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Sample records for alaskan moose alces

  1. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise. PMID:23060515

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway. PMID:26428857

  3. Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hundertmark, Kris J.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Shields, Gerald F.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide variation was assessed from the mitochondrial control region of North American moose (Alces alces) to test predictions of a model of range expansion by stepping-stone dispersal and to determine whether patterns of genetic variation support the current recognition of 4 subspecies. Haplotypes formed a star phylogeny indicative of a recent expansion of populations. Values of nucleotide and haplotype diversity were low continentwide but were greatest in the central part of the continent and lowest in peripheral populations. Despite low mitochondrial diversity, moose exhibited a high degree of differentiation regionally, which was not explained by isolation by distance. Our data indicate a pattern of colonization consistent with a large central population that supplied founders to peripheral populations (other than Alaska), perhaps through rare, long-distance dispersal events (leptokurtic dispersal) rather than mass dispersal by a stepping-stone model. The colonization scenario does not account for the low haplotype diversity observed in Alaska, which may be derived from a postcolonization bottleneck. Establishment of peripheral populations by leptokurtic dispersal and subsequent local adaptation may have been sufficient for development of morphological differentiation among extant subspecies.

  4. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-08-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans. PMID:26246636

  5. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K.; Childress, April L.; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2015-01-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans. PMID:26246636

  6. A geographical cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in Moose (Alces alces)in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008 – February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA (n=3) and typical histopathological lesions (n=1). To...

  7. Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces) in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces) is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii) evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years) and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a

  8. Effects of simulated moose Alces alces browsing on the morphology of rowan Sorbus aucuparia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, N.R.D.; Pastor, J.

    2010-01-01

    In much of northern Sweden moose Alces alces browse rowan Sorbus aucuparia heavily and commonly revisit previously browsed plants. Repeated browsing of rowan by moose has created some concern for its long-term survival in heavily browsed areas. We therefore measured how four years of simulated moose browsing at four population densities (0, 10, 30 and 50 moose/1,000 ha) changed plant height, crown width, available bite mass, the number of bites per plant and per plant forage biomass of rowan saplings. Increased biomass removal led to a significant decline in plant height (P < 0.001), but a significant increase in the number of bites per plant (P = 0.012). Increases in the number of bites per plant more than compensated for weak decreases in bite mass, leading to a weak increase in per plant forage biomass (P = 0.072). With the decline in plant height and increase in the number of stems per plant, a greater number of bites remain within the height reach of moose relative to unbrowsed controls. Moose therefore stand to benefit from revisiting previously browsed plants, which may result in feeding loops between moose and previously browsed rowan saplings. ?? 2010 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  9. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTIONS IN MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) IN FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-04-28

    Moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Finland are heavily infested with deer keds, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboschidae). The deer ked, which carries species of the genus Bartonella, has been proposed as a vector for the transmission of bartonellae to animals and humans. Previously, bartonella DNA was found in deer keds as well as in moose blood collected in Finland. We investigated the prevalence and molecular diversity of Bartonella spp. infection from blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. Given that the deer ked is not present in northernmost Finland, we also investigated whether there were geographic differences in the prevalence of bartonella infection in moose. The overall prevalence of bartonella infection was 72.9% (108/148). Geographically, the prevalence was highest in the south (90.6%) and lowest in the north (55.9%). At least two species of bartonellae were identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between bartonella infection and either age or sex; however, moose from outside the deer ked zone were significantly less likely to be infected (P<0.015) than were moose hunted within the deer ked zone. PMID:26967131

  10. A geographic cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Turid; Klevar, Siv; Li, Hong; Hauge, Anna Germundsson

    2015-04-01

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008-February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) DNA (n = 3) and typical histopathologic lesions (n = 1). To study the possibility of subclinical or latent MCF virus (MCFV) infection in this moose population and in red deer (Cervus elaphus), we examined clinically normal animals sampled during hunting in Lesja 2010 by serology and PCR. Sera from 63 moose and 33 red deer were tested for antibodies against MCFV by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To test for MCFVs, a consensus PCR for herpesviral DNA was run on spleen samples from 23 moose and 17 red deer. All samples were antibody and PCR negative. Thus, there is no evidence of previous exposure, subclinical infection, or latent infection in this sample. This seasonal cluster of SA-MCF cases (2008-10) may be attributable to exposure of moose to lambs when OvHV-2 shedding is presumed to be maximal, compounded by an unusual extended grazing period by sheep in the autumn. PMID:25574807

  11. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L).

    PubMed

    Felton, Annika M; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Krizsan, Sophie J; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose's self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  12. The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway.

    PubMed

    Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas

    2016-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose. PMID:27188749

  13. Bartonella Infections in Deer Keds (Lipoptena cervi) and Moose (Alces alces) in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D.; Colquhoun, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals. PMID:23104416

  14. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L)

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Annika M.; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Krizsan, Sophie J.; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose’s self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  15. Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces): Late Pleistocene divergence and population expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hundertmark, Kris J.; Shields, Gerald F.; Udina, Irina G.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Danilkin, Alexei A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    We examined phylogeographic relationships of moose (Alces alces) worldwide to test the proposed existence of two geographic races and to infer the timing and extent of demographic processes underpinning the expansion of this species across the Northern Hemisphere in the late Pleistocene. Sequence variation within the left hypervariable domain of the control region occurred at low or moderate levels worldwide and was structured geographically. Partitioning of genetic variance among regions indicated that isolation by distance was the primary agent for differentiation of moose populations but does not support the existence of distinct eastern and western races. Levels of genetic variation and structure of phylogenetic trees identify Asia as the origin of all extant mitochondrial lineages. A recent coalescence is indicated, with the most recent common ancestor dating to the last ice age. Moose have undergone two episodes of population expansion, likely corresponding to the final interstade of the most recent ice age and the onset of the current interglacial. Timing of expansion for the population in the Yakutia–Manchuria region of eastern Asia indicates that it is one of the oldest populations of moose and may represent the source of founders of extant populations in North America, which were colonized within the last 15,000 years. Our data suggest an extended period of low population size or a severe bottleneck prior to the divergence and expansion of extant lineages and a recent, less-severe bottleneck among European lineages. Climate change during the last ice age, acting through contraction and expansion of moose habitat and the flooding of the Bering land bridge, undoubtedly was a key factor influencing the divergence and expansion of moose populations.

  16. A genetic discontinuity in moose (Alces alces) in Alaska corresponds with fenced transportation infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Farley, Sean D.; McDonough, Thomas J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Barboza, Perry S.

    2015-01-01

    The strength and arrangement of movement barriers can impact the connectivity among habitat patches. Anthropogenic barriers (e.g. roads) are a source of habitat fragmentation that can disrupt these resource networks and can have an influence on the spatial genetic structure of populations. Using microsatellite data, we evaluated whether observed genetic structure of moose (Alces alces) populations were associated with human activities (e.g. roads) in the urban habitat of Anchorage and rural habitat on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. We found evidence of a recent genetic subdivision among moose in Anchorage that corresponds to a major highway and associated infrastructure. This subdivision is most likely due to restrictions in gene flow due to alterations to the highway (e.g. moose-resistant fencing with one-way gates) and a significant increase in traffic volume over the past 30 years; genetic subdivision was not detected on the Kenai Peninsula in an area not bisected by a major highway. This study illustrates that anthropogenic barriers can substructure wildlife populations within a few generations and highlights the value of genetic assessments to determine the effects on connectivity among habitat patches in conjunction with behavioral and ecological data..

  17. Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces): the first report in Europe.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bozena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Reiterová, Katarína; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-02-01

    Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. It is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in moose (Alces alces Linnaeus). Blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern Poland were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by agglutination test (NAT), a commercial competitive screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by western blot (WB) analysis to verify the presence of antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in one of seven moose. The antibody titer was confirmed by NAT (1 : 1 280), cELISA (I = 91%) and ELISA (OD = 0.736). The main immunodominant antigens detected by WB were 120, 70, 55, 35 and 16 kDa proteins. This is the first evidence of N. caninum seropositivity in moose living in a natural environment in Europe. PMID:24684051

  18. Insight into the bacterial gut microbiome of the North American moose (Alces alces)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The work presented here provides the first intensive insight into the bacterial populations in the digestive tract of the North American moose (Alces alces). Eight free-range moose on natural pasture were sampled, producing eight rumen samples and six colon samples. Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose. Results A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis, which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families. Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples. The Firmicutes were the most dominant bacteria phylum in both the rumen and the colon. Microarray data available at ArrayExpress, accession number E-MEXP-3721. Conclusions Using PhyloTrac and UniFrac computer software, samples clustered into two distinct groups: rumen and colon, confirming that the rumen and colon are distinct environments. There was an apparent correlation of age to cluster, which will be validated by a larger sample size in future studies, but there were no detectable trends based upon gender. PMID:22992344

  19. Age structure of moose (Alces alces) killed by gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1967-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nelson, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The age structure of Moose (Alces alces) killed by gray Wolves (Canis lupus) is available from only two national parks in the united States where hunting by people is not allowed and from three areas in Alaska where Moose are hunted (Mech 1966; Peterson et al.1984; Ballard et al. 1987; Mech et al. 1998). The samples of Moose killed by gray Wolves from each hunted area are relatively small (47–117), given that Moose live to 20 or more years (Passmore et al. 1955). This article adds age data from another 77 Moose killed by gray Wolves from a fourth (lightly) human-hunted area and assesses the age structure of all the samples.

  20. Harvest-induced phenotypic selection in an island population of moose, Alces alces.

    PubMed

    Kvalnes, Thomas; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Haanes, Hallvard; Røed, Knut H; Engen, Steinar; Solberg, Erling J

    2016-07-01

    Empirical evidence strongly indicates that human exploitation has frequently led to rapid evolutionary changes in wild populations, yet the mechanisms involved are often poorly understood. Here, we applied a recently developed demographic framework for analyzing selection to data from a 20-year study of a wild population of moose, Alces alces. In this population, a genetic pedigree has been established all the way back to founders. We demonstrate harvest-induced directional selection for delayed birth dates in males and reduced body mass as calf in females. During the study period, birth date was delayed by 0.81 days per year for both sexes, whereas no significant changes occurred in calf body mass. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated that both traits harbored significant additive genetic variance. These results show that selective harvesting can induce strong selection that oppose natural selection. This may cause evolution of less favorable phenotypes that become maladaptive once harvesting ceases. PMID:27174031

  1. Effect of Dermacentor albipictus (Acari:Ixodidae) on blood composition, weight gain and hair coat of moose, Alces alces.

    PubMed

    Glines, M V; Samuel, W M

    1989-04-01

    The physiological effects of the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, on moose, Alces alces, were investigated. Blood composition, weight gain, food intake and change in the hair coat of moose calves, four infested with D. albipictus larvae, and eight uninfested, were monitored. Infested moose groomed extensively, apparently in response to feeding nymphal and adult ticks, and developed alopecia. Other clinical signs included: chronic weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and transient decreases in serum aspartate transaminase and calcium during the period of nymphal and adult female tick engorgement. Infested animals did not become anorexic. Two moose with severe hair loss had increases in gamma globulin shortly after the onset of female tick engorgement. Results suggest that alopecia is associated with tick resistance. Animals that groom and develop hair loss likely carry fewer ticks and therefore suffer less severely from blood loss. PMID:2714121

  2. Potential Vertical Transmission of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) from Moose (Alces americanus) Dams to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Severud, William J; DelGiudice, Glenn D

    2016-01-01

    North American moose (Alces americanus) frequently become infested with winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus). During capture of neonatal moose in northeastern Minnesota, US, in May-June 2013 and 2014, we recovered adult ticks from neonates, presumably vertically transferred from dams, heretofore, not documented. Infestations on neonates may have population-level implications. PMID:26555113

  3. Trace elements in moose (Alices alces) found dead in Northwestern Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Cox, E.; Gray, B.

    2004-01-01

    The moose (Alces alces) population in bog and forest areas of Northwestern Minnesota has declined for more than 25 years, and more recently the decline is throughout Northwestern Minnesota. Both deficiencies and elevations in trace elements have been linked to the health of moose worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether trace element toxicity or deficiency may have contributed to the decline of moose in Northwestern Minnesota. Livers of 81 moose found dead in Northwestern Minnesota in 1998 and 1999 were analyzed for trace elements. With the exception of selenium (Se) and copper (Cu), trace elements were not at toxic or deficient levels based on criteria set for cattle. Selenium concentrations in moose livers based on criteria set for cattle were deficient in 3.7% of livers and at a chronic toxicity level in 16% of livers. Copper concentrations based on criteria set for cattle were deficient in 39.5% of livers, marginally deficient in 29.5% of livers and adequate in 31% of livers. Moose from agricultural areas had higher concentrations, on average, of Cd, Cu, Mo and Se in their livers than moose from bog and forest areas. Older moose had higher concentrations of Cd and Zn, and lower concentrations of Cu than younger moose. Copper deficiency, which has been associated with population declines of moose in Alaska and Sweden, may be a factor contributing to the decline of moose in Northwestern Minnesota. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive characteristics in female Swedish moose (Alces alces), with emphasis on puberty, timing of oestrus, and mating

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The moose (Alces alces) is an intensively managed keystone species in Fennoscandia. Several aspects of reproduction in moose have not been fully elucidated, including puberty, timing of mating and oestrus, and the length of the oestrus period. These aspects are relevant for an adaptive management of moose with respect to harvest, population size, demography and environmental conditions. Therefore, an investigation of female moose reproduction was conducted during the moose-hunting period in southern Sweden from 2008 to 2011. Results A total of 250 reproductive organs and information on carcass weight and age was collected from four different hunting areas (provinces of Öland, Småland, Södermanland, and Västergötland) in southern Sweden. The results showed that puberty in female moose varied with carcass weight, age, and time of season. The period for oestrous/mating lasted from about mid September to the beginning of November. Conclusions The oestrus period (predominantly for heifers) is longer than previously reported and was not finished when the hunting period started. Sampling the uterine cervix to detect spermatozoa was a useful method to determine if mating had occurred. To avoid hunting of moose during oestrus, we suggest that the hunting period should be postponed by at least 14 days in southern Sweden. PMID:24735953

  5. Population genetic structure of moose (Alces Alces) of South-central Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; McDonough, John T.; Barboza, Perry S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Farley, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    The location of a population can influence its genetic structure and diversity by impacting the degree of isolation and connectivity to other populations. Populations at range margins areoften thought to have less genetic variation and increased genetic structure, and a reduction in genetic diversity can have negative impacts on the health of a population. We explored the genetic diversity and connectivity between 3 peripheral populations of moose (Alces alces) with differing potential for connectivity to other areas within interior Alaska. Populations on the Kenai Peninsula and from the Anchorage region were found to be significantly differentiated (FST= 0.071, P < 0.0001) with lower levels of genetic diversity observed within the Kenai population. Bayesian analyses employing assignment methodologies uncovered little evidence of contemporary gene flow between Anchorage and Kenai, suggesting regional isolation. Although gene flow outside the peninsula is restricted, high levels of gene flow were detected within the Kenai that is explained by male-biased dispersal. Furthermore, gene flow estimates differed across time scales on the Kenai Peninsula which may have been influenced by demographic fluctuations correlated, at least in part, with habitat change.

  6. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  7. Improvement of arterial oxygenation in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-acepromazine-xylazine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of intranasal oxygen and/or early reversal of xylazine with atipamezole on arterial oxygenation in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-acepromazine-xylazine with a cross-sectional clinical study on 33 adult moose was evaluated. Moose were darted from a helicopter with 3.37 mg etorphine, 15 mg acepromazine and 75 mg xylazine. Intranasal oxygen at a flow rate of 4 L/min and/or early reversal of xylazine with 7.5 mg atipamezole to improve oxygenation was evaluated, using four treatment regimens; intranasal oxygen (n = 10), atipamezole intramuscularly (n = 6), atipamezole intravenously (n = 10), or a combination of atipamezole intravenously and intranasal oxygen (n = 7). Arterial blood was collected 7–30 minutes (min) after darting, and again 15 min after institution of treatment and immediately analyzed using an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results Before treatment the mean ± SD (range) partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) was 62 ± 17 (26–99) mmHg. Twenty-six animals had a PaO2 < 80 mmHg. Ten had a PaO2 of 40–60 mmHg and three animals had a PaO2 < 40 mmHg. Intranasal oxygen and intravenous administration of atipamezole significantly increased the mean PaO2, as did the combination of the two. In contrast, atipamezole administered intramuscularly at the evaluated dose had no significant effect on arterial oxygenation. Conclusions This study shows that intranasal oxygen effectively improved arterial oxygenation in immobilized moose, and that early intravenous reversal of the sedative component, in this case xylazine, in an opioid-based immobilization drug-protocol significantly improves arterial oxygenation. PMID:25124367

  8. Assessing and modeling moose (Alces alces) habitats with airborne laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, M.; Packalén, P.; Matala, J.; Mehtätalo, L.; Pusenius, J.

    2013-08-01

    In the analysis of forest resources, the use of ALS (airborne laser scanning) enables detailed three dimensional (3D) descriptions of forests and their vegetation. Simultaneously, ecologists have recognized that 3D information on vegetation is highly important in analyzing the habitat suitability of a given site. Recently, animals’ habitat preferences have been analyzed, for example, with GPS-collared animals. This has resulted in detailed knowledge about the animals’ movements both spatially and temporally. This study combines 3D information on vegetation obtained from ALS data with information about animal locations from GPS data. The aim was to map and analyze the habitat preferences of moose. The study area was located on the west coast of Finland. The data consisted of 18 GPS-collared moose (monitored from 2009 to 2010) and ALS data collected in 2010. We investigated how habitat structure changes as a function of distance to observed moose locations and how observed moose locations differ from randomly selected locations in terms of 3D structure. We also created a model-based habitat suitability map and tested it against moose occurrences. The results suggested that there are clear differences between the areas occupied and not occupied by moose and that these differences can be detected from ALS data. More importantly, ALS proved its potential in linking 3D descriptions of vegetation directly to observed moose locations without any proxy variables. These observations strongly support future studies.

  9. Morphological and molecular characteristics of four Sarcocystis spp. in Canadian moose (Alces alces), including Sarcocystis taeniata n. sp.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2014-04-01

    Individual sarcocysts were isolated from fresh or alcohol-fixed muscle samples of two moose from Alberta, Canada, and examined by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular methods, comprising polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the complete18S rRNA gene and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). By LM, four sarcocyst types were recognized, and the sequencing results showed that each type represented a distinct species, i.e. Sarcocystis alces, Sarcocystis alceslatrans, Sarcocystis ovalis and Sarcocystis taeniata n. sp. The finding of S. alceslatrans and S. ovalis has been reported briefly previously, but further details are provided here, including the ultrastructure of sarcoysts of S. alceslatrans as seen by SEM. The species S. alces was found for the first time in Canadian moose, whereas the finding of S. taeniata is the first record of this species in any host. The sarcocysts of S. taeniata were sac-like and about 1,000-1,100 × 60-80 μm in size. By LM, the cysts had a thin and smooth wall with no visible protrusions, whereas SEM revealed that the cyst surface had sparsely but regularly distributed, thin ribbon-like protrusions, about 2 μm long and 0.2 μm wide, lying flat against the surface and leaving most of the cyst surface naked. Similar protrusions have previously been reported from Sarcocystis grueneri in reindeer, which was found by sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses to be the species most closely related to S. taeniata. The phylogenetic analyses further suggested that S. taeniata, like S. alces and S. alceslatrans, use canids as definitive hosts, whereas corvid birds are known definitive hosts for S. ovalis. In contrast to the three other species found, S. taeniata displayed considerable intra-specific and intra-isolate sequence variation (substitutions, insertions/deletions) in certain regions of the 18S rRNA gene. PMID:24535735

  10. Moose (Alces alces) reacts to high summer temperatures by utilizing thermal shelters in boreal forests - an analysis based on airborne laser scanning of the canopy structure at moose locations.

    PubMed

    Melin, Markus; Matala, Juho; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tiilikainen, Raisa; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Maltamo, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Packalen, Petteri

    2014-04-01

    The adaptation of different species to warming temperatures has been increasingly studied. Moose (Alces alces) is the largest of the ungulate species occupying the northern latitudes across the globe, and in Finland it is the most important game species. It is very well adapted to severe cold temperatures, but has a relatively low tolerance to warm temperatures. Previous studies have documented changes in habitat use by moose due to high temperatures. In many of these studies, the used areas have been classified according to how much thermal cover they were assumed to offer based on satellite/aerial imagery data. Here, we identified the vegetation structure in the areas used by moose under different thermal conditions. For this purpose, we used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data extracted from the locations of GPS-collared moose. This provided us with detailed information about the relationships between moose and the structure of forests it uses in different thermal conditions and we were therefore able to determine and differentiate between the canopy structures at locations occupied by moose during different thermal conditions. We also discovered a threshold beyond which moose behaviour began to change significantly: as day temperatures began to reach 20 °C and higher, the search for areas with higher and denser canopies during daytime became evident. The difference was clear when compared to habitat use at lower temperatures, and was so strong that it provides supporting evidence to previous studies, suggesting that moose are able to modify their behaviour to cope with high temperatures, but also that the species is likely to be affected by warming climate. PMID:24115403

  11. Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Moose (Alces alces gigas), Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Godfroid, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the rose bengal test (RBT) to test for anti-Brucella antibodies in moose (Alces alces gigas), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (Bison bison bison) from various game management units (GMUs) in Alaska, US, sampled from 1982 to 2010. A portion of the sera had previously been tested with the standard plate test (SPT), the buffered Brucella antigen (BBA) card test, and the card test (CARD). No antibody-positive plains bison were identified. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in moose (iELISA, n=4/87; RBT, n=4/87; SPT, n=4/5; BBA, n=4/4) from GMU 23 captured in 1992, 1993, and 1995 and in muskoxen (iELISA, n=4/52; RBT, n=4/52; CARD, n=4/35) from GMUs 26A and 26B captured in 2004, 2006, and 2007. A negative effect of infection on the health of individuals of these species is probable. The presence of antibody-positive animals from 1992 to 2007 suggests presence of brucellae over time. The antibody-positive animals were found in northern Alaska, an area with a historically higher prevalence of Brucella-positive caribou, and a spillover of Brucella suis biovar 4 from caribou may have occurred. Brucella suis biovar 4 causes human brucellosis, and transmission from consumption of moose and muskoxen is possible. PMID:26540335

  12. Mercury, lead and lead isotope ratios in the teeth of moose (Alces alces) from Isle Royale, U.S. Upper Midwest, from 1952 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Vucetich, John A; Outridge, P M; Peterson, Rolf O; Eide, Rune; Isrenn, Rolf

    2009-07-01

    Assessing the effect of recent reductions in atmospheric pollution on metal concentrations in wildlife in North America has been difficult because of the sparse availability of historical samples with which to establish a "pre-regulation" baseline, and because many ecosystems may be affected by local point sources which could obscure broader-scale trends. Here we report a recent 50 yr annual record of Hg, Pb and Pb isotope ratios in the teeth of a resident population of moose (Alces alces) in Isle Royale National Park, a relatively remote island in Lake Superior, Michigan, USA. During the early 1980s, concentrations of tooth Hg abruptly declined by approximately 65% compared to the previous 30 years (p<0.001), similar to a previous study of Hg in herring gull eggs in the Great Lakes region. Lead declined at the same time, and by 2002 Pb in adult moose teeth was approximately 80% lower than it had been prior to the early 1980s (p<0.001). These trends were unaffected by normalization against the geogenic elements La and Sr, which indicates that the trends in Hg and Pb had an anthropogenic cause. Temporal patterns of Pb isotope ratios suggested that the primary sources of Pb at different times in the moose were combustion of U.S. coal and leaded gasoline. Reductions in emissions from coal combustion might explain the co-incident reductions of Hg and Pb in Isle Royale moose, with elimination of alkyl Pb additives also playing a role in the continued tooth Pb reductions after 1983. PMID:20449224

  13. Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Suzanne L.; Kim, Christina J.; Reis, Doug; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen. PMID:26716685

  14. Population structure and genetic diversity of moose in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer I; Hundertmark, Kris J; Bowyer, R Terry; McCracken, Kevin G

    2009-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) are highly mobile mammals that occur across arboreal regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) range across much of Alaska and are primary herbivore consumers, exerting a prominent influence on ecosystem structure and functioning. Increased knowledge gained from population genetics provides insights into their population dynamics, history, and dispersal of these unique large herbivores and can aid in conservation efforts. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure of moose (n = 141) with 8 polymorphic microsatellites from 6 regions spanning much of Alaska. Expected heterozygosity was moderate (H(E) = 0.483-0.612), and private alleles ranged from 0 to 6. Both F(ST) and R(ST) indicated significant population structure (P < 0.001) with F(ST) < 0.109 and R(ST) < 0.125. Results of analyses from STRUCTURE indicated 2 prominent population groups, a mix of moose from the Yakutat and Tetlin regions versus all other moose, with slight substructure observed among the second population. Estimates of dispersal differed between analytical approaches, indicating a high level of historical or current gene flow. Mantel tests indicated that isolation-by-distance partially explained observed structure among moose populations (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.01). Finally, there was no evidence of bottlenecks either at the population level or overall. We conclude that weak population structure occurs among moose in Alaska with population expansion from interior Alaska westward toward the coast. PMID:18836148

  15. Chymotrypsins from the deer (Cervidae) family. Isolation, partial characterization and primary-structure studies of chymotrypsins A and B from both moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus elaphus) pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, R M; Stevenson, K J

    1976-01-01

    1. An anionic and a cationic chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) were isolated from the pancreas glands of the moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus elaphus). The A and B chymotrypsins from each species were purified to homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, affinity chromatography on 4-phenylbutylamine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE- and CM-cellulose. 2. The molecular weight and pH optimum of each chymotrypsin were similar to those of the corresponding ox A and B chymotrypsins. 3. The substrate specificities of the chymotrypsins were investigated by digestion of glucagon and the oxidized B chain of insulin. The primary specificity of each chymotrypsin for aromatic amino acid residues was further established by determining the Km and kcat for the hydrolysis of a number of synthetic amino acid ester substrates. 4. The amino acid composition and total number of residues of moose and elk chymotrypsin A were similar to those of ox chymotrypsin A. An even greater similarity was observed among the B chymotrypsins of the three species. 5. The A chymotrypsins of moose and elk were fragmented to their constituent 'A', 'B' and 'C' polypeptide chains by succinylation (3-carboxypropionylation), reduction and alkylation of the native enzymes. In each case, the two major chains ('B' and 'C') were separated and isolated. By comparison of the amino acid compositions of moose, elk and oxy 'B' and 'C' chains, a greater difference was observed among the three A chymotrypsins than was suggested by the amino acid compositions of the native enzymes alone. 6. Peptides were isolated from the disulphide bridge and active-site regions of the A and B chymotrypsins of moose and elk by diagonal peptide-'mapping' techniques. From the amino acid compositions of the isolated peptides (assuming maximum homology) and from a comparison of diagonal peptide 'maps', there was established a high degree of primary-structure identity among the mooae, elk and ox chymotrypsins. Tentative sequences

  16. Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Wik, Lotta; Mikko, Sofia; Klingeborn, Mikael; Stéen, Margareta; Simonsson, Magnus; Linné, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences. PMID:22441661

  17. Physical characteristics of rumen contents in four large ruminants of different feeding type, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), bison (Bison bison), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Fritz, Julia; Bayer, Dorothee; Nygren, Kaarlo; Hammer, Sven; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hummel, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Based on morphological and physiological observations, it has been suggested that differences exist in the degree that reticuloruminal (RR) contents are stratified between various ruminant species. However, the occurrence of stratification has hardly been measured in non-domestic species. Forestomach contents of free-ranging moose (n=22) and red deer (24) shot during regular hunting procedures, and of captive (but 100% forage fed) addax (6) and bison (10) culled for commercial or management purposes were investigated. There was no difference between the species in the degree by which RR ingesta separated according to size due to buoyancy characteristics in vitro. However, RR fluid of moose was more viscous than that of the other species, and no difference in moisture content was evident between the dorsal and the ventral rumen in moose, in contrast to the other species. Hence, the RR milieu in moose appears less favourable for gas or particle separation due to buoyancy characteristics. These findings are in accord with notable differences in RR papillation between the species. In moose, particle separation is most likely restricted to the reticulum, whereas in the other species, the whole rumen may pre-sort particles in varying degrees; a possible explanation for this pattern is a hypothetically lesser saliva production and fluid throughput in moose. The results suggest that differences in RR physiology may occur across ruminant species. The RR sorting mechanism should be considered a dynamic process that is better measured by its result--the significantly smaller particle size in the distal digestive tract when compared to the RR--than by regional differences in particle size within the RR. PMID:19049897

  18. Moose milk and hair element levels and relationships.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, A W; Flynn, A; Arneson, P D

    1976-04-01

    Milk was collected from 21 Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) at the Kenai Moose Research Center (MRC), Soldotna, Alaska nad analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy for Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Hair samples were collected from 100 moose at the MRC to correspond with the lactation period and serve as a metabolic indicator of mineral elements stored in tissue. Published analyses of bovine milk were compared to moose milk; Al, Fe, Se and Zn were higher in moose milk by factors of 1.6 to 290. Elements potentially influenced by nutrition and those determined genetically were also considered. Elements in moose milk and hair values were compared, since mineral element levels in hair potentially reflect the availability and intake of these elements. Calcium and Mg were the only values in hair lower than the values in milk (factors of 4.2 and 1.5 respectively). Moose, as well as domestic cattle, apparently are subjected to lactation stress by the genetically determined levels of Ca and Mg in milk. PMID:933310

  19. The influence of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on the moose (Alces alces) population of Isle Royale.

    PubMed

    Vucetich, John A; Peterson, Rolf O

    2004-01-22

    Long-term, concurrent measurement of population dynamics and associated top-down and bottom-up processes are rare for unmanipulated, terrestrial systems. Here, we analyse populations of moose, their predators (wolves, Canis lupus), their primary winter forage (balsam fir, Abies balsamea) and several climatic variables that were monitored for 40 consecutive years in Isle Royale National Park (544 km2), Lake Superior, USA. We judged the relative importance of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on moose population growth rate by constructing multiple linear regression models, and calculating the proportion of interannual variation in moose population growth rate explained by each factor. Our analysis indicates that more variation in population growth rate is explained by bottom-up than top-down processes, and abiotic factors explain more variation than do bottom-up processes. Surprisingly, winter precipitation did not explain any significant variation in population growth rate. Like that detected for two Norwegian ungulate populations, the relationship between population growth rate and the North Atlantic Oscillation was nonlinear. Although this analysis provides significant insight, much remains unknown: of the models examined, the most parsimonious explain little more than half the variation in moose population growth rate. PMID:15058396

  20. The influence of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on the moose (Alces alces) population of Isle Royale.

    PubMed Central

    Vucetich, John A.; Peterson, Rolf O.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term, concurrent measurement of population dynamics and associated top-down and bottom-up processes are rare for unmanipulated, terrestrial systems. Here, we analyse populations of moose, their predators (wolves, Canis lupus), their primary winter forage (balsam fir, Abies balsamea) and several climatic variables that were monitored for 40 consecutive years in Isle Royale National Park (544 km2), Lake Superior, USA. We judged the relative importance of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on moose population growth rate by constructing multiple linear regression models, and calculating the proportion of interannual variation in moose population growth rate explained by each factor. Our analysis indicates that more variation in population growth rate is explained by bottom-up than top-down processes, and abiotic factors explain more variation than do bottom-up processes. Surprisingly, winter precipitation did not explain any significant variation in population growth rate. Like that detected for two Norwegian ungulate populations, the relationship between population growth rate and the North Atlantic Oscillation was nonlinear. Although this analysis provides significant insight, much remains unknown: of the models examined, the most parsimonious explain little more than half the variation in moose population growth rate. PMID:15058396

  1. Complex patterns of population genetic structure of moose, Alces alces, after recent spatial expansion in Poland revealed by sex-linked markers.

    PubMed

    Swisłocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Danyłow, Jan; Owadowska-Cornil, Edyta; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, human activity directly and indirectly influenced the demography of moose in Poland. The species was close to extinction, and only a few isolated populations survived after the Second World War; then, unprecedented demographic and spatial expansions had occurred, possibly generating a very complex pattern of population genetic structure at the present-day margins of the species range in Poland. Over 370 moose from seven populations were collected from Poland, and partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-cr; 607 bp) were obtained. In addition, the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) and Y-chromosome markers (1,982 bp in total) were studied in a chosen set of individuals. Twelve mtDNA haplotypes that all belonged to the European moose phylogroup were recorded. They could be divided into two distinct clades: Central Europe and the Ural Mountains. The first clade consists of three distinct groups/branches: Biebrza, Polesie, and Fennoscandia. The Biebrza group has experienced spatial and demographic expansion in the recent past. Average genetic differentiation among moose populations in Poland at mtDNA-cr was great and significant (Φ ST = 0.407, p < 0.001). Using mtDNA-cr data, four separate groups of population were recognized using spatial analysis of molecular variance and principal coordinate analysis, including a relict population in Biebrza National Park, a reintroduced Kampinos National Park population, as well as populations that were descendants of moose that colonized Poland from the east (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine) and the north (former East Prussia). Among all the sequenced Y-chromosome markers, polymorphisms were found in the DBY14 marker in three populations only; four haplotypes were recorded in total. No significant differentiation was detected for this Y-linked marker among moose populations in Poland. Our mtDNA study revealed that a variety of different factors-bottleneck, the presence of

  2. Range Expansion of Moose in Arctic Alaska Linked to Warming and Increased Shrub Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Tape, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni) and Eurasia (A. a. alces). Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators. PMID:27074023

  3. Range Expansion of Moose in Arctic Alaska Linked to Warming and Increased Shrub Habitat.

    PubMed

    Tape, Ken D; Gustine, David D; Ruess, Roger W; Adams, Layne G; Clark, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni) and Eurasia (A. a. alces). Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators. PMID:27074023

  4. Baseline body temperatures, heart rates, and respiratory rates of moose in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, A W; Schwartz, C C; Johnson, D C

    1984-10-01

    Baseline body temperatures (BT), heart rates (HR) and respiratory rates (RR) were obtained from Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas Miller) at the Moose Research Center (MRC), Alaska. Excitability, seasons and drugs influenced the values to varying degrees. Excitability was the most influential factor. Safe expected ranges were: BT 38.4 to 38.9 C, HR 70 to 91 beats/min (b/min), and RR 13 to 40 respirations/min (r/min). These ranges incorporated all seasons, a central nervous system depressant drug and a paralyzing drug. Values which may be considered critical and an indication that corrective action should be taken include: BT 40.2 C, HR 102 b/min, and RR 40 r/min. It is recommended that persons trained in monitoring vital signs be on hand during moose capture and immobilization procedures. PMID:6530720

  5. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mabel T.; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Master, Emma R.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36–0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25–50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  6. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

    PubMed

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  7. Range expansion of moose in arctic Alaska linked to warming and increased shrub habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, Ken D.; Gustine, David D.; Reuss, Roger W.; Adams, Layne G.; Clark, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni) and Eurasia (A. a. alces). Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators.

  8. Osteoporotic skull lesions in moose at Isle Royale National Park.

    PubMed

    Hindelang, M; Peterson, R O

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporotic lesions were evaluated in the skulls of moose (Alces alces) collected in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan (USA), from 1958 to 1994. Circular lesions which penetrated the outer table of the skull were distributed over the frontal and nasal bones asymmetrically in both sexes. About 32% of skulls recovered had some porotic lesions with slightly greater prevalence among males. PMID:8627919

  9. Temperature mediated moose survival in Northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenarz, M.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Schrage, M.W.; Edwards, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The earth is in the midst of a pronounced warming trend and temperatures in Minnesota, USA, as elsewhere, are projected to increase. Northern Minnesota represents the southern edge to the circumpolar distribution of moose (Alces alces), a species intolerant of heat. Moose increase their metabolic rate to regulate their core body temperature as temperatures rise. We hypothesized that moose survival rates would be a function of the frequency and magnitude that ambient temperatures exceeded the upper critical temperature of moose. We compared annual and seasonal moose survival in northeastern Minnesota between 2002 and 2008 with a temperature metric. We found that models based on January temperatures above the critical threshold were inversely correlated with subsequent survival and explained >78 of variability in spring, fall, and annual survival. Models based on late-spring temperatures also explained a high proportion of survival during the subsequent fall. A model based on warm-season temperatures was important in explaining survival during the subsequent winter. Our analyses suggest that temperatures may have a cumulative influence on survival. We expect that continuation or acceleration of current climate trends will result in decreased survival, a decrease in moose density, and ultimately, a retreat of moose northward from their current distribution.

  10. Increased osteoarthritis in moose from Isle Royale.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R O

    1988-07-01

    Over the past 30 yr, moose (Alces alces) in Isle Royale National Park (Michigan, USA) exhibited a several-fold increase in the prevalence of osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease (DJD). Available evidence points to an environmental explanation for this change. Greater physical activity among afflicted moose is not a likely contributing factor, nor is genetic change in the population. The possible introduction of an unspecified disease agent cannot be dismissed at this time. Moose exhibiting the highest prevalence of DJD were those born during a period of severe undernutrition, and it is hypothesized that nutritional stress early in life was responsible for increased joint disease during senescence. Such an etiology for osteoarthritis has not been suggested previously for any species. PMID:3411702

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Moose, Lake Superior Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Jordan, Peter A.; Terrell, James W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the moose (Alces alces). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Characterization of moose intestinal glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Miralda Madar; Dedic, Benjamin; Lundholm, Klara; Branzell, Filip Berner; Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann

    2015-08-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Galα3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized. PMID:26104834

  13. Effect of Roadside Vegetation Cutting on Moose Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Amy L.; Leroux, Shawn J.

    2015-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus ) vehicle collisions (MVCs) are an issue throughout the distribution of moose. Many mitigation strategies have been tested and implemented to reduce the number of MVCs, but there have been few empirical analyses of the effectiveness of roadside vegetation cutting. The goal of this study was to determine if roadside vegetation cutting attracted moose into roadside areas to browse on the vegetation regrowth. We hypothesized that moose would be attracted to roadside areas with cut vegetation. Consequently, we predicted that there would be higher levels of browsing in cut areas compared to uncut areas. To determine if moose were browsing more in cut or uncut areas, we measured the number of plants browsed by moose in paired treatment (cut on or after 2008) and control (not cut since at least 2008) sites, along with a suite of potential environmental covariates. Using a model selection approach, we fit generalized linear mixed-effects models to determine the most parsimonious set of environmental variables to explain variation in the proportion of moose browse among sites. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results show that the proportion of moose browse in the uncut control areas was significantly higher than in the cut treatment areas. The results of this study suggest that recently cut roadside areas (7 years or less based on our work) may create a less attractive foraging habitat for moose. The majority of the variance in the proportion of moose browse among sites was explained by treatment type and nested plot number within site identification (34.16%), with additional variance explained by traffic region (5.00%) and moose density (4.35%). Based on our study, we recommend that vegetation cutting be continued in roadside areas in Newfoundland as recently cut areas may be less attractive browsing sites for moose. PMID:26244576

  14. Distribution and density of moose in relation to landscape characteristics: Effects of scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, J.A.K.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Bowyer, R.T.; Saperstein, L.; Maier, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the relation between early winter distribution and density of female moose (Alces alces L.) and habitat heterogeneity in interior Alaska. We tested for effects of vegetation type, topography, distance to rivers and towns, occurrence and timing of fire, and landscape metrics. A spatial linear model was used to analyze effects of independent variables organized at multiple scales. Because densities of moose vary widely as a result of differences in management and other factors, a spatial response surface of the log of moose density was fit to remove large-scale effects. The analysis revealed that the densest populations of moose occurred closer to towns, at moderate elevations, near rivers, and in areas where fire occurred between 11 and 30 years ago. Furthermore, moose tended to occur in areas with large compact patches of varied habitat and avoided variable terrain and nonvegetated areas. Relationships of most variables with moose density occurred at or below 34 km2, suggesting that moose respond to environmental variables within a few kilometres of their location. The spatial model of density of moose developed in this study represents an important application for effective monitoring and management of moose in the boreal forest. ?? 2005 NRC.

  15. Seroprevalence, isolation, first genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii, and possible congenital transmission in wild moose from Minnesota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are widespread in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but little is known of its prevalence in other cervids in the USA. Moose (Alces alces) is a popular large game animal, hunted for its meat and trophy antlers. Here, we report seroprevalence, isolation and genet...

  16. Where Wolves Kill Moose: The Influence of Prey Life History Dynamics on the Landscape Ecology of Predation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Robert A.; Vucetich, John A.; Roloff, Gary J.; Bump, Joseph K.; Peterson, Rolf O.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape ecology of predation is well studied and known to be influenced by habitat heterogeneity. Little attention has been given to how the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the landscape ecology of predation might be modulated by life history dynamics of prey in mammalian systems. We demonstrate how life history dynamics of moose (Alces alces) contribute to landscape patterns in predation by wolves (Canis lupus) in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA. We use pattern analysis and kernel density estimates of moose kill sites to demonstrate that moose in senescent condition and moose in prime condition tend to be wolf-killed in different regions of Isle Royale in winter. Predation on senescent moose was clustered in one kill zone in the northeast portion of the island, whereas predation on prime moose was clustered in 13 separate kill zones distributed throughout the full extent of the island. Moreover, the probability of kill occurrence for senescent moose, in comparison to prime moose, increased in high elevation habitat with patches of dense coniferous trees. These differences can be attributed, at least in part, to senescent moose being more vulnerable to predation and making different risk-sensitive habitat decisions than prime moose. Landscape patterns emerging from prey life history dynamics and habitat heterogeneity have been observed in the predation ecology of fish and insects, but this is the first mammalian system for which such observations have been made. PMID:24622241

  17. Seroprevalence, isolation, first genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii, and possible congenital transmission in wild moose from Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv K; Carstensen, Michelle; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Moore, Seth A; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are widespread in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but little is known of its prevalence in other cervids in the USA. Moose (Alces alces) is a popular large game animal, hunted for its meat and trophy antlers. Here, we report seroprevalence, isolation, and genetic characterization of T. gondii from moose from Minnesota. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 8 of 79 (10%) moose tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT 1:25 or higher). The myocardium of 68 moose was bioassayed individually in mice, irrespective of serological status. T. gondii was detected in three moose (2 adults, 1 3 weeks old). The parasite from 2 adults was further propagated in cell culture. PCR-RFLP genotyping of cell culture derived tachyzoites using 10 genetic markers, SAG1, SAG2 (5′ and 3′ SAG2, and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed two different ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes (#5, designated TgMooseUS1, and #7, TgMooseUS2). The mice inoculated with myocardium of the juvenile moose developed antibodies against T. gondii, and DNA extracted from infected mouse brain was only partially characterized by PCR-RFLP genotyping, which suggests a potential new genotype. Result documented prevalence of T. gondii in moose, and its possible transplacental/transmammary transmission of T. gondii in moose. PMID:26472716

  18. Where wolves kill moose: the influence of prey life history dynamics on the landscape ecology of predation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Robert A; Vucetich, John A; Roloff, Gary J; Bump, Joseph K; Peterson, Rolf O

    2014-01-01

    The landscape ecology of predation is well studied and known to be influenced by habitat heterogeneity. Little attention has been given to how the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the landscape ecology of predation might be modulated by life history dynamics of prey in mammalian systems. We demonstrate how life history dynamics of moose (Alces alces) contribute to landscape patterns in predation by wolves (Canis lupus) in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA. We use pattern analysis and kernel density estimates of moose kill sites to demonstrate that moose in senescent condition and moose in prime condition tend to be wolf-killed in different regions of Isle Royale in winter. Predation on senescent moose was clustered in one kill zone in the northeast portion of the island, whereas predation on prime moose was clustered in 13 separate kill zones distributed throughout the full extent of the island. Moreover, the probability of kill occurrence for senescent moose, in comparison to prime moose, increased in high elevation habitat with patches of dense coniferous trees. These differences can be attributed, at least in part, to senescent moose being more vulnerable to predation and making different risk-sensitive habitat decisions than prime moose. Landscape patterns emerging from prey life history dynamics and habitat heterogeneity have been observed in the predation ecology of fish and insects, but this is the first mammalian system for which such observations have been made. PMID:24622241

  19. Testing the risk of predation hypothesis: the influence of recolonizing wolves on habitat use by moose.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kerry L; Milleret, Cyril; Månsson, Johan; Sand, Håkan

    2014-09-01

    Considered as absent throughout Scandinavia for >100 years, wolves (Canis lupus) have recently naturally recolonized south-central Sweden. This recolonization has provided an opportunity to study behavioral responses of moose (Alces alces) to wolves. We used satellite telemetry locations from collared moose and wolves to determine whether moose habitat use was affected by predation risk based on wolf use distributions. Moose habitat use was influenced by reproductive status and time of day and showed a different selection pattern between winter and summer, but there was weak evidence that moose habitat use depended on predation risk. The seemingly weak response may have several underlying explanations that are not mutually exclusive from the long term absence of non-human predation pressure: intensive harvest by humans during the last century is more important than wolf predation as an influence on moose behavior; moose have not adapted to recolonizing wolves; and responses may include other behavioral adaptations or occur at finer temporal and spatial levels than investigated. PMID:25015119

  20. Monster Moose Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  1. Ranking Alaska moose nutrition: Signals to begin liberal antlerless harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boertje, R.D.; Kellie, K.A.; Seaton, C.T.; Keech, M.A.; Young, D.D.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Aderman, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We focused on describing low nutritional status in an increasing moose (Alces alces gigas) population with reduced predation in Game Management Unit (GMU) 20A near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. A skeptical public disallowed liberal antlerless harvests of this moose population until we provided convincing data on low nutritional status. We ranked nutritional status in 15 Alaska moose populations (in boreal forests and coastal tundra) based on multiyear twinning rates. Data on age-of-first-reproduction and parturition rates provided a ranking consistent with twinning rates in the 6 areas where comparative data were available. Also, short-yearling mass provided a ranking consistent with twinning rates in 5 of the 6 areas where data were available. Data from 5 areas implied an inverse relationship between twinning rate and browse removal rate. Only in GMU 20A did nutritional indices reach low levels where justification for halting population growth was apparent, which supports prior findings that nutrition is a minor factor limiting most Alaska moose populations compared to predation. With predator reductions, the GMU 20A moose population increased from 1976 until liberal antlerless harvests in 2004. During 1997–2005, GMU 20A moose exhibited the lowest nutritional status reported to date for wild, noninsular, North American populations, including 1) delayed reproduction until moose reached 36 months of age and the lowest parturition rate among 36-month-old moose (29%, n = 147); 2) the lowest average multiyear twinning rates from late-May aerial surveys (x̄ = 7%, SE = 0.9%, n = 9 yr, range = 3–10%) and delayed twinning until moose reached 60 months of age; 3) the lowest average mass of female short-yearlings in Alaska (x̄ = 155 ± 1.6 [SE] kg in the Tanana Flats subpopulation, up to 58 kg below average masses found elsewhere); and 4) high removal (42%) of current annual browse biomass compared to 9–26% elsewhere in boreal forests. When average multiyear twinning

  2. Re-evaluating the northeastern Minnesota moose decline and the role of wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Fieberg, John

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluated findings from Lenarz et al. (2009) that adult moose (Alces alces) survival in northeastern Minnesota was related to high January temperatures and that predation by wolves (Canis lupus) played a minor role. We found significant inverse relationships between annual wolf numbers in part of the moose range and various moose demographics from 2003 to 2013 that suggested a stronger role of wolves than heretofore believed. To re-evaluate the temperature findings, we conducted a simulation study, mimicking the approach taken by Lenarz et al. (2009), to explore the potential for concluding a significant relationship exists between temperature and survival, when no association exists. We found that the high R2s and low probabilities associated with the regression models in Lenarz et al. (2009) should be viewed cautiously in light of the large number of fitted models (m = 45) and few observations (n = 6 for each of 5 response variables).

  3. Beta-endorphin levels in blood from selected Alaskan mammals.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, A W; Flynn, A; Schwartz, C C; Calkins, D G; Nichols, L

    1981-10-01

    Blood samples were analyzed for beta-endorphin from 43 non-torpid black bear (Ursus americanus), 8 torpid black bear, 3 non-torpid brown bear (Ursus arctos), 14 moose (Alces alces), 6 mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) and 30 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Beta-endorphin levels were detected in all species sampled and there were no significant differences in levels among non-torpid black bear, brown bear and sea lions. Also, no differences were detected between moose and mountain goats, but all other comparisons were significantly different (P less than 0.001). Torpid black bear had higher levels than all other groups. Moose and mountain goats had the lowest levels. The possibility of beta-endorphin influencing behavior and physiology of mammals is discussed. PMID:6279890

  4. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  5. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, A.C.; Wright, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Park managers are concerned that moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) may be avoiding areas along the 130 km road through Denali National Park as a result of high traffic volume, thus decreasing opportunities for visitors to view wildlife. A wildlife monitoring system was developed in 1996 that used 19 landscape level viewsheds, stratified into four sections based on decreasing traffic along the road corridor. Data were collected from 22 samplings of all viewsheds during May-August in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, nine backcountry viewsheds were established in three different areas to determine whether density estimates for each species in the backcountry were higher than those for the same animals in similar road-corridor areas. Densities higher than those in the road corridor were found in one backcountry area for moose and in two backcountry areas for grizzly bears. None of the backcountry areas showed a higher density of caribou. We tested hypotheses that moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distributions were unrelated to the road and traffic. Moose sightings were lower than expected within 300 m of the road. More caribou and grizzly bears than expected occurred between 601 and 900 m from the road, while more moose and fewer caribou than expected occurred between 900 and 1200 m from the road. Bull moose in stratum 1 were distributed farther from the road than bulls and cows in stratum 4; cows in stratum 1 and bulls in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than cows in stratum 4. Grizzly bears in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than bears in stratum 3. The distribution of moose sightings suggests traffic avoidance, but the spatial pattern of preferred forage may have had more of an influence. Caribou and grizzly bear distributions indicated no pattern of traffic avoidance.

  6. Influence of soil acidification in southern Norway on the 137Cs exposure of moose?

    PubMed

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Gaare, Eldar; Engen, Steinar

    2009-06-01

    The mean (137)Cs activity concentration in 278 liver samples of moose (Alces alces) from 16 municipalities located in different parts of Norway varied within the range 43-752 Bq kg(-1) among the municipalities. In general the geographical variation corresponded to the fallout pattern produced by the Chernobyl accident. In three communities in the southernmost part of the country however the transfer factor, defined as the activity in moose liver divided by the corresponding level in surface soil, was 6.5 times higher on average than elsewhere in Norway. Possible reasons for this highly significant difference are discussed, and it is hypothesized that the apparently much higher plant uptake in the south may be related to extensive soil acidification in this area from transboundary pollution. PMID:19303135

  7. The influence of winter severity, predation and senescence on moose habitat use.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Robert A; Vucetich, John A; Peterson, Rolf O; Roloff, Gary J; Millenbah, Kelly F

    2013-03-01

    Habitat use is widely known to be influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate, population density, foraging opportunity and predation risk. The influence of the life-history state of an individual organism on habitat use is less well understood, especially for terrestrial mammals. There is good reason to expect that life-history state would affect habitat use. For example, organisms exhibiting poor condition associated with senescence have an increased vulnerability to predation and that vulnerability is known to alter habitat use strategies. We assessed the influence of life-history stage on habitat use for 732 moose (Alces alces) killed by wolves (Canis lupus) over a 50-year period in Isle Royale National Park, an island ecosystem in Lake Superior, USA. We developed regression models to assess how location of death was associated with a moose's life-history stage (prime-aged or senescent), presence or absence of senescent-associated pathology (osteoarthritis and jaw necrosis), and annual variation in winter severity, moose density and ratio of moose to wolves, which is an index of predation risk. Compared to senescent moose, prime-aged moose tend to make greater use of habitat farther from the shoreline of Isle Royale. That result is ecologically relevant because shoreline habitat on Isle Royale tends to provide better foraging opportunities for moose but is also associated with increased predation risk. During severe winters prime-aged moose tend to make greater use of habitat that is closer to shore in relation to senescent-aged moose. Furthermore, moose of both age classes were more likely to die in riskier, shoreline habitat during years when predation risk was lower in the preceding year. Our results highlight a complicated connection between life history, age-structured population dynamics and habitat-related behaviour. Our analysis also illustrates why intraspecific competition should not be the presumed mechanism underlying density

  8. PyMOOSE: Interoperable Scripting in Python for MOOSE

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Subhasis; Bhalla, Upinder S.

    2008-01-01

    Python is emerging as a common scripting language for simulators. This opens up many possibilities for interoperability in the form of analysis, interfaces, and communications between simulators. We report the integration of Python scripting with the Multi-scale Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). MOOSE is a general-purpose simulation system for compartmental neuronal models and for models of signaling pathways based on chemical kinetics. We show how the Python-scripting version of MOOSE, PyMOOSE, combines the power of a compiled simulator with the versatility and ease of use of Python. We illustrate this by using Python numerical libraries to analyze MOOSE output online, and by developing a GUI in Python/Qt for a MOOSE simulation. Finally, we build and run a composite neuronal/signaling model that uses both the NEURON and MOOSE numerical engines, and Python as a bridge between the two. Thus PyMOOSE has a high degree of interoperability with analysis routines, with graphical toolkits, and with other simulators. PMID:19129924

  9. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  10. Cross-continental differences in patterns of predation: will naive moose in Scandinavia ever learn?

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Håkan; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Predation has been recognized as a major selective force in the evolution of behavioural characteristics of mammals. As a consequence of local predator extinction, prey may lose knowledge about natural predators but usually express behavioural adjustments after return of predators. Human harvest may replace natural predation but prey selection may differ from that of natural predators leading to a change in the behavioural response of prey. We show that hunting success (HS) of re-colonizing wolves (Canis lupus) on moose (Alces alces) in Scandinavia was higher than reported in North America, where moose have been continuously exposed to wolves and grizzly bears. We found no evidence that moose expressed behavioural adjustments that lowered the HS of wolves in territories that had been occupied by wolves for up to 21 years. Moose behaviour towards wolves and humans typically differs in Scandinavia compared to North America. We explain the differences found to be caused by variation in predation pressure by large carnivores and the rate, and mode, of human harvest during the twentieth century. PMID:16777732

  11. Serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in Alaskan wildlife.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, R L

    1983-10-01

    Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (Rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (Alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). Antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (Ursus americanus). Antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou. Antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were found in sera of eight of 17 (47%) Dall sheep and two of 39 (6%) moose. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus antibodies were detected in sera of six of 67 (9%) caribou. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies were found in sera of two of 67 (3%) caribou. Parainfluenza 3 virus antibodies were detected in sera of 14 of 21 (67%) bison (Bison bison). Antibodies to Q fever rickettsia were found in sera of 12 of 15 (80%) Dall sheep. No evidence of prior exposure to bluetongue virus was found in Dall sheep, caribou, moose, or bison sera. PMID:6139490

  12. High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success

    PubMed Central

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L−1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  13. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  14. Response of Moose Hunters to Predation following Wolf Return in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wikenros, Camilla; Sand, Håkan; Bergström, Roger; Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Background Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus) of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces), the main prey of wolves. Methodology/Principal findings We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25), and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43). There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827) during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2) compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2) wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas) and to hunters (actual harvest). In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females. Conclusions/Significance We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator—humans—that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves’ main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds’ habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey. PMID:25853570

  15. Influence of fur trade, famine, and forest fires on moose and woodland caribou populations in northwestern Ontario from 1786 to 1911

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Ronald; Suffling, Roger; Younger, Thomas Ajit

    1993-07-01

    Hudson’s Bay Company records were used to estimate the 1786 1911 annual number of moose ( Alces alces andersonii) and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou) involved in trade by northern Ojibwa natives to the company post at Osnaburgh House (51°10'N 90°15'W) in northwest Ontario, Canada. The human population for the early 19th century, and the number and severity of human starvations from 1786 to 1911 were estimated. The extent of forest fires in the region around Osnaburgh was documented using a “fire-day” index computed from Hudson’s Bay Company journals and using qualitative archival information. It is argued that the human population was too small to have caused the observed early 19th century moose and caribou population decline solely through predation. Likewise, severe early 19th century famines were caused by climatic factors rather than by declines in moose and caribou numbers. Habitat change caused by increased forest fires correlates with the observed decline of caribou, while moose increased and subsequently collapsed as winter shelter was destroyed. A burgeoning human population, sustained during winter food shortages on potatoes donated by the Hudson’s Bay Company, then kept ungulate populations to low levels until the late 19th century. Only then did maturing forests and a new outbreak of fires provide renewed habitat for resurgences of, respectively, caribou and moose.

  16. Using Pop-II models to predict effects of wolf predation and hunter harvests on elk, mule deer, and moose on the northern range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, John A.; Singer, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of establishing a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in Yellowstone National Park were predicted for three ungulate species—elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and moose (Alces alces)—using previously developed POP-II population models. We developed models for 78 and 100 wolves. For each wolf population, we ran scenarios using wolf predation rates of 9, 12, and 15 ungulates/wolf/year. With 78 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our modeled elk population estimated were 5-18% smaller than the model estimate without wolves. With 100 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our elk population estimated were 11-30% smaller than the population estimates without wolves. Wolf predation effects were greater on the modeled mule deer population than on elk. With 78 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, we predicted the mule deer population could be 13-44% larger than without wolves. With 100 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, the mule deer population was 0-36% larger than without wolves. After wolf recovery, our POP-II models suggested moose harvests would have to be reduced at least 50% to maintain moose numbers at the levels predicted when wolves were not present. Mule deer and moose population data are limited, and these wolf predation effects may be overestimated if population sizes or male-female ratios were underestimated in our population models. We recommend additional mule deer and moose population data be obtained.

  17. Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Schmitt, S M; Williams, D G

    1986-10-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from moose from Michigan's Isle Royale National Park. Sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in Vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to California serogroup viruses, in particular Jamestown Canyon (JC), La Crosse/snowshoe hare (LAC/SSH), and trivittatus (TVT) viruses. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected in 71% of 31 and 65% of 20 moose from Algonquin and Isle Royale, respectively. An additional six moose from Algonquin and five from Isle Royale showed evidence of multiple infection. One juvenile moose from Isle Royale had specific neutralizing antibody to TVT virus. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected also in 54% of 50 elk from Michigan; 20 of the 50 elk showed evidence of multiple infection. While no single serum sample showed specific neutralizing antibody only to LAC/SSH virus, its presence in sera from some animals may have been masked by the high prevalence of antibody to JC virus. PMID:3503129

  18. Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, D.L.; Cox, E.W.; Ballard, W.B.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lenarz, M.S.; Custer, T.W.; Barnett, T.; Fuller, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Several potential proximate causes may be implicated in a recent (post-1984) decline in moose (Alces alces andersoni) numbers at their southern range periphery in northwest Minnesota, USA. These causes include deleterious effects of infectious pathogens, some of which are associated with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), negative effects of climate change, increased food competition with deer or moose, legal or illegal hunting, and increased predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Long-standing factors that may have contributed to the moose decline include those typically associated with marginal habitat such as nutritional deficiencies. We examined survival and productivity among radiocollared (n = 152) adult female and juvenile moose in northwest Minnesota during 1995–2000, and assessed cause of death and pathology through carcass necropsy of radiocollared and non-radiocollared animals.Aerial moose surveys suggested that hunting was an unlikely source of the numerical decline because the level of harvest was relatively low (i.e., approx. 15% / 2 yr) and the population usually grew in years following a hunt. The majority of moose mortalities (up to 87% of radiocollared moose [n = 76] and up to 65% of non-radiocollared moose [n = 84]) were proximally related to pathology associated with parasites and infectious disease. Liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) infections apparently constituted the greatest single source of mortality and caused significant pathology in the liver, thoracic and peritoneal cavities, pericardial sac, and lungs. Mortality due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was less prevalent and was manifested through characteristic neurological disease. Several mortalities apparently were associated with unidentified infectious disease, probably acting in close association with malnutrition. Bone-marrow fat was lower for moose dying of natural causes than those dying of anthropogenic factors or

  19. Road and Rail Side Vegetation Management Implications of Habitat Use by Moose Relative to Brush Cutting Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Roy V.; Child, Kenneth N.; Spata, David P.; MacDonald, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Plants cut at different times produce resprouts that vary in their nutritional value relative to when they are cut. To determine how vegetation management in transportation (road and rail) corridors at different times of the year could influence browse quality in the years following cutting, and how this could potentially influence encounters between herbivores and vehicles, we undertook a 3-year study. In 2001, at a wildlife viewing area near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, we established a control area and treatment areas where shrubs and trees that are used as food by moose ( Alces alces) were cut at the beginning of June, July, August, September, and October. In the fall, moose were most often observed browsing the resprouts of plants cut in August (years 1 and 2 post-treatment) and September (year 3). Cumulative winter track counts were highest in the uncut control area in the years following cutting. Spring pellet counts revealed that most pellets were deposited in the uncut (years 1 and 2) and August-cut (year 3) areas during winter. With the exception of the first year after cutting, browse removal by moose was highest for plants cut later in the growing season. Overall, our findings suggest that following cutting, plants cut later in the year are selected more often by moose relative to those cut earlier. To reduce browse use of corridor vegetation in areas where concerns for moose-vehicle collisions exist, we recommend that vegetation maintenance activities be conducted in the early summer months of June and July.

  20. Modelling (137)Cs concentrations in moose (1986-2012) from areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Robert N; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve; Sonesten, Lars; Wikenros, Camilla; Rosén, Klas

    2016-08-01

    Data from long term annual monitoring of (137)Cs concentrations in harvested moose (Alces alces) were empirically modelled by applying multivariate data analysis that is able to from relatively raw datasets show how the many various impact variables are related (Principal component analysis, PCA). In the later stage regression modelling (Partial least squares, PLS) was applied to analyse which environmental and physiological factors were significant (i.e. of predictive value) based on the measured (X) activity concentrations in moose meat. The data sets originate from two different forest dominated areas in Sweden. One area is located inland (Heby municipality) and the other borders to the Baltic Sea (Gävle municipality). In inland with 20% farmland, GIS-software was used to calculate the proportion of different habitat types and (137)Cs deposition around individual killing spots. This model reveals that the proportions of farmland and forest around the killing spot were significant parameters, second to deposition and years since fallout. Significance was also obtained for the proportions of mire and water bodies, the amount of rain in summer and the age of the moose. In the other model based on data from the coastal area with only about 4% farmland, the coordinates of the moose killing spots were not recorded in the data sets. In the resulting model the temperature in July was the most important parameter, second to years since fallout. Significance was also found for the following parameters: temperature and rainfall in several summer months, the approximate north- and eastward location of the killing spot and to which age category (adult/calf) the harvested moose belonged. PMID:27162195

  1. Road and rail side vegetation management implications of habitat use by moose relative to brush cutting season.

    PubMed

    Rea, Roy V; Child, Kenneth N; Spata, David P; Macdonald, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Plants cut at different times produce resprouts that vary in their nutritional value relative to when they are cut. To determine how vegetation management in transportation (road and rail) corridors at different times of the year could influence browse quality in the years following cutting, and how this could potentially influence encounters between herbivores and vehicles, we undertook a 3-year study. In 2001, at a wildlife viewing area near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, we established a control area and treatment areas where shrubs and trees that are used as food by moose (Alces alces) were cut at the beginning of June, July, August, September, and October. In the fall, moose were most often observed browsing the resprouts of plants cut in August (years 1 and 2 post-treatment) and September (year 3). Cumulative winter track counts were highest in the uncut control area in the years following cutting. Spring pellet counts revealed that most pellets were deposited in the uncut (years 1 and 2) and August-cut (year 3) areas during winter. With the exception of the first year after cutting, browse removal by moose was highest for plants cut later in the growing season. Overall, our findings suggest that following cutting, plants cut later in the year are selected more often by moose relative to those cut earlier. To reduce browse use of corridor vegetation in areas where concerns for moose-vehicle collisions exist, we recommend that vegetation maintenance activities be conducted in the early summer months of June and July. PMID:20473783

  2. The Balancing Act of Moose and Wolves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gordon C.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the predator-prey relationship between the moose and the wolves, and the added effect of human exploitations on this relationship. Described is the moose behavior at the population and system levels resulting from the predation pressures on them by the wolves and human exploitation. (DS)

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS. PMID:26284348

  4. Moose models with vanishing S parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.

    2004-09-01

    In the linear moose framework, which naturally emerges in deconstruction models, we show that there is a unique solution for the vanishing of the S parameter at the lowest order in the weak interactions. We consider an effective gauge theory based on K SU(2) gauge groups, K+1 chiral fields, and electroweak groups SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} at the ends of the chain of the moose. S vanishes when a link in the moose chain is cut. As a consequence one has to introduce a dynamical nonlocal field connecting the two ends of the moose. Then the model acquires an additional custodial symmetry which protects this result. We examine also the possibility of a strong suppression of S through an exponential behavior of the link couplings as suggested by the Randall Sundrum metric.

  5. Grandfather Moose: Sign Language Nursery Rhymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Harley

    1987-01-01

    "Grandfather Moose" rhymes, written to follow the Mother Goose tradition, are short, appealing, easy-to-memorize sign language nursery rhymes which employ visual poetic devices such as similar signs and transitional flow of movement. (CB)

  6. MOOSE: Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, J. (Editor); Leontsinis, N. (Editor); Lane, J. (Editor); Singh, R. (Editor); Angelone, K.; Boswell, C.; Chamberlain, I.; Concha, M.; Corrodo, M.; Custodio, O.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to service satellites has thus far been limited to low earth orbit platforms within reach of the Space Shuttle. Other orbits, such as geosynchronous orbits containing high-value spacecraft have not been attainable by a servicing vehicle. The useful life of a satellite can be extended by replacing spent propellant and damaged orbital replacement units, forestalling the need for eventual replacement. This growing need for satellite on-orbits servicing can be met by the Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment (MOOSE). Missions requiring orbit transfer capability, precision manipulation and maneuvering, and man-in-the-loop control can be accomplished using MOOSE. MOOSE is a flexible, reusable, single operator, aerobraking spacecraft designed to refuel, repair, and service orbiting spacecraft. MOOSE will be deployed from Space Station Freedom, (SSF), where it will be stored, resupplied, and refurbished.

  7. Is It Moose-Mooses or Moose-Meese? First Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Christie

    You (the student) have been selected to be the school librarian's helper today. You are going to help her shelve books about moose. But you will have to read the books before you shelve them to decide if they are fictional storybooks about moose or nonfictional books about moose. You will decide if the books are real (nonfiction) or make believe…

  8. Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

  9. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium sp. isolated from northern Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Siefker, C; Rickard, L G; Pharr, G T; Simmons, J S; O'Hara, T M

    2002-02-01

    Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 3 out of 49 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from northern Alaska. Segments of both the 18S ribosomal RNA and the heat shock protein genes were amplified from the caribou isolate and compared with that obtained from an isolate from a wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Virginia as well as other species and isolates available from GenBank. Analyses showed the white-tailed deer isolate to be identical with the C. parvum cattle genotype; however, the caribou isolate represents a new genotype closely related to C. serpentis, C. muris, and C. andersoni. Giardia sp. was not detected in any of the caribou samples nor was Cryptosporidium sp. or Giardia sp. detected in any of the 42 moose (Alces alces) samples examined. PMID:12053974

  10. The cumulative effect of consecutive winters' snow depth on moose and deer populations: a defence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McRoberts, R.E.; Mech, L.D.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    1. L. D. Mech et al. presented evidence that moose Alces alces and deer Odocoileus virginianus population parameters re influenced by a cumulative effect of three winters' snow depth. They postulated that snow depth affects adult ungulates cumulatively from winter to winter and results in measurable offspring effects after the third winter. 2. F. Messier challenged those findings and claimed that the population parameters studied were instead affected by ungulate density and wolf indexes. 3. This paper refutes Messier's claims by demonstrating that his results were an artifact of two methodological errors. The first was that, in his main analyses, Messier used only the first previous winter's snow depth rather than the sum of the previous three winters' snow depth, which was the primary point of Mech et al. Secondly, Messier smoothed the ungulate population data, which removed 22-51% of the variability from the raw data. 4. When we repeated Messier's analyses on the raw data and using the sum of the previous three winter's snow depth, his findings did not hold up.

  11. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  12. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

  13. The alc-GR system: a modified alc gene switch designed for use in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gethin R; Garoosi, G Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J; Caddick, Mark X; Doonan, John H; Tomsett, A Brian

    2005-07-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: beta-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants. PMID:16010000

  14. The alc-GR System. A Modified alc Gene Switch Designed for Use in Plant Tissue Culture1[w

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gethin R.; Garoosi, G. Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J.; Caddick, Mark X.; Doonan, John H.; Tomsett, A. Brian

    2005-01-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: β-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants. PMID:16010000

  15. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  16. Serendipitous discovery of a novel protostrongylid (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and moose (Alces alces) from North America by DNA sequence comparisons.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many protostrongylid nematode species produce first-stage larvae with dorsal tail spines (DSL) that are shed in feces of wild ungulates. Definitive identification of DSL is rarely possible through comparative morphology; however, fecal samples are often the only feasible means to assess the distribu...

  17. Pervasive Restart In MOOSE-based Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; David Andrs; John Peterson; Andrew Slaughter; Jason Miller

    2014-01-01

    Multiphysics applications are inherently complicated. Solving for multiple, interacting physical phenomena involves the solution of multiple equations, and each equation has its own data dependencies. Feeding the correct data to these equations at exactly the right time requires extensive effort in software design. In an ideal world, multiphysics applications always run to completion and produce correct answers. Unfortunately, in reality, there can be many reasons why a simulation might fail: power outage, system failure, exceeding a runtime allotment on a supercomputer, failure of the solver to converge, etc. A failure after many hours spent computing can be a significant setback for a project. Therefore, the ability to “continue” a solve from the point of failure, rather than starting again from scratch, is an essential component of any high-quality simulation tool. This process of “continuation” is commonly termed “restart” in the computational community. While the concept of restarting an application sounds ideal, the aforementioned complexities and data dependencies present in multiphysics applications make its implementation decidedly non-trivial. A running multiphysics calculation accumulates an enormous amount of “state”: current time, solution history, material properties, status of mechanical contact, etc. This “state” data comes in many different forms, including scalar, tensor, vector, and arbitrary, application-specific data types. To be able to restart an application, you must be able to both store and retrieve this data, effectively recreating the state of the application before the failure. When utilizing the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at Idaho National Laboratory, this state data is stored both internally within the framework itself (such as solution vectors and the current time) and within the applications that use the framework. In order to implement restart in MOOSE

  18. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Kevin L; Klaver, Robert W; Hersey, Kent R; Holland, A Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2015-08-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8-9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980-2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring-summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring-summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year(t)) and delayed (year(t-1)) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics. PMID:25820750

  19. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Hersey, Kent; Holland, A. Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P.; Kauffman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8–9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980–2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring–summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring–summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year t ) and delayed (year t−1) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics.

  20. Defining parasite biodiversity at high latitudes of North America: new host and geographic records for Onchocerca cervipedis (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in moose and caribou

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Onchocerca cervipedis is a filarioid nematode of cervids reported from Central America to boreal regions of North America. It is found primarily in subcutaneous tissues of the legs, and is more commonly known as ‘legworm’. Blackflies are intermediate hosts and transmit larvae to ungulates when they blood-feed. In this article we report the first records of O. cervipedis from high latitudes of North America and its occurrence in previously unrecognized host subspecies including the Yukon-Alaska moose (Alces americanus gigas) and the Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti). Methods We examined the subcutaneous connective tissues of the metacarpi and/or metatarsi of 34 moose and one caribou for parasitic lesions. Samples were collected from animals killed by subsistence hunters or animals found dead in the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada and Alaska (AK), USA from 2005 to 2012. Genomic DNA lysate was prepared from nematode fragments collected from two moose. The nd5 region of the mitochondrial DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Subcutaneous nodules were found in 12 moose from the NT and AK, and one caribou from AK. Nematodes dissected from the lesions were identified as Onchocerca cervipedis based on morphology of female and male specimens. Histopathological findings in moose included cavitating lesions with multifocal granulomatous cellulitis containing intralesional microfilariae and adults, often necrotic and partially mineralized. Lesions in the caribou included periosteitis with chronic cellulitis, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and abundant granulation associated with intralesional adult nematodes and larvae. Sequences of the nd5 region (471bp), the first generated for this species, were deposited with Genbank (JN580791 and JN580792). Representative voucher specimens were deposited in the archives of the United States National Parasite Collection. Conclusions The geographic range of O. cervipedis is broader than

  1. Large carnivores, moose, and humans: A changing paradigm of predator management in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Swenson, J.E.; Miller, Sterling D.

    2003-01-01

    We compare and contrast the evolution of human attitudes toward large carnivores between Europe and North America. In general, persecution of large carnivores began much earlier in Europe than North America. Likewise, conservation programs directed at restoration and recovery appeared in European history well before they did in North America. Together, the pattern suggests there has been an evolution in how humans perceive large predators. Our early ancestors were physically vulnerable to large carnivores and developed corresponding attitudes of respect, avoidance, and acceptance. As civilization evolved and man developed weapons, the balance shifted. Early civilizations, in particular those with pastoral ways, attempted to eliminate large carnivores as threats to life and property. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) were consequently extirpated from much of their range in Europe and in North America south of Canada. Efforts to protect brown bears began in the late 1880s in some European countries and population reintroductions and augmentations are ongoing. They are less controversial than in North America. On the other hand, there are no wolf introductions, as has occurred in North America, and Europeans have a more negative attitude towards wolves. Control of predators to enhance ungulate harvest varies. In Western Europe, landowners own the hunting rights to ungulates. In the formerly communistic Eastern European countries and North America, hunting rights are held in common, although this is changing in some Eastern European countries. Wolf control to increase harvests of moose (Alces alces) occurs in parts of North America and Russia; bear control for similar reasons only occurs in parts of North America. Surprisingly, bears and wolves are not controlled to increase ungulates where private landowners have the hunting rights in Europe, although wolves were originally exterminated from these areas. Both the inability of scientific research to

  2. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  3. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum. PMID:26408585

  4. Patterns and causes of demographic variation in a harvested moose population: evidence for the effects of climate and density-dependent drivers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Glen S

    2011-11-01

    1. Better understanding of the mechanisms affecting demographic variation in ungulate populations is needed to support sustainable management of harvested populations. While studies of moose Alces alces L. populations have previously explored temporal variation in demographic processes, managers responsible for populations that span large heterogeneous landscapes would benefit from an understanding of how demography varies across biogeographical gradients in climate and other population drivers. Evidence of thresholds in population response to manageable and un-manageable drivers could aid resource managers in identifying limits to the magnitude of sustainable change. 2. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the relative importance of population density, habitat abundance, summer and winter climatic conditions, primary production, and harvest intensity in explaining spatial variation in moose vital rates in Ontario, Canada. Tree regression was used to test for thresholds in the magnitudes of environmental predictor variables that significantly affected population vital rates. 3. Moose population growth rate was negatively related to moose density and positively related to the abundance of mixed deciduous habitat abundant in forage. Calf recruitment was negatively related to a later start of the growing season and calf harvest. The ratio of bulls to cows was related to male harvest and hunter access, and thresholds were evident in predictor variables for all vital rate models. 4. Findings indicate that the contributions of density-dependent and independent factors can vary depending on the scale of population process. The importance of density dependence and habitat supply to low-density ungulate populations was evident, and management strategies for ungulates may be improved by explicitly linking forest management and harvest. Findings emphasize the importance of considering summer climatic influences to ungulate populations, as

  5. Deconstructing Noncommutativity with a Giant Fuzzy Moose

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Allan W.

    2001-12-05

    We argue that the world volume theories of D-branes probing orbifolds with discrete torsion develop, in the large quiver limit, new non-commutative directions. This provides an explicit ''deconstruction'' of a wide class of noncommutative theories. This also provides insight into the physical meaning of discrete torsion and its relation to the T-dual B field. We demonstrate that the strict large quiver limit reproduces the matrix theory construction of higher-dimensional D-branes, and argue that finite ''fuzzy moose'' theories provide novel regularizations of non-commutative theories and explicit string theory realizations of gauge theories on fuzzy tori. We also comment briefly on the relation to NCOS, (2,0) and little string theories.

  6. NMR study of the ternary carbides M2 AlC (M=Ti,V,Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, C. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Xie, B. X.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study of the layered ternary carbides Ti2AlC , V2AlC , and Cr2AlC using Al27 NMR spectroscopy. The quadrupole splittings, Knight shifts, as well as spin-lattice relaxation times on each material have been identified. The sign of the isotropic Knight shift varies from positive for Ti2AlC and V2AlC to negative for Cr2AlC , attributed to the enhancement of hybridization with increasing valence electron count in the transition metal. Universally long relaxation times are found for these alloys. Results provide a measure of Al-s Fermi-level density of states Ns(EF) for Ti2AlC and V2AlC . In addition, the evidence that Ns(EF) correlates with the transition metal d -electron count has been explored in the present NMR investigation.

  7. 9 CFR 81.5 - Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of deer, elk, or moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.5 Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State. Farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved through a State...

  8. 9 CFR 81.5 - Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of deer, elk, or moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.5 Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State. Farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved through a State...

  9. Alaskan thermokarst terrain and possible Martian analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.; Anderson, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A first-order analog to Martian fretted terrain has been recognized on enhanced, ERTS-1 (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) imagery of Alaskan Arctic thermokarst terrain. The Alaskan analog displays flat-floored valleys and intervalley uplands characteristic of fretted terrain. The thermokarst terrain has formed in a manner similar to one of the processes postulated for the development of the Martian fretted terrain.

  10. Preliminary study on total mercury in the common prepared subsistence foods of a rural Alaskan village.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Roger F N; Duffy, Lawrence K

    2002-01-01

    Total mercury (THg), which includes neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg), poses a health risk to subsistence food users in the circumpolar north. Low levels of THg, usually below 200 ng/g, have been reported in fish muscle from both returning salmon and freshwater species samples on the Kuskokwim River in southwest Alaska. Alaska subsistence users use fish all year long, with both salmon and freshwater species stored for winter usage. A recent study showed low mercury levels in the hair of villagers and suggested that in the last 25 years, MeHg exposure has remained the same or slightly decreased in the Bethel region of Alaska. Although several previous studies have measured THg in hair of Alaskan subsistence food users, few studies have looked at the THg levels in the prepared foods of rural Alaskans. Several types of subsistence foods from Napakiak, a small Yup'ik Eskimo village on the Kuskokwim River, were assessed for total mercury content. The THg levels were low, ranging from 1 ng/g to 443.8 ng/g. A trend for the dried fish to have higher concentrations than the unprocessed fish was observed. Plants, as well as raindeer and moose meats, are low in THg and not associated with dietary exposure. Our data for Napakiak show that THg levels are low enough that mercury does not pose a significant health risk; however, more detailed consumption data in western Alaska is needed. PMID:12650086

  11. Report of the Mighty Moose Reading Project, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    To assist Cree-speaking native Canadian students in English language acquisition, the Mighty Moose Reading Project was initiated with a threefold aim: to develop program materials designed specifically as supplementary beginning reading materials for native students; to determine the effectiveness of the materials in improving reading skills, oral…

  12. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  13. Wolves, moose, and the allometry of population cycles.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R O; Page, R E; Dodge, K M

    1984-06-22

    After a decade of dramatic population fluctuations, protected populations of wolves and moose in Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior returned in 1983 to the levels observed in the 1950's. Inherent lags in this predator-prey system and the strong recovery of the moose population following a wolf population crash suggest that these populations may continue to cycle with a period length of about 38 (95 percent confidence interval, +/-13) years. Such a long-term cycle is consistent with the proposal that period length of herbivore population cycles will characteristically scale according to the fourth root of body mass, a basic allometric relation linking physiological cycles to population processes. PMID:17837195

  14. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  15. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk,...

  16. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk,...

  17. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed

    Berger, J

    1999-11-22

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes. PMID:10629976

  18. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J

    1999-01-01

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes. PMID:10629976

  19. Signatures of the Minimal Moose Model With Exact Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, A.; Schwaller, P.; Wyler, D.

    2010-03-01

    In the popular littlest Higgs model, T-parity can be broken by Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms induced by a strongly coupled UV completion. On the other hand, certain models with multiple scalar multiplets (called moose models) permit the implementation of T-parity such that it is not broken by the WZW terms. Here we present a concrete realization of such a model, and discuss the phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider, in particular differences with respect to the littlest Higgs model.

  20. Linear moose model with pairs of degenerate gauge boson triplets

    SciTech Connect

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Coradeschi, Francesco; De Curtis, Stefania; Dominici, Daniele

    2008-05-01

    The possibility of a strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector, as opposed to the weakly interacting light Higgs of the standard model, is not yet ruled out by experiments. In this paper we make an extensive study of a deconstructed model (or ''moose'' model) providing an effective description of such a strong symmetry breaking sector, and show its compatibility with experimental data for a wide portion of the model parameter space. The model is a direct generalization of the previously proposed D-BESS model.

  1. MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ALC13 INHIBITION OF AGONIST-STIMULATED INOSITOL PHOSPHATE ACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible mechanisms of AlC13-induced inhibition of agonist-stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation were investigated using rat brain cortex slices, synaptosomes or homogenates. nder conditions in which AlC13 inhibits carbachol (CARB) stimulated IP accumulation (Gp-mediate...

  2. Control of interfaces in Al-C fibre composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrier, S. G.; Blue, C. A.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The interface of Al-C fiber composite was modified by coating a silver layer on the surface of carbon fibres prior to making composites, in an attempt to improve the wettability between molten aluminum and carbon fibers during infiltration. An electroless plating technique was adopted and perfected to provide a homogeneous silver coating on the carbon fiber surface. Al-C fiber composites were prepared using a liquid infiltration technique in a vacuum. It was found that silver coating promoted the wetting between aluminum and carbon fibers, particularly with polyacrylonitrile-base carbon fibers. However, due to rapid dissolution of silver in molten aluminum, it was believed that the improved infiltration was not due to the wetting behavior between molten aluminum and silver. The cleaning of the fiber surface and the preservation of the cleaned carbon surface with silver coating was considered to be the prime reason for the improved wettability. Interfacial reactions between aluminum and carbon fibers were observed. Amorphous carbon was found to react more with aluminum than graphitic carbon. This is believed to be because of the inertness of the graphitic basal planes.

  3. Helping Kids Succeed--Alaskan Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Alaska School Boards, Juneau.

    The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for individuals helping to make Alaskan communities places where youth can grow up to be strong, capable, and caring. The book is built around the Search Institute's Youth Developmental Assets Framework, which is comprised of the key building blocks in youth development. The book notes 40 assets that…

  4. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  5. The Regional Geochemistry of Soils and Willow in a Metamorphic Bedrock Terrain, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2005, and Its Possible Relation to Moose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Lamothe, P.J.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Drew, L.J.; Maier, J.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 willow leaves (all variants of Salix pulchra) and A-, B-, and C-horizon soils were sampled at 10 sites along a transect near the Quarry prospect and 11 sites along a transect near the Big Hurrah mine for the purpose of defining the spatial variability of elements and the regional geochemistry of willow and soil over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks potentially high in cadmium (Cd). Willow, a favorite browse of moose (Alces alces), has been shown by various investigators to bioaccumulate Cd. Moose in this region show clinical signs of tooth wear and breakage and are declining in population for unknown reasons. A trace element imbalance in their diet has been proposed as a possible cause for these observations. Cadmium, in high enough concentrations, is one dietary trace element that potentially could produce such symptoms. We report both the summary statistics for elements in willow and soils and the results of an unbalanced, one-way, hierarchical analysis of variance (ANOVA) (general linear model, GLM), which was constructed to measure the geochemical variability in willow (and soil) at various distance scales across the Paleozoic geologic unit high in bioavailable Cd. All of the geochemical data are presented in the Appendices. The two locations are separated by approximately 80 kilometers (km); sites within a location are approximately 0.5 kilometers apart. Duplicate soil samples collected within a site were separated by 0.05 km or slightly less. Results of the GLM are element specific and range from having very little regional variability to having most of their variance at the top (greater than 80 km) level. For willow, a significant proportion of the total variance occurred at the 'between locations' level for ash yield, barium (Ba), Cd, calcium (Ca), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). For soils, concentrations of elements in all three soil horizons were similar in that most of the variability in the geochemical data occurred at the 'between locations

  6. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

  7. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  8. Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives Since 1867.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Thomas Robert

    The study compiles and records the history of the administration of education for Alaskan natives since the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1876. Chapter 1, An Overview of the Development of the Alaskan Native, covers the development of missionary and government schools, the growth and development of Native education from 1906…

  9. Electroweak corrections and unitarity in linear moose models

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; He, H.-J.; Kurachi, Masafumi; Tanabashi, Masaharu

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the form of the corrections to the electroweak interactions in the class of Higgsless models which can be deconstructed to a chain of SU(2) gauge groups adjacent to a chain of U(1) gauge groups, and with the fermions coupled to any single SU(2) group and to any single U(1) group along the chain. The primary advantage of our technique is that the size of corrections to electroweak processes can be directly related to the spectrum of vector bosons ('KK modes'). In Higgsless models, this spectrum is constrained by unitarity. Our methods also allow for arbitrary background 5D geometry, spatially dependent gauge-couplings, and brane kinetic energy terms. We find that, due to the size of corrections to electroweak processes in any unitary theory, Higgsless models with localized fermions are disfavored by precision electroweak data. Although we stress our results as they apply to continuum Higgsless 5D models, they apply to any linear moose model including those with only a few extra vector bosons. Our calculations of electroweak corrections also apply directly to the electroweak gauge sector of 5D theories with a bulk scalar Higgs boson; the constraints arising from unitarity do not apply in this case.

  10. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for the Alaskan Arctic from four recent model intercomparison projects - NACP (North American Carbon Program) site and regional syntheses, TRENDY (Trends in net land atmosphere carbon exchanges), and WETCHIMP (Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project) - we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) for each quantity that follows. Mean annual absolute uncertainty was largest for soil carbon (14.0 ± 9.2 kg C m-2), then gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01 ± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), and CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). There were no consistent spatial patterns in the larger Alaskan Arctic and boreal regional carbon stocks and fluxes, with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic and larger boreal region.

  11. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  12. High-pressure x-ray diffraction study of Ta4AlC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoun, Bouchaib; Saxena, S. K.; El-Raghy, T.; Barsoum, M. W.

    2006-05-01

    Using a synchrotron radiation source and a diamond anvil cell, we measured the pressure dependence of the lattice parameters of a recently discovered phase, Ta4AlC3. This phase adopts a hexagonal structure with the space group P63/mmc; at room conditions, the a and c parameters are 3.087(5) and 23.70(4)Å, respectively. Up to a pressure of 47GPa, no phase transformations were observed. Like Ta2AlC, but unlike many related phases such as Ti4AlN3, Ti3SiC2, Ti3GeC2, and Zr2InC, the compressibility of Ta4AlC3 along the c and a axes are almost identical. The bulk modulus of Ta4AlC3, 261±2GPa, is ≈4% greater than that of Ta2AlC. Both, however, are ≈37% lower than the 345±9GPa of TaC.

  13. Structure of V{sub 2}AlC studied by theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Jochen M.; Mertens, Raphael; Music, Denis

    2006-01-01

    We have studied V{sub 2}AlC (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, prototype Cr{sub 2}AlC) by ab initio calculations. The density of states (DOS) of V{sub 2}AlC for antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and paramagnetic configurations have been discussed. According to the analysis of DOS and cohesive energy, no significant stability differences between spin-polarized and non-spin-polarized configurations were found. Based on the partial DOS analysis, V{sub 2}AlC can be classified as a strongly coupled nanolaminate according to our previous work [Z. Sun, D. Music, R. Ahuja, S. Li, and J. M. Schneider, Phys. Rev. B 70, 092102 (2004)]. Furthermore, this phase has been synthesized in the form of thin films by magnetron sputtering. The equilibrium volume, determined by x-ray diffraction, is in good agreement with the theoretical data, implying that ab initio calculations provide an accurate description of V{sub 2}AlC.

  14. MOOSE: A parallel computational framework for coupled systems of nonlinear equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; Chris Newman; Glen Hansen; Damien Lebrun-Grandie

    2009-10-01

    Systems of coupled, nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) often arise in simulation of nuclear processes. MOOSE: Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment, a parallel computational framework targeted at the solution of such systems, is presented. As opposed to traditional data-flow oriented computational frameworks, MOOSE is instead founded on the mathematical principle of Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) solution methods. Utilizing the mathematical structure present in JFNK, physics expressions are modularized into `Kernels,'' allowing for rapid production of new simulation tools. In addition, systems are solved implicitly and fully coupled, employing physics based preconditioning, which provides great flexibility even with large variance in time scales. A summary of the mathematics, an overview of the structure of MOOSE, and several representative solutions from applications built on the framework are presented.

  15. MOOSE: A PARALLEL COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR COUPLED SYSTEMS OF NONLINEAR EQUATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    G. Hansen; C. Newman; D. Gaston

    2009-05-01

    Systems of coupled, nonlinear partial di?erential equations often arise in sim- ulation of nuclear processes. MOOSE: Multiphysics Ob ject Oriented Simulation Environment, a parallel computational framework targeted at solving these systems is presented. As opposed to traditional data / ?ow oriented com- putational frameworks, MOOSE is instead founded on mathematics based on Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK). Utilizing the mathematical structure present in JFNK, physics are modularized into “Kernels” allowing for rapid production of new simulation tools. In addition, systems are solved fully cou- pled and fully implicit employing physics based preconditioning allowing for a large amount of ?exibility even with large variance in time scales. Background on the mathematics, an inspection of the structure of MOOSE and several rep- resentative solutions from applications built on the framework are presented.

  16. Redwing: A MOOSE application for coupling MPACT and BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick N. Gleicher; Michael Rose; Tom Downar

    2014-11-01

    Fuel performance and whole core neutron transport programs are often used to analyze fuel behavior as it is depleted in a reactor. For fuel performance programs, internal models provide the local intra-pin power density, fast neutron flux, burnup, and fission rate density, which are needed for a fuel performance analysis. The fuel performance internal models have a number of limitations. These include effects on the intra-pin power distribution by nearby assembly elements, such as water channels and control rods, and the further limitation of applicability to a specified fuel type such as low enriched UO2. In addition, whole core neutron transport codes need an accurate intra-pin temperature distribution in order to calculate neutron cross sections. Fuel performance simulations are able to model the intra-pin fuel displacement as the fuel expands and densifies. These displacements must be accurately modeled in order to capture the eventual mechanical contact of the fuel and the clad; the correct radial gap width is needed for an accurate calculation of the temperature distribution of the fuel rod. Redwing is a MOOSE-based application that enables coupling between MPACT and BISON for transport and fuel performance coupling. MPACT is a 3D neutron transport and reactor core simulator based on the method of characteristics (MOC). The development of MPACT began at the University of Michigan (UM) and now is under the joint development of ORNL and UM as part of the DOE CASL Simulation Hub. MPACT is able to model the effects of local assembly elements and is able calculate intra-pin quantities such as the local power density on a volumetric mesh for any fuel type. BISON is a fuel performance application of Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), which is under development at Idaho National Laboratory. BISON is able to solve the nonlinearly coupled mechanical deformation and heat transfer finite element equations that model a fuel element as it is

  17. On the heat capacities of M2AlC (M=Ti,V,Cr) ternary carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drulis, Monika K.; Drulis, H.; Gupta, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; El-Raghy, T.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the heat capacities cp of bulk polycrystalline samples of Ti2AlC, V2AlC, and Cr2AlC in the 3-260 K temperature range. Given the structural and chemical similarities of these compounds it is not surprising that the cp's and their temperature dependencies were quite similar. Nevertheless, at all temperatures the heat capacity of Cr2AlC was higher than the other two. The density of states at the Fermi level were 3.9, 7.5, and 14.6 (eV unit cell)-1 for Ti2AlC, V2AlC, and Cr2AlC, respectively. The results obtained are analyzed using the Debye and Einstein model approximations for cp. Good description of cp is obtained if one assumes that nine phonon modes vibrate according to the Debye model approximation whereas the remaining 3 of 12 modes expected for M2AlC formula unit fulfill an Einstein-like phonon vibration pattern. Debye temperatures θD describing acoustic phonon and Einstein temperature θE describing optical phonon contributions have been estimated for the studied compounds. The Debye temperatures are reasonably high and fall in the range of 600-700 K. A linear dependence was found between the number of d electrons along the row Ti, V, and Cr and the density of states at the Fermi level.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  20. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  1. ALC/50/ values for some polymeric materials. [Apparent Lethal Concentration fire toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Apparent lethal concentrations for 50 per cent of the test animals within a 30-min exposure period (ALC/50/) were determined for seventeen samples of polymeric materials, using the screening test method. The materials evaluated included resin-glass composites, film composites, and miscellaneous resins. ALC(50) values, based on weight of original sample charged, ranged from 24 to 110 mg/l. Modified phenolic resins seemed to exhibit less toxicity than the baseline epoxy resins. Among the film composites evaluated, only flame modified polyvinyl fluoride appeared to exhibit less toxicity than the baseline polyvinyl fluoride film.

  2. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, A. M.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) against the mean (x\\bar) for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x\\bar) was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), then net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m-2). The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity) analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β) and climate (γ), which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  3. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  4. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat. PMID:24712530

  5. Moose as a vector for non-indigenous plant species in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  6. Introducing ``The MOOSE,'' the Menu of Outreach Opportunities for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been working with the American Astronomical Society to develop a new program of outreach training called “AAS Astronomy Ambassadors. ” We describe a key on-line resource from this project, which is now freely available for everyone doing astronomy education and outreach at http://aas.org/outreach/moose.

  7. White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  8. Mixed Bloods of Moose Factory, 1730-1981: A Socio-Economic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Carol

    1982-01-01

    In 1670 the British parliament granted a charter giving the Hudson's Bay Company a monopolistic right to trade furs in the lands draining into the Hudson and James Bays; this enactment would alter permanently the way of life of the native inhabitants of the fur-rich lands. The first fur trading post was Moose Factory. (ERB)

  9. Moose: An Open-Source Framework to Enable Rapid Development of Collaborative, Multi-Scale, Multi-Physics Simulation Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, A. E.; Permann, C.; Peterson, J. W.; Gaston, D.; Andrs, D.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL)-developed Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE; www.mooseframework.org), is an open-source, parallel computational framework for enabling the solution of complex, fully implicit multiphysics systems. MOOSE provides a set of computational tools that scientists and engineers can use to create sophisticated multiphysics simulations. Applications built using MOOSE have computed solutions for chemical reaction and transport equations, computational fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, heat conduction, mesoscale materials modeling, geomechanics, and others. To facilitate the coupling of diverse and highly-coupled physical systems, MOOSE employs the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method when solving the coupled nonlinear systems of equations arising in multiphysics applications. The MOOSE framework is written in C++, and leverages other high-quality, open-source scientific software packages such as LibMesh, Hypre, and PETSc. MOOSE uses a "hybrid parallel" model which combines both shared memory (thread-based) and distributed memory (MPI-based) parallelism to ensure efficient resource utilization on a wide range of computational hardware. MOOSE-based applications are inherently modular, which allows for simulation expansion (via coupling of additional physics modules) and the creation of multi-scale simulations. Any application developed with MOOSE supports running (in parallel) any other MOOSE-based application. Each application can be developed independently, yet easily communicate with other applications (e.g., conductivity in a slope-scale model could be a constant input, or a complete phase-field micro-structure simulation) without additional code being written. This method of development has proven effective at INL and expedites the development of sophisticated, sustainable, and collaborative simulation tools.

  10. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  11. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  12. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  13. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  14. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  15. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 3: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    The third book in a series of natural science handbooks for Alaskan students focuses on Alaskan plantlife. The first chapter, on trees, gives general information about trees and explains how to identify and locate trees in the three main Alaskan tree families: pine, willow, and birch. The second chapter, on plants, describes 14 kinds of edible…

  6. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  7. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  9. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  7. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  9. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  12. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  14. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  16. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  18. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  19. Alcadein Cleavages by Amyloid β-Precursor Protein (APP) α- and γ-Secretases Generate Small Peptides, p3-Alcs, Indicating Alzheimer Disease-related γ-Secretase Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Saori; Fujishige, Sayaka; Araki, Yoichi; Kato, Naoko; Araseki, Masahiko; Nishimura, Masaki; Hartmann, Dieter; Saftig, Paul; Fahrenholz, Falk; Taniguchi, Miyako; Urakami, Katsuya; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Martins, Ralph N.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Maeda, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tohru; Nakaya, Tadashi; Gandy, Sam; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Alcadeins (Alcs) constitute a family of neuronal type I membrane proteins, designated Alcα, Alcβ, and Alcγ. The Alcs express in neurons dominantly and largely colocalize with the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. Alcs and APP show an identical function as a cargo receptor of kinesin-1. Moreover, proteolytic processing of Alc proteins appears highly similar to that of APP. We found that APP α-secretases ADAM 10 and ADAM 17 primarily cleave Alc proteins and trigger the subsequent secondary intramembranous cleavage of Alc C-terminal fragments by a presenilin-dependent γ-secretase complex, thereby generating “APP p3-like” and non-aggregative Alc peptides (p3-Alcs). We determined the complete amino acid sequence of p3-Alcα, p3-Alcβ, and p3-Alcγ, whose major species comprise 35, 37, and 31 amino acids, respectively, in human cerebrospinal fluid. We demonstrate here that variant p3-Alc C termini are modulated by FAD-linked presenilin 1 mutations increasing minor β-amyloid species Aβ42, and these mutations alter the level of minor p3-Alc species. However, the magnitudes of C-terminal alteration of p3-Alcα, p3-Alcβ, and p3-Alcγ were not equivalent, suggesting that one type of γ-secretase dysfunction does not appear in the phenotype equivalently in the cleavage of type I membrane proteins. Because these C-terminal alterations are detectable in human cerebrospinal fluid, the use of a substrate panel, including Alcs and APP, may be effective to detect γ-secretase dysfunction in the prepathogenic state of Alzheimer disease subjects. PMID:19864413

  20. Lattice instability of V2AlC at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, ZeJin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jin; Wang, Zhao; Guo, AiMin; Linghu, RongFeng; Cheng, XinLu; Yang, XiangDong

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties of nanolaminate V2AlC by using the ab initio pseudopotential total energy method. The axial compressibility shows that the c axis is always stiffer than a axis. The elastic constants revealed the structural instability at about 500 and 732 GPa. Furthermore, elastic constants C 44 reached its maximum at about 550 GPa, differing with the other four C 11, C 12, C 13 and C 33 constants. The Poisson's ratio investigations demonstrated that a higher ionic or weaker covalent contribution in intra-atomic bonding and the degree of ionicity increases with pressure. The G/ B and B/ C 44 investigations revealed that V2AlC is brittle and the brittleness decreases with pressure. Also, we found that V2AlC is elastic anisotropic materials and the degree of anisotropy rapidly rises with pressure. Study on Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameter observed weak temperature and strong pressure responses, whereas the sensitive dependence in the thermal expansion coefficient and Helmholtz free energy are clearly seen.

  1. High-temperature neutron diffraction and first-principles study of temperature-dependent crystal structures and atomic vibrations in Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Ti5Al2C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Nina J.; Vogel, Sven C.; Caspi, El'ad N.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2013-05-01

    Herein we report on the thermal expansions and temperature-dependent crystal structures of select ternary carbide Mn +1AXn (MAX) phases in the Ti-Al-C phase diagram in the 100-1000 °C temperature range. A bulk sample containing 38(±1) wt. % Ti5Al2C3 ("523"), 32(±1) wt. % Ti2AlC ("211"), 18(±1) wt. % Ti3AlC2 ("312"), and 12(±1) wt. % (Ti0.5Al0.5)Al is studied by Rietveld analysis of high-temperature neutron diffraction data. We also report on the same for a single-phase sample of Ti3AlC2 for comparison. The thermal expansions of all the MAX phases studied are higher in the c direction than in the a direction. The bulk expansion coefficients—9.3(±0.1)×10-6 K-1 for Ti5Al2C3, 9.2(±0.1) ×10-6 K-1 for Ti2AlC, and 9.0(±0.1)×10-6 K-1 for Ti3AlC2—are comparable within one standard deviation of each other. In Ti5Al2C3, the dimensions of the Ti-C octahedra for the 211-like and 312-like regions are comparable to the Ti-C octahedra in Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2, respectively. The isotropic mean-squared atomic displacement parameters are highest for the Al atoms in all three phases, and the values predicted from first-principles phonon calculations agree well with those measured.

  2. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  3. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  4. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  5. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  6. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  7. Definition of Alaskan Aviation Training Requirements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, M. K.; And Others

    Because of high accident rates and the unique conditions faced in Arctic flying, a project was conducted to develop a training program for airline pilots flying over Alaska. Data were gathered, through the critical incident method in conjunction with traditional job-analysis procedures, about how experienced Alaskan pilots learned to cope with the…

  8. A new tymovirus from a native Alaskan plant, Mertensia paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseased plants growing at the interface of managed and natural ecosystems may provide reservoirs for spread of diverse plant viruses into domestic and native plants. Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don, family Boraginaceae, is a native Alaskan plant that is naturally distributed along roadsides, in ...

  9. Alaskan Manpower and the Petroleum-Related Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    This article, in two parts, presents information as a foundation for an integrated approach to utilization and employment of Alaskan manpower in the construction and maintenance of the trans-Alaska pipeline, and the continuing exploration and development of the petroleum fields. The four primary manpower sources for petroleum related employment in…

  10. Rural Alaskan High School Boys' and Girls' Attitudes toward Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily; Culbertson, Jeanne

    Questionnaires were administered to 73 sophomore and senior high school students in 3 isolated rural Alaska towns (Adak, Unalaska, and Dillingham) to study the effects of socio-economic factors on rural Alaskan youth's educational aspirations and expectations. Because of a military-supported economy, Adak was a typical middle class American…

  11. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Communications. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Elaine; Opel, Kathleen

    The STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th grades on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been…

  12. SOME EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM ON NEARSHORE ALASKAN MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to better understand the effects of chronic, low-level oil pollution on nearshore Alaskan marine organisms. The bivalve mollusc Macoma balthica accumulated hydrocarbons during 180 days of continuous exposure to Prudhoe Bay crude oil in fl...

  13. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  14. Novel nuclear protein ALC-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 is expressed in vascular and mesocarp cells in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2008-07-01

    Pod shattering is an agronomical trait that is a result of the coordinated action of cell differentiation and separation. In Arabidopsis, pod shattering is controlled by a complex genetic network in which ALCATRAZ (ALC), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family, is critical for cell separation during fruit dehiscence. Herein, we report the identification of ALC-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 (ACI1) via the yeast two-hybrid screen. ACI1 encodes a nuclear protein with a lysine-rich domain and a C-terminal serine-rich domain. ACI1 is mainly expressed in the vascular system throughout the plant and mesocarp of the valve in siliques. Our data showed that ACI1 interacts strongly with the N-terminal portion of ALC in yeast cells and in plant cells in the nucleus as demonstrated by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Both ACI1 and ALC share an overlapping expression pattern, suggesting that they likely function together in planta. However, no detectable phenotype was found in plants with reduced ACI1 expression by RNA interference technology, suggesting that ACI1 may be redundant. Taken together, these data indicate that ALC may interact with ACI1 and its homologs to control cell separation during fruit dehiscence in Arabidopsis. PMID:18713402

  15. Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a ''triangle moose'' model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  16. High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments and ab initio calculation of Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Wu, Xiang; Nickel, Klaus Georg; Chen, Jixin; Presser, Volker

    2009-07-01

    The structural stability of the layered ternary carbide Ti3AlC2 was studied up to 35 GPa using x-ray diffraction with a Merrill-Basset-type diamond anvil cell and ab initio calculations. The structure (P63/mmc) was stable in the present pressure range without any phase transition. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was employed to fit the experimental pressure-volume date, from which the isothermal bulk modulus of Ti3AlC2 was determined as 156±5 GPa, which was also supported by theoretical results. In addition, theoretical calculations described anisotropic pressure dependences of the lattice parameters, electronic structure, and bonding properties of Ti3AlC2.

  17. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Kohse, Gordon; Sindelar, Robert L.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation - up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ± 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 × 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.

  18. Hereditary encephalomyelopathy and polyneuropathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A

    2009-12-01

    An Alaskan husky puppy was examined for a neurologic disease which began at six weeks of age with generalised paresis that progressed resulting in recumbency by 18 weeks. Thoracic limbs primarily exhibited lower motor neuron signs that included distal muscle atrophy and persistent elbow and carpal flexion that resisted manual extension. Pelvic limb signs primarily exhibited upper motor neuron and general proprioceptive deficits, but also included lower motor neuron signs. Abnormal vocalisation suggested a laryngeal paresis. Histopathologic lesions included a diffuse axonopathy and secondary demyelination in the nerves of the limbs and larynx and a similar bilaterally symmetrical degeneration in the spinal cord white matter suggestive of a dying back axonopathy. In addition, a degenerative process was present in nuclei in the brain stem and cerebellum. Recognition of this disease through clinical and pathologic examination in other related Alaskan Huskies suggested an autosomal recessive inherited disorder. PMID:19954445

  19. Ab initio study of basal slip in Nb(2)AlC.

    PubMed

    Music, Denis; Sun, Zhimei; Voevodin, Andrey A; Schneider, Jochen M

    2006-05-01

    Using ab initio calculations, we have studied shearing in Nb(2)AlC, where NbC and Al layers are interleaved. The stress-strain analysis of this deformation mode reveals Nb-Al bond breaking, while the Nb-C bond length decreases by 4.1%. Furthermore, there is no evidence for phase transformation during deformation. This is consistent with basal slip and may be understood on the basis of the electronic structure: bands below the Fermi level are responsible for the dd bonding between NbC basal planes and only a single band with a weak dd interaction is not resistant to shearing, while all other bands are unaffected. The Al-Nb bonding character can be described as mainly metallic with weak covalent-ionic contributions. Our study demonstrates that Al layers move with relative ease under shear strain. Phase conservation upon shearing is unusual for carbides and may be due to the layered nature of the phase studied. Here, we describe the electronic origin of basal slip in Nb(2)AlC, the atomic mechanism which enables reversible plasticity in this class of materials. PMID:21690790

  20. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  1. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brent R.; Mills, Kenneth J.; Middel, Kevin R.; Benson, John F.; Obbard, Martyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates. PMID:27082234

  2. Continuous integration for concurrent MOOSE framework and application development on GitHub

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, Andrew E.; Peterson, John W.; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J.; Andrs, David; Miller, Jason M.

    2015-11-20

    For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc.) in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., Journal of Open Research Software vol. 2, article e10, 2014). In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expanding and diversifying the pool of current active and potential future contributors on the project. Despite this recent growth, the same philosophy of concurrent framework and application development continues to guide the project’s development roadmap. Several specific practices, including techniques for managing multiple repositories, conducting automated regression testing, and implementing a cascading build process are discussed in this short paper. Furthermore, special attention is given to describing the manner in which these practices naturally synergize with the GitHub API and GitHub-specific features such as issue tracking, Pull Requests, and project forks.

  3. Continuous integration for concurrent MOOSE framework and application development on GitHub

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slaughter, Andrew E.; Peterson, John W.; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J.; Andrs, David; Miller, Jason M.

    2015-11-20

    For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc.) in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., Journal of Open Research Software vol. 2, article e10, 2014). In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expanding and diversifying the pool of current active and potential future contributors on the project. Despite this recent growth, the same philosophy of concurrent framework and application development continues to guide the project’s development roadmap. Severalmore » specific practices, including techniques for managing multiple repositories, conducting automated regression testing, and implementing a cascading build process are discussed in this short paper. Furthermore, special attention is given to describing the manner in which these practices naturally synergize with the GitHub API and GitHub-specific features such as issue tracking, Pull Requests, and project forks.« less

  4. Effects of inbreeding on fitness-related traits in a small isolated moose population

    PubMed Central

    Haanes, Hallvard; Markussen, Stine S; Herfindal, Ivar; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Heim, Morten; Midthjell, Liv; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding can affect fitness-related traits at different life history stages and may interact with environmental variation to induce even larger effects. We used genetic parentage assignment based on 22 microsatellite loci to determine a 25 year long pedigree for a newly established island population of moose with 20–40 reproducing individuals annually. We used the pedigree to calculate individual inbreeding coefficients and examined for effects of individual inbreeding (f) and heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We found negative effects of f on birth date, calf body mass and twinning rate. The relationship between f and calf body mass and twinning rate were found to be separate but weaker after accounting for birth date. We found no support for an inbreeding effect on the age-specific lifetime reproductive success of females. The influence of f on birth date was related to climatic conditions during the spring prior to birth, indicating that calves with a low f were born earlier after a cold spring than calves with high f. In years with a warm spring, calf f did not affect birth date. The results suggest that severe inbreeding in moose has both indirect effects on fitness through delayed birth and lower juvenile body mass, as well as separate direct effects, as there still was a significant relationship between f and twinning rate after accounting for birth date and body mass as calf. Consequently, severe inbreeding as found in the study population may have consequences for population growth and extinction risk. PMID:24324873

  5. VARIABILITY IN DIATOM AND CHRYSOPHYTE ASSEMBLAGES AND INFERRED PH: PALEOLIMNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF BIG MOOSE LAKE, NEW YORK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors measured variability in the composition of diatom and chrysophyte assemblages, and the pH inferred from these assemblages, in sediment samples from Big Moose Lake, in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. eplicate samples were analyzed from (1) a single sediment. core...

  6. Use of LANDSAT imagery for wildlife habitat mapping in northeast and eastcentral Alaska. [winter and summer moose range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lent, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Winter and summer moose range maps of three selected areas were produced (1:63,360 scale). The analytic approach is very similar to modified clustering. Preliminary results indicate that this method is not only more accurate but considerably less expensive than supervised classification techniques.

  7. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  8. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  9. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  10. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  11. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  12. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  13. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  14. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  15. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  16. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  17. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  3. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  4. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  5. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  6. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  7. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  17. Oxidation Resistance of Materials Based on Ti3AlC2 Nanolaminate at 600 °C in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivasyshyn, Andrij; Ostash, Orest; Prikhna, Tatiana; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Basyuk, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation behavior of Ti3AlC2-based materials had been investigated at 600 °C in static air for 1000 h. It was shown that the intense increase of weight gain per unit surface area for sintered material with porosity of 22 % attributed to oxidation of the outer surface of the specimen and surfaces of pores in the bulk material. The oxidation kinetics of the hot-pressed Ti3AlC2-based material with 1 % porosity remarkably increased for the first 15 h and then slowly decreased. The weight gain per unit surface area for this material was 1.0 mg/cm2 after exposition for 1000 h. The intense initial oxidation of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be eliminated by pre-oxidation treatment at 1200 °C in air for 2 h. As a result, the weight gain per unit surface area for the pre-oxidized material did not exceed 0.11 mg/cm2 after 1000 h of exposition at 600 °C in air. It was demonstrated that the oxidation resistance of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be significantly improved by niobium addition.

  18. An Authentic Voice in the Technocratic Wilderness: Alaskan Natives and the "Tundra Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick; James, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Examines a pair of critical challenges to the cultural integrity of Alaskan Natives around 1960 as pivotal episodes in the process of native resistance to U. S. dominance. Historically evaluates the fragility of native culture in terms of the political, scientific, and economic interests expressed in the mainstream Alaskan press, particularly the…

  19. Sled Dogs, Musher Math, and More: Theme Teaching and the Alaskan Iditarod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park-Seldomridge, Anne

    1995-01-01

    A teacher of upper elementary deaf students describes a multidisciplinary study unit focused on the Alaskan dogsled race, the Iditarod. Activities included studying Alaskan geography and history, following specific racers (mushers) through daily updates faxed from Alaska, writing letters to mushers, calculating math facts related to the race,…

  20. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  1. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  2. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  3. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  4. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  5. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  6. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  7. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  8. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  9. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  10. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Kohse, Gordon; Sindelar, Robert L.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ±more » 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.« less

  11. Carbon diffusion in alumina from carbon and Ti{sub 2}AlC thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Guenette, Mathew C.; Tucker, Mark D.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; McKenzie, David R.; Ionescu, Mihail

    2011-04-15

    Carbon diffusion is observed in single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates from carbon and Ti{sub 2}AlC thin films synthesized via pulsed cathodic arc deposition. Diffusion was found to occur at substrate temperatures of 570 deg. C and above. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is estimated to be of the order 3x10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/s for deposition temperatures in the 570-770{sup o}C range by examining elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) elemental depth profiles. It is suggested that an appropriate diffusion barrier may be useful when depositing carbon containing thin films on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates at high temperatures.

  12. Cold Spraying of Ti2AlC MAX-Phase Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzmann, H.; Gärtner, F.; Höche, D.; Blawert, C.; Klassen, T.

    2013-03-01

    Cold spraying was applied to deposit Ti2AlC on different substrate materials. The study of single impacts by scanning electron microscopy indicates that bonding of the first layer is mainly attributed to the deformation and shear instabilities occurring at substrate sites. Nevertheless, as compared to the feedstock particles, the splats appear flattened by the impact. This deformation seems to be attributed not only to local, internal shear but also to internal fracture. By applying up to five passes under optimized spray parameters, Ti2AlC-coatings with thicknesses of about 110-155 μm were achieved. XRD analysis of the coating proved that the crystallographic structure of the feedstock was retained during cold spraying. The coating microstructures show rather low porosity of about <2%, but several cracks between spray layers. Successful build-up of more than one layer can probably be attributed to local deformation of the highly anisotropic Ti2AlC-phase.

  13. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  14. (Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklind, C.A.; Bennett, F.L. . Inst. of Northern Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology.

  15. Dietetics training for American Indians and Alaskan natives.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M Y; Cornelius, M S; Johnson, C I

    1983-07-01

    The response to training has been enthusiastic. Even in these times of limited funds, applications to attend training exceed the available space. From the first class in October 1968 through September 1982, nearly 1,300 Indian and Alaskan native hospital food service employees and employees representing tribal programs throughout the country have received training from the courses and workshops provided by the Nutrition and Dietetics Training Program. With the increasing involvement of Native Americans in their own health care programs, the need for training in foods and nutrition will continue. PMID:6863784

  16. Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Antonson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration. PMID:26600095

  17. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25341030

  18. Gonorrhea among drug users: an Alaskan versus a national sample.

    PubMed

    Paschane, D M; Fisher, D G; Cagle, H H; Fenaughty, A M

    1998-05-01

    The study described here investigates the replicability of gender-specific risk profiles for gonorrhea based on an Alaskan sample compared to a U.S. national sample of drug users at risk for HIV infection. The Alaska sample (interviewed at a field station in Anchorage, Alaska; N=1,049) and the national sample (interviewed at 18 sites other than Alaska; N=17,619) consisted of cocaine smokers and injection drug users not in drug treatment. A history of gonorrhea infection was self-reported and coded as ever or never. The Anchorage and national risk profile for men included the following factors: (a) history of intranasal or parenteral cocaine use, (b) being black versus nonblack, (c) being older, (d) income from illegal activity, and (e) history of amphetamine use. The Anchorage and national risk profiles for women included the following factors: (a) trading sex for money, (b) being Native American versus non-Native American, and (c) trading sex for drugs. The Anchorage model for women included perceived homelessness as a factor, but it was not retained in the national model. The extent of the replicability of these models illustrates the generalizability of Alaskan findings to other U.S. drug-using populations. The authors also discuss the implications of these findings for disease prevention. PMID:9643466

  19. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  20. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  1. (Nbx, Zr1-x)4AlC3 MAX Phase Solid Solutions: Processing, Mechanical Properties, and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Lapauw, Thomas; Tytko, Darius; Vanmeensel, Kim; Huang, Shuigen; Choi, Pyuck-Pa; Raabe, Dierk; Caspi, El'ad N; Ozeri, Offir; To Baben, Moritz; Schneider, Jochen M; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The solubility of zirconium (Zr) in the Nb4AlC3 host lattice was investigated by combining the experimental synthesis of (Nbx, Zr1-x)4AlC3 solid solutions with density functional theory calculations. High-purity solid solutions were prepared by reactive hot pressing of NbH0.89, ZrH2, Al, and C starting powder mixtures. The crystal structure of the produced solid solutions was determined using X-ray and neutron diffraction. The limited Zr solubility (maximum of 18.5% of the Nb content in the host lattice) in Nb4AlC3 observed experimentally is consistent with the calculated minimum in the energy of mixing. The lattice parameters and microstructure were evaluated over the entire solubility range, while the chemical composition of (Nb0.85, Zr0.15)4AlC3 was mapped using atom probe tomography. The hardness, Young's modulus, and fracture toughness at room temperature as well as the high-temperature flexural strength and E-modulus of (Nb0.85, Zr0.15)4AlC3 were investigated and compared to those of pure Nb4AlC3. Quite remarkably, an appreciable increase in fracture toughness was observed from 6.6 ± 0.1 MPa/m(1/2) for pure Nb4AlC3 to 10.1 ± 0.3 MPa/m(1/2) for the (Nb0.85, Zr0.15)4AlC3 solid solution. PMID:27159119

  2. MOOSE: A Multi-Spectral Observatory Of Sensitive EMCCDs for innovative research in space physics and aeronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Hampton, D. L.; Trondsen, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Multi-Spectral Observatory Of Sensitive EMCCDs (MOOSE) consists of 5 imaging systems and is the result of an NSF-funded Major Research Instrumentation project. The main objective of MOOSE is to provide a resource to all members of the scientific community that have interests in imaging low-light-level phenomena, such as aurora, airglow, and meteors. Each imager consists of an Andor DU-888 Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD), combined with a telecentric optics section, made by Keo Scientific Ltd., with a selection of available angular fields of view. During the northern hemisphere winter the system is typically based and operated at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska, but any or all imagers can be shipped anywhere in individual stand-alone cases. We will discuss the main components of the MOOSE project, including the imagers, optics, lenses and filters, as well as the Linux-based control software that enables remote operation. We will also discuss the calibration of the imagers along with the initial deployments and testing done. We are requesting community input regarding operational modes, such as filter and field of view combinations, frame rates, and potentially moving some imagers to other locations, either for tomography or for larger spatial coverage. In addition, given the large volume of auroral image data already available, we are encouraging collaborations for which we will freely distribute the data and any analysis tools already developed. Most significantly, initial science highlights relating to aurora, airglow and meteors will be discussed in the context of the creative and innovative ways that the MOOSE observatory can be used in order to address a new realm of science topics, previously unachievable with traditional single imager systems.

  3. Discovery of carbon-vacancy ordering in Nb4AlC3-x under the guidance of first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Wu, Erdong; Zhou, Yanchun

    2015-09-01

    The conventional wisdom to tailor the properties of binary transition metal carbides by order-disorder phase transformation has been inapplicable for the machinable ternary carbides (MTCs) due to the absence of ordered phase in bulk sample. Here, the presence of an ordered phase with structural carbon vacancies in Nb4AlC3-x (x ≈ 0.3) ternary carbide is predicted by first-principles calculations, and experimentally identified for the first time by transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with the first-principles prediction, the ordered phase, o-Nb4AlC3, crystalizes in P63/mcm with a = 5.423 Å, c = 24.146 Å. Coexistence of ordered (o-Nb4AlC3) and disordered (Nb4AlC3-x) phase brings about abundant domains with irregular shape in the bulk sample. Both heating and electron irradiation can induce the transformation from o-Nb4AlC3 to Nb4AlC3-x. Our findings may offer substantial insights into the roles of carbon vacancies in the structure stability and order-disorder phase transformation in MTCs.

  4. Discovery of carbon-vacancy ordering in Nb4AlC3–x under the guidance of first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Wu, Erdong; Zhou, Yanchun

    2015-01-01

    The conventional wisdom to tailor the properties of binary transition metal carbides by order-disorder phase transformation has been inapplicable for the machinable ternary carbides (MTCs) due to the absence of ordered phase in bulk sample. Here, the presence of an ordered phase with structural carbon vacancies in Nb4AlC3–x (x ≈ 0.3) ternary carbide is predicted by first-principles calculations, and experimentally identified for the first time by transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with the first-principles prediction, the ordered phase, o-Nb4AlC3, crystalizes in P63/mcm with a = 5.423 Å, c = 24.146 Å. Coexistence of ordered (o-Nb4AlC3) and disordered (Nb4AlC3–x) phase brings about abundant domains with irregular shape in the bulk sample. Both heating and electron irradiation can induce the transformation from o-Nb4AlC3 to Nb4AlC3–x. Our findings may offer substantial insights into the roles of carbon vacancies in the structure stability and order-disorder phase transformation in MTCs. PMID:26388153

  5. A high-temperature neutron diffraction study of Nb2AlC and TiNbAlC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bentzel, Grady W.; Lane, Nina J.; Vogel, Sven C.; An, Ke; Barsoum, Michel W.; Caspi, El'ad N.

    2014-12-16

    In this paper, we report on the crystal structures of Nb2AlC and TiNbAlC actual composition (Ti0.45,Nb0.55)2AlC compounds determined from Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction patterns in the 300-1173 K temperature range. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients of a Nb2AlC sample in the a and c directions are, respectively, 7.9(5)x10-6 K-1 and 7.7(5)x10-6 K-1 on one neutron diffractometer and 7.3(3)x10-6 K-1 and 7.0(2)x10-6 K-1 on a second diffractometer. The respective values for the (Ti0.45,Nb0.55)2AlC composition - only tested on one diffractometer - are 8.5(3)x10-6 K-1 and 7.5(5)x10-6 K-1. These values are relatively low compared to other MAX phases. Like othermore » MAX phases, however, the atomic displacement parameters show that the Al atoms vibrate with higher amplitudes than the Ti and C atoms, and 1 more along the basal planes than normal to them. In addition, when the predictions of the atomic displacement parameters obtained from density functional theory are compared to the experimental results, good quantitative agreement is found for the Al atoms. In case of the Nb and C atoms, the agreement was more qualitative.« less

  6. Isolation of pristine MXene from Nb4AlC3 MAX phase: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avanish; Srivastava, Pooja; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek K

    2016-04-20

    Synthesis of pristine MXene sheets from MAX phase is one of the foremost challenges in getting a complete understanding of the properties of this new technologically important 2D-material. Efforts to exfoliate Nb4AlC3 MAX phase always lead to Nb4C3 MXene sheets, which are functionalized and have several Al atoms attached. Using the first-principles calculations, we perform an intensive study on the chemical transformation of MAX phase into MXene sheets by inserting HF, alkali atoms and LiF in Nb4AlC3 MAX phase. Calculated bond-dissociation energy (BDE) shows that the presence of HF in MAX phase always results in functionalized MXene, as the binding of H with MXene is quite strong while that with F is weak. Insertion of alkali atoms does not facilitate pristine MXene isolation due to the presence of chemical bonds of almost equal strength. In contrast, weak Li-MXene and strong Li-F bonding in Nb4AlC3 with LiF ensured strong anisotropy in BDE, which will result in the dissociation of the Li-MXene bond. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations capture these features and show that at 500-650 K, the Li-MXene bond indeed breaks leaving a pristine MXene sheet behind. The approach and insights developed here for chemical exfoliation of layered materials bonded by chemical bonds instead of van der Waals can promote their experimental realization. PMID:27045339

  7. Heavy metal contents of paddy fields of Alcácer do Sal, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Henriques, F S

    1990-01-01

    Recent claims of metal contamination in the lower reaches of the Sado River, in the Alcácer do Sal region, Portugal, a major rice-producing area were investigated by carrying out metal surveys in the area. The elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were measured in the soil and in rice plant parts--roots, shoots and grain--as well as in some weeds growing in the Sado banks, near the paddy fields. Results showed that the metal contents of paddy soils were similar to background concentrations, with the exception of Zn and Cu, which were above those concentrations and reached their highest levels at Vale de Guizo, the monitored station located furthest upstream in the Sado River. At some sites, plant roots accumulated relatively large amounts of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, but the shoot levels of these metals were within the normal range for rice plants. It is possible that varying, but significant, amounts of Fe associated with the roots were in the form of ferric hydroxide plaque covering their surfaces. Copper levels in the shoots of rice were below the normal contents cited for this plant in the literature. Metal levels of river sediments collected near Vale de Guizo seem to corroborate the possibility of some metal contamination in the Sado River, most probably derived from pyrites mining activity in the upper zone of the Sado basin. PMID:2305246

  8. On the small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in Ti3AlC2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Tao; Zhan, Xun; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Tilt-dominated grain boundaries have been investigated in depth in the deformation of MAX phases. In stark contrast, another important type of grain boundaries, twist grain boundaries, have long been overlooked. Here, we report on the observation of small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in a typical MAX phase Ti3AlC2 compressed at 1200 °C, which comprise hexagonal screw dislocation networks formed by basal dislocation reactions. By first-principles investigations on atomic-scale deformation and general stacking fault energy landscapes, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the twist sub-grain boundaries are most likely located between Al and Ti4f (Ti located at the 4f Wyckoff sites of P63/mmc) layers, with breaking of the weakly bonded Al–Ti4f. The twist angle increases with the increase of deformation and is estimated to be around 0.5° for a deformation of 26%. This work may shed light on sub-grain boundaries of MAX phases, and provide fundamental information for future atomic-scale simulations. PMID:27034075

  9. Cold spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Benjamin R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hauch, Benjamin; Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Coatings of Ti2AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ∼90 μm in thickness using powder particles of <20 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the phase-content of the deposited coatings to be identical to the powders indicating that no phase transformation or oxidation had occurred during the coating deposition process. The coating exhibited a high hardness of about 800 HK and pin-on-disk wear tests using abrasive ruby ball counter-surface showed the wear resistance of the coating to be significantly superior to the Zry-4 substrate. Scratch tests revealed the coatings to be well-adhered to the Zry-4 substrate. Such mechanical integrity is required for claddings from the standpoint of fretting wear resistance and resisting wear handling and insertion. Air oxidation tests at 700 °C and simulated LOCA tests at 1005 °C in steam environment showed the coatings to be significantly more oxidation resistant compared to Zry-4 suggesting that such coatings can potentially provide accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding.

  10. Cold spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Benjamin R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hauch, Benjamin; Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Coatings of Ti2AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ˜90 μm in thickness using powder particles of <20 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the phase-content of the deposited coatings to be identical to the powders indicating that no phase transformation or oxidation had occurred during the coating deposition process. The coating exhibited a high hardness of about 800 HK and pin-on-disk wear tests using abrasive ruby ball counter-surface showed the wear resistance of the coating to be significantly superior to the Zry-4 substrate. Scratch tests revealed the coatings to be well-adhered to the Zry-4 substrate. Such mechanical integrity is required for claddings from the standpoint of fretting wear resistance and resisting wear handling and insertion. Air oxidation tests at 700 °C and simulated LOCA tests at 1005 °C in steam environment showed the coatings to be significantly more oxidation resistant compared to Zry-4 suggesting that such coatings can potentially provide accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding.

  11. On the small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Tao; Zhan, Xun; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-04-01

    Tilt-dominated grain boundaries have been investigated in depth in the deformation of MAX phases. In stark contrast, another important type of grain boundaries, twist grain boundaries, have long been overlooked. Here, we report on the observation of small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in a typical MAX phase Ti3AlC2 compressed at 1200 °C, which comprise hexagonal screw dislocation networks formed by basal dislocation reactions. By first-principles investigations on atomic-scale deformation and general stacking fault energy landscapes, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the twist sub-grain boundaries are most likely located between Al and Ti4f (Ti located at the 4f Wyckoff sites of P63/mmc) layers, with breaking of the weakly bonded Al–Ti4f. The twist angle increases with the increase of deformation and is estimated to be around 0.5° for a deformation of 26%. This work may shed light on sub-grain boundaries of MAX phases, and provide fundamental information for future atomic-scale simulations.

  12. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  13. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  14. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  15. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  16. Ambient noise tomography across the southern Alaskan Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Kevin M.

    2015-05-01

    I present the results of an extensive data mining effort integrating 197 permanent and temporary seismic stations into a Rayleigh wave ambient noise study across southern Alaska and westernmost Canada. Principal observations of my tomography model are largely consistent with mapped geology features and previous geophysical studies while providing previously unavailable, laterally continuous details of the southern Alaskan Cordillera lithosphere. At intermediate periods, a geophysically uniform crust is observed north of the Denali Fault and is consistent with a sharp transition in crustal thickness. Under the Wrangell volcanic belt, a prominent low-phase-velocity anomaly correlates well with the lateral extent of a relative low-gravity anomaly and Neogene surface volcanics. At longer periods, a low-phase-velocity anomaly bounds the inferred eastern extent of the subducted Yakutat microplate beneath the Wrangell volcanic belt.

  17. Alaskan oil and gas prospects: Boom or bust

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, T.J. )

    1994-02-14

    With the exception of the Arctic Coastal Plain, the Alaskan resource potential is negligible. However, the recent Sunfish discovery in Cook Inlet suggests that significant volumes of oil remain to be found in South Alaska. And North Alaska production has remained strong over the last decade despite continued predictions of a rapid decline within 5--10 years. Alaska is largely unexplored or frontier, which introduces large uncertainty into estimates of its oil and gas prospects. Two major uncertainties that affect estimates of recoverable oil and gas in a frontier region are the distribution of hydrocarbons between oil and gas and the total volume of hydrocarbons. These uncertainties can be reduced, or at least better understood, using a macro perspective based on the Lower 48 US. While such a macro perspective cannot by itself estimate the resource base in a region, it can provide a basis from which to judge the relative conservatism or optimism of a particular estimate.

  18. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  19. Prediction of the weight of Alaskan pollock using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Murat O; Chombeau, Melanie; Cırban, Dilşat; Gümüş, Bahar

    2010-10-01

    Determining the size and quality attributes of fish by machine vision is gaining acceptance and increasing use in the seafood industry. Objectivity, speed, and record keeping are advantages in using this method. The objective of this work was to develop the mathematical correlations to predict the weight of whole Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) based on its view area from a camera. One hundred and sixty whole Pollock were obtained fresh, within 2 d after catch from a Kodiak, Alaska, processing plant. The fish were first weighed, then placed in a light box equipped with a Nikon D200 digital camera. A reference square of known surface area was placed by the fish. The obtained image was analyzed to calculate the view area of each fish. The following equations were used to fit the view area (X) compared with weight (Y) data: linear, power, and 2nd-order polynomial. The power fit (Y = A · X(B)) gave the highest R(2) for the fit (0.99). The effect of fins and tail on the accuracy of the weight prediction using view area were evaluated. Removing fins and tails did not improve prediction accuracy. Machine vision can accurately predict the weight of whole Pollock. Practical Application: The weight of Alaskan Pollock can be predicted automatically by taking the image of the fish and using it in one of the correlations developed in this study. The removal of the fins or the fins and the tail did not increase the prediction accuracy of the method. Therefore, intact fish images should be used. PMID:21535495

  20. Linkage among Vegetation, Microbes and Methanogenic Pathways in Alaskan Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sidelinger, W.; Shu, H.; Varner, R. K.; Hines, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands are thought to account for one third of the naturally emitted CH4. However, methane production pathways in northern peatlands are poorly understood, yet are predicted to change in response to vegetation shifts due to warming. Previous studies noted that acetate conversion to methane (acetoclastic methanogenesis, AM) in northern wetlands is largely impeded and acetate accumulates, however AM tends to increase with minerotrophy. To understand methanogenic pathways and to provide linkage among pathways, we studied Alaskan wetlands in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, laboratory incubations were conducted in three peatlands representing trophic gradients from bogs to fens. During 2014, 37 different sites in Fairbanks and Anchorage were studied that represented wetlands with pH values from 3.5 to 5.5 and vegetation from primarily Sphagnum to sedges. Measurements in 2014 included vegetation composition, gases (CH4, CO2, H2, and CO), 13CH4 and 13CO2, volatile fatty acids, DOC, other electron acceptors. Further incubation studies are being conducted to decipher controls on decomposition pathways. Gene sequencing was used to characterize microbial community composition, and metagenomic and transcriptomics were conducted to describe community activity. Results showed that methanogenesis was higher in fens than bogs, but hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (HM) was dominant at all sites. End product ratios showed that AM was occurring in fens, albeit slowly. Fermentation was an important end-point in decomposition and microbial syntrophy was weak. These data, regardless of trophic status, differed greatly from data obtained from temperate wetlands in which terminal respiratory processes were strong and C flow through syntrophy was important. Trophic status influenced C flow in the Alaskan sites, but terminal processes were weak and end product formation tended to end at primary fermentation, which dominated as the terminal step in decomposition.

  1. Supersymmetric moose models: An extra dimension from a broken deformed conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlich, Joshua; Anly Tan, Jong

    2006-09-01

    We find a class of four dimensional deformed conformal field theories which appear extra dimensional when their gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. The theories are supersymmetric moose models which flow to interacting conformal fixed points at low energies, deformed by superpotentials. Using a-maximization we give strong nonperturbative evidence that the hopping terms in the resulting latticized action are relevant deformations of the fixed-point theories. These theories have an intricate structure of RG flows between conformal fixed points. Our results suggest that at the stable fixed points each of the bulk gauge couplings and superpotential hopping terms is turned on, in favor of the extra-dimensional interpretation of the theory. However, we argue that the higher-dimensional gauge coupling is generically small compared to the size of the extra dimension. In the presence of a brane the topology of the extra dimension is determined dynamically and depends on the numbers of colors and bulk and brane flavors, which suggests phenomenological applications. The RG flows between fixed points in these theories provide a class of tests of Cardy’s conjectured a-theorem.

  2. Supersymmetric moose models: An extra dimension from a broken deformed conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, Joshua; Anly Tan, Jong

    2006-09-15

    We find a class of four dimensional deformed conformal field theories which appear extra dimensional when their gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. The theories are supersymmetric moose models which flow to interacting conformal fixed points at low energies, deformed by superpotentials. Using a-maximization we give strong nonperturbative evidence that the hopping terms in the resulting latticized action are relevant deformations of the fixed-point theories. These theories have an intricate structure of RG flows between conformal fixed points. Our results suggest that at the stable fixed points each of the bulk gauge couplings and superpotential hopping terms is turned on, in favor of the extra-dimensional interpretation of the theory. However, we argue that the higher-dimensional gauge coupling is generically small compared to the size of the extra dimension. In the presence of a brane the topology of the extra dimension is determined dynamically and depends on the numbers of colors and bulk and brane flavors, which suggests phenomenological applications. The RG flows between fixed points in these theories provide a class of tests of Cardy's conjectured a-theorem.

  3. [The systems organization of the breeding behavior of the moose in its natural habitat].

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, E M; Kurochkin, Iu A

    1995-01-01

    The complex organisation of moose sexual interrelations in natural environment is analysed from the systems point of view. To achieve the useful result--the well-timed fertilization of the all matured females on the given territory by the most strongest males--every year in autumn the multiorganismic system of interaction is formed, including the correspondent behavioural activities of local receptive females and males of different strength and different age. This system includes the sub-system of "rang establishment" between the males (detecting the strongest males), which works mainly at the beginning of rut, and the sub-system of mating. The features of species-specific behaviour are described, which assist to animals mutual detection in the forest, as well as their specific communication during the rut. The special attention is devoted to the role of olfactory and acoustic signals. The details of the forming, existing and disintegration of stable breeding couples are discussed and the breeding ritual itself is described, which ensures the achievement of the synchronisation of high sexual excitation in male and female. By means of long distance bioradiotelemetry the dynamics of heart and breathing rate were investigated as the indicators of animals emotional states on the different stages of their sexual behaviour. PMID:8525679

  4. Coordinated increase of γ-secretase reaction products in the plasma of some female Japanese sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients: quantitative analysis of p3-Alcα with a new ELISA system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aggregatable amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and non-aggregatable p3-Alcα are metabolic products of the γ-secretase cleavage of amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) and Alcadeinα (Alcα), respectively. Familial AD (FAD) -linked mutations in the presenilin 1 or 2 (PS1 or PS2) component of γ-secretase can cause alternative intramembranous processing of APP and Alcα, leading to a coordinated generation of variants of both Aβ and p3-Alcα. Variant Alcα peptides have been observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since, like APP, Alcα is largely expressed in brain, one might predict that alternative processing of Alcα would be reflected in body fluids of some AD patients. These patients with misprocessing of multiple γ-secretase substrates might define an endophenotype of p3-Alcα, in whom AD is due either to dysfunction of γ-secretase or to a disorder of the clearance of hydrophobic peptides such as those derived from transmembrane domains. Results We developed a simple procedure for extraction of p3-Alcα from plasma and for analyzing this extract in a sensitive, p3-Alcα-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. Plasma p3-Alcα levels and Aβ40 levels were examined in sporadic AD subjects from two independent Japanese cohorts. In some of these patients, levels of plasma p3-Alcα were significantly higher, and were accompanied by parallel changes in Aβ40 levels. This AD-related difference was more marked in female subjects, but this phenomenon was not observed in subjects with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Conclusion Reagents and procedures have been established that enable extraction of p3-Alcα from plasma and for quantification of plasma p3-Alcα levels by ELISA. Some populations of AD subjects apparently show increased levels of both p3-Alcα and Aβ40. Quantification of p3-Alcα level may be useful as a readily accessible biomarker

  5. Brief Report: Genetics of Alcoholic Cirrhosis - GenomALC multinational Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, John B.; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Haber, Paul S.; Day, Christopher P.; Masson, Steven; Daly, Ann K.; Cordell, Heather J.; Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut K.; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Westerhold, Chi; Liang, Tiebing; Lumeng, Lawrence; Foroud, Tatiana; Nalpas, Bertrand; Mathurin, Philippe; Stickel, Felix; Soyka, Michael; Botwin, Gregory J.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Seth, Devanshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis increases with increasing alcohol consumption, but many people with very high intake escape liver disease. We postulate that susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis has a complex genetic component, and propose that this can be dissected through a large and sufficiently-powered genome-wide association study (GWAS). Methods The GenomALC Consortium comprises researchers from Australia, France, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States, with a joint aim of exploring the genetic and genomic basis of alcoholic cirrhosis. For this NIH/NIAAA funded study, we are recruiting high-risk drinkers who are either cases (with alcoholic cirrhosis) or controls (drinking comparable amounts over similar time, but free of significant liver disease). Extensive phenotypic data are obtained using semi-structured interviews and patient records, and blood samples are collected. Results We have successfully recruited 859 participants including 538 matched case-control samples as of September 2014, using study specific inclusion-exclusion criteria and data collection protocols. Of these, 580 are cases (442 men, 138 women) and 279 are controls (205 men, 74 women). Duration of excessive drinking was slightly greater in cases than controls and was significantly less in women than men. Cases had significantly lower lifetime alcohol intake than controls. Both cases and controls had a high prevalence of reported parental alcohol problems, but cases were significantly more likely to report that a father with alcohol problems had died from liver disease (Odds Ratio 2.53, 95% CI 1.31–4.87, p = 0.0055). Conclusions Recruitment of participants for a GWAS of alcoholic cirrhosis has proved feasible across countries with multiple sites. Affected patients often consume less alcohol than unaffected ones, emphasising the existence of individual vulnerability factors. Cases are more likely to report liver disease in a father with alcohol

  6. OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

  7. Scaling the effects of moose browsing on forage distribution, from the geometry of plant canopies to landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.; Hodgson, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity influences large herbivores by altering their feeding rates, but as herbivores attempt to maximize feeding rates they also create spatial heterogeneity by altering plant growth. Herbivore feeding rates thus provide a quantitative link between the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in herbivore-dominated ecosystems. The fractal geometry of plant canopies determines both the density and mass of twigs available to foraging herbivores. These properties determine a threshold distance between plants (d*) that distinguishes the mechanisms regulating herbivore intake rates. When d* is greater than the actual distance between plants (d), intake is regulated by the rate of food processing in the mouth. But when d* < d, intake is regulated by the rate at which the herbivore encounters new plants. Alterations to plant geometry due to past browsing could change the rate at which herbivores encounter and process bites of plant tissue, modify d* relative to d, and thus change intake rates and the distribution of mechanisms regulating it across landscapes. We measured changes in the geometry of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) saplings along gradients of moose browsing from 2001 to 2005 at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA. For aspen saplings, fractal dimension of bite density, bite mass, and forage biomass responded quadratically to increasing moose browsing and were greatest at -3-4 g-g.m-2.yr"1 consumption. For balsam fir, in contrast, these same measures declined steadily with increasing moose browsing. The different responses of plant canopies to increased browsing altered d* around plants. In summer, d* > d for aspen saplings at all prior consumption levels. Food processing therefore regulated summer moose feeding rates across our landscapes. In winter, changes in bite mass due to past browsing were sufficient to cause d* < d for aspen and balsam fir. Therefore, travel velocity and food processing

  8. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models (DEMs), we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Our ice elevation changes reveal that glacier dynamics (surges, phase of the tidewater cycle, etc...) have a profound effect on the wastage of Alaska glaciers. 3D satellite view of Columbia glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. (Copyright CNES 2007, Distribution Spot Image, processing E. Berthier CNRS)

  9. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most concentrated plumes. Ice features are most clearly seen on MSS 7 imagery; fracture patterns and the movement of specific floes can be used to map circulation in the winter when runoff is restricted, if appropriate allowance is made for wind influence. Current patterns interpreted from satellite data are only two-dimensional, but since most biological activity and pollution are concentrated near the surface, the information developed can be of direct utility. Details of Alaska inshore circulation of importance to coastal engineering, navigation, pollution studies, and fisheries development have been clarified with satellite data. ERTS has made possible the analysis of circulation in many parts of the Alaskan coast.

  10. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  11. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  12. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  13. Quantifying seismic survey reverberation off the Alaskan North Slope.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Melania; Thode, Aaron M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Michael Macrander, A

    2011-11-01

    Shallow-water airgun survey activities off the North Slope of Alaska generate impulsive sounds that are the focus of much regulatory attention. Reverberation from repetitive airgun shots, however, can also increase background noise levels, which can decrease the detection range of nearby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems. Typical acoustic metrics for impulsive signals provide no quantitative information about reverberation or its relative effect on the ambient acoustic environment. Here, two conservative metrics are defined for quantifying reverberation: a minimum level metric measures reverberation levels that exist between airgun pulse arrivals, while a reverberation metric estimates the relative magnitude of reverberation vs expected ambient levels in the hypothetical absence of airgun activity, using satellite-measured wind data. The metrics are applied to acoustic data measured by autonomous recorders in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in 2008 and demonstrate how seismic surveys can increase the background noise over natural ambient levels by 30-45 dB within 1 km of the activity, by 10-25 dB within 15 km of the activity, and by a few dB at 128 km range. These results suggest that shallow-water reverberation would reduce the performance of nearby PAM systems when monitoring for marine mammals within a few kilometers of shallow-water seismic surveys. PMID:22087932

  14. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  15. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  16. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  17. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  19. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  20. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  1. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  2. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  3. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  4. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  5. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters - The role of the Alaskan Gyre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Scoy, Kim A.; Olson, Donald B.; Fine, Rana A.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrographic data, tritium data, and potential vorticity calculations suggest that although North Pacific Intermediate Water is formed in the northwest, the Alaskan Gyre might be an additional ventilation site. The proposed ventilation is quantified by a vertical column tritium inventory, which indicates an excess of 0.08 kg of tritium in the Alaskan Gyre. An evaluation of the energy stored in the water column and of wind and buoyancy forcing shows that during winter conditions enough energy can be pumped into the system to force 26.80 sigma(theta) to outcrop in the Alaskan Gyre. Model results suggest that relatively limited outcrops in time and space (tens of days and several hundred kilometers in diameter) can account for the excess tritium.

  6. A genetic dissection of breed composition and performance enhancement in the Alaskan sled dog

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Alaskan sled dog offers a rare opportunity to investigate the development of a dog breed based solely on performance, rather than appearance, thus setting the breed apart from most others. Several established breeds, many of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC), have been introduced into the sled dog population to enhance racing performance. We have used molecular methods to ascertain the constitutive breeds used to develop successful sled dog lines, and in doing so, determined the breed origins of specific performance-related behaviors. One hundred and ninety-nine Alaskan sled dogs were genotyped using 96 microsatellite markers that span the canine genome. These data were compared to that from 141 similarly genotyped purebred dog breeds. Sled dogs were evaluated for breed composition based on a variety of performance phenotypes including speed, endurance and work ethic, and the data stratified based on population structure. Results We observe that the Alaskan sled dog has a unique molecular signature and that the genetic profile is sufficient for identifying dogs bred for sprint versus distance. When evaluating contributions of existing breeds we find that the Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky contributions are associated with enhanced endurance; Pointer and Saluki are associated with enhanced speed and the Anatolian Shepherd demonstrates a positive influence on work ethic. Conclusion We have established a genetic breed profile for the Alaskan sled dog, identified profile variance between sprint and distance dogs, and established breeds associated with enhanced performance attributes. These data set the stage for mapping studies aimed at finding genes that are associated with athletic attributes integral to the high performing Alaskan sled dog. PMID:20649949

  7. Warthog: A MOOSE-Based Application for the Direct Code Coupling of BISON and PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.; Slattery, Stuart; Billings, Jay Jay

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program from the Department of Energy s Office of Nuclear Energy provides a robust toolkit for the modeling and simulation of current and future advanced nuclear reactor designs. This toolkit provides these technologies organized across product lines: two divisions targeted at fuels and end-to-end reactor modeling, and a third for integration, coupling, and high-level workflow management. The Fuels Product Line and the Reactor Product line provide advanced computational technologies that serve each respective field well, however, their current lack of integration presents a major impediment to future improvements of simulation solution fidelity. There is a desire for the capability to mix and match tools across Product Lines in an effort to utilize the best from both to improve NEAMS modeling and simulation technologies. This report will detail a new effort to provide this Product Line interoperability through the development of a new application called Warthog. This application couples the BISON Fuel Performance application from the Fuels Product Line and the PROTEUS Core Neutronics application from the Reactors Product Line in an effort to utilize the best from all parts of the NEAMS toolkit and improve overall solution fidelity of nuclear fuel simulations. To acheive this, Warthog leverages as much prior work from the NEAMS program as possible, and in doing so, enables interoperability between the disparate MOOSE and SHARP frameworks, and the libMesh and MOAB mesh data formats. The remainder of this report will describe this work in full. We will begin with a detailed look at the individual NEAMS framework technologies used and developed in the various Product Lines, and the current status of their interoperability. We will then introduce the Warthog application: its overall architecture and the ways it leverages the best existing tools from accross the NEAMS toolkit to enable BISON-PROTEUS integration

  8. Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

  9. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  10. PRELIMINARY COUPLING OF THE MONTE CARLO CODE OPENMC AND THE MULTIPHYSICS OBJECT-ORIENTED SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT (MOOSE) FOR ANALYZING DOPPLER FEEDBACK IN MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Ellis; Derek Gaston; Benoit Forget; Kord Smith

    2011-07-01

    In recent years the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling reactors has become feasible due to the increasing availability of massively parallel computer systems. One of the primary challenges yet to be fully resolved, however, is the efficient and accurate inclusion of multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo simulations. The research in this paper presents a preliminary coupling of the open source Monte Carlo code OpenMC with the open source Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). The coupling of OpenMC and MOOSE will be used to investigate efficient and accurate numerical methods needed to include multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo codes. An investigation into the sensitivity of Doppler feedback to fuel temperature approximations using a two dimensional 17x17 PWR fuel assembly is presented in this paper. The results show a functioning multiphysics coupling between OpenMC and MOOSE. The coupling utilizes Functional Expansion Tallies to accurately and efficiently transfer pin power distributions tallied in OpenMC to unstructured finite element meshes used in MOOSE. The two dimensional PWR fuel assembly case also demonstrates that for a simplified model the pin-by-pin doppler feedback can be adequately replicated by scaling a representative pin based on pin relative powers.

  11. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  12. Quantifying and comparing size selectivity among Alaskan sockeye salmon fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Neala W; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-04-01

    Quantifying long-term size-selective harvest patterns is necessary for understanding the potential evolutionary effects on exploited species. The comparison of fishery selection patterns on the same species subject to different gear types, in different areas, and over multi-decadal periods can reveal the factors influencing selection. In this study we quantified and compared size-selective harvest by nine Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fisheries to understand overall patterns. We calculated length-specific linear selection differentials (the difference in average length of fish before vs. after fishing), which are produced by different combinations of exploitation rates and length-selectivity values, and nonlinear standardized differentials, describing disruptive selection, across all years for each fishery. Selection differentials varied among years, but larger fish were caught in 73% of years for males and 84% of years for females, leaving smaller fish to spawn. Disruptive selection was observed on female and male fish in 84% and 92% of years, respectively. Linear selection was stronger on females than males in 77% of years examined, and disruptive selection was stronger on males in 71% of years. Selection pressure was influenced by a combination of factors under and beyond management control; analyses using mixed-effects models indicated that fisheries were less size selective in years when fish were larger than average and had lower exploitation rates. The observed harvest of larger than average sockeye salmon is consistent with the hypothesis that size-selective fishing contributes to decreasing age and length at maturation trends over time, but temporal variability in selection and strong disruptive selection suggests that the overall directional pressure is weaker than is often assumed in evolutionary models. PMID:22645812

  13. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  14. Contaminants in arctic snow collected over northwest Alaskan sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Leiker, T.J.; Hoffman, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfall from the 1995-1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cations and anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds were determined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, and PCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70-80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow was highly enriched in sulfates (69- 394 mg L-1), with high proportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination through long-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum, frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of total mercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavy metals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported over land areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and the high content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

  15. Hygroscopicity and composition of Alaskan Arctic CCN during April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. H.; Bahreini, R.; Brock, C. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Cozic, J.; Holloway, J. S.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.

    2011-08-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sampled in the Alaskan Arctic during the 2008 Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project, a component of the POLARCAT and International Polar Year (IPY) initiatives. Four distinct air mass types were sampled including relatively pristine Arctic background conditions as well as biomass burning and anthropogenic pollution plumes. Despite differences in chemical composition, inferred aerosol hygroscopicities were fairly invariant and ranged from κ = 0.1-0.3 over the atmospherically-relevant range of water vapor supersaturations studied. Analysis of the individual mass spectral m/z 43 and 44 peaks from an aerosol mass spectrometer show the organic aerosols sampled to be well-oxygenated, consistent with with long-range transport and aerosol aging processes. However, inferred hygroscopicities are less than would be predicted based on previous parameterizations of biogenic oxygenated organic aerosol, suggesting an upper limit on organic aerosol hygroscopicity above which κ is less sensitive to the O:C ratio. Most Arctic aerosol act as CCN above 0.1 % supersaturation, although the data suggest the presence of an externally-mixed, non-CCN-active mode comprising approximately 0-20 % of the aerosol number. CCN closure was assessed using measured size distributions, bulk chemical composition measurements, and assumed aerosol mixing states; CCN predictions tended toward overprediction, with the best agreement (± 0-20 %) obtained by assuming the aerosol to be externally-mixed with soluble organics. Closure also varied with CCN concentration, and the best agreement was found for CCN concentrations above 100 cm-3 with a 1.5- to 3-fold overprediction at lower concentrations.

  16. Hygroscopicity and composition of Alaskan Arctic CCN during April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. H.; Bahreini, R.; Brock, C. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Cozic, J.; Holloway, J. S.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sampled in the Alaskan Arctic during the 2008 Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project, a component of the POLARCAT and International Polar Year (IPY) initiatives. Four distinct air mass types were sampled including a cleaner Arctic background and a relatively pristine sea ice boundary layer as well as biomass burning and anthropogenic pollution plumes. Despite differences in chemical composition, inferred aerosol hygroscopicities were fairly invariant and ranged from κ = 0.1-0.3 over the atmospherically-relevant range of water vapor supersaturations studied. Organic aerosols sampled were found to be well-oxygenated, consistent with long-range transport and aerosol aging processes. However, inferred hygroscopicities are less than would be predicted based on previous parameterizations of biogenic oxygenated organic aerosol, suggesting an upper limit on organic aerosol hygroscopicity above which κ is less sensitive to the O:C ratio. Most Arctic aerosols act as CCN above 0.1 % supersaturation, although the data suggest the presence of an externally-mixed, non-CCN-active mode comprising approximately 0-20% of the aerosol number. CCN closure was assessed using measured size distributions, bulk chemical composition, and assumed aerosol mixing states; CCN predictions tended toward overprediction, with the best agreement (±0-20 %) obtained by assuming the aerosol to be externally-mixed with soluble organics. Closure also varied with CCN concentration, and the best agreement was found for CCN concentrations above 100 cm-3 with a 1.5- to 3-fold overprediction at lower concentrations.

  17. Substrate orientation effects on the nucleation and growth of the M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phase Ti{sub 2}AlC

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Mark D.; Guenette, Mathew C.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; McKenzie, David R.; Persson, Per O. A.; Rosen, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    The M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} (MAX) phases are ternary compounds comprising alternating layers of a transition metal carbide or nitride and a third ''A-group'' element. The effect of substrate orientation on the growth of Ti{sub 2}AlC MAX phase films was investigated by studying pulsed cathodic arc deposited samples grown on sapphire cut along the (0001), (1010), and (1102) crystallographic planes. Characterization of these samples was by x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. On the (1010) substrate, tilted (1018) growth of Ti{sub 2}AlC was found, such that the TiC octahedra of the MAX phase structure have the same orientation as a spontaneously formed epitaxial TiC sublayer, preserving the typical TiC-Ti{sub 2}AlC epitaxial relationship and confirming the importance of this relationship in determining MAX phase film orientation. An additional component of Ti{sub 2}AlC with tilted fiber texture was observed in this sample; tilted fiber texture, or axiotaxy, has not previously been seen in MAX phase films.

  18. Oxidation Resistance of Materials Based on Ti3AlC2 Nanolaminate at 600 °C in Air.

    PubMed

    Ivasyshyn, Andrij; Ostash, Orest; Prikhna, Tatiana; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Basyuk, Tatiana

    2016-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of Ti3AlC2-based materials had been investigated at 600 °C in static air for 1000 h. It was shown that the intense increase of weight gain per unit surface area for sintered material with porosity of 22 % attributed to oxidation of the outer surface of the specimen and surfaces of pores in the bulk material. The oxidation kinetics of the hot-pressed Ti3AlC2-based material with 1 % porosity remarkably increased for the first 15 h and then slowly decreased. The weight gain per unit surface area for this material was 1.0 mg/cm(2) after exposition for 1000 h. The intense initial oxidation of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be eliminated by pre-oxidation treatment at 1200 °C in air for 2 h. As a result, the weight gain per unit surface area for the pre-oxidized material did not exceed 0.11 mg/cm(2) after 1000 h of exposition at 600 °C in air. It was demonstrated that the oxidation resistance of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be significantly improved by niobium addition. PMID:27506531

  19. Measuring the spectrum of mutation induced by nitrogen ions and protons in the human-hamster hybrid cell line A(L)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed to charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and heavier ions, during space flights. Therefore, studying the biological effectiveness of these sparsely and densely ionizing radiations is important to understanding the potential health effects for astronauts. We evaluated the mutagenic effectiveness of sparsely ionizing 55 MeV protons and densely ionizing 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions using cells of two human-hamster cell lines, A(L) and A(L)C. We have previously characterized a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in the human-hamster hybrid cell lines A(L)C and A(L). CD59(-) mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen encoded by the CD59 gene located at 11p13. Deletion of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the A(L) hybrid, so that CD59 mutants that lose the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. In contrast, deletion of the 11p15.5 region is not lethal in the hybrid A(L)C, allowing for the detection of chromosome loss or other chromosomal mutations involving 11p15.5. The 55 MeV protons and 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions were each about 10 times more mutagenic per unit dose at the CD59 locus in A(L)C cells than in A(L) cells. In the case of nitrogen ions, the mutations observed in A(L)C cells were predominantly due to chromosome loss events or 11p deletions, often containing a breakpoint in the pericentromeric region. The increase in the CD59(-) mutant fraction for A(L)C cells exposed to protons was associated with either translocation of portions of 11q onto a hamster chromosome, or discontinuous or "skipping" mutations. We demonstrate here that A(L)C cells are a powerful tool that will aid in the understanding of the mutagenic effects of different types of ionizing radiation.

  20. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pompilio, L. M.; DePaoli, D. W.; Spencer, B. B.

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Lab’s Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and

  1. It Happens When We Get There. Conversations With Teachers in Alaskan Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, C. David

    Developed through in-depth interviews with experienced "bush" teachers from interior Alaska, this booklet is the product of a five-day workshop in the design of vocational education curriculum materials for rural Alaskan secondary schools. The statements in this booklet represent the edited responses of experienced teachers to the following…

  2. EXAMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY FOR DEMONSTRATION AND USE OF RADIOLUMINESCENT LIGHTS FOR ALASKAN REMOTE RUNWAY LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.; Perrigo, L.; Leonard, L.; Hegdal, L

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of radioluminescent light applications for rural Alaskan airports. The work presented in this report covers four tasks: State of the Art Evaluation of Radioluminescent Lights, Environmental, Radiological, and Regulatory Evaluations, Engineering Evaluations, and Demonstration Plan Development.

  3. Alaskan glaciers: Recent observations in respect to the earthquake-advance theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, A.S.

    1965-01-01

    Preliminary aerial photographic studies indicate that the Alaskan earthquake produced some rockfalls but no significant snow and ice avalanches on glaciers. No rapid, short-lived glacier advances (surges) are conclusively associated with this earthquake. Recent evidence fails to support the earthquake-advance theory of Tarr and Martin.

  4. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  5. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN SALMON PRESERVED BY NATIVE ALASKAN METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional Native Alaskan diets included salmon as a major source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, in the last 250 years, profound changes have influenced the people of interior Alaska. Departure from ancestral dietary practices has led to a rise in obesity and Type-2 ...

  6. College Orientation Program for Alaskan Natives (COPAN Program - Education for Survival). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lee H.

    Of the original number of Alaskan natives entering the University of Alaska from rural and urban areas, 50% drop out at the end of their freshman year, and less than 2% are likely to receive a degree at the end of 4 years. This high attrition rate is caused by poor elementary and secondary school preparation, and strong personal feelings of…

  7. AlaskaAdvantage[R] Programs Annual Report to Alaskans, Year Ending June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Through its AlaskAdvantage[R] Programs, the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education promotes, supports, and provides access to postsecondary education for Alaskans and in Alaska. This publication reports on another year of success for the state's higher education assistance agency. Among the accomplishments this year to make higher…

  8. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Biosynthesis from Crude Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six strains of Pseudomonas were tested for their abilities to synthesize poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) polymers from crude Pollock oil, a large volume byproduct of the Alaskan fishing industry. All six strains were found to produce PHA polymers from hydrolyzed Pollock oil with productivities (P; the...

  9. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 2: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    A natural science resource booklet for teachers and students contains detailed materials for teaching and learning about Alaskan wildlife. Each of nine chapters provides background subject information, suggested learning activities, tear-out pages of review questions for students to answer, and supplementary notes for teachers which include…

  10. 77 FR 45921 - Alaskan Fuel Hauling as a Restricted Category Special Purpose Flight Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... the Federal Register (74 FR 39242) in which the FAA proposed to specify Alaskan fuel hauling as a... Purpose Flight Operation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), (DOT). ACTION: Notice of policy... submitted was, ``The transport of the fuel could be made safer by limiting the payload on each flight to...

  11. Alaskan Fish Gelatin Films: Thermal, Tensile, and Barrier Properties and Effects of Cross-linking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from the skins of Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). These skins were by-products generated from the Alaskan fishing industry. Films were then cast from the fish gelatin and their thermal, tensile, water vapor permeability, o...

  12. Shaping the Landscape: A Journal of Writing by Alaskan Teachers 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenbaugh, Betsy, Ed.

    Intended to encourage Alaska teachers to write, to provide an honest sounding board for those submitting work, and to be a pleasure to read, this booklet presents a collection of 20 pieces of writing (short stories, poems, and life experiences) by Alaskan teachers. The pieces and their authors are as follows: "The First Haiku" (Dan Walker);…

  13. Elderly Alaskan Natives in Anchorage: A Needs-Assessment for Social Services Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Charles; And Others

    Eighty-five elderly Alaskan Natives living in Anchorage were interviewed to determine if their needs were being met by programs designed for the elderly on a national level. Agencies serving the elderly were also questioned. Age, sex, and ethnic background of the respondents were compared with the variables of degree of education, marital status,…

  14. Intensive Evaluation of Satellite TV Impact on Four Alaskan Villages. Supplement to Basic ESCD Evaluation Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A supplement to the final report, "Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD)," this document is both: (1) a separable, sociologically oriented evaluation of the ESCD impact on Alaskan native villages; and (2) a direct extension of the work described in sections 4 and 5 in the Practical…

  15. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. ELECTRIC VEHICLE CONVERSIONS USING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TO DRIVE ALASKAN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This proposal concerns sustainable transportation in rural Alaskan communities which are not part of a road or electrical network (off grid). In most off-grid communities, the road networks generally are less than 50 square miles, so transportation needs are limited. This limi...

  17. CYCLING OF DISSOLVED ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN ARCTIC ALASKAN LAKES. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous production and water-air exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) are important features of the environmental cycling of Hg. We investigated Hg0 cycling in ten Arctic Alaskan lakes that spanned a wide range in physicochemical characteristics. Dissolved...

  18. The Change in the Depiction of Alaskan Natives in Children's Fiction over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Dorothy Anne

    This study used content analysis to investigate the change, over time, in the depiction of Alaskan natives in children's fiction. The analysis was based on four broad categories: (1) physical traits, including physical features and types of clothing; (2) social traits, including language fluency, family associations, amount of formal education,…

  19. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  20. Projected future duration of the sea-ice-free season in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.

    2015-08-01

    Global warming and continued reduction in sea ice cover will result in longer open water duration in the Arctic, which is important for the shipping industry, marine mammals, and other components of the regional ecosystem. In this study we assess the length of open water duration in the Alaskan Arctic over the next few decades using the set of latest coupled climate models (CMIP5). The Alaskan Arctic, including the Chukchi and the Beaufort Sea, has been a major region of summer sea ice retreat since 2007. Thirty five climate models from CMIP5 are evaluated and twelve are selected for composite projections based on their historical simulation performance. In the regions north of the Bering Strait (north of 70° N), future open-water duration shifts from a current 3-4 months to a projected near 5 months by 2040 based on the mean of the twelve selected climate models. There is considerable north-south gradient in projected durations. Open water duration is about 1 month shorter along the same latitudes in the Beaufort Sea compared with that in the Chukchi Sea. Uncertainty is generally ±1 month estimated from the range of model results. Open-water duration in the Alaskan Arctic expands quickly in these models over the next decades which will impact regional economic access and potentially alter ecosystems. Yet the northern Alaskan Arctic from January through May will remain sea ice covered into the second half of the century due to normal lack of sunlight.

  1. Anisotropic swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ang, Caen K.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2015-12-17

    Mn + 1AXn (MAX) phase materials based on Ti–Al–C have been irradiated at 400 °C (673 K) with fission neutrons to a fluence of 2 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), corresponding to ~ 2 displacements per atom (dpa). We report preliminary results of microcracking in the Al-containing MAX phase, which contained the phases Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3. Equibiaxial ring-on-ring tests of irradiated coupons showed that samples retained 10% of pre-irradiated strength. Volumetric swelling of up to 4% was observed. Phase analysis and microscopy suggest that anisotropic lattice parameter swelling caused microcracking. Lastly, variants of titanium aluminum carbide may bemore » unsuitable materials for irradiation at light water reactor-relevant temperatures.« less

  2. The Cretaceous (Cenomanian) continental record of the Laje do Coringa flagstone (Alcântara Formation), northeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Manuel Alfredo; Lindoso, Rafael Matos; Mendes, Ighor Dienes; Carvalho, Ismar de Souza

    2014-08-01

    The fossil taxa of the Cenomanian continental flora and fauna of São Luís Basin are observed primarily in the bone bed of the Laje do Coringa, Alcântara Formation. Many of the disarticulated fish and tetrapod skeletal and dental elements are remarkably similar to the chronocorrelate fauna of Northern Africa. In this study, we present a summary of the continental flora and fauna of the Laje do Coringa bone-bed. The record emphasizes the existence of a trans-oceanic typical fauna, at least until the early Cenomanian, which may be interpreted as minor evolutionary changes after a major vicariant event or as a result of a land bridge across the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, thereby allowing interchanges between South America and Africa. The paleoenvironmental conditions in the northern Maranhão State coast during that time were inferred as forested humid areas surrounded by an arid to semi-arid landscape.

  3. Unitarity sum rules, three-site moose model, and the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Nagai, Ryo; Okawa, Shohei; Tanabashi, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    We investigate W' interpretations for the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies. The roles of the unitarity sum rules, which ensure the perturbativity of the longitudinal vector boson scattering amplitudes, are emphasized. We find the unitarity sum rules and the custodial symmetry are powerful enough to predict various nontrivial relations among W W Z', W Z W', W W h , W W'h and Z Z'h coupling strengths in a model independent manner. We also perform surveys in the general parameter space of W' models and find the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies may be interpreted as a W' particle of the three-site moose model, i.e., a Kaluza-Klein like particle in a deconstructed extra dimension model. It is also shown that the nonstandard-model-like Higgs boson is favored by the present data to interpret the ATLAS diboson anomalies as the consequences of the W' and Z' bosons.

  4. Organic Carbon Sources in Coastal Southeast Alaskan Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Lange, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is abundant in southeast Alaskan watersheds and plays an important role in the biological and physical processes in these aquatic systems. Nearly 30% of the land area in southeast Alaska is classified as wetlands, a large proportion of which are peatlands. Peatlands are thought to provide substantial DOM to surface waters. Another important source of carbon to streams is spawning anadromous salmon. This study examines how streamwater concentrations of DOC are influenced by 1) catchments soils and vegetation, particularly wetland extent and 2) the presence or absence of anadromous fish. Our goal is to characterize the quantity and quality of different DOM sources and to develop an understanding of how these sources influence seasonal trends in streamwater DOM in coastal freshwater systems in southeast Alaska. Surface water and well samples were collected on two contrasting streams near Juneau, Alaska: Peterson Creek, a brownwater, high-carbon stream in a wetland-dominated catchment and McGinnis Creek, a clearwater stream draining upland spruce forest and alpine tundra. Both streams have runs of pink, coho, and chum salmon from July-September. Streamwater DOC concentrations on Peterson Creek averaged 5-6 mg C L-1 during the early summer and increased to 8-12 mg C L-1 during late July and August. Streamwater DOC concentrations on McGinnis Creek were typically less than 1 mg C L-1 during the early summer but increased dramatically to 4-9 mg C L-1 during spates in August. Well samples collected upslope from the streamwater sampling sites on Peterson and McGinnis Creeks had a similar range in DOC concentrations (10-40 mg C L-1), however the wells on McGinnis Creek showed much higher seasonal variability. Our initial results suggest that the seasonal increase in DOC in both streams is primarily associated with the flushing of soluble organic carbon from catchment soils by late summer rains. However, leaching of DOC from salmon carcasses may

  5. Rheological conditions for emplacement of Ural-Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Burov, Evgueni; Augé, Thierry; Gloaguen, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Ural-Alaskan- (or Alaskan-) type complexes correspond to a particular class of ultramafic intrusions that attract particular attention due to their deep mantle origin and their platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. When defined as massifs of dunite-clinopyroxenite, only forty-six complexes are reported in the literature. These large-scale dunite pipe-like structures are rarely isolated and they even can appear in clusters. To better understand genesis of these relatively young (< 460 Ma) complexes, a worldwide compilation has been built, and three categories have been defined: single circular or elliptical bodies, twin bodies with similar shapes, and dismembered dunite bodies. PGE enrichment in Alaskan-type complexes is highest for the second category, where twin bodies are interpreted as horizontal sections of Y-shaped dunite pipes. To constrain mechanical properties of the lithosphere allowing emplacement of the Alaskan-type complexes, the forceful diapiric ascent hypothesis is investigated through numerical thermo-mechanical models. One hundred high resolution experiments accounting for realistic phase changes and softening mechanisms have been performed. The experiments show that with no rheological softening of the host rock and in case of a relatively weak ductile lower crust, the uprising magma tends to spread laterally without reaching the surface. To account for the forceful ascent of deep magmas, it is hence necessary to assume a strong lower crust rheology and strong local softening mechanisms. Besides reproducing the clustered distribution of the weakness zones representing magma pathways, these latter experiments reproduce large-scale pipe-like (cylindrical) structures, Y-shaped and funnel-shaped bodies, and laterally-shifted structures. Interestingly, zones of highest strain rates are located at the bottom parts of the inclined edges of Y-shaped and funnel-shaped bodies. The restricted age range of Alaskan-type complexes (< 460 Ma) would mean

  6. Thermopower of the 312 MAX phases Ti3SiC2 , Ti3GeC2 , and Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, L.; Hug, G.; Pécheur, P.; Scherrer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure and the thermoelectric tensor are calculated for the 312 MAX phases Ti3SiC2 , Ti3GeC2 , and Ti3AlC2 . The thermoelectric tensor is shown to be anisotropic in all cases. However, for Ti3SiC2 and Ti3GeC2 we find the components of the thermoelectric tensor to be negative along the z direction, Sz<0 , and positive in the basal plane, Sx>0 , whereas Sz>0 and Sx>0 over a large temperature range for Ti3AlC2 . This accounts for the different behavior experimentally observed. Moreover, the calculated thermopower as a function of temperature is in good agreement with experiments on polycrystals.

  7. New insight into the helium-induced damage in MAX phase Ti3AlC2 by first-principles studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiguo; Bai, Xiaojing; Zha, Xianhu; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Luo, Kan; Zhou, Yuhong; Germann, Timothy C; Francisco, Joseph S; Du, Shiyu

    2015-09-21

    In the present work, the behavior of He in the MAX phase Ti3AlC2 material is investigated using first-principle methods. It is found that, according to the predicted formation energies, a single He atom favors residing near the Al plane in Ti3AlC2. The results also show that Al vacancies are better able to trap He atoms than either Ti or C vacancies. The formation energies for the secondary vacancy defects near an Al vacancy or a C vacancy are strongly influenced by He impurity content. According to the present results, the existence of trapped He atoms in primary Al vacancy can promote secondary vacancy formation and the He bubble trapped by Al vacancies has a higher tendency to grow in the Al plane of Ti3AlC2. The diffusion of He in Ti3AlC2 is also investigated. The energy barriers are approximately 2.980 eV and 0.294 eV along the c-axis and in the ab plane, respectively, which means that He atoms exhibit faster migration parallel to the Al plane. Hence, the formation of platelet-like bubbles nucleated from the Al vacancies is favored both energetically and kinetically. Our calculations also show that the conventional spherical bubbles may be originated from He atoms trapped by C vacancies. Taken together, these results are able to explain the observed formation of bubbles in various shapes in recent experiments. This study is expected to provide new insight into the behaviors of MAX phases under irradiation from electronic structure level in order to improve the design of MAX phase based materials. PMID:26395728

  8. New insight into the helium-induced damage in MAX phase Ti3AlC2 by first-principles studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiguo; Bai, Xiaojing; Zha, Xianhu; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Luo, Kan; Zhou, Yuhong; Germann, Timothy C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Du, Shiyu

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the behavior of He in the MAX phase Ti3AlC2 material is investigated using first-principle methods. It is found that, according to the predicted formation energies, a single He atom favors residing near the Al plane in Ti3AlC2. The results also show that Al vacancies are better able to trap He atoms than either Ti or C vacancies. The formation energies for the secondary vacancy defects near an Al vacancy or a C vacancy are strongly influenced by He impurity content. According to the present results, the existence of trapped He atoms in primary Al vacancy can promote secondary vacancy formation and the He bubble trapped by Al vacancies has a higher tendency to grow in the Al plane of Ti3AlC2. The diffusion of He in Ti3AlC2 is also investigated. The energy barriers are approximately 2.980 eV and 0.294 eV along the c-axis and in the ab plane, respectively, which means that He atoms exhibit faster migration parallel to the Al plane. Hence, the formation of platelet-like bubbles nucleated from the Al vacancies is favored both energetically and kinetically. Our calculations also show that the conventional spherical bubbles may be originated from He atoms trapped by C vacancies. Taken together, these results are able to explain the observed formation of bubbles in various shapes in recent experiments. This study is expected to provide new insight into the behaviors of MAX phases under irradiation from electronic structure level in order to improve the design of MAX phase based materials.

  9. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success. PMID:26151232

  10. Repertoire and classification of non-song calls in Southeast Alaskan humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires. PMID:25618033

  11. REPETITIVE DIGITAL NOAA-AVHRR DATA FOR ALASKAN ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, William M.; Pawlowski, Robert J.; Fleming, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Selected digitally enhanced NOAA - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images taken by the NOAA 6, 7, 8 and 9 Polar Orbiting Satellites demonstrate the capability and application of repetitive low-resolution satellite data to Alaska's engineering and science community. Selected cloud-free visible and thermal infrared images are enhanced to depict distinct oceanographic and geologic processes along Alaska's west coast and adjacent seas. Included are the advance of the Bering Sea ice field, transport of Yukon River sediment into Norton Sound, and monitoring of plume trajectories from the Mount Augustine volcanic eruptions. Presented illustrations are representative of the 94 scenes in a cooperative USGS EROS/NOAA Alaskan AVHRR Digital Archive. This paper will discuss the cooperative efforts in establishing the first year data set and identifying Alaskan applications.

  12. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of budding bacteria in the origin of Alaskan placer gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lacelike networks of micrometre-size filiform gold associated wtih Alaskan placer gold particles are interpreted as low-temperature pseudomorphs of a Pedomicrobium-like budding bacterium. Submicron reproductive structures (hyphae) and other morphological features similar to those of Pedomicrobium manganicum occur as detailed three-dimensional facsimiles in high purity gold in and on placer gold particles from Lillian Creek, Alaska. In a scanning electron microscope survey, the majority of gold particles at nine Alaskan placer deposits appear to include gold that has accumulated chemically at low temperatures in and on the cells of P. manganicum. Similar bacterioform gold from a Paleozoic deposit in China and from the Precambrian Witwatersrand deposit in South Africa may indicate that bacterioform gold is widespread. -Author

  13. Deformation modes and ideal strengths of ternary layered Ti{sub 2}AlC and Ti{sub 2}AlN from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Ting; Wang Jingyang; Zhou Yanchun

    2006-06-01

    Deformation and failure modes were studied for Ti{sub 2}AlC and Ti{sub 2}AlN by deforming the materials from elasticity to structural instability using the first-principles density functional calculations. We found that the TiC{sub 0.5}/TiN{sub 0.5} slabs remain structurally stable under deformations, whereas the weak Ti-Al bonds accommodate deformation by softening and breaking at large strains. The structural stability of the ternary compound is determined by the strength of Ti-Al bond, which is demonstrated to be less resistive to shear deformation than to tension. The ideal stress-strain relationships of ternary compounds are presented and compared with those of the binary materials, TiC and TiN, respectively. For Ti{sub 2}AlC and Ti{sub 2}AlN, their ideal tensile strengths are comparable to those of the binary counterparts, while the ideal shear strengths yield much smaller values. Based on electronic structure analyses, the low shear deformation resistance is well interpreted by the response of weak Ti-Al bonds to shear deformations. We propose that the low shear strengths of Ti{sub 2}AlC and Ti{sub 2}AlN originate from low slip resistance of Al atomic planes along the basal plane, and furthermore suggest that this is the mechanism for low hardness, damage tolerance, and intrinsic toughness of ternary layered carbides and nitrides.

  14. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the nai??vete?? of both populations to other pathogens (e

  15. Characteristics and petrogenesis of Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Loney, R.A. ); Himmelberg, G.R. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO )

    1993-04-01

    Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions occur along a belt that extends from Duke Island to Klukwan in southeastern Alaska and fall into two age groups, 400 to 440 Ma and 100 to 110 Ma. Most of the smaller bodies are magnetite-bearing hornblende clinopyroxenite; the larger ones consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite, with some gabbro, in addition to hornblende clinopyroxenite and hornblendite. Textural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Alaskan-type ultramafic bodies indicate that they originated by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma and accumulation in a crustal magma chamber. The Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] content of clinopyroxene shows a marked enrichment with differentiation, suggesting crystallization from progressively more hydrous melts like those characteristics of arc magmas. REE abundance levels and patterns are markedly similar for given rock units in all the bodies studied suggesting that all the bodies were derived by differentiation of closely similar parent magmas under near identical conditions. The exact composition of the primary melt is uncertain but the authors' preferred interpretation is that the parental magma of most Alaskan-type bodies was a subalkaline hydrous basalt. The striking similarity between the REE abundance levels and patterns of the Alaskan-type clinopyroxenites and gabbros, and the clinopyroxenite xenoliths and plutonic gabbros associated with Aleutian Island Arc volcanism, further suggests that the primary magma was probably a hydrous olivine basalt similar to the primary magma proposed for the Aleutian arc lavas. The mineral chemistry and phase equilibria of the ultramafic bodies suggest that they crystallized in magma chambers at depths greater than about 9 km. Except for the Duke Island body, which has sedimentary structures and shows evidence of ubiquitous current activity, most of the other bodies appear to have accumulated under static conditions.

  16. Projected Duration of the Sea-Ice-Free Season in the Future Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Overland, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The change in the Arctic climate is fast and broad. Among many changes that have been observed, the reduction of sea ice coverage has been one of the most significant factors. Continued reduction in sea ice cover will probably result in longer open water duration, which is important for the shipping industry, marine mammals as well as other component of the local ecosystem. In this study we are to assess future sea ice conditions, particularly the length of open water duration in the Alaskan Arctic over the next few decades using the latest coupled climate models (CMIP5). The Alaskan Arctic, including the Chukchi and the Beaufort Sea, has been a major region of summer sea ice retreat since 2007. Based on the mean of 12 climate models, for the region north of the Bering Strait (70° N), future open-water duration may extend from a current 3-4 months to around five months by 2050. It is about one month shorter along the same latitude over the Beaufort Sea. The difference in the length of ice-free season between the north and the south will remain, but will be smaller in the 21st century compared with current condition. Open-water duration in the Alaskan Arctic expands quickly in these models over the next decades, in contrast to model under-predictions of sea ice loss for the summer minimum over the Arctic wide domain. Uncertainty is generally ±one month estimated from the range of model results. Continued increases in open-water duration over the next two decades will impact regional economic access and potentially alter ecosystems, yet we need to keep in mind that from December through May most of the northern Alaskan Arctic will remain sea ice covered into the second half of the century.

  17. Long-term climate patterns in Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation and their biological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Fleming, Michael D.; Berg, Jared S.; Ashton, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Mean monthly climate maps of Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation produced by the parameter-elevation regression on independent slopes model (PRISM) were analyzed. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones with consistent but different climatic variability separated by a transition region; it has maximum interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)- and El Nin??o southern oscillation (ENSO)-type events influence Alaska surface temperatures weakly (1-2 ??C) statewide. PDO has a stronger influence than ENSO on precipitation but its influence is largely localized to coastal central Alaska. The strongest influence of Arctic oscillation (AO) occurs in northern and interior Alaskan precipitation. Four major ecosystems are defined. A major eco-transition zone occurs between the interior boreal forest and the coastal rainforest. Variability in insolation, surface temperature, precipitation, continentality, and seasonal changes in storm track direction explain the mapped ecosystems. Lack of westward expansion of the interior boreal forest into the western shrub tundra is influenced by the coastal marine boundary layer (enhanced cloud cover, reduced insolation, cooler surface and soil temperatures). In this context, the marine boundary layer acts in an analogous fashion to the orographic features which form the natural boundaries of other Alaskan ecosystems. Variability in precipitation may play a secondary role.

  18. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  20. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  1. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  2. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  3. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. The Apparent Periodicity of Felt Reports in the Alaskan Earthquake Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, L. A.; McNutt, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Felt reports for Alaskan earthquakes were found to be non-uniformly distributed throughout the year. With a predominantly tourist economy, the Alaskan population nearly triples in the summer months, possibly affecting the reporting of earthquakes in the historical record. Using published felt reports from the National Earthquake Information Center and the Alaska Earthquake Information Center, the percentage of events felt each month in central mainland Alaska were tabulated and compared between the summer and winter seasons. Earthquakes were selected from January 1, 1990 to October 31, 2002, from latitudes 58 to 70 degrees N and longitudes 140 to 160 degrees W, and depths 0 to 200 km. 408 events were felt out of a total of 695 that occurred. A number of parameters, including time of day, latitude, longitude, and magnitude, were additionally compared to specify possible limiting factors within each season. While a strong seasonal effect was not found in magnitude 4.0 ML events and greater, the months of May and June were consistently found to have the highest percentage of felt events with a steep drop occurring in the month of July. We ascribe this effect to the summer melting of the top layer of frozen ground to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Additionally, smaller events from magnitude 1.0 to 4.0 ML were also examined. 396 events were felt out of a total of 7,451 that occurred. We found that small earthquakes were felt, with a significant difference, more readily during summer months than in winter. This is likely an effect of the higher summer population of tourists and greater distribution of open businesses. Together these observations suggest that the historical Alaskan earthquake record is likely biased in favor of more frequent reporting of events occurring in summer months as opposed to winter.

  10. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  11. Earthquake triggering at alaskan volcanoes following the 3 November 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; Sanchez, J.J.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake provided an excellent opportunity to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 247-2159 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ???1 hr after the Mw 7.9 arrival time at each network and for significant increases in located earthquakes in the hours after the mainshock. We found compelling evidence for triggering only at the Katmai volcanic cluster (KVC, 720-755 km southwest of the epicenter), where small earthquakes with distinct P and 5 arrivals appeared within the mainshock coda at one station and a small increase in located earthquakes occurred for several hours after the mainshock. Peak dynamic stresses of ???0.1 MPa at Augustine Volcano (560 km southwest of the epicenter) are significantly lower than those recorded in Yellowstone and Utah (>3000 km southeast of the epicenter), suggesting that strong directivity effects were at least partly responsible for the lack of triggering at Alaskan volcanoes. We describe other incidents of earthquake-induced triggering in the KVC, and outline a qualitative magnitude/distance-dependent triggering threshold. We argue that triggering results from the perturbation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the KVC and suggest that the comparative lack of triggering at other Alaskan volcanoes could be a result of differences in the nature of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  12. Chromosomal mutations and chromosome loss measured in a new human-hamster hybrid cell line, ALC: studies with colcemid, ultraviolet irradiation, and 137Cs gamma-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Small mutations, megabase deletions, and aneuploidy are involved in carcinogenesis and genetic defects, so it is important to be able to quantify these mutations and understand mechanisms of their creation. We have previously quantified a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in a hamster-human hybrid cell line AL. S1- mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen, S1, which is encoded by the M1C1 gene at 11p13 so that mutants can be detected via a complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay in which S1+ cells are killed and S1- cells survive. But loss of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the AL hybrid, so that mutants that have lost the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. To circumvent this, we fused AL with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a new hybrid, ALC, in which the requirement for maintaining 11p15.5 is relieved, allowing us to detect mutations events involving loss of 11p15.5. We evaluated the usefulness of this hybrid by conducting mutagenesis studies with colcemid, 137Cs gamma-radiation and UV 254 nm light. Colcemid induced 1000 more S1- mutants per unit dose in ALC than in AL; the increase for UV 254 nm light was only two-fold; and the increase for 137Cs gamma-rays was 12-fold. The increase in S1- mutant fraction in ALC cells treated with colcemid and 137Cs gamma-rays were largely due to chromosome loss and 11p deletions often containing a breakpoint within the centromeric region.

  13. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  14. Experiences of Alaskan parents with children hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus treatment.

    PubMed

    Yael Kopacz, Nicole; Predeger, Elizabeth; Kelley, Colleen M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of Alaskan parents with children hospitalized for the treatment of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Six parents participated in a qualitative descriptive study composed of individual interviews. Using content analysis, three major themes emerged: "RSV is scary," "Lots of stress; little rest" and "At what point does it become a Bingo? He's going to the hospital." Findings provided further insight into the educational needs of the participants. Advanced practice registered nurses can translate insights provided by the participants into crucial knowledge needed for the care of families at heightened risk and currently experiencing RSV. PMID:23531460

  15. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Elashvili, I; Valdes, J J; Kamely, D; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above. PMID:1367420

  16. First Alaskan records and a significant northern range extension for two species of Diplura (Diplura, Campodeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sikes, Derek S.; Allen, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species in the class Diplura are recorded from Alaska for the first time. Two species, Tricampa rileyi Silvestri from Dall and Prince of Wales Islands in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska and Metriocampa allocerca Conde & Geeraert from near Quartz Lake, southeast of Fairbanks, both in the family Campodeidae, are documented based on recently collected specimens deposited in the University of Alaska Museum Insect Collection. A brief review of the history of the documentation of the Alaskan soil microarthropod fauna is provided, as well as discussion of possible glacial refugia. PMID:27047242

  17. Alaskan marine mammal tissue archival project: a project description including collection protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1988-03-01

    The Alaskan Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project was initiated in 1987. Although the emphasis is on the collection of tissues for analysis of contaminants that may be associated with the petroleum industry, the development of an archive of marine mammal tissues collected and stored using carefully controlled procedures provides an important resource addressing questions concerning the transport of elements and compounds (contaminants and non-contaminants) throughout the polar ecosystem. The document provides the basic information on Project objectives and management, justification for the species, tissues, and contaminants of interest, and specific instructions for collecting, handling, and storing samples.

  18. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.; Elashvili, I.; Valdes, J.J.; Kamely, D.; Chakrabarty, A.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30{degree}C and above.

  19. The Changing Alaskan Experience—Health Care Services and Cultural Identity

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mim; Myers, Wayne W.; Book, Patricia A.; Nice, Philip O.

    1983-01-01

    Before Western contact, Alaskan Native populations were self-sufficient in their health practices. Slowly, the Native health care system was replaced by a Western one which was highly effective in treating infectious diseases. As infectious diseases were brought under control by the Indian Health Service, the emergent leading health problems were related to violence, attributed in part to cultural disintegration. New types of Native health providers and new Native-controlled institutions evolved to provide culturally appropriate health and mental health services and to promote a stronger cultural identity. PMID:6666110

  20. Paleoclimatic forcing of magnetic susceptibility variations in Alaskan loess during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.; Stone, D.B.; Hawkins, D.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Visual matches and statistical tests suggest correlations between marine isotope curves, retrodictive solar insolation at lat 65{degree}N, and magnetic susceptibility profiles through late Quaternary age Alaskan loess sections. The susceptibility changes largely appear to reflect variability in magnetite content due to climatically controlled changes in wind intensity and competence. Magnetic susceptibility profiles through massive loess can provide stratigraphic context for intercalated paleosols and tephras. A prominent paleosol correlated with marine isotope stage 5 occurs several metres above the Old Crow ash in loess sections, indicating that this important tephra is older than suggested by thermoluminescence dates, and may have been deposited ca. 215 {plus minus}25 ka.

  1. First-principles phonon calculations of thermal expansion in Ti3SiC2 , Ti3AlC2 , and Ti3GeC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Atsushi; Chaput, Laurent; Tanaka, Isao; Hug, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    Thermal properties of ternary carbides with composition Ti3SiC2 , Ti3AlC2 , and Ti3GeC2 were studied using the first-principles phonon calculations. The thermal expansions, the heat capacities at constant pressure, and the isothermal bulk moduli at finite temperatures were obtained under the quasiharmonic approximation. Comparisons were made with the available experimental data and excellent agreements were obtained. Phonon band structures and partial density of states were investigated. These compounds present unusual localized phonon states at low frequencies, which are due to atomiclike vibrations parallel to the basal plane of the Si, Al, or Ge elements.

  2. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  3. Evidence for permafrost thaw and transport from an Alaskan North Slope watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Rosenheim, Brad E.

    2014-05-01

    Burial of organic carbon (OC) in marine sediments is one of the most important linkages between the short-term biologic carbon cycle and the long-term geologic carbon cycle. Yet much is still unknown about the fate of terrigenous OC in marine coastal margins. Here the delivery of particulate OC (POC) to the Colville River deltaic region in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea by particulates of varying densities is studied through the use of ramped temperature pyrolysis and radiocarbon analyses. The Colville River is the largest river in North America whose watershed is underlain completely by high Arctic permafrost tundra. A variety of sources of POC are considered, including terrestrial soils, Pleistocene-aged yedoma-like sediments, coastal peat erosion, and marine POC. We provide the first evidence that riverine POC from the Colville River contains old (Pleistocene-sourced) OC, suggesting ongoing thaw and mobilization of yedoma-like permafrost OC from this northern Alaskan watershed. Additionally, much of this OC appears to be fairly labile and therefore could be readily oxidized and returned to the atmosphere.

  4. Spatial variability and landscape controls of near-surface permafrost within the Alaskan Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rose, Joshua R.; Rigge, Matthew; Walvoord, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of permafrost is important to understand because of permafrost's influence on high-latitude ecosystem structure and functions. Moreover, near-surface (defined here as within 1 m of the Earth's surface) permafrost is particularly susceptible to a warming climate and is generally poorly mapped at regional scales. Subsequently, our objectives were to (1) develop the first-known binary and probabilistic maps of near-surface permafrost distributions at a 30 m resolution in the Alaskan Yukon River Basin by employing decision tree models, field measurements, and remotely sensed and mapped biophysical data; (2) evaluate the relative contribution of 39 biophysical variables used in the models; and (3) assess the landscape-scale factors controlling spatial variations in permafrost extent. Areas estimated to be present and absent of near-surface permafrost occupy approximately 46% and 45% of the Alaskan Yukon River Basin, respectively; masked areas (e.g., water and developed) account for the remaining 9% of the landscape. Strong predictors of near-surface permafrost include climatic indices, land cover, topography, and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus spectral information. Our quantitative modeling approach enabled us to generate regional near-surface permafrost maps and provide essential information for resource managers and modelers to better understand near-surface permafrost distribution and how it relates to environmental factors and conditions.

  5. Chemical and in vitro assessment of Alaskan coastal vegetation antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-11-20

    Alaska Native (AN) communities have utilized tidal plants and marine seaweeds as food and medicine for generations, yet the bioactive potential of these resources has not been widely examined. This study screened six species of Alaskan seaweed ( Fucus distichus , Saccharina latissima , Saccharina groenlandica , Alaria marginata , Pyropia fallax , and Ulva lactuca ) and one tidal plant ( Plantago maritima ) for antioxidant activity. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) was determined, and chemical antioxidant capacity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assays. In vitro inhibition of radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and NO synthesis was evaluated in a RAW 264.7 macrophage culture. Greatest TPC (557.2 μg phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE)/mg extract) was discovered in the ethyl acetate fraction of F. distichus, and highest DDPH scavenging activity was exhibited by F. distichus and S. groenlandica fractions (IC50 = 4.29-5.12 μg/mL). These results support the potential of Alaskan coastal vegetation, especially the brown algae, as natural sources of antioxidants for preventing oxidative degeneration and maintaining human health. PMID:24147955

  6. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE TO MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin Chukwu

    2004-01-01

    The Alaskan North Slope (ANS) is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the United States where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Because the domestic gas market in the continental United States is located thousands of miles from the ANS, transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS to the market is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundant resource. The focus of this project is to study the operational challenges involved in transporting the gas in converted liquid (GTL) form through the existing Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). A three-year, comprehensive research program was undertaken by the Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks, under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40016 to study the feasibility of transporting GTL products through TAPS. Cold restart of TAPS following an extended winter shutdown and solids deposition in the pipeline were identified as the main transportation issues in moving GTL products through the pipeline. The scope of work in the current project (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41248) included preparation of fluid samples for the experiments to be conducted to augment the comprehensive research program.

  7. Atmospheric methane sources - Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Grice, S. S.; Bartlett, K. B.; Sebacher, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux measurements from Alaska tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh were obtained at field sites ranging from Prudhoe Bay on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Alaskan Range south of Fairbanks during August 1984. In the tundra, average CH4 emission rates varied from 4.9 mg CH4 per sq m per day (moist tundra) to 119 mg CH4 per sq m per day (waterlogged tundra). Fluxes averaged 40 mg CH4 per sq m per day from wet tussock meadows in the Brooks Range and 289 mg Ch4 per sq m per day from an alpine fen in the Alaskan Range. The boreal marsh had an average CH4 emission rate of 106 mg CH4 per sq m per day. Significant emissions were detected in tundra areas where peat temperatures were as low as 4 C, and permafrost was only 25 cm below the ground surface. Emission rates from the 17 sites sampled were found to be logarithmically related to water levels at the sites. Extrapolation of the data to an estimate of the total annual CH4 emission from all arctic and boreal wetlands suggests that these ecosystems are a major source of atmospheric CH4 and could account for up to 23 percent of global CH4 emissions from wetlands.

  8. Fine-scale population genetic structure in Alaskan Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Pacific halibut collected in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska were used to test the hypothesis of genetic panmixia for this species in Alaskan marine waters. Nine microsatellite loci and sequence data from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region were analyzed. Eighteen unique mtDNA haplotypes were found with no evidence of geographic population structure. Using nine microsatellite loci, significant heterogeneity was detected between Aleutian Island Pacific halibut and fish from the other two regions (FST range = 0.007–0.008). Significant FST values represent the first genetic evidence of divergent groups of halibut in the central and western Aleutian Archipelago. No significant genetic differences were found between Pacific halibut in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea leading to questions about factors contributing to separation of Aleutian halibut. Previous studies have reported Aleutian oceanographic conditions at deep inter-island passes leading to ecological discontinuity and unique community structure east and west of Aleutian passes. Aleutian Pacific halibut genetic structure may result from oceanographic transport mechanisms acting as partial barriers to gene flow with fish from other Alaskan waters.

  9. Spatial variability and landscape controls of near-surface permafrost within the Alaskan Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rose, Joshua R.; Rigge, Matthew; Walvoord, Michelle A.

    2014-06-01

    The distribution of permafrost is important to understand because of permafrost's influence on high-latitude ecosystem structure and functions. Moreover, near-surface (defined here as within 1 m of the Earth's surface) permafrost is particularly susceptible to a warming climate and is generally poorly mapped at regional scales. Subsequently, our objectives were to (1) develop the first-known binary and probabilistic maps of near-surface permafrost distributions at a 30 m resolution in the Alaskan Yukon River Basin by employing decision tree models, field measurements, and remotely sensed and mapped biophysical data; (2) evaluate the relative contribution of 39 biophysical variables used in the models; and (3) assess the landscape-scale factors controlling spatial variations in permafrost extent. Areas estimated to be present and absent of near-surface permafrost occupy approximately 46% and 45% of the Alaskan Yukon River Basin, respectively; masked areas (e.g., water and developed) account for the remaining 9% of the landscape. Strong predictors of near-surface permafrost include climatic indices, land cover, topography, and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus spectral information. Our quantitative modeling approach enabled us to generate regional near-surface permafrost maps and provide essential information for resource managers and modelers to better understand near-surface permafrost distribution and how it relates to environmental factors and conditions.

  10. American Indian/Alaskan Native Undergraduate Retention at Predominantly White Institutions: An Elaboration of Tinto's Theory of College Student Departure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William; Brown, Eddie F.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a major public university sponsored study undertaken with the intention of (a) improving university understanding of factors affecting American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) undergraduates' persistence at this institution, and (b) identifying in what areas, and in what manner, this institution could improve…

  11. ENHANCEMENT OF BIODEGRADATION OF ALASKAN WEATHERED CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS BY INDIGENOUS MICROBIOTA WITH THE USE OF FERTILIZERS AND NUTRIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biodegradability studies of the Alaskan weathered crude oil were undertaken as part of the bioremediation project for the shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, contaminated by the Exxon oil spill. he purpose of the studies was to evaluate the capability of the i...

  12. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  13. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...

  14. Social Disruption and Psychological Stress in an Alaskan Fishing Community: The Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; And Others

    Technological accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 create man-made disaster situations that threaten community survival and the well-being and quality of life of community residents. This paper focuses on the social and psychological impact of the 1989 oil spill on Cordova, an isolated Alaskan community with high economic…

  15. Population structure over a broad spatial scale driven by nonanthropogenic factors in a wide-ranging migratory mammal, Alaskan caribou.

    PubMed

    Mager, Karen H; Colson, Kevin E; Groves, Pam; Hundertmark, Kris J

    2014-12-01

    Wide-ranging mammals face significant conservation threats, and knowledge of the spatial scale of population structure and its drivers is needed to understand processes that maintain diversity in these species. We analysed DNA from 655 Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) from 20 herds that vary in population size, used 19 microsatellite loci to document genetic diversity and differentiation in Alaskan caribou, and examined the extent to which genetic differentiation was associated with hypothesized drivers of population subdivision including landscape features, population size and ecotype. We found that Alaskan caribou are subdivided into two hierarchically structured clusters: one group on the Alaska Peninsula containing discrete herds and one large group on the Mainland lacking differentiation between many herds. Population size, geographic distance, migratory ecotype and the Kvichak River at the nexus of the Alaska Peninsula were associated with genetic differentiation. Contrary to previous hypotheses, small Mainland herds were often differentiated genetically from large interconnected herds nearby, and genetic drift coupled with reduced gene flow may explain this pattern. Our results raise the possibility that behaviour helps to maintain genetic differentiation between some herds of different ecotypes. Alaskan caribou show remarkably high diversity and low differentiation over a broad geographic scale. These results increase information for the conservation of caribou and other migratory mammals threatened by population reductions and landscape barriers and may be broadly applicable to understanding the spatial scale and ecological drivers of population structure in widespread species. PMID:25403098

  16. Long-Term Effects of Otitis Media a Ten-Year Cohort Study of Alaskan Eskimo Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Gary J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Histories of ear disease, otoscopic examinations, and audiologic, intelligence, and achievement tests were obtained from a cohort of 489 Alaskan Eskimo children, followed through the first 10 years of life, to determine whether otitis media (middle ear inflammation) deleteriously affected intellectual functioning and achievement in school.…

  17. Physiological performance of an Alaskan shrub (Alnus fruticosa) in response to disease (Valsa melanodiscus) and water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At northern latitudes, plants are being exposed to multiple climate-related stresses as warming temperatures push plants beyond the physiological limits of their current range. Our study focused on two stresses related to the warming and drying of the Alaskan boreal forest: drought and disease. We e...

  18. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing 0-25% (wt%) of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along wi...

  19. One-to-One in Alaska: In the Remote Alaskan Interior, Students are Reaping the Benefits of Laptop Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Each school, district, or state has a unique set of circumstances and obstacles to deal with in implementing a one-to-one laptop program. That is especially true of Denali Borough School District in Alaska. Located in the Alaskan interior, it encompasses Denali National Park (with North America's tallest mountain), covers more than 12,000 square…

  20. Urban American Indian/Alaskan Natives Compared to Non-Indians in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Vernon B.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children have been disproportionately represented in the foster care system. In this study, nationally representative child welfare data from October 1999 was used to compare urban AI/AN children to non-Indian children placed into out-of-home care. Compared to non-Indian children, urban AI/AN…

  1. Carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel

    2007-08-01

    The continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. I used variation in the distribution of four Holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. By simulating the presence of wolves (Canis lupus), tigers (Panthera tigris), and brown bears (Ursus arctos) at 19 transcontinental sites, I assayed three metrics of prey performance in areas with no large terrestrial carnivores (the polar islands of Greenland and Svalbard), extant native carnivores (Eastern Siberian Shield, boreal Canada, and Alaska); and repatriated carnivores (the Yellowstone region and Rocky Mountains). The loss and reestablishment of large carnivores changed the ecological effectiveness of systems by (1) dampening immediate group benefits, diminishing awareness, and diminishing flight reaction in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) where predation was eliminated and (2) reinstituting sensitivity to carnivores by elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) in the Yellowstone region to levels observed in Asian elk when sympatric with Siberian tigers and wolves or in Alaskan moose sympatric with wolves. Behavioral compensation to reintroduced carnivores occurred within a single generation, but only the vigilance reaction of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone exceeded that of their wolf-exposed conspecifics from boreal Canada. Beyond these overt responses by prey, snow depth and distance to suitably vegetated habitat was related to heightened vigilance in moose and elk, respectively, but only at sites with carnivores. These findings are insufficient to determine whether similar patterns might apply to other species or in areas with alien predators, and they suggest that the presumed excessive vulnerability of naïve prey to repatriated carnivores may be ill-founded. Although

  2. Google's Geo Education Outreach: Results and Discussion of Outreach Trip to Alaskan High Schools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, E. J.; Bailey, J.; Bishop, A.; Cain, J.; Goddard, M.; Hurowitz, K.; Kennedy, K.; Ornduff, T.; Sfraga, M.; Wernecke, J.

    2008-12-01

    The focus of Google's Geo Education outreach efforts (http://www.google.com/educators/geo.html) is on helping primary, secondary, and post-secondary educators incorporate Google Earth and Sky, Google Maps, and SketchUp into their classroom lessons. In partnership with the University of Alaska, our Geo Education team members visited several remote Alaskan high schools during a one-week period in September. At each school, we led several 40-minute hands-on learning sessions in which Google products were used by the students to investigate local geologic and environmental processes. For the teachers, we provided several resources including follow-on lesson plans, example KML-based lessons, useful URL's, and website resources that multiple users can contribute to. This talk will highlight results of the trip and discuss how educators can access and use Google's Geo Education resources.

  3. Frequency of genes in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways within bacterial populations from Alaskan sediments.

    PubMed

    Sotsky, J B; Greer, C W; Atlas, R M

    1994-11-01

    A significant proportion of the naturally occurring hydrocarbon-degrading populations within Alaskan sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill had both the xylE and alkB genes and could convert hexadecane and naphthalene to carbon dioxide; a greater proportion of the population had xylE than had alkB, reflecting the composition of the residual oil at the time of sampling; nearly equal populations with xylE alone, alkB alone, and xylE + alkB genes together were found after exposure to fresh crude oil; populations with xylE lacking alkB increased after enrichment on naphthalene. Thus, the genotypes of hydrocarbon-degrading populations reflected the composition of the hydrocarbons to which they were exposed. PMID:7804909

  4. Quantifying the historic and future distribution of fire in Alaskan tundra ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. M.; Higuera, P. E.; Duffy, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    During the past 60 years fire has been relatively rare and small in size within tundra ecosystems. However, historical observations and paleoecological evidence indicates that fire regimes vary widely across Alaskan tundra, in both space and time. These lines of evidence suggest that fire occupies a highly specified niche or ecological space in Alaskan tundra, which may change significantly with future climate warming. The objective of this research was to quantify the relationships between fire occurrence and different seasonal climate variables, and to begin to make inferences about future distributions of fire across the tundra landscape. The results of this research will ultimately contribute to the goal of summarizing the linkages that exist among climate, vegetation, and fire in the historical record, and for making predictions concerning fire disturbance in tundra ecosystems throughout the next century. Historic tundra fires occurred non-randomly across space, and a relationship exists between fire occurrence and warm, dry climates. We quantified this relationship with generalized boosting models (GBM) using datasets of downscaled temperature and precipitation (2 km, 1971-2000), and historic records of tundra area burned (1950-2010). The GBM used six seasonal climate variables, focused on growing season temperature and precipitation, to predict the probability of fire occurrence over the 1950-2010 time period. To understand implications of these historic relationships given ongoing climate warming, we constructed future climatologies of temperature and precipitation for the five GCMs which performed best in Alaska under the IPCC AR4 A1B (middle-of-the-road) emissions scenario for the time period 2021-2050. The GBM performed well predicting the observed spatial distribution of tundra area burned, capturing key regions which experienced the most fire activity from 1950-2010. The mean temperature of the warmest month (MeanMaxTemp) was the most influential

  5. Bowhead whale behavior in relation to seismic exploration, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, Autumn 1981. Study report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Fraker, M.A.; Ljungblad, D.K.; Richardson, W.J.; Van Schoik, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    Behavior of bowhead whales (Balsena mysticetus) in the eastern part of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea or near the Alaska/Yukon border was observed from a circling turbine-powered Goose aircraft on 10 dates from 12 September to 5 October 1981. On three of these dates, the whales were exposed t, noise impulses from seismic vessels 13 km or more away. Some behavioral data were acquired. In both the presence and the absence of seismic impulses, most bowheads appeared to be feeding in the water column, although slow travel and active socializing were sometimes detected. Sonobuoys detected bowhead calls both in the presence and the absence of seismic impulses. There was no clear evidence of unusual behavior in the presence of seismic impulses.

  6. Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Michael R; Kondzela, Christine M; Martin, Patrick C; Finney, Bruce; Guyon, Jeffrey; Templin, William D; Decovich, Nick; Gilk-Baumer, Sara; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2013-07-01

    Low genetic divergence at neutral loci among populations is often the result of high levels of contemporary gene flow. Western Alaskan summer-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations demonstrate weak genetic structure, but invoking contemporary gene flow as the basis for the low divergence is problematic because salmon home to their natal streams and some of the populations are thousands of kilometers apart. We used genotypes from microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism loci to investigate alternative explanations for the current genetic structure of chum salmon populations from western Alaska. We also estimated current levels of gene flow among Kuskokwim River populations. Our results suggest that weak genetic structure is best explained by physical connections that occurred after the Holocene Thermal Maximum among the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak drainages that allowed gene flow to occur among now distant populations. PMID:23919176

  7. Evaluation of three gears for sampling spawning populations of rainbow trout in a large Alaskan river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwanke, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Alternatives to electrofishing are needed for sampling sexually mature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during the spawning season in large Alaskan rivers. We compared hook and line, beach seining, and actively fished gill nets as sampling tools. Beach seining and active gill netting yielded similar catch rates, length frequencies, and sex ratios of sexually mature fish. Hook-and-line sampling was less effective, with a lower catch rate and selectivity for immature fish and sexually mature females. We conclude that both beach seining and active gill netting can serve as alternatives to electrofishing for sampling sexually mature rainbow trout stocks during the spawning season in large rivers with stable spring flows and spawning areas with few snags.

  8. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  9. New evidence for the age of the Gubik Formation Alaskan North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repenning, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    At several Alaskan North Slope localities south of the shore of the Arctic Ocean the Gubik Formation, herein regarded as latest Pliocene and Pleistocene in age, contains a marine unit at its base. Near Ocean Point and near Teshekpuk Lake this basal unit, or the lowest exposed marine unit, of the Gubik contains unusual, relatively warm-water marine mammals. Although these mammals have poorly known fossil histories, consideration of what is known suggests that the basal marine unit near Ocean Point is of latest Pliocene age, between 2.2 and 1.7 my old, and that the marine unit near Teshekpuk Lake is probably late Pleistocene, most likely correlating with the Sangamon Interglaciation and about 120,000 yr old. ?? 1983.

  10. All-weather ice information system for Alaskan arctic coastal shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.; Jirberg, R. J.; Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Chase, T. L.; Kramarchuk, I.; Nagy, L. A.; Hanlon, R. A.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A near real-time ice information system designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope is described. The system utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures showing the type, areal distribution and concentration of ice cover were developed. In order to guide vessel operational movements, near real-time SLAR image data were transmitted directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images developed in Cleveland were subsequently facsimile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in ice forecasting and also as a demonstration back to Barrow via the Communications Technology Satellite.

  11. The influence of the Alaskan Gyre on the coastal circulation in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heim, Paul K., II; Johnson, Mark A.; O'Brien, James J.

    1992-01-01

    The circulation of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Alaska is simulated by means of a reduced-gravity wind-driven model to study seasonal and interannual flow variability. The circulation in the NE Pacific is discussed emphasizing its ramifications for the physical domain, equations, and boundary conditions of the numerical model. The pseudostress fields used to drive the model are based on 20 years of data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set and are analyzed with empirical orthogonal function analysis. The monthly stresses from 1986-89 are used to drive the model, and regional oceanographic features are reproduced including the Alaskan Gyre, Coastal Current, the Sitka eddy, and a severe cyclonic eddy. Comparisons with experimental data show that the high-resolution baroclinic model is valid and demonstrates the applicability of reduced-gravity models.

  12. Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R; Kondzela, Christine M; Martin, Patrick C; Finney, Bruce; Guyon, Jeffrey; Templin, William D; DeCovich, Nick; Gilk-Baumer, Sara; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Low genetic divergence at neutral loci among populations is often the result of high levels of contemporary gene flow. Western Alaskan summer-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations demonstrate weak genetic structure, but invoking contemporary gene flow as the basis for the low divergence is problematic because salmon home to their natal streams and some of the populations are thousands of kilometers apart. We used genotypes from microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism loci to investigate alternative explanations for the current genetic structure of chum salmon populations from western Alaska. We also estimated current levels of gene flow among Kuskokwim River populations. Our results suggest that weak genetic structure is best explained by physical connections that occurred after the Holocene Thermal Maximum among the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak drainages that allowed gene flow to occur among now distant populations. PMID:23919176

  13. The Top Triangle Moose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, R. S.; Christensen, N. D.; Coleppa, B.; Simmons, E. H.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a deconstructed model that incorporates both Higgsless and top-color mechanisms. The model alleviates the typical tension in Higgsless models between obtaining the correct top quark mass and keeping Δρ small. It does so by singling out the top quark mass generation as arising from a Yukawa coupling to an effective top-Higgs which develops a small vacuum expectation value, while electroweak symmetry breaking results largely from a Higgsless mechanism. As a result, the heavy partners of the SM fermions can be light enough to be seen at the LHC.

  14. Alaskan oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Physical oceanographers, chemists, and biologists will soon begin studying the seas around northern Alaska as part of an international effort to learn how increased fishing, oil and gas drilling, and land-based farming will affect marine life. The $2.5 million National Science Foundation (NSF)- funded study, called ISHTAR (Inner Shelf Transfer and Recycling in the Bering and Chukchi Seas), will involve scientists from the United States, Belgium, and Denmark.According to NSF, previous studies suggest that, despite a short growing season, the seas around the Bering Strait produce more plant life than most marine areas of the world. However, the source of mineral nutrients for this plant life and its destination in the food web or organic sediment is not well understood. The researchers will trace nutrients from the Yukon River and the deeper waters of the Bering Sea to the continental shelves of the Bering and Chukchi seas in an attempt to better understand what happens to land and marine organic matter when it enters this continental shelf ecosystem.

  15. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  16. Microbes residing in young organic rich Alaskan soils contain older carbon than those residing in old mineral high Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Slater, G. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Whyte, L.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils range from very organic rich to low carbon and mineral-dominated soils. At present, we do not yet fully understand if all carbon in the Arctic is equally vulnerable to mineralization in a warmer climate. Many studies have demonstrated that ancient carbon is respired when permafrost has thawed, yet our understanding of the active layer and permafrost carbon dynamics is still emerging. In an effort to remedy this disconnect between our knowledge of surface fluxes and below ground processes, we used radiocarbon to examine the microbial carbon dynamics in soil cores from organic rich soils near Barrow, Alaska and mineral soils from the Canadian high Arctic. Specifically, we compared the microbial community using lipid biomarkers, the inputs of carbon using n-alkanes and measured the 14C of both the bulk organic carbon and of the microbial lipids. In theory, the microbial lipids (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) represent the viable microbial community, as these lipids are hydrolyzed quickly after cell death. Variations in the PLFA distributions suggested that different microbial communities inhabit organic rich Alaskan soils and those of the Canadian high Arctic. When the PLFA concentrations were converted to cellular concentration, they were within the same order of magnitude (1 to 5 x 108 cells/g dry soil) with slightly higher cell concentrations in the organic rich Alaskan soils. When these cellular concentrations were normalized to the organic carbon content, the Canadian high Arctic soils contained a greater proportion of microbes. Although bulk organic carbon 14C of Alaskan soils indicated more recent carbon inputs into the soil than the Canadian high Arctic soils, the 14C of the PLFA revealed the opposite. For corresponding depth horizons, microbes in Alaskan soils were consuming carbon 1000 to 1500 years older than those in the Canadian high Arctic. Differences between the 14C content of bulk organic carbon and the microbial lipids were much smaller

  17. Placer and lode platinum-group minerals in south Kalimantan, Indonesia: evidence for derivation from Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Platinum-group minerals occur in significant proportions in placer deposits in several localities in South Kalimantan. They consist of Pt-Fe alloy that may be intergrown with or contain inclusions of Ir-Os-Ru alloy, laurite and chromite. Alluvial PGM found along Sungai Tambanio are in part derived from chromatite schlieren in dunitic bodies intruded into clinopyroxene cumulates that may be part of an Alaskan-type ultramafic complex. A chromitite schlieren in serpentinite from one of these dunitic bodies is anomalous in PGE. The chondrite-normalized PGE pattern for this rock, pan concentrates from this area, and PGM concentrates from diamond-Au-PGM placer deposits have an "M'-shaped pattern enriched in Ir and Pt that is typical of PGE-mineralization associated with Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes. -Authors

  18. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry

    PubMed Central

    Syron, Laura N.; Lucas, Devin L.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.; Kincl, Laurel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk

  19. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  20. Transport and reaction of heavy metals in Alaskan fjord estuaries. Annual report, July 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, D.C.

    1981-05-01

    The program investigates the potential effects of energy-related chemical pollution in Alaskan fjords. The long-term objective is to understand the chemical, physical, and biological processes responsible for the transport and reaction of heavy metals in these sub-arctic estuaries. The physical circulation and mixing processes, the nature and reactions of terrigenous organics and particulate sediment within the mixing zone, and aspects of the basin sediment oxygen, carbon and nutrient budgets in addition to study of individual metals are investigated. Mainly copper, iron and manganese are being studied since these provide information on physical-chemical processes common to, or greatly affecting, a much wider range of metals. The bulk of the Work completed section of this report refers to Resurrection Bay, a southcentral Alaskan fjord. The Work in progress reported here outlines recent investigations in Boca de Quadra, a southeast Alaskan fjord-estuary. We are here investigating deep and surface water circulation; oxygen, carbon and nutrient budgets; the compositions, reaction and flux of particulate sediment; and organic-heavy metal associations in the freshwater and in the mixing zone.

  1. Inter-annual variability in Alaskan net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; Lindaas, Jakob; Commane, Roisin; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella; Chang, Rachel; Kelly, Richard; Miller, Charles; Wofsy, Steven; Lin, John

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude biospheric carbon cycle's responses to climate change are predicted to have an important role in determining future atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In response to warming soil and air temperatures, Arctic wetlands have been observed to increase rates of both soil C efflux and vegetation C uptake through photosynthesis. However, insights into the regional-scale consequences of these processes for net C uptake have been limited by the large uncertainties existing in process-based model estimates of Arctic net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). The Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM) instead provides data-driven, satellite-based estimates of high-latitude NEE, using a framework which specifically accounts for polar influences on NEE. PolarVPRM calculates NEE as the sum of respiration (R) and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE), where GEE refers to the light-dependent portion of NEE: NEE= -GEE + R. Meteorological inputs for PolarVPRM are provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and land surface inputs are acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Growing season R is calculated from air temperature, and subnivean R is calculated according to soil temperature. GEE is calculated according to shortwave radiation, air temperature, and MODIS-derived estimates of soil moisture and vegetation biomass. Previously, model validation has indicated that PolarVPRM showed reasonably good agreement with eddy covariance observations at nine North American Arctic sites, of which three were used for calibration purposes. For this project, PolarVPRM NEE was calculated year-round across Alaska at a three-hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1 6°×1 4° (latitude × longitude). The objective of this work was to gain insight into inter-annual variability in Alaskan NEE, R and GEE, and an understanding of which meteorological and land surface drivers account for these observed patterns

  2. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    PubMed

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions

  3. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001; Dixon and others, 2002). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the basic seismic data and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. Appendix G contains a list of publications pertaining to seismicity of Alaskan volcanoes based on these and previously recorded data. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes. Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001. This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin

  5. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, John B.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Commane, Roisin; Dinardo, Steven; Henderson, John M.; Lindaas, Jacob; Lin, John C.; Luus, Kristina A.; Newberger, Tim; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C.; Wolter, Sonja; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-04-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ˜ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM-WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear to persist during some wintertime

  6. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  7. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified

  8. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  9. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes.Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001.This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times

  10. Methane transport mechanisms and isotopic fractionation in emergent macrophytes of an Alaskan tundra lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Martens, Christopher S.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Crill, Patrick M.; Showers, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of methane associated with and emitted by the two dominant emergent macrophytes abundant in the many Alaskan tundra lakes, Carex rostrata and Arctophila fulva, is determined. The carbon isotopic composition of the methane was -58.6 +/- 0.5 (n=2) for Arctophila and -66.6 +/- 2.5 (n=6) for Carex. The methane emitted by these species is depleted in C-13 by 12 per mil for Arctophila and 18 per mil for Carex relative to methane withdrawn from plant stems 1-2 cm below the waterline. The results suggest more rapid transport of (C-12)H4 relative to (C-13)H4 through plants to the atmosphere. Plant stem methane concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 percent in Arctophila, with an isotopic composition of -46.1 +/- 4.3 percent (n=8). Carex stem methane concentrations ranged from 150 to 1200 ppm, with an isotopic composition of -48.3 +/- 1.4 per mil (n=3).

  11. Effects of simultaneous climate change and geomorphic evolution on thermal characteristics of a shallow Alaskan lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, J.R.; Schindler, D.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.; Ruggerone, G.T.

    2011-01-01

    We used a hydrodynamics model to assess the consequences of climate warming and contemporary geomorphic evolution for thermal conditions in a large, shallow Alaskan lake. We evaluated the effects of both known climate and landscape change, including rapid outlet erosion and migration of the principal inlet stream, over the past 50 yr as well as future scenarios of geomorphic restoration. Compared to effects of air temperature during the past 50 yr, lake thermal properties showed little sensitivity to substantial (, 60%) loss of lake volume, as the lake maximum depth declined from 6 m to 4 m driven by outlet erosion. The direction and magnitude of future lake thermal responses will be driven largely by the extent of inlet stream migration when it occurs simultaneously with outlet erosion. Maintaining connectivity with inlet streams had substantial effects on buffering lake thermal responses to warming climate. Failing to account for changing rates and types of geomorphic processes under continuing climate change may misidentify the primary drivers of lake thermal responses and reduce our ability to understand the consequences for aquatic organisms. ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  12. Establishment of a New, Cooperative ARM and AmeriFlux Site on the Alaskan North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billesbach, D. P.; Fischer, M. L.; Cook, D. R.; Torn, M. S.; Castanha, C.

    2011-12-01

    We report here on the establishment of a new research facility on the Alaskan North Slope. The experiment, located near Barrow, AK will be operated by the US Department of Energy (US DOE) as a permanent facility at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The instrumentation at the site as well as on-going vegetation and soil measurements will also constitute the core data set for a new AmeriFlux site. Data will be made available through both the ARM and the AmeriFlux data centers. The experiment will be centered around an eddy covariance flux tower that will generated measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and energy fluxes. Additionally, surface radiation, meteorological, and soil instruments will provide ancillary data needed for gap filling, quality control, and climate quantification. Destructive and non-destructive sampling, according to the AmeriFlux biometric sampling protocols will quantify plant biomass, species, leaf area and nitrogen, and soil carbon stocks. Our goal is to assess both the impact that the Arctic costal region might have on the carbon cycle as well as climatic feedbacks that could affect this vulnerable ecosystem.

  13. Recent acceleration of biomass burning and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.; Harden, J.W.; Ottmar, R.D.; Manies, K.L.; Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change has increased the area affected by forest fires each year in boreal North America. Increases in burned area and fire frequency are expected to stimulate boreal carbon losses. However, the impact of wildfires on carbon emissions is also affected by the severity of burning. How climate change influences the severity of biomass burning has proved difficult to assess. Here, we examined the depth of ground-layer combustion in 178 sites dominated by black spruce in Alaska, using data collected from 31 fire events between 1983 and 2005. We show that the depth of burning increased as the fire season progressed when the annual area burned was small. However, deep burning occurred throughout the fire season when the annual area burned was large. Depth of burning increased late in the fire season in upland forests, but not in peatland and permafrost sites. Simulations of wildfire-induced carbon losses from Alaskan black spruce stands over the past 60 years suggest that ground-layer combustion has accelerated regional carbon losses over the past decade, owing to increases in burn area and late-season burning. As a result, soils in these black spruce stands have become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with carbon emissions far exceeding decadal uptake.

  14. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  15. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R. ); Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A. )

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the [delta][sup +13]C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average [minus]29.3 0.1%. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average [delta][sup 13]C value of [minus]23.8 [+-]0.1%. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggestes a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt ([delta][sup +13]C = [minus]23.6%) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil-like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Carlson, Paul R.; Threlkeld, Charles N.; Warden, Augusta

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the δ13C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average -29.3 ±0.1‰. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average δ13C value of -23.8 ±0.1‰. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggests a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt (δ13C = -23.6‰) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil- like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

  18. Extent of endocrine disruption in fish of western and Alaskan National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 2009, 998 fish were collected from 43 water bodies across 11 western Alaskan national parks and analyzed for reproductive abnormalities. Exposure to estrogenic substances such as pesticides can induce abnormalities like intersex. Results suggest there is a greater propensity for male intersex fish collected from parks located in the Rocky Mountains, and specifically in Rocky Mountain NP. Individual male intersex fish were also identified at Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, and WrangellSt. Elias NPs. The preliminary finding of female intersex was determined to be a false positive. The overall goal of this project was to assess the general health of fish from eleven western national parks to infer whether health impacts may be linked to contaminant health thresholds for animal andor human health. This was accomplished by evaluating the presence of intersex fish with eggs developing in male gonads or sperm developing in female gonads using histology. In addition, endocrine disrupting compounds and other contaminants were quantified in select specimens. General histologic appearance of the gonadal tissue and spleen were observed to assess health.

  19. Depth and temperature of permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Slope; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, Arthur H.; Sass, J.H.; Lawver, L.A.; Brewer, M.C.; Moses, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    As permafrost is defined by its temperature, the only way to determine its depth is to monitor the return to equilibrium of temperatures in boreholes that penetrate permafrost. Such measurements are under way in 25 wells on the Alaskan Arctic Slope; 21 are in Naval Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), and 4 are in the foothills to the east. Near-equilibrium results indicate that permafrost thickness in NPRA generally ranges between 200 and 400 m (compared to 600+ m at Prudhoe Bay); there are large local variations and no conspicuous regional trends. By contrast the long-term mean temperature of the ground surface (one factor determining permafrost depth) varies systematically from north to south in a pattern modified by the regional topography. The observed variation in permafrost temperature and depth cannot result primarily from effects of surface bodies of water or regional variations in heat flow; they are consistent, however, with expectable variations in the thermal conductivity of the sediments. It remains to be determined (with conductivity measurements) whether certain sites with anomalously high local gradients have anomalously high heat flow; if they do, they might indicate upwelling of interstitial fluids in the underlying basin sediments.

  20. Psychrotrophic strain of Janthinobacterium lividum from a cold Alaskan soil produces prodigiosin.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Patrick D; Allen, Heather K; Klimowicz, Amy K; Mlot, Christine; Gross, Jessica A; Savengsuksa, Sarah; McEllin, Jennifer; Clardy, Jon; Ruess, Roger W; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-09-01

    We have explored the microbial community in a nonpermafrost, cold Alaskan soil using both culture-based and culture-independent approaches. In the present study, we cultured >1000 bacterial isolates from this soil and characterized the collection of isolates phylogenetically and functionally. A screen for antibiosis identified an atypical, red-pigmented strain of Janthinobacterium lividum (strain BR01) that produced prodigiosin when grown at cool temperatures as well as strains (e.g., strain BP01) that are more typical of J. lividium, which produce a purple pigment, violacein. Both purple- and red-pigmented strains exhibited high levels of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The prodigiosin pathway cloned from J. lividium BR01 was expressed in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, and the responsible gene cluster differs from that of a well-studied prodigiosin producer, Serratia sp. J. lividum BR01 is the first example of a prodigiosin-producer among the beta-Proteobacteria. The results show that characterization of cultured organisms from previously unexplored environments can expand the current portrait of the microbial world. PMID:20626288

  1. Chemical and biological assessment of two offshore drilling sites in the Alaskan Arctic.

    PubMed

    Trefry, John H; Dunton, Kenneth H; Trocine, Robert P; Schonberg, Susan V; McTigue, Nathan D; Hersh, Eric S; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective chemical and biological study was carried out in Camden Bay, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, where single exploratory oil wells were drilled at two sites more than two decades ago. Barium from discharged drilling mud was present in sediments at concentrations as high as 14%, ~200 times above background, with significantly higher concentrations of Ba, but not other metals, within 250 m of the drilling site versus reference stations. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were found only at two stations within 25 m of one drilling site. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; however, TPAH were elevated in Ba-rich layers from naturally occurring perylene in ancient formation cuttings. Infaunal biomass and species abundance were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; infauna were less diverse at drilling-site stations. Our assessment showed that discharges from single wells within large areas caused minimal long-term, adverse impacts to the benthic ecosystem. PMID:23535013

  2. Upwelling on the continental slope of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Storms, ice, and oceanographic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickart, Robert S.; Moore, G. W. K.; Torres, Daniel J.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Goldsmith, Roger A.; Yang, Jiayan

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of Pacific-born storms that cause upwelling along the Beaufort Sea continental slope, the oceanographic response, and the modulation of the response due to sea ice are investigated. In fall 2002 a mooring array located near 152°W measured 11 significant upwelling events that brought warm and salty Atlantic water to shallow depths. When comparing the storms that caused these events to other Aleutian lows that did not induce upwelling, interesting trends emerged. Upwelling occurred most frequently when storms were located in a region near the eastern end of the Aleutian Island Arc and Alaskan Peninsula. Not only were these storms deep but they generally had northward-tending trajectories. While the steering flow aloft aided this northward progression, the occurrence of lee cyclogenesis due to the orography of Alaska seems to play a role as well in expanding the meridional influence of the storms. In late fall and early winter both the intensity and frequency of the upwelling diminished significantly at the array site. It is argued that the reduction in amplitude was due to the onset of heavy pack ice, while the decreased frequency was due to two different upper-level atmospheric blocking patterns inhibiting the far field influence of the storms.

  3. Estimation of carbon emissions from wildfires in Alaskan boreal forests using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L )

    1993-06-01

    The objectives of this research study were to evaluate the utility of using AVHRR data for locating and measuring the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska and to estimate the amount of carbon being released during these fires. Techniques were developed to using the normalized difference vegetation signature derived from AVHRR data to detect and measure the area of fires in Alaska. A model was developed to estimate the amount of biomass/carbon being stored in Alaskan boreal forests, and the amount of carbon released during fires. The AVHRR analysis resulted in detection of > 83% of all forest fires greater than 2,000 ha in size in the years 1990 and 1991. The areal estimate derived from AVHRR data were 75% of the area mapped by the Alaska Fire Service for these years. Using fire areas and locations for 1954 through 1992, it was determined that on average, 13.0 gm-C-m-2 of boreal forest area is released during fires every year. This estimate is two to six times greater than previous reported estimates. Our conclusions are that the analysis of AVHRR data represents a viable means for detecting and mapping fires in boreal regions on a global basis.

  4. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rykhus, R.P.; Lu, Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas. ?? 2008 CASI.

  5. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-08-01

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  6. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F. |

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils.

  7. Incorporating deep and shallow components of genetic structure into the management of Alaskan red king crab.

    PubMed

    Grant, William Stewart; Cheng, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Observed patterns of genetic variability among marine populations are shaped not only by contemporary levels of gene flow, but also by divergences during historical isolations. We examined variability at 15 SNP loci and in mtDNA sequences (COI, 665 bp) in red king crab from 17 localities in the North Pacific. These markers define three geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (SNPs, F(CT) = 0.054; mtDNA Φ(CT) = 0.222): (i) Okhotsk Sea-Norton Sound-Aleutian Islands, (ii) southeastern Bering Sea-western Gulf of Alaska, and (iii) Southeast Alaska. Populations in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaska are genetically heterogeneous, but populations in the center of the range are homogeneous. Mitochondrial DNA diversity drops from h = 0.91 in the northwestern Pacific to h = 0.24 in the Southeast Alaska. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) indicate postglacial population expansions, presumably from ice-age refugia. BSPs of sequences simulated under a demographic model defined by late Pleistocene temperatures failed to detect demographic variability before the last glacial maximum. These results sound a note of caution for the interpretation of BSPs. Population fragmentation in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaskan waters requires population management on a small geographic scale, and deep evolutionary partitions between the three geographic groups mandate regional conservation measures. PMID:23346227

  8. Re-analysis of Alaskan benchmark glacier mass-balance data using the index method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Beusekom, Ashely E.; O'Nell, Shad R.; March, Rod S.; Sass, Louis C.; Cox, Leif H.

    2010-01-01

    At Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers, designated the Alaskan benchmark glaciers, we re-analyzed and re-computed the mass balance time series from 1966 to 2009 to accomplish our goal of making more robust time series. Each glacier's data record was analyzed with the same methods. For surface processes, we estimated missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernized the traditional degree-day model and derived new degree-day factors in an effort to match the balance time series more closely. We estimated missing yearly-site data with a new balance gradient method. These efforts showed that an additional step needed to be taken at Wolverine Glacier to adjust for non-representative index sites. As with the previously calculated mass balances, the re-analyzed balances showed a continuing trend of mass loss. We noted that the time series, and thus our estimate of the cumulative mass loss over the period of record, was very sensitive to the data input, and suggest the need to add data-collection sites and modernize our weather stations.

  9. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    This study compared effects of increased temperature and litter from different Alaskan tundra plant species on cycling of carbon and nitrogen through litter and soil in microcosms. Warming between 4{degrees} and 10{degrees}C significantly increased rates of soil and litter respiration, litter decomposition, litter nitrogen release, and soil net nitrogen mineralization. Thus, future warming will directly increase rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling through litter and soil in tundra. In addition, differences among species` litter in rates of decomposition, N release, and effects on soil net nitrogen mineralization were sometimes larger than differences between the two temperature treatments within a species. Thus, changes in plant community structure and composition associated with future warming will have important consequences for how elements cycle through litter and soil in tundra. In general, species within a growth form (graminoids, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs, and mosses) were more similar in their effects on decomposition than were species belonging to different growth forms, with gramminoid litter having the fastest rate and litter of deciduous shrubs and mosses having the slowest rates. Differences in rates of litter decomposition were more related to carbon quality than to nitrogen concentration. Increased abundance of deciduous shrubs with future climate warming will promote carbon storage, because of their relatively large allocation to woody stems that decompose slowly. Changes in moss abundance will also have important consequences for future carbon and nitrogen cycling, since moss litter is extremely recalcitrant and has a low potential to immobilize nitrogen. 82 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Alaskan Wild Berry Resources and Human Health Under the Cloud of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    KELLOGG, JOSHUA; WANG, JINZHI; FLINT, COURTNEY; RIBNICKY, DAVID; KUHN, PETER; DE MEJIA, ELVIRA GONZÁLEZ; RASKIN, ILYA; LILA, MARY ANN

    2009-01-01

    Wild berries are integral dietary components for Alaska Native tribes and a rich source of polyphenolic metabolites that can ameliorate metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, five species of wild Alaskan berries (Vaccinium ovalifolium, V. uliginosum, Rubus chamaemorus, R. spectabilis, and Empetrum nigrum) were screened for bioactivity through a community-participatory research method involving three geographically-distinct tribal communities. Compositional analysis by HPLC and LC-MS2 revealed substantial site-specific variation in anthocyanins (0.01-4.39 mg/g-FW) and proanthocyanidins (0.74-6.25 mg/g-FW), and identified A-type proanthocyanidin polymers. R. spectabilis increased expression levels of preadipocyte-factor-1 (182%), and proanthocyanidin-enriched fractions from other species reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Selected extracts reduced serum glucose levels in C57bl/6j mice by up to 45%. Local observations provided robust insights into effects of climatic fluctuations on berry abundance and quality, and preliminary site-specific compositional and bioactivity differences were noted, suggesting the need to monitor this Alaska Native resource as climate shifts impact the region. PMID:20025229

  11. No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Lisa A.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d−1 and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

  12. Incorporating deep and shallow components of genetic structure into the management of Alaskan red king crab

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William Stewart; Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Observed patterns of genetic variability among marine populations are shaped not only by contemporary levels of gene flow, but also by divergences during historical isolations. We examined variability at 15 SNP loci and in mtDNA sequences (COI, 665 bp) in red king crab from 17 localities in the North Pacific. These markers define three geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (SNPs, FCT = 0.054; mtDNA ΦCT = 0.222): (i) Okhotsk Sea–Norton Sound–Aleutian Islands, (ii) southeastern Bering Sea–western Gulf of Alaska, and (iii) Southeast Alaska. Populations in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaska are genetically heterogeneous, but populations in the center of the range are homogeneous. Mitochondrial DNA diversity drops from h = 0.91 in the northwestern Pacific to h = 0.24 in the Southeast Alaska. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) indicate postglacial population expansions, presumably from ice-age refugia. BSPs of sequences simulated under a demographic model defined by late Pleistocene temperatures failed to detect demographic variability before the last glacial maximum. These results sound a note of caution for the interpretation of BSPs. Population fragmentation in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaskan waters requires population management on a small geographic scale, and deep evolutionary partitions between the three geographic groups mandate regional conservation measures. PMID:23346227

  13. [Assay of three kinds of aluminum fractions (Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c)) in polynuclear aluminum solutions by Al-Ferron timed spectrophotometry and demarcation of their time limits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-yi; Zhang, Cai-hua; Bi, Shu-ping; Zhang, Zhen-chao; Yang, Wei-hua

    2005-02-01

    Al-Ferron timed spectrophotometry assay is a basic method in the study on the formation of polynuclear hydroxyl aluminum species and their transformation laws in aqueous systems. In actual working process, this methodology has some dogmatism and arbitrariness in the time limits demarcation of the three kinds of aluminum fractions (Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c)) in polynuclear aluminum solutions, which makes this kind of classification rougher, and the experimental results non-reproducible. The reason for this difference is that the specific species within Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c) have different reaction mechanism and dynamics, and that specific species of Al(b) having different OH/Al ratios have different reaction rates with ferron. In this paper, the ExpAssoc distribution was applied to quantitatively fit the Al-Ferron reaction dynamics curve, and the extrapolation method was used to survey the 1 min measured value [Al(a)] of monomeric Al, which is hard to obtain in manual manipulation. The time demarcation between Al(b) and Al(c) should reach the point of the experimental data curve up to horizontal platform. The microwave-radiated technology was used to fast assay the total aluminum concentration [Al(T)]. With these methods, the contents of monomeric Al(a), polynuclear Al(b) and gel Al(c) can be conveniently and quantitatively measured. It offers a novel method for surmounting the arbitrariness in the measurement of the three kinds of aluminum fractions and the repetitive calculation of Al(a) and Al(b). PMID:15852869

  14. Electronic structure investigation of Ti3 AlC2 , Ti3 SiC2 , and Ti3 GeC2 by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuson, M.; Palmquist, J.-P.; Mattesini, M.; Li, S.; Ahuja, R.; Eriksson, O.; Emmerlich, J.; Wilhelmsson, O.; Eklund, P.; Högberg, H.; Hultman, L.; Jansson, U.

    2005-12-01

    The electronic structures of epitaxially grown films of Ti3AlC2 , Ti3SiC2 , and Ti3GeC2 have been investigated by bulk-sensitive soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The measured high-resolution Ti L , C K , Al L , Si L , and Ge M emission spectra are compared with ab initio density-functional theory including core-to-valence dipole matrix elements. A qualitative agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. A weak covalent Ti-Al bond is manifested by a pronounced shoulder in the Ti L emission of Ti3AlC2 . As Al is replaced with Si or Ge, the shoulder disappears. For the buried Al and Si layers, strongly hybridized spectral shapes are detected in Ti3AlC2 and Ti3SiC2 , respectively. As a result of relaxation of the crystal structure and the increased charge-transfer from Ti to C, the Ti-C bonding is strengthened. The differences between the electronic structures are discussed in relation to the bonding in the nanolaminates and the corresponding change of materials properties.

  15. Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): a widespread, multi-host lungworm of wild North American ungulates, with an emended diagnosis for the genus and explorations of biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. is established for a recently discovered protostrongylid nematode found in caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and moose (Alces americanus), hosts that collectively occupy an extensive geographic range across northern North America. Descripti...

  16. Hyperfine rather than spin splittings dominate the fine structure of the B 4Σ--X 4Σ- bands of AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clouthier, Dennis J.; Kalume, Aimable

    2016-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength resolved emission spectra of the B 4Σ--X 4Σ- band system of the gas phase cold aluminum carbide free radical have been obtained using the pulsed discharge jet technique. The radical was produced by electron bombardment of a precursor mixture of trimethylaluminum in high pressure argon. High resolution spectra show that each rotational line of the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of AlC is split into at least three components, with very similar splittings and intensities in both the P- and R-branches. The observed structure was reproduced by assuming bβS magnetic hyperfine coupling in the excited state, due to a substantial Fermi contact interaction of the unpaired electron in the aluminum 3s orbital. Rotational analysis has yielded ground and excited state equilibrium bond lengths in good agreement with the literature and our own ab initio values. Small discrepancies in the calculated intensities of the hyperfine lines suggest that the upper state spin-spin constant λ' is of the order of ≈0.025-0.030 cm-1.

  17. H Ly-alpha transmittance of thin foils of C, Si/C, and Al/C for keV particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Jenkins, D. G.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1992-01-01

    A class of instruments designed for remote sensing of space plasmas by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENA) uses a thin foil as both a signal generator and a light shield. An ENA imager must look directly at the ENA source region, which is also usually an intense source of H Ly-alpha (1216 A) photons. It is desirable to minimize the energy threshold for ENA detectors, at the same time maximizing the blocking of H Ly-alpha. Optimizing filter design to meet these two contrary requirements has led us to measure the transmittance of thin C, Si/C, and Al/C foils at H Ly-alpha. Our results indicate that (1) transmittance of less than 0.0007 can be achieved with 7 micro-g/sq cm Si on 1.7 micro-g/sq cm C; (2) an Si/C composite foil with a thin carbon layer is more effective in blocking UV radiation while having the lowest energy threshold of all the foils measured; and (3) transmittance of Si/C foils of known Si and C thicknesses cannot be accurately predicted, but must be measured.

  18. The effect of M (M=Ti,Cr,V,Nb) on the transport and elastic properties of nanolayered ternary carbides M2AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, J.; Barsoum, M.

    2005-03-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the electronic, magneto-transport, thermal and elastic properties of the family of materials M2AlC where M is Ti, V, Cr or Nb in the temperature range 4 to 300K. The elastic constants were measured for all compounds ultrasonically. The bulk moduli and anisotropic Young's moduli were found to vary in these compounds depending on the transition metal M. The Debye temperatures were in the 640-710 K range for all materials investigated. The Seebeck coefficients for these four materials were small with differing temperature dependences. All but the Nb containing material have Seebeck coefficients that change sign. The electrical conductivity, Hall coefficient and magnetoresistances are analyzed within a two-band framework assuming a temperature-independent charge carrier concentration. We concluded that there is little correlation between the Seebeck voltage and Hall number. As with other MAX-phase materials, all these materials are nearly compensated. Comparisons between these results will be presented. Results will be discussed in relation to theoretical work and recent measurements on related systems.

  19. The effect of M (M=Ti, Cr, V, Nb) on transport and elastic properties of nanolayered ternary carbides M2AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, Jeff; Finkel, Peter; Lofland, Sam; Barsoum, Michel; Gupta, Adrish

    2006-03-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of the electronic, magneto-transport, thermal and elastic properties of the family of materials M2AlC where M is Ti, V, Cr or Nb in the temperature range 4 to 300K. The elastic constants were measured for all compounds ultrasonic technique. The bulk moduli and anisotropic Young's moduli found to be varied in these compounds for various transition metal M. The Debye temperatures were high in the 640-710 K range and quite insensitive to composition. The Seebeck coefficient was a non-monotonic function of a temperature: at the lowest temperatures is small but increases with increasing temperature and saturates at 60-80 K and goes through zero again manifesting change in the dominating charge carrier type. The electrical conductivity, Hall coefficient and magnetoresistances are analyzed within a two-band framework assuming a temperature-independent charge carrier concentration. We concluded that there is little correlation between the Seebeck voltage and Hall number. As with other MAX-phase materials, all these materials are nearly compensated. Comparisons of these results will be presented. Results will be discussed in relation to theoretical work and recent measurements on related systems.

  20. Repeat Photography of Alaskan Glaciers and Landscapes as Both Art and as a Means of Communicating Climat Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    For nearly 15 years, I have used repeat photography of Alaskan glaciers and landscapes to communicate to fellow scientists, policymakers, the media, and society that Alaskan glaciers and landscapes have been experiencing significant change in response to post-Little Ice Age climate change. I began this pursuit after being contacted by a U.S. Department of the Interior senior official who requested unequivocal and unambiguous documentation that climate change was real and underway. After considering several options as to how best respond to this challenge, I decided that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a pair of photographs, both with the same field of view, spanning a century or more, and showing dramatic differences, would speak volumes to documenting that dynamic climate change is occurring over a very broad region of Alaska. To me, understating the obvious with photographic pairs was the best mechanism to present irrefutable, unambiguous, nonjudgmental, as well as unequivocal visual documentation that climate change was both underway and real. To date, more than 150 pairs that meet these criteria have been produced. What has surprised me most is that the many of the photographs contained in the pairs present beautiful images of stark, remote landscapes that convey the majestic nature of this dynamic region with its unique topography and landscapes. Typically, over periods of just several decades, the photographed landscapes change from black and white to blue and green. White ice becomes blue water and dark rock becomes lush vegetation. Repeat photography is a technique in which a historical photograph and a modern photograph, both having the same field of view, are compared and contrasted to quantitatively and qualitatively determine their similarities and differences. I have used this technique from both ground-based photo stations and airborne platforms at Alaskan locations in Kenai Fjords National Park, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

  1. Remote sensing technology transfer in enviromental management: application of a theory of information; a case study of moose habitat assessment for gas field development planning

    SciTech Connect

    Aronoff, S.

    1982-01-01

    Use of the information theory is illustrated by a case study of the application of Landsat visual and digital analysis to the identification of critical winter moose habitat in the foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada.The potential benefits of the study are considered in relation to the information needs of the client, Amoco Canada. These needs include a biophysical inventory and route and site location. The remote sensing application development process is related to the objectives and criteria for effective technology transfer. A ''user-driven'' approach in which the application development follows from the changing information needs of the planning project is identified as one of the key elements of a successful transfer process. Specialists associated with organizations producing remotely sensed data products, in an effort to promote the use of the technology, can compromise the effectiveness of environmental planning process. However an independent application scientist, freed of the transfer mission, may be more flexible. The products of remote sensing are informaion products that, by their nature, can be a source of power. As a consequence, the availability of remote sensing products and analysis capability has important political power in favor of resource development. In view of their political nature, decisions affecting the price of image data in the public domain should be considered as public policy decisions and not simply as economic decisions.

  2. An eddy covariance network to investigate post-fire carbon and energy dynamics in remote regions of Alaskan arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. V.; Shaver, G. R.; Rastetter, E.; Jiang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaskan arctic is experiencing pronounced changes such as fires, increased shrub cover, and permafrost thaw that are the result of increased air temperatures. Quantifying the effect of these changes on arctic carbon and energy fluxes is difficult because the Arctic is remote and difficult to access throughout the year. Here we report on an experimental design that uses a roving eddy covariance network, remote sensing, and model data fusion to determine post-fire effects on carbon and energy exchange over hours to decadal timescales in Alaskan arctic tundra. We describe the approach, challenges and goals of this project, and present some preliminary data. Our approach incorporated a number of sites along an Alaskan tundra fire chronosequence, and paired fire scars of different age with an unburned control. Challenges included; limited site access and power, communication and data acquisition, spatial variability, and missing data. We approached these challenges in a variety of ways, including; assessing spatial variability with MODIS data and roving towers, comparing burned to nearby unburned sites, harvesting biomass to understand decadal carbon recovery, and developing models that incorporate remotely sensed, eddy covariance, and biomass data. Our experimental design provides a test-bed for assessing large-scale variability across time and space, which is critical for understanding the role of disturbance on regional carbon and energy fluxes. Conceptual framework for our study. Field measurements will encompass both fast [top of hatched line] to slow [bottom of hatched line] ecosystem processes and states along a fire chronosequence [1] that will be assimilated into a fast and slow response model framework through model-data fusion [2], and used to scale up to the North Slope with MODIS data [3].

  3. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan continental shelf: reports of principal investigators. Volume 1: reactors - birds, plankton, littoral, benthos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Simulation modeling of marine bird population energetics, food consumption, and sensitivity to perturbation was performed. Shorebird dependence on Arctic: littoral habitats was studied as well as the distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of birds associated with pack ice. A study of the population numbers and productivity of colonial seabirds is included. Plankton studies in the Bering Sea and an environmental assessment of selected habitats in the Arctic littoral system are also included. The distribution, abundance, community structure, and trophic relationships of the benthos of the Northeastern Gulf of Alaskan from Yakutat Bay to Cross Sound and the distribution, abundance, diversity, and productivity of the Western Sea benthos were studied.

  4. Importance of the eastern Alaskan Beaufort Sea to feeding bowhead whales, 1985. Final report, June 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    The two-year project is designed to quantify what proportion of the energy requirements of Western Arctic bowheads is provided by food acquired in the Eastern part of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The report describes results from Year 1 fieldwork in September and early October 1985. Water masses were studied by boat-based sampling and by airborne and satellite remote sensing. Zooplankton composition, biomass, distribution, patchiness, and energy content were documented by boat-based sampling. The distribution, numbers and activities of bowheads were determined by aerial surveys and behavioral observations. Bowheads probably consume several times more food there in some other years.

  5. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention as Standard Practice: Working with the American Indian/Native Alaskan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Duran, Bonnie; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Manning, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community. PMID:25580074

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Alaskan volcanoes quantified using an ultraviolet SO_{2} camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter; Brewer, Ian; Ketner, Dane; Paskievitch, John; Power, John

    2016-04-01

    Alaskan volcanoes are difficult targets for direct gas measurements as they are extremely remote and their peaks are mostly covered in ice and snow throughout the year. This makes access extremely difficult. In 2015, we were able to make use of an ultraviolet SO2 camera to quantify the SO2 emissions from Augustine Volcano, Redoubt Volcano, Mount Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcano in the Aleutian Arc. An airborne gas survey performed at Augustine Volcano in April 2015 found that the SO2 emission rate from the summit area was below 10 tonnes per day (t/d). SO2 camera measurements were performed two months later (June 2015) from a snow-free area just 100 meters from the fumarole on the south side of Augustine's summit dome to maximize camera sensitivity. Though the visible appearance of the plume emanating from the fumarole was opaque, the SO2 emissions were only slightly above the 40 ppmṡm detection limit of the SO2 camera. Still, SO2 could be detected and compared to coincident MultiGAS measurements of SO2, CO2 and H2S. At Redoubt Volcano, SO2 camera measurements were conducted on 13 June 2015 from a location 2 km to the north of the final 72x106 m3 dome extruded during the 2009 eruption. Imagery was collected of the plume visibly emanating from the top of the dome. Preliminary evaluation of the imagery and comparison with a coincident, helicopter-based DOAS survey showed that SO2 emission rates had dropped below 100 t/d (down from 180 t/d measured in April 2014). Mount Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcano were visited in August 2015 as part of an NSF-funded ship-based research expedition in the Central Aleutian Arc. At Mount Cleveland, inclement weather prohibited the collection of a lengthy time-series of SO2 camera imagery, but the limited data that was collected shows an emission rate of several hundred t/d. At Shishaldin, several hours of continuous imagery was acquired from a location 5 km east of the summit vent. The time series shows an SO2 emission rate of

  7. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001; Dixon and others, 2002). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the basic seismic data and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. Appendix G contains a list of publications pertaining to seismicity of Alaskan volcanoes based on these and previously recorded data. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to

  8. Payoffs and Pitfalls of a Minority Outreach Program: An Alaskan Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a summer bridging program for college-bound high school students from remote Alaskan communities. In the 20+ years since its initiation, more than 50% of RAHI graduates eventually obtained post-secondary degrees. The success of the RAHI program provides insights into how an outreach program can achieve its goals and avoid potential pitfalls. Instrumental to the success of the RAHI program are: longevity; small size (40-45 students per summer); support from the Alaska Native community; academic rigor; aggressive recruiting; establishment of a sense of community amongst participants; and individual mentoring and support. Potential pitfalls include: overextending the program to include too many students; failure to maintain academic rigor in all courses; recruitment of students and staff who do not embrace the program's methods and goals; and attempts to evaluate the program on the basis of short-term results. Alaska Natives in Geosciences introduces college-bound Alaska Native students to the geosciences by teaching a college-level introductory geoscience class as a RAHI elective. By collaborating with RAHI, Alaska Natives in Geosciences takes advantage of RAHI's effective recruitment efforts and proven mentoring program. However, maintaining scientific rigor has been difficult due to large differences in the students' scientific backgrounds, the demands of other courses in the RAHI program and the brevity of the summer session. Immediate post-course survey responses suggest that many RAHI students thought the geoscience class was interesting but too difficult and much too time-consuming. However, surveys of RAHI geoscience students a year later suggest that many found the course a very positive experience. An unanticipated result was that RAHI students who did not take the class also gained some insight into the geosciences.

  9. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat

  10. Interferometric detection of freeze-thaw displacements of Alaskan permafrost using ERS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Charles L.; Gabriel, Andrew K.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of making large scale (50 km) measurements of motions of the earth's surface with high resolution (10 m) and very high accuracy (1 cm) from multipass SAR interferometry was established in 1989. Other experiments have confirmed the viability and usefulness of the method. Work is underway in various groups to measure displacements from volcanic activity, seismic events, glacier motion, and in the present study, freeze-thaw cycles in Alaskan permafrost. The ground is known to move significantly in these cycles, and provided that freezing does not cause image decorrelation, it should be possible to measure both ground swelling and subsidence. The authors have obtained data from multiple passes of ERS-1 over the Toolik Lake region of northern Alaska of suitable quality for interferometry. The data are processed into images, and single interferograms are formed in the usual manner. Phase unwrapping is performed, and the multipass baselines are estimated from the images using both orbit ephemerides and scene tie points. The phases are scaled by the baseline ratio, and a double-difference interferogram (DDI) is formed. It is found that there is a residual 'saddle-shape' phase error across the image, which is postulated to be caused by a small divergence (10(exp -2) deg.) in the orbits. A simulation of a DDI from divergent orbits confirms the shape and magnitude of the error. A two-dimensional least squares fit to the error is performed, which is used to correct the DDI. The final, corrected DDI shows significant phase (altitude) changes over the period of the observation.

  11. Influence of fire frequency on carbon consumption in Alaskan blackspruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures and drier conditions within the boreal forests of Alaska have resulted in increases in burned area and fire frequency, which alter carbon storage and emissions. In particular, analyses of satellite remote sensing data showed that >20% of the area impacted by fires in interior Alaska occurred in areas that had previously burned since 1950 (e.g., short to intermediate interval fires). Field studies showed that in immature black spruce forests ~ 35 to 55 years old organic layers experienced deep burning regardless of topographic position or seasonality of burning, factors that control depth of burning in mature black spruce forests. Here, refinements were made to a carbon consumption model to account for variations in fuel loads and fraction of carbon consumed associated with fire frequency based on quantifying burned area in recently burned sites using satellite imagery. An immature black spruce (Picea mariana) fuel type (including stands of ~0-50 years) was developed which contains new ground-layer carbon consumption values in order to more accurately account for differences between various age classes of black spruce forest. Both versions of the model were used to assess carbon consumption during 100 fire events (over 4.4 x 10^6 ha of burned area) from two recent ultra-large fire years (2004 and 2005). Using the improved model to better attribute fuel type and consumption resulted in higher ground-layer carbon consumption (4.9% in 2004 and 6.8% in 2005) than previously estimated. These adjustments in ground-layer burning resulted in total carbon consumption within 2004 and 2005 of 63.5 and 42.0 Tg of carbon, respectively. Results from this research could be incorporated into larger scale modeling efforts to better assess changes in the climate-fire-vegetation dynamics in interior Alaskan boreal forests, and to understand the impacts of these changes on carbon consumption and emissions.

  12. Recovery of plant biomass and soil N cycling in Alaskan tundra following an unusual fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret-Harte, M. S.; Mack, M. C.; Huebner, D. C.; Johnston, M.; Shaver, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate warming is likely to increase the frequency of disturbances in the Arctic. The Anaktuvuk River fire of 2007 burned 1039 km2 of northern Alaskan tundra; this was unprecedented for this vegetation, which is clonal, slow-growing, and long-lived. We harvested plant biomass and soils from severely and moderately burned areas and controls in 2011 to assess recovery of plant productivity and soil N cycling four years after the fire. Biomass of vascular plants had recovered to nearly control levels in moderately burned areas, due primarily to resprouting by graminoids, particularly Eriophorum vaginatum. Graminoid biomass was actually greater in moderately burned tundra than in unburned tundra. Deciduous shrub and evergreen shrub biomass in moderately burned tundra was approximately half that seen in unburned tundra, but non-vascular plant biomass was much less, so that total aboveground biomass in moderately burned tundra had not returned to control levels. Severely burned tundra had less of all components of the community than in moderately burned tundra, except that there was higher biomass of non-vascular plants, due to colonization by fire-following liverworts and mosses. Productivity of vascular plants was similar in unburned and severely burned tundra plots, and higher in moderately burned plots, due in part to higher soil N availability. Recovery of plant biomass was largely due to resprouting of species that survived the fire, though numerous seedlings were seen. Biomass of vascular plants has recovered rapidly in the moderately burned sites, while severely burned sites and nonvascular plants are recovering more slowly, but the relative abundance of different species differs from unburned tundra. The relationship between spectral indices (NDVI, EVI-2) collected at the plot level and either biomass or NPP varied with burn category, which may complicate assessments of NPP by remote sensing following fire.

  13. Twenty year record of vegetation change from long-term plots in Alaskan tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Mercado Díaz, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    We examined change in plant species composition at two sites in the Southern Alaska Foothills, on the north slope of the Brooks Range, over a 20-year period. Current models and experimental work with tundra vegetation have predicted an increase in shrub species and a decrease in graminoid species as a response to climatic warming. Furthermore, the warming of the Alaskan Arctic during the past 150 years has accelerated over the last three decades and is expected to increase vegetation productivity in tundra if shrubs become more abundant. Decadal change in vegetation in tundra landscapes may be both subtle and slow. Interpreting such change is complicated by spatial variation at small scales and by difficulty in understanding how point changes in species composition relate to landscape-level change in vegetation. Our approach involved resampling the same points in a series of permanent plots over a multi-year interval, using large sample sizes, and analyzing several aspects of compositional change. Our analysis was designed to look at changes in overall species' abundance over time and at relationships between species in terms of the likelihood of one species replacing another. Understanding relationships between species increases the predictive power of measures of species composition and abundance in a time series. We found significant increases in abundance of specific shrub and graminoid species, and a general increase in the extent of the canopy, with a concurrent decrease in the abundance of understory mosses. These changes, extrapolated over the broad expanse of similar vegetation in the Arctic, may have profound above and below ground effects including changes in soil properties, carbon storage and nutrient cycling, and plant community composition.

  14. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Mowery, Joseph; Carmena, David; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-07-01

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in the muscles of a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA, for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from the tongue of the wolf were up to 900 μm long and slender and appeared to have a relatively thin wall by light microscope. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall most closely resembled "type 9c," and had a wavy parasitophorous vacuolar membrane folded as pleomorphic villar protrusions (vp), with anastomoses of tips. The vp and the ground substance (gs) layer were smooth without tubules or granules. The gs was up to 2.0 μm thick. The total width of the wall including vp and the gs was 3.5 μm. The vp were up to 1.5 μm long. Mature sarcocysts contained numerous bradyzoites and few metrocytes. The bradyzoites were 9.5 μm long and 1.5 μm wide, and contained all organelles found in Sarcocystis bradyzoites with at least two rhoptries. Molecular characterization showed the highest identity for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 sequences of Sarcocystis arctica of the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) from Norway. The ultrastructure of S. arctica from the fox is unknown. Here, we provide ultrastructure of S. arctica from the Alaskan wolf for the first time. The definitive host of S. arctica remains unknown. PMID:27112760

  15. Temperature calibration and phylogenetically distinct distributions for freshwater alkenones: Evidence from northern Alaskan lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, William M.; Theroux, Susanna; Giblin, Anne E.; Zheng, Yinsui; Dillon, James T.; Huