mya), with a dramatic increase in species richness beginning approximately 50 mya. Early evolution of crabs is still very incompletely known. Here, we report a fossil crab larva, 150 mya, documented with up-to-date imaging techniques. It is only the second find of any fossil crab larva, but the first complete one, the first megalopa, and the oldest one (other fossil ca. 110 mya). Despite its age, the new fossil possesses a very modern morphology, being indistinguishable from many extant crab larvae. Hence, modern morphologies must have been present significantly earlier than formerly anticipated. We briefly discuss the impact of this find on our understanding of early crab evolution.

  7. Crab Crossing Schemes and Studies for Electron Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y. Derbenev, V. Morozov, A. Castilla, G.A. Krafft, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang, J.R. Delayen

    2011-09-01

    This report shows our progress in crab crossing consideration for future electron-ion collider envisioned at JLab. In this design phase, we are evaluating two crabbing schemes viz., the deflecting and dispersive. The mathematical formulations and lattice design for these schemes are discussed in this paper. Numerical simulations involving particle tracking through a realistic deflecting RF cavity and optics illustrate the desired crab tilt of 25 mrad for 1.35 MV. Evolution of beam propagation are shown which provides the physical insight of the crabbing phenomenon.

  8. Bacterial septicaemia in prerecruit edible crabs, Cancer pagurus L.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Whitten, M M A; Hirschle, L; Pope, E C; Wootton, E C; Vogan, C L; Rowley, A F

    2014-08-01

    Juvenile edible crabs, Cancer pagurus L., were surveyed from Mumbles Head and Oxwich Bay in South Wales, UK, and the number of heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios in the hemolymph was determined. The percentage of crabs with hemolymph containing bacteria was variable over the survey with higher numbers of animals affected in summer than in winter. Post-moult crabs contained significantly higher numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in the hemolymph than pre- and intermoult animals. Crabs with cuticular damage to the gills also had significantly higher numbers of bacteria in the hemolymph. Crabs were found to have a high prevalence of infection by the dinoflagellate, Hematodinium. Such animals had significantly fewer bacteria in the blood in comparison with Hematodinium-free animals. Of the 463 crabs surveyed, only 3 individuals had hemolymph containing 2000 + CFU mL(-1). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, two of these crabs contained a Vibrio pectenicida-like isolate, while the other had a mixed assemblage of vibrios. Although 59% of the crabs surveyed had culturable bacteria in the hemolymph, the majority only had small numbers (<2000 CFU mL(-1) ), suggesting that such infections may be of limited importance to the sustainability of the crab fishery in this region.

  9. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters - The role of the Alaskan Gyre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Scoy, Kim A.; Olson, Donald B.; Fine, Rana A.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrographic data, tritium data, and potential vorticity calculations suggest that although North Pacific Intermediate Water is formed in the northwest, the Alaskan Gyre might be an additional ventilation site. The proposed ventilation is quantified by a vertical column tritium inventory, which indicates an excess of 0.08 kg of tritium in the Alaskan Gyre. An evaluation of the energy stored in the water column and of wind and buoyancy forcing shows that during winter conditions enough energy can be pumped into the system to force 26.80 sigma(theta) to outcrop in the Alaskan Gyre. Model results suggest that relatively limited outcrops in time and space (tens of days and several hundred kilometers in diameter) can account for the excess tritium.

  10. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  11. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning.

  12. VERITAS observations of the Crab pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzer, Benjamin; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The Crab pulsar has been widely studied across the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma-ray energies. The exact nature of the emission processes taking place in the pulsar is a matter of broad debate. Above a few GeV the energy spectrum turns over suddenly. The shape of this cutoff can provide unique insight in to the particle acceleration processes taking place in the pulsar magnetosphere. Here we discuss the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the Crab Pulsar above 100 GeV with the VERITAS telescopes in the context of measurements made with the Fermi space telescope below 10 GeV. Limits on the level of flux enhancement of emission correlated with giant radio pulses and dispersion due to Lorentz invariance violation effects will also be presented.

  13. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  14. Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika

    2012-09-01

    Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

  15. Peculair Abundances in the Crab Nebula's Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances of supernova remnants can provide invaluable information concerning the properties of the progenitor star as well as details of stellar nucleosynthesis. In this regard, the Crab Nebula is especially useful, it being the youngest supernova remnant observable with IUE. Despite being fairly heavily reddened, UV emission-lines from its filaments have been successfully obtained many times early in the history of IUE. These UV spectra provided important and unique data for determining elemental composition of the filamentary ejecta, especially for C, N, and O. Analysis of these data by Davidson et al (1982) indicated nearly solar C/O and N/O ratios despite the large general enrichment of helium in the remnant. Although not realized at the time, there is considerable recent evidence which indicates that significant abundance variations do exist among the filaments. The strongest anomalies in composition are puzzlingly confined to a few relatively bright northern filaments which exhibit nearly solar He abundance yet show possibly large Ni enrichment. If we hope to understand the elemental composition of remnants in general and the Crab Nebula in particular, we then need to determine the composition of these peculiar filaments and to what extent they differ from the rest of the remnant. Towards that goal, we therefore propose to obtain IUE low dispersion SWP spectra on the brightest of these peculiar filaments where we have already obtained matching optical data. Analysis will follow that of Davidson el al but with much more detailed photoionization models for the Crab already developed by us. These data should help determine the true range of abundances present in the Crab's filamentary ejecta.

  16. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; et al

    2015-12-23

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day.CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks andmore » submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. Furthermore, the new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service.Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.« less

  17. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    SciTech Connect

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-23

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day.CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. Furthermore, the new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service.Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.

  18. CRAB: Distributed analysis tool for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Leonardo; CMS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    CMS has a distributed computing model, based on a hierarchy of tiered regional computing centers and adopts a data driven model for the end user analysis. This model foresees that jobs are submitted to the analysis resources where data are hosted. The increasing complexity of the whole computing infrastructure makes the simple analysis work flow more and more complicated for the end user. CMS has developed and deployed a dedicated tool named CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) in order to guarantee the physicists an efficient access to the distributed data whilst hiding the underlying complexity. This tool is used by CMS to enable the running of physics analysis jobs in a transparent manner over data distributed across sites. It factorizes out the interaction with the underlying batch farms, grid infrastructure and CMS data management tools, allowing the user to deal only with a simple and intuitive interface. We present the CRAB architecture, as well as the current status and lessons learnt in deploying this tool for use by the CMS collaboration. We also present the future development of the CRAB system.

  19. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day. CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. The new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service. Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.

  20. The Porcelain Crab Transcriptome and PCAD, the Porcelain Crab Microarray and Sequence Database

    SciTech Connect

    Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kristen S.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wong, Mike; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2010-01-27

    Background: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings: A set of ~;;30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ~;;19K clusters were generated from ~;;98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66percent of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases.Conclusions/Significance: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be captured in

  1. Alaskan malamute chondrodysplasia IV. Concentrations of zinc, copper and iron in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Brown, R G; Hoag, G N; Smart, M E; Boechner, G; Subden, R E

    1977-09-01

    Trace mineral concentrations in various tissues of the chondrodysplastic (dwarf) Alaskan Malamute are remarkably different as compared to normal. The zinc level in heart tissue was depressed in dwarf animals (26 weeks). Copper concentration in the liver is elevated two to four fold in 26 week old dwarf animals and iron levels are significantly elevated in kidney, liver and pancreas of these animals. These observations suggest that the dwarf Alaskan Malamutes suffer from a genetic defect in trace mineral metabolism. If this is the case, then many of the skeletal lesions reported for these animals may be attributed to disorders in either zinc or copper metabolism.

  2. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  3. Contaminants in arctic snow collected over northwest Alaskan sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Leiker, T.J.; Hoffman, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfall from the 1995-1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cations and anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds were determined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, and PCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70-80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow was highly enriched in sulfates (69- 394 mg L-1), with high proportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination through long-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum, frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of total mercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavy metals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported over land areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and the high content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

  4. Quantifying and comparing size selectivity among Alaskan sockeye salmon fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Neala W; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-04-01

    Quantifying long-term size-selective harvest patterns is necessary for understanding the potential evolutionary effects on exploited species. The comparison of fishery selection patterns on the same species subject to different gear types, in different areas, and over multi-decadal periods can reveal the factors influencing selection. In this study we quantified and compared size-selective harvest by nine Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fisheries to understand overall patterns. We calculated length-specific linear selection differentials (the difference in average length of fish before vs. after fishing), which are produced by different combinations of exploitation rates and length-selectivity values, and nonlinear standardized differentials, describing disruptive selection, across all years for each fishery. Selection differentials varied among years, but larger fish were caught in 73% of years for males and 84% of years for females, leaving smaller fish to spawn. Disruptive selection was observed on female and male fish in 84% and 92% of years, respectively. Linear selection was stronger on females than males in 77% of years examined, and disruptive selection was stronger on males in 71% of years. Selection pressure was influenced by a combination of factors under and beyond management control; analyses using mixed-effects models indicated that fisheries were less size selective in years when fish were larger than average and had lower exploitation rates. The observed harvest of larger than average sockeye salmon is consistent with the hypothesis that size-selective fishing contributes to decreasing age and length at maturation trends over time, but temporal variability in selection and strong disruptive selection suggests that the overall directional pressure is weaker than is often assumed in evolutionary models.

  5. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  6. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  7. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  8. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  9. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach.

  10. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach. PMID:26621069

  11. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics. PMID:27441254

  12. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  13. Improving functional value of meat products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  14. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    PubMed

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis.

  15. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  16. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications.

  17. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines. PMID:16022764

  18. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  19. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Person ID of each member of the crab harvesting cooperative. (iii) Additional documentation. For the... transfer of crab harvesting cooperative individual fishing quota (IFQ) provided that a paper or electronic... required additional documentation is attached. (2) Certification of transferor—(i) Non-electronic...

  20. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Person ID of each member of the crab harvesting cooperative. (iii) Additional documentation. For the... transfer of crab harvesting cooperative individual fishing quota (IFQ) provided that a paper or electronic... required additional documentation is attached. (2) Certification of transferor—(i) Non-electronic...

  1. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Person ID of each member of the crab harvesting cooperative. (iii) Additional documentation. For the... transfer of crab harvesting cooperative individual fishing quota (IFQ) provided that a paper or electronic... required additional documentation is attached. (2) Certification of transferor—(i) Non-electronic...

  2. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Person ID of each member of the crab harvesting cooperative. (iii) Additional documentation. For the... transfer of crab harvesting cooperative individual fishing quota (IFQ) provided that a paper or electronic... required additional documentation is attached. (2) Certification of transferor—(i) Non-electronic...

  3. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Person ID of each member of the crab harvesting cooperative. (iii) Additional documentation. For the... transfer of crab harvesting cooperative individual fishing quota (IFQ) provided that a paper or electronic... required additional documentation is attached. (2) Certification of transferor—(i) Non-electronic...

  4. Porcelain crabs from Brazil (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luciane Augusto De Azevedo; De Melo, Gustavo Augusto Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Twenty species of porcelain crabs are reported on the basis of material collected from Brazilian coasts. Considering the lack of systematic studies comprehending the Brazilian porcellanids, the present work presents a review of the regional species based on the current taxonomic information. New records, information about variation between specimens and a taxonomic discussion are given for porcellanid crabs from Brazil. PMID:27394448

  5. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 680 - Crab Process Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Process Codes 4 Table 4 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 4 Table 4 to Part 680—Crab Process Codes Process code Description 0 Other (specify). 1 Fresh....

  6. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 680 - Crab Process Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Process Codes 4 Table 4 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 4 Table 4 to Part 680—Crab Process Codes Process code Description 0 Other (specify). 1 Fresh....

  7. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 680 - Crab Process Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Process Codes 4 Table 4 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 4 Table 4 to Part 680—Crab Process Codes Process code Description 0 Other (specify). 1 Fresh....

  8. A developmental model for predicting handedness frequencies in crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladle, Richard J.; Todd, Peter A.

    2006-11-01

    Brachyuran crabs develop handedness in at least two different ways. Some crabs, such as Cancer productus, become heterochelous through use-induced differences in claw growth. Other crab species, for instance Carcinus maenas, appear to have a genetic predisposition towards right handedness. In this latter case, however, handedness reversal may take place following autotomy of the major claw. Thus, in C. maenas, and other species with this developmental strategy, younger cohorts are strongly biased towards right-handed individuals and the frequency of left-handedness increases with each subsequent moult. In the absence of differential mortality the ratio of left-handed to right-handed crabs in a given population should be predictable if the frequencies of right and left claw loss are known for different stages in the life history. Here, we develop a simple mathematical model for predicting handedness in crabs under the Carcinus-model of claw ontogeny and apply it to two species with very different ecologies and life histories; the green crab ( Carcinus maenas (L.)) and the Trinidadian mountain crab ( Eudaniela garmani (Rathburn)). The predicted and observed handedness frequencies were in complete concordance for the early intermoults of both species but significantly deviated in mature C. maenas where left-handed individuals were under-represented in the population. These results are discussed in the context of the evolution and functional significance of claw autotomy and handedness in crabs.

  9. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  10. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Erin Stewart; Krauss, Ken W; Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Sherman, Peter M; Smith, Thomas J

    2009-05-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests.

  12. The competitive and predatory impacts of the nonindigenous crab Carcinus maenas (L.) on early benthic phase Dungeness crab Cancer magister Dana.

    PubMed

    McDonald, P S.; Jensen, G C.; Armstrong, D A.

    2001-03-30

    We evaluate the potential competitive and predatory impacts of nonindigenous European green crab Carcinus maenas on native Dungeness crab Cancer magister in the northeast Pacific. The coastal estuaries of Washington State, USA, provide appropriate habitat for recently introduced green crab, yet these areas are important nursery grounds for Dungeness crab and contribute greatly to the coastal crab fishery. Juvenile Dungeness crabs are dependent on limited intertidal epibenthic shell for refuge habitat during early benthic life and experience increased mortality on open sand and mud as a result of predation by fish and birds. Early juveniles throughout the subtidal are similarly at risk due to predation by fish and especially adult conspecifics. Laboratory experiments and infrared video observations revealed that juvenile green crab displace Dungeness crab of equal size from shelters during one-on-one competition. Green crab also consistently win nocturnal foraging trials in which the species compete for fresh, damaged clams. Field and laboratory enclosure experiments show that juvenile Dungeness crab emigrate from oyster shell habitat as a result of competition and predation by adult green crab. Depending on the extent to which the two species overlap, interactions with the dominant nonindigenous species could have a negative influence on juvenile Dungeness crab survival and could conceivably impact recruitment to the fishery. However, current evidence indicates that the distribution of green crab in Washington State is far removed from nursery areas of Dungeness crab. PMID:11239624

  13. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  14. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  15. SMALL ANGLE CRAB COMPENSATION FOR LHC IR UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    CALAGA,R.; DORDA, U.; OHMI, D.; OIDE, K.; TOMAS, R.; ZIMMERMANN, F.

    2007-06-25

    A small angle (< 1 mrad) crab scheme is an attractive option for the LHC luminosity upgrade to recover the geometric luminosity loss from the finite crossing angle [I]. The luminosity loss increases steeply to unacceptable levels as the IP beta function is reduced below its nominal value (see Fig. 1 in Ref. [2]). The crab compensation in the LHC can be accomplished using only two sets of deflecting RF cavities, placed in collision-free straight sections of the LHC to nullify the effective crossing angles at IPI & IP5. We also explore a 400 MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We present IR optics configurations with low-angle crab crossing, study the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, lattice errors, and crab RF noise sources.

  16. Crabs in Labs: The Shore Crab (Carcinus maenas) as Teaching Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is an excellent subject for school study, both in the field and the laboratory. It is easily collected and maintained and can be used for a wide range of investigations. Some background details are given and possible areas of investigation suggested. (Author)

  17. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Red crab possession and landing... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits—(1) Possession and landing restrictions. (i)...

  18. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine... 10,000 horseshoe crabs from the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve (Reserve) for biomedical... crabs within the reserve. The Acting Director has also made a preliminary determination that...

  19. 75 FR 32360 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Crab Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Crab Report Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of.... 1801 et seq.) The FMP for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab includes the Crab Rationalization (CR) Program, a limited access system that allocates BSAI Management Area Crab resources...

  20. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CR Crab 2b Table 2b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... CR Crab Species Description Code CR Crab Groundfish PSC CRAB Box Lopholithodes mandtii 900 ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown)...

  1. Projected future duration of the sea-ice-free season in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.

    2015-08-01

    Global warming and continued reduction in sea ice cover will result in longer open water duration in the Arctic, which is important for the shipping industry, marine mammals, and other components of the regional ecosystem. In this study we assess the length of open water duration in the Alaskan Arctic over the next few decades using the set of latest coupled climate models (CMIP5). The Alaskan Arctic, including the Chukchi and the Beaufort Sea, has been a major region of summer sea ice retreat since 2007. Thirty five climate models from CMIP5 are evaluated and twelve are selected for composite projections based on their historical simulation performance. In the regions north of the Bering Strait (north of 70° N), future open-water duration shifts from a current 3-4 months to a projected near 5 months by 2040 based on the mean of the twelve selected climate models. There is considerable north-south gradient in projected durations. Open water duration is about 1 month shorter along the same latitudes in the Beaufort Sea compared with that in the Chukchi Sea. Uncertainty is generally ±1 month estimated from the range of model results. Open-water duration in the Alaskan Arctic expands quickly in these models over the next decades which will impact regional economic access and potentially alter ecosystems. Yet the northern Alaskan Arctic from January through May will remain sea ice covered into the second half of the century due to normal lack of sunlight.

  2. CYCLING OF DISSOLVED ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN ARCTIC ALASKAN LAKES. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous production and water-air exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) are important features of the environmental cycling of Hg. We investigated Hg0 cycling in ten Arctic Alaskan lakes that spanned a wide range in physicochemical characteristics. Dissolved...

  3. AlaskaAdvantage[R] Programs Annual Report to Alaskans, Year Ending June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Through its AlaskAdvantage[R] Programs, the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education promotes, supports, and provides access to postsecondary education for Alaskans and in Alaska. This publication reports on another year of success for the state's higher education assistance agency. Among the accomplishments this year to make higher…

  4. Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2004-06-17

    Island colonization and subsequent dwarfing of Pleistocene proboscideans is one of the more dramatic evolutionary and ecological occurrences, especially in situations where island populations survived end-Pleistocene extinctions whereas those on the nearby mainland did not. For example, Holocene mammoths have been dated from Wrangel Island in northern Russia. In most of these cases, few details are available about the dynamics of how island colonization and extinction occurred. As part of a large radiocarbon dating project of Alaskan mammoth fossils, I addressed this question by including mammoth specimens from Bering Sea islands known to have formed during the end-Pleistocene sea transgression. One date of 7,908 +/- 100 yr bp (radiocarbon years before present) established the presence of Holocene mammoths on St Paul Island, a first Holocene island record for the Americas. Four lines of evidence--265 accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates from Alaskan mainland mammoths, 13 new dates from Alaskan island mammoths, recent reconstructions of bathymetric plots and sea transgression rates from the Bering Sea--made it possible to reconstruct how mammoths became stranded in the Pribilofs and why this apparently did not happen on other Alaskan Bering Sea islands.

  5. American Indian/Alaskan Native Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Findings from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2005-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence and national profile of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, based on data from the American Community Survey/Census 2000 Supplementary Survey. In 2000 there were estimated to be nearly 53,000 AI/AN grandparent caregivers age 45 and older in the United…

  6. 36 CFR 223.10 - Free use to Alaskan settlers, miners, residents, and prospectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... may take free of charge green or dried timber from the National Forests in Alaska for personal use but... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Free use to Alaskan...

  7. 36 CFR 223.10 - Free use to Alaskan settlers, miners, residents, and prospectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... may take free of charge green or dried timber from the National Forests in Alaska for personal use but... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Free use to Alaskan...

  8. 36 CFR 223.10 - Free use to Alaskan settlers, miners, residents, and prospectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... may take free of charge green or dried timber from the National Forests in Alaska for personal use but... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Free use to Alaskan...

  9. Alaskan Native Social Adjustment and the Role of Eskimo and Indian Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that research into the social and psychological implications of Alaskan Eskimo and Indian musical behavior will continue to provide useful clues to solving current inter-cultural and intra-cultural problems in changing Alaska, particularly within the real of Eskimo and Indian preschool and primary education. (Author/AM)

  10. College Orientation Program for Alaskan Natives (COPAN Program - Education for Survival). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lee H.

    Of the original number of Alaskan natives entering the University of Alaska from rural and urban areas, 50% drop out at the end of their freshman year, and less than 2% are likely to receive a degree at the end of 4 years. This high attrition rate is caused by poor elementary and secondary school preparation, and strong personal feelings of…

  11. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Biosynthesis from Crude Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six strains of Pseudomonas were tested for their abilities to synthesize poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) polymers from crude Pollock oil, a large volume byproduct of the Alaskan fishing industry. All six strains were found to produce PHA polymers from hydrolyzed Pollock oil with productivities (P; the...

  12. Alaskan Fish Gelatin Films: Thermal, Tensile, and Barrier Properties and Effects of Cross-linking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from the skins of Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). These skins were by-products generated from the Alaskan fishing industry. Films were then cast from the fish gelatin and their thermal, tensile, water vapor permeability, o...

  13. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  14. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 2: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    A natural science resource booklet for teachers and students contains detailed materials for teaching and learning about Alaskan wildlife. Each of nine chapters provides background subject information, suggested learning activities, tear-out pages of review questions for students to answer, and supplementary notes for teachers which include…

  15. Intensive Evaluation of Satellite TV Impact on Four Alaskan Villages. Supplement to Basic ESCD Evaluation Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A supplement to the final report, "Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD)," this document is both: (1) a separable, sociologically oriented evaluation of the ESCD impact on Alaskan native villages; and (2) a direct extension of the work described in sections 4 and 5 in the Practical…

  16. It Happens When We Get There. Conversations With Teachers in Alaskan Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, C. David

    Developed through in-depth interviews with experienced "bush" teachers from interior Alaska, this booklet is the product of a five-day workshop in the design of vocational education curriculum materials for rural Alaskan secondary schools. The statements in this booklet represent the edited responses of experienced teachers to the following…

  17. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  18. EXAMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY FOR DEMONSTRATION AND USE OF RADIOLUMINESCENT LIGHTS FOR ALASKAN REMOTE RUNWAY LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.; Perrigo, L.; Leonard, L.; Hegdal, L

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of radioluminescent light applications for rural Alaskan airports. The work presented in this report covers four tasks: State of the Art Evaluation of Radioluminescent Lights, Environmental, Radiological, and Regulatory Evaluations, Engineering Evaluations, and Demonstration Plan Development.

  19. Petroleum systems of the Alaskan North Slope: a numerical journey from source to trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Lillis, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The complex petroleum province of the Alaskan North Slope contains six petroleum systems (Magoon and others, this session). Source rocks for four of these systems include the Hue-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ), pebble shale unit, Kingak Shale, and Shublik Formation. Geochemical data for these source rocks are investigated in greater detail and provide the basis for numerical petroleum migration models.

  20. Alaskan glaciers: Recent observations in respect to the earthquake-advance theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, A.S.

    1965-01-01

    Preliminary aerial photographic studies indicate that the Alaskan earthquake produced some rockfalls but no significant snow and ice avalanches on glaciers. No rapid, short-lived glacier advances (surges) are conclusively associated with this earthquake. Recent evidence fails to support the earthquake-advance theory of Tarr and Martin.

  1. Shaping the Landscape: A Journal of Writing by Alaskan Teachers 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenbaugh, Betsy, Ed.

    Intended to encourage Alaska teachers to write, to provide an honest sounding board for those submitting work, and to be a pleasure to read, this booklet presents a collection of 20 pieces of writing (short stories, poems, and life experiences) by Alaskan teachers. The pieces and their authors are as follows: "The First Haiku" (Dan Walker);…

  2. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. 77 FR 45921 - Alaskan Fuel Hauling as a Restricted Category Special Purpose Flight Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... the Federal Register (74 FR 39242) in which the FAA proposed to specify Alaskan fuel hauling as a... Purpose Flight Operation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), (DOT). ACTION: Notice of policy... submitted was, ``The transport of the fuel could be made safer by limiting the payload on each flight to...

  4. Alaskan Native Games--A Cross-Cultural Addition to the Physical Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Richard D.; Allen, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Importing traditional, yet unknown, physical activities from different cultures is an exciting way to add creativity and imagination to the physical education curriculum. Explanations, accompanied by teaching hints, are given of several traditional Alaskan native games which have been successfully used with K-Six students in the Anchorage School…

  5. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Controls on Ecosystem and Root Respiration in an Alaskan Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, N. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal ecosystems cover 14% of the vegetated surface on earth and account for 25-30% of the world’s soil carbon (C), mainly due to large carbon stocks in deep peat and frozen soil layers. While peatlands have served as historical sinks of carbon, global climate change may trigger re-release of C to the atmosphere and may turn these ecosystems into net C sources. Rates of C release from a peatland are determined by regional climate and local biotic and abiotic factors such as vegetation cover, thaw depth, and peat thickness. Soil CO2 fluxes are driven by both autotrophic (plant) respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration. Thus, changes in plant and microbial activity in the soil will impact CO2 emissions from peatlands. In this study, we explored environmental and vegetation controls on ecosystem respiration and root respiration in a variety of wetland sites. The study was conducted at the Alaskan Peatland Experiment (APEX; www.uoguelph.ca/APEX) sites in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest located 35 km southwest of Fairbanks Alaska. We measured ecosystem respiration, root respiration, and monitored a suite of environmental variables along a vegetation and soil moisture gradient including a black spruce stand with permafrost, a shrubby site with permafrost, a tussock grass site, and a herbaceous open rich fen. Within the rich fen, we have been conducting water table manipulations including a control, lowered, and raised water table treatment. In each of our sites, we measured total ecosystem respiration using static chambers and root respiration by harvesting roots from the uppermost 20 cm and placing them in a root cuvette to obtain a root flux. Ecosystem respiration (ER) on a μmol/m2/sec basis varied across sites. Water table was a significant predictor of ER at the lowered manipulation site and temperature was a strong predictor at the control site in the rich fen. Water table and temperature were both significant predictors of ER at the raised

  7. Seasonal Variations of Biomass Burning Tracers in Alaskan Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, M. M.; Kawamura, K.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During the burning, several organic and inorganic gases and particles are emitted into the atmosphere. Here, we present seasonal variations of specific BB tracers such as levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, which are produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. We collected TSP aerosol samples (n= 32) from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. The result of levoglucosan showed clear seasonal trends with winter maximum (ave.145 ng m-3) and spring minimum (12.3 ng m-3). The analyses of air mass back trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that anhydrosugars may be associated from residential heating and cooking in local region and Siberia in winter time. Levoglucosan showed significant positive correlation with EC (r= 0.67, p= 0.001) and OC (r= 0.51, p= 0.002) but there was no correlation with nss-K+ (r= -0.16, p= 0.37). The emission of K+ from biomass burning depends on burning condition and types of material burned. There are two possible reasons, which can be explained for the lack of correlation between levoglucosan and K+. First, specific burning materials may be used for residential heating, which can't produce K+. Secondly, K+ could be deposit on the surface of chimney breast and it can't emit into the atmosphere. Anhydrosugars contributed 4.4% to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 2.4% to organic carbon (OC). Their highest values of WSOC (8.1%) and OC (4.9%) in wintertime indicate that contribution of BB to Alaskan aerosols is important in winter period. The current study presents for the first time one-year observation on BB tracers in the subarctic region, which provide useful information to better understand the effect of biomass burning on subarctic atmosphere. It will also be helpful for further long-term climate studies in this region.

  8. Element Masses in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.; Vanderveer, Steven J.; MacAlpine, Gordon M.

    2016-10-01

    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii] λ7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  9. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  10. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  11. Abundance, Health and Status of Sand Crabs at Ocean Beach, San Francisco: Comparisons From two Summers, 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Saydah, A.; MacCormack, D.; Velarde, M.; Masters, D.; Walton, M.

    2004-12-01

    Interns from the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco monitored Pacific mole crabs, Emerita analoga, commonly known as sand crabs, at Ocean Beach, San Francisco for the second consecutive summer. Comparisons from two data sets revealed trends in crab abundance, size and location. Changes in abundance and location may have been related to water temperature and predation. Dissections of random crabs from all gender classes allowed inspection of parasitism on the crabs. The dissections revealed increased numbers of parasites in larger crabs (especially females with eggs) and in crabs collected later in the summer season. Crab parasitism may be connected to population changes of species predating the sand crabs.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  13. The Crab Nebula: The gift that keeps on giving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, J. Jeff

    2001-05-01

    In many ways the Crab Nebula is the object that started off the study of supernova remnants, yet hundreds of years after its discovery it is still poorly understood in many respects. Recently, a number of observational and theoretical results have shed new light on longstanding questions and misconceptions about the Crab. We are taught in graduate school that the Crab is a freely expanding ejecta-dominated remnant, with the slight added complication that it contains a pulsar and synchrotron nebula. This conception of the Crab is incorrect. Instead, when we think of the Crab we should think first of the powerful and dynamic axisymmetric wind from an energetic pulsar as it powers a high pressure synchrotron nebula. That synchrotron nebula is sweeping up and concentrating thermal ejecta into dense, complex Rayleigh-Taylor filaments as it pushes its way out through a large, freely expanding remnant. This larger remnant is all but unseen, but probably carries the bulk of the mass and kinetic energy from the explosion. Every aspect of the visible Crab-from its overall size and shape, to the complex structure of its filaments, to the highly dynamical structure at its heart-is a direct result of the action of the wind from the Crab pulsar. .

  14. Symbiotic crabs maintain coral health by clearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Hannah L.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2006-11-01

    Stony corals are the foundation of coral reef ecosystems and form associations with other reef species. Many of these associations may be ecologically important and play a role in maintaining the health and diversity of reef systems, rendering it critical to understand the influence of symbiotic organisms in mediating responses to perturbation. This study demonstrates the importance of an association with trapeziid crabs in reducing adverse effects of sediments deposited on corals. In a field experiment, mortality rates of two species of branching corals were significantly lowered by the presence of crabs. All outplanted corals with crabs survived whereas 45-80% of corals without crabs died within a month. For surviving corals that lacked crabs, growth was slower and tissue bleaching and sediment load were higher. Laboratory experiments revealed that corals with crabs shed substantially more of the sediments deposited on coral surfaces, but also that crabs were most effective at removing grain sizes that were most damaging to coral tissues. The mechanism underlying this symbiotic relationship has not been recognized previously, and its role in maintaining coral health is likely to become even more critical as reefs worldwide experience increasing sedimentation.

  15. OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA'S ASYMMETRICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, A. M.; Desch, S. J.; Scowen, P. A.; Foy, J. P.

    2013-03-10

    We present the first Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 imaging survey of the entire Crab Nebula, in the filters F502N ([O III] emission), F673N ([S II]), F631N ([O I]), and F547M (continuum). We use our mosaics to characterize the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its three-dimensional structure, the ionizational structure in the filaments forming at its periphery, the speed of the shock driven by the PWN into surrounding ejecta (by inferring the cooling rates behind the shock), and the morphology and ionizational structure of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) fingers. We quantify a number of asymmetries between the northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) quadrants of the Crab Nebula. The lack of observed filaments in the NW, and our observations of the spatial extent of [O III] emission lead us to conclude that cooling rates are slower, and therefore the shock speeds are greater, in the NW quadrant of the nebula, compared with the SE. We conclude that R-T fingers are longer, more ionizationally stratified, and apparently more massive in the NW than in the SE, and the R-T instability appears more fully developed in the NW.

  16. Lever-press conditioning in the crab.

    PubMed

    Abramson, C I; Feinman, R D

    1990-08-01

    An operant chamber has been developed for studying lever-press conditioning in the green crab Carcinus maenas. In one series of experiments, animals were presented with a single bar and were reinforced with food for every bar press. Performance increased over time and high rates of responding were observed after 2 days of training. The response rate was always higher than that for a yoked (noncontingent) control group. When the contingencies were switched, the animals adjusted to the new conditions. Discrimination in the lever-press apparatus was demonstrated in a second experiment in which crabs had to choose between two bars, one (S+) caused food to be dispensed while the other (S-) was inactive. Experimental animals pressed the S+ bar at a significantly higher rate than the S- bar. When the contingencies associated with the lever were reversed, animals learned to switch to the correct bar by the second day. It was not necessary to reinforce every response: animals maintained high rates of responding on a schedule where every other response was reinforced. Animals used different methods of pressing the bar; the most common was extension of the claw, predominantly at the meropodite-carpopodite joint. PMID:2255730

  17. Pulsar Radio Emission Mechanisms: The Crab Enigmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The Crab pulsar, which resulted from a supernova explosion in year 1054 A. D., has been studied intensely over a wide range of wavelengths, yet it continues to reveal new phenomena that challenge explanation. The emission structures in the radio regime are complex and some may be unique among pulsars. The standard models for pulsar geometry and radio emission physics are reviewed briefly. Their predictions are then compared with observations of the Crab pulsar radio emission and the observations are used to critique the theoretical models from an observer's point of view. The models must explain the extremely short and bright nanopulses (0.4 ns duration implying an equivalent brightness temperature of 10^42 K), the wide bandwidths of radio emission (at least 0.02 to 46 GHz), the regular banded nature of the high frequency interpulse emission, the complex polarization structure, and the phases of pulsar rotation where emission occurs. So far no comprehensive model satisfies all of the observational discriminants.

  18. Meat goat production and marketing.

    PubMed

    Glimp, H A

    1995-01-01

    Production opportunities, management strategies, and marketing options for meat goats in the United States are reviewed in this manuscript. The basis for any expansion must be goat production systems that are biologically and economically sustainable, meeting both producer and consumer needs. Meat goats historically have been kept for brush control. Their use to control noxious plants and in vegetation management will continue to be their primary role in the future. Meat goats are rarely the primary animal production enterprise in the United States, but they are becoming increasingly important contributors to the income of many producers. Meat goat marketing is highly unstructured in the United States, yet prices are generally higher on a per unit of weight basis than other red meat-producing species. Efforts to organize marketing have had only limited success. Over 90% of the world's goats are in developing countries. Goats are increasingly important in these countries as subsistence food producers. Production systems range from goats being a part of nomadic multispecies herds on arid desert rangelands, in agropastoral production systems, to goats being the primary animal enterprise in smallholder farming systems.

  19. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs.

  20. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs. PMID:26611041

  1. Are the pulses of the Crab pulsar modulated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadez, A.; Galicic, M.

    1996-02-01

    We present the results of optical Crab pulsar observations which were designed to search for short-time variations in pulsar's light-curve. Hubble Space Telescope (High Speed Photometer) data and photometric data obtained at the Asiago 1.82m telescope using a specially designed stroboscopic chopper have been analysed and compared. We find a very weak common modulation with the period of 60 seconds which is consistent with all data sets. Such periodic variations in Crab pulsar's light-curve might reflect the pertained free precession of the young Crab pulsar.

  2. Rheological conditions for emplacement of Ural-Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Burov, Evgueni; Augé, Thierry; Gloaguen, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Ural-Alaskan- (or Alaskan-) type complexes correspond to a particular class of ultramafic intrusions that attract particular attention due to their deep mantle origin and their platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. When defined as massifs of dunite-clinopyroxenite, only forty-six complexes are reported in the literature. These large-scale dunite pipe-like structures are rarely isolated and they even can appear in clusters. To better understand genesis of these relatively young (< 460 Ma) complexes, a worldwide compilation has been built, and three categories have been defined: single circular or elliptical bodies, twin bodies with similar shapes, and dismembered dunite bodies. PGE enrichment in Alaskan-type complexes is highest for the second category, where twin bodies are interpreted as horizontal sections of Y-shaped dunite pipes. To constrain mechanical properties of the lithosphere allowing emplacement of the Alaskan-type complexes, the forceful diapiric ascent hypothesis is investigated through numerical thermo-mechanical models. One hundred high resolution experiments accounting for realistic phase changes and softening mechanisms have been performed. The experiments show that with no rheological softening of the host rock and in case of a relatively weak ductile lower crust, the uprising magma tends to spread laterally without reaching the surface. To account for the forceful ascent of deep magmas, it is hence necessary to assume a strong lower crust rheology and strong local softening mechanisms. Besides reproducing the clustered distribution of the weakness zones representing magma pathways, these latter experiments reproduce large-scale pipe-like (cylindrical) structures, Y-shaped and funnel-shaped bodies, and laterally-shifted structures. Interestingly, zones of highest strain rates are located at the bottom parts of the inclined edges of Y-shaped and funnel-shaped bodies. The restricted age range of Alaskan-type complexes (< 460 Ma) would mean

  3. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  4. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  5. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  6. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all meat or meat food products intended for human... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS...

  7. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  8. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  9. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  10. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  11. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  12. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any vessel... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. 4.72 Section 4.72 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  14. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces.

  15. Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Schubart, Christoph D; Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Au, Eugene Y C; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ng, Peter K L; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-05-01

    Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  16. Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Cureux, James

    1974-01-01

    Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.…

  17. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  18. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  19. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  20. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  1. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  2. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  3. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  5. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  6. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  7. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  8. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  9. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  10. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  11. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  12. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  13. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  14. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  15. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  17. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  18. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  19. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  20. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  1. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  2. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  3. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  4. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  5. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  6. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  7. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae. PMID:24913306

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN A LOW ENERGY SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haifeng; Chevalier, Roger A. E-mail: rac5x@virginia.edu

    2015-06-20

    The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy (∼10{sup 50} erg). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.

  9. Crab cavities: Past, present, and future of a challenging device

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.

    2015-05-03

    In two-ring facilities operating with a crossing-angle collision scheme, luminosity can be limited due to an incomplete overlapping of the colliding bunches. Crab cavities then are introduced to restore head-on collisions by providing the destined opposite deflection to the head and tail of the bunch. An increase in luminosity was demonstrated at KEKB with global crab-crossing, while the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) at CERN currently is designing local crab crossing for the Hi-Lumi upgrade. Future colliders may investigate both approaches. In this paper, we review the challenges in the technology, and the implementation of crab cavities, while discussing experience in earlier colliders, ongoing R&D, and proposed implementations for future facilities, such as HiLumi-LHC, CERN’s compact linear collider (CLIC), the international linear collider (ILC), and the electron-ion collider under design at BNL (eRHIC).

  10. CLIC Crab Cavity Design Optimisation for Maximum Luminosity

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, A.C.; Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dolgashev, V.; Jones, R.; /Manchester U.

    2012-04-25

    The bunch size and crossing angle planned for CERN's compact linear collider CLIC dictate that crab cavities on opposing linacs will be needed to rotate bunches of particles into alignment at the interaction point if the desired luminosity is to be achieved. Wakefield effects, RF phase errors between crab cavities on opposing linacs and unpredictable beam loading can each act to reduce luminosity below that anticipated for bunches colliding in perfect alignment. Unlike acceleration cavities, which are normally optimised for gradient, crab cavities must be optimised primarily for luminosity. Accepting the crab cavity technology choice of a 12 GHz, normal conducting, travelling wave structure as explained in the text, this paper develops an analytical approach to optimise cell number and iris diameter.

  11. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  12. Observations of VHE from the Crab Pulsar with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Avery; VERITAS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Crab pulsar has been closely studied across the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to TeV energies. Observations in recent years have challenged the favored models for the highest-energy emission. With 107 hours of observation, VERITAS first observed the Crab pulsar above 120 GeV, well above the expected cut-off of a few GeV. Pulsar modeling demonstrates that magnetosphere of the Crab is opaque to VHE photons, narrowing the possible emission regions within the magnetosphere given recent observations. As of fall 2014, the exposure has been increased to over 200 hours. These new VERITAS results help to further constrain the models, providing improved information about the origin of very high energy emission within the pulsar magnetosphere. Presented here are results of ongoing observations and analysis of the Crab pulsar from 100 GeV up to TeV energies with the VERITAS telescopes in the context of modeling viable emission region models.

  13. Evolution of the Crab Nebula in a Low Energy Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2015-06-01

    The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy (∼1050 erg). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.

  14. The Crab Nebula: A Flickering X-ray Candle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous "star wrecks." For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-...

  15. Mate Selection and Mating Behaviour in Spider Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. R.; Hartnoll, R. G.

    1997-02-01

    Female spider crabs can only mate after the terminal moult, which means that they must either mate whilst soft-shelled after moulting, or subsequently when hard-shelled. There is evidence that some, at least, do both, whereas the majority of crabs mate in only one or other of these states. The mating behaviour, and the means of detecting receptive females, have been studied in a spider crab, Inachus dorsettensis. In this species, mating is predominantly hard-shelled, and receptive females are recognized by their emission of chemical pheromones. The implications of the behaviour patterns for male mating efficiency, sperm competition and female reproductive success are discussed. Mate selection and mating behaviour in other spider crabs are compared with I. dorsettensis. Reasons for similarities and differences are reviewed.

  16. Removal of nickel from aqueous solutions using crab shells.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Swapna; Shukla, Shyam S; Dorris, Kenneth L

    2005-10-17

    Partially converted crab shell waste, which contains chitosan, was used to remove nickel from water. The chelating ability of chitosan makes it an excellent adsorbent for removing pollutants. Advantages of chitosan in crab shells include availability, low cost, and high biocompatibility. The metal uptake by partially converted crab shell waste was successful and rapid. The sorption occurred primarily within 5 min. The sorption mechanism appears to be quite complicated and cannot be adequately described by either the Langmuir or Freundlich theories. Various anions, including chloride, bromide, fluoride, acetate, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate, were found to have a very small effect on the capacity of the crab shells for uptake of nickel. The effect of pH was also found not to be prominent.

  17. Hermit crabs perceive the extent of their virtual bodies.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Kohei; Asakura, Akira; Minoura, Mai; Elwood, Robert W; Gunji, Yukio-P

    2012-08-23

    A flexible body image is required by animals if they are to adapt to body changes and move effectively within a structurally complex environment. Here, we show that terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita rugosus, which frequently change shells, can modify walking behaviour, dependent on the shape of the shell. Hermit crabs walked along a corridor that had alternating left and right corners; if it was narrow at the corner, crabs rotated their bodies to avoid the wall, indicating an awareness of environmental obstacles. This rotation increased when a plastic plate was attached to the shell. We suggest that the shell, when extended by the plate, becomes assimilated to the hermit crab's own body. While there are cases of a tool being assimilated with the body, our result is the first example of the habitat where an animal lives and/or carries being part of a virtual body. PMID:22378741

  18. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  19. Microbiological Quality Assessment by PCR and Its Antibiotic Susceptibility in Mangrove Crabs (Ucides cordatus) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M C N; Jayme, M M; Arenazio, G S; Araújo, F V; Leite, S G F; Del Aguila, E M

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of crabs from three different mangroves (Itaóca, Suruí, and Piedade) from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was investigated using conventional and molecular methods. The results revealed high counts for total coliforms in meat and hepatopancreas samples. PCR analyses identified 25 Escherichia coli colonies in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples, detecting 13 enterotoxigenic colonies and 9 enteroaggregative colonies. Respectively, 12, 11, and 21 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were detected in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples. Two V. cholerae strains were detected in the Piedade samples. The E. coli strains isolated in the present study showed resistance to gentamicin. E. coli strains from the Piedade samples showed 33% resistance to chloramphenicol and the strains also showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.31. Vibrio strains from Piedade, Itaóca, and Suruí showed 86%, 78%, and 85% resistance, respectively, to ampicillin. The isolated Vibrio strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents, with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.25. The presence of these organisms in crab meat is an indication of microbial contamination, which may pose health risks to consumers when improperly cooked. PMID:27065187

  20. Microbiological Quality Assessment by PCR and Its Antibiotic Susceptibility in Mangrove Crabs (Ucides cordatus) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, M. C. N.; Jayme, M. M.; Arenazio, G. S.; Araújo, F. V.; Leite, S. G. F.; Del Aguila, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of crabs from three different mangroves (Itaóca, Suruí, and Piedade) from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was investigated using conventional and molecular methods. The results revealed high counts for total coliforms in meat and hepatopancreas samples. PCR analyses identified 25 Escherichia coli colonies in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples, detecting 13 enterotoxigenic colonies and 9 enteroaggregative colonies. Respectively, 12, 11, and 21 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were detected in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples. Two V. cholerae strains were detected in the Piedade samples. The E. coli strains isolated in the present study showed resistance to gentamicin. E. coli strains from the Piedade samples showed 33% resistance to chloramphenicol and the strains also showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.31. Vibrio strains from Piedade, Itaóca, and Suruí showed 86%, 78%, and 85% resistance, respectively, to ampicillin. The isolated Vibrio strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents, with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.25. The presence of these organisms in crab meat is an indication of microbial contamination, which may pose health risks to consumers when improperly cooked. PMID:27065187

  1. REPETITIVE DIGITAL NOAA-AVHRR DATA FOR ALASKAN ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, William M.; Pawlowski, Robert J.; Fleming, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Selected digitally enhanced NOAA - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images taken by the NOAA 6, 7, 8 and 9 Polar Orbiting Satellites demonstrate the capability and application of repetitive low-resolution satellite data to Alaska's engineering and science community. Selected cloud-free visible and thermal infrared images are enhanced to depict distinct oceanographic and geologic processes along Alaska's west coast and adjacent seas. Included are the advance of the Bering Sea ice field, transport of Yukon River sediment into Norton Sound, and monitoring of plume trajectories from the Mount Augustine volcanic eruptions. Presented illustrations are representative of the 94 scenes in a cooperative USGS EROS/NOAA Alaskan AVHRR Digital Archive. This paper will discuss the cooperative efforts in establishing the first year data set and identifying Alaskan applications.

  2. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of budding bacteria in the origin of Alaskan placer gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lacelike networks of micrometre-size filiform gold associated wtih Alaskan placer gold particles are interpreted as low-temperature pseudomorphs of a Pedomicrobium-like budding bacterium. Submicron reproductive structures (hyphae) and other morphological features similar to those of Pedomicrobium manganicum occur as detailed three-dimensional facsimiles in high purity gold in and on placer gold particles from Lillian Creek, Alaska. In a scanning electron microscope survey, the majority of gold particles at nine Alaskan placer deposits appear to include gold that has accumulated chemically at low temperatures in and on the cells of P. manganicum. Similar bacterioform gold from a Paleozoic deposit in China and from the Precambrian Witwatersrand deposit in South Africa may indicate that bacterioform gold is widespread. -Author

  3. Crab-mediated phenotypic changes in Spartina densiflora Brong.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolus, Alejandro; Laterra, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Although plant phenotypic plasticity has been historically studied as an important adaptive strategy to overcome herbivory and environmental heterogeneity, there are several aspects of its ecological importance that remain controversial. The burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata eats Spartina densiflora, and also causes several geomorphologic changes that indirectly affect Spartina growth. Here we evaluate if this crab affects the sexual reproductive effort of S. densiflora by mediating changes in plant phenotypic plasticity (i.e., shape of leaves and spikes) while affecting aboveground production, and if these effects interact with disturbance intensity. We conducted local and regional surveys and two-year field experiments manipulating the density of crabs in a mature Spartina marsh where we clipped at ground level different 1×1 m marsh areas to create and compare crab's effect on young (plants growing after the clipping) and mature (unclipped) Spartina stands. Our results suggest that crabs mediate the phenotypic plasticity of sexual reproductive structures of Spartina. Crabs induced an increase in seed production (up to 721%) and seed viability, potentially favoring Spartina dispersal and colonization of distant sites. This effect appears to be maximal when combined with the experimental clipping disturbance. Crabs also exerted a strong effect on clipped plants by increasing the number of standing dead stems and decreasing the photosynthetic area and leaf production. These effects disappear in about two years if no other disturbance occurs. An a posteriori regional field survey agreed with our experimental results corroborating the prediction that plants in old undisturbed marshes have lower sexual reproductive effort than plants in highly disturbed marshes populated by burrowing-herbivore crabs. All these phenotypic changes have important taxonomic and macro-ecological implications that should not be ignored in discussions of applied ecology and

  4. A novel bacterial infection of the edible crab, Cancer pagurus.

    PubMed

    Thrupp, Tara J; Whitten, Miranda M A; Rowley, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    There are few reports of bacterial diseases in crabs. A juvenile edible crab (Cancer pagurus) with a rickettsial-like infection was found in the intertidal zone at Freshwater East in South West Wales in July, 2012. Large numbers of bacteria-like particles were found in the haemolymph and within fixed phagocytes of the hepatopancreas. Molecular sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that the infectious agent was a member of the order Rhizobiales and therefore distinct to bacteria classified as rickettsia.

  5. Design of Superconducting Parallel Bar Deflecting and Crabbing rf Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen, Haipeng Wang

    2009-05-01

    A new concept for a deflecting and crabbing rf structure based on half-wave resonant lines was introduced recently*. It offers significant advantages to existing designs and, because of it compactness, allows low frequency operation. This concept has been further refined and optimized for superconducting implementation. Results of this optimization and application to a 400 MHz crabbing cavity and a 499 MHz deflecting cavity are presented.

  6. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 680 - Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Crab QS Fishery Crab QS Fishery Initial QS Pool Initial PQS Pool BBR Bristol Bay red king crab 400,000... Islands golden king crab 10,000,000 10,000,000 EBT Eastern Bering Sea Tanner crab (C. bairdi) 200,000,000 200,000,000 PIK Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab 30,000,000 30,000,000 SMB St. Matthew...

  7. Final Report for "Compact Crab Cavity Design"

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, David N

    2012-11-08

    The goal of this project is to provide an innovative, new crab cavity design relevant to the MEIC. Through this work, we will provide comprehensive modeling of this new cavity design, including electromagnetic, thermal, and microphonic effects. One most likely candidate configuration is the design put forward by JLab and Lancaster University, UK, researchers known as the four-rod configuration. In the Phase I, Tech-X Corporation researchers performed analysis and design optimization and iteration, utilizing their state-of-the art time-domain particle-in-cell software, on a 400 MHz design for the LHC by JLab and Lancaster University, UK, researchers known as the four-rod design.

  8. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

    PubMed

    Hanni, Krista D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Estes, James; Staedler, Michelle; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa; Jessup, David A

    2003-10-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  9. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the nai??vete?? of both populations to other pathogens (e

  10. Characteristics and petrogenesis of Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Loney, R.A. ); Himmelberg, G.R. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO )

    1993-04-01

    Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions occur along a belt that extends from Duke Island to Klukwan in southeastern Alaska and fall into two age groups, 400 to 440 Ma and 100 to 110 Ma. Most of the smaller bodies are magnetite-bearing hornblende clinopyroxenite; the larger ones consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite, with some gabbro, in addition to hornblende clinopyroxenite and hornblendite. Textural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Alaskan-type ultramafic bodies indicate that they originated by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma and accumulation in a crustal magma chamber. The Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] content of clinopyroxene shows a marked enrichment with differentiation, suggesting crystallization from progressively more hydrous melts like those characteristics of arc magmas. REE abundance levels and patterns are markedly similar for given rock units in all the bodies studied suggesting that all the bodies were derived by differentiation of closely similar parent magmas under near identical conditions. The exact composition of the primary melt is uncertain but the authors' preferred interpretation is that the parental magma of most Alaskan-type bodies was a subalkaline hydrous basalt. The striking similarity between the REE abundance levels and patterns of the Alaskan-type clinopyroxenites and gabbros, and the clinopyroxenite xenoliths and plutonic gabbros associated with Aleutian Island Arc volcanism, further suggests that the primary magma was probably a hydrous olivine basalt similar to the primary magma proposed for the Aleutian arc lavas. The mineral chemistry and phase equilibria of the ultramafic bodies suggest that they crystallized in magma chambers at depths greater than about 9 km. Except for the Duke Island body, which has sedimentary structures and shows evidence of ubiquitous current activity, most of the other bodies appear to have accumulated under static conditions.

  11. Projected Duration of the Sea-Ice-Free Season in the Future Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Overland, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The change in the Arctic climate is fast and broad. Among many changes that have been observed, the reduction of sea ice coverage has been one of the most significant factors. Continued reduction in sea ice cover will probably result in longer open water duration, which is important for the shipping industry, marine mammals as well as other component of the local ecosystem. In this study we are to assess future sea ice conditions, particularly the length of open water duration in the Alaskan Arctic over the next few decades using the latest coupled climate models (CMIP5). The Alaskan Arctic, including the Chukchi and the Beaufort Sea, has been a major region of summer sea ice retreat since 2007. Based on the mean of 12 climate models, for the region north of the Bering Strait (70° N), future open-water duration may extend from a current 3-4 months to around five months by 2050. It is about one month shorter along the same latitude over the Beaufort Sea. The difference in the length of ice-free season between the north and the south will remain, but will be smaller in the 21st century compared with current condition. Open-water duration in the Alaskan Arctic expands quickly in these models over the next decades, in contrast to model under-predictions of sea ice loss for the summer minimum over the Arctic wide domain. Uncertainty is generally ±one month estimated from the range of model results. Continued increases in open-water duration over the next two decades will impact regional economic access and potentially alter ecosystems, yet we need to keep in mind that from December through May most of the northern Alaskan Arctic will remain sea ice covered into the second half of the century.

  12. Juvenile laryngeal paralysis in three Siberian husky x Alaskan malamute puppies.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Koutinas, A F; Papadopoulos, G C; Saridomichelakis, M N

    2003-11-15

    Three three-month-old Siberian husky x Alaskan malamute crossbreds had suffered episodic inspiratory dyspnoea and stridor for four to eight weeks and their endurance had decreased. In two of them bilateral, and in the other unilateral, laryngeal paralysis was diagnosed by laryngoscopy. In the nucleus ambiguus of the dogs there was a depletion of motor neurons, neuronal degeneration and mild gliosis, but there were no lesions in the root and peripheral segments of the recurrent laryngeal nerves.

  13. Phylogenetics of Cancer crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Harrison, M K; Crespi, B J

    1999-07-01

    We used morphological, mitochondrial DNA sequence, paleontological, and biogeographical information to examine the evolutionary history of crabs of the genus Cancer. Phylogenies inferred from adult morphology and DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were each well resolved and well supported, but differed substantially in topology. Four lines of evidence suggested that the COI data set accurately reflected Cancer phylogeny: (1) in the phylogeny inferred from morphological data, each Atlantic species was sister taxon to an ecologically similar Pacific species, suggesting convergence in morphology; (2) a single trans-Arctic dispersal event, as indicated by the phylogeny inferred from COI, is more parsimonious than two such dispersal events, as inferred from morphology; (3) test and application of a maximum likelihood molecular clock to the COI data yielded estimates of origin and speciation times that fit well with the fossil record; and (4) the tree inferred from the combined COI and morphology data was closely similar to the trees inferred from COI, although notably less well supported by the bootstrap. The phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood analysis of COI suggested that Cancer originated in the North Pacific in the early Miocene, that the Atlantic species arose from a North Pacific ancestor, and that Cancer crabs invaded the Atlantic from the North Pacific 6-12 mya. This inferred invasion time is notably prior to most estimates of the date of submergence of the Bering Strait and the trans-Arctic interchange, but it agrees with fossil evidence placing at least one Cancer species in the Atlantic about 8 mya. PMID:10381321

  14. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies.

  15. Viability of the Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Kylee; Grand, James B.

    2016-10-11

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is tasked with setting objective and measurable criteria for delisting species or populations listed under the Endangered Species Act. Determining the acceptable threshold for extinction risk for any species or population is a challenging task, particularly when facing marked uncertainty. The Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1997 because of a perceived decline in abundance throughout their nesting range and geographic isolation from the Russian breeding population. Previous genetic studies and modeling efforts, however, suggest that there may be dispersal from the Russian breeding population. Additionally, evidence exists of population level nonbreeding events. Research was conducted to estimate population viability of the Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders, using both an open and closed model of population process for this threatened population. Projections under a closed population model suggest this population has a 100 percent probability of extinction within 42 years. Projections under an open population model suggest that with immigration there is no probability of permanent extinction. Because of random immigration process and nonbreeding behavior, however, it is likely that this population will continue to be present in low and highly variable numbers on the breeding grounds in Alaska. Monitoring the winter population, which includes both Russian and Alaskan breeding birds, may offer a more comprehensive indication of population viability.

  16. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  17. Long-term climate patterns in Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation and their biological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Fleming, Michael D.; Berg, Jared S.; Ashton, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Mean monthly climate maps of Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation produced by the parameter-elevation regression on independent slopes model (PRISM) were analyzed. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones with consistent but different climatic variability separated by a transition region; it has maximum interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)- and El Nin??o southern oscillation (ENSO)-type events influence Alaska surface temperatures weakly (1-2 ??C) statewide. PDO has a stronger influence than ENSO on precipitation but its influence is largely localized to coastal central Alaska. The strongest influence of Arctic oscillation (AO) occurs in northern and interior Alaskan precipitation. Four major ecosystems are defined. A major eco-transition zone occurs between the interior boreal forest and the coastal rainforest. Variability in insolation, surface temperature, precipitation, continentality, and seasonal changes in storm track direction explain the mapped ecosystems. Lack of westward expansion of the interior boreal forest into the western shrub tundra is influenced by the coastal marine boundary layer (enhanced cloud cover, reduced insolation, cooler surface and soil temperatures). In this context, the marine boundary layer acts in an analogous fashion to the orographic features which form the natural boundaries of other Alaskan ecosystems. Variability in precipitation may play a secondary role.

  18. Campylobacter and Salmonella contaminating fresh chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Geilhausen, B; Schütt-Gerowitt, H; Aleksic, S; Koenen, R; Mauff, G; Pulverer, G

    1996-07-01

    1853 packages of fresh chicken breast meat of German, Dutch and French origin were investigated for their contamination with Campylobacter and/or Salmonella. Swabs were taken and cultured from dripwater, meat surface, meat interior and packet bowl. Campylobacter was isolated from 619 meat samples (= 33%), Salmonella from 377 meat packages (= 20%). In 111 of these contaminated chicken samples, both Salmonella and Campylobacter were present. The contamination rate and the species spectrum observed differed depending on the origin of the packages and the time of control.

  19. Starfish and horseshoe crab egg factors cause elevations of cyclic nucleotide concentrations in spermatozoa from starfish and horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Tubb, D J; Kopf, G S; Garbers, D L

    1979-07-01

    Factors collected from the eggs of the starfish (Pisaster giganteus) and the horsehoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) caused significant increases in the sperm cyclic nucleotide concentrations of the respective species. Sea urchin egg factors, at concentrations that resulted in maximal cyclic nucleotide elevations in sea urchin spermatozoa, had no effect on those of starfish or horseshoe crab, suggesting a species specificity with respect to egg factor-induced changes in sperm cyclic nucleotide metabolism.

  20. Recruitment variation of eastern Bering Sea crabs: Climate-forcing or top-down effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Kruse, Gordon H.

    2006-02-01

    During the last three decades, population abundances of eastern Bering Sea (EBS) crab stocks fluctuated greatly, driven by highly variable recruitment. In recent years, abundances of these stocks have been very low compared to historical levels. This study aims to understand recruitment variation of six stocks of red king ( Paralithodes camtschaticus), blue king ( P. platypus), Tanner ( Chionoecetes bairdi), and snow ( C. opilio) crabs in the EBS. Most crab recruitment time series are not significantly correlated with each other. Spatial distributions of three broadly distributed crab stocks (EBS snow and Tanner crabs and Bristol Bay red king crab) have changed considerably over time, possibly related in part to the regime shift in climate and physical oceanography in 1976-1977. Three climate-forcing hypotheses on larval survival have been proposed to explain crab recruitment variation of Bristol Bay red king crab and EBS Tanner and snow crabs. Some empirical evidence supports speculation that groundfish predation may play an important role in crab recruitment success in the EBS. However, spatial dynamics in the geographic distributions of groundfish and crabs over time make it difficult to relate crab recruitment strength to groundfish biomass. Comprehensive field and spatially explicit modeling studies are needed to test the hypotheses and better understand the relative importance and compound effects of bottom-up and top-down controls on crab recruitment.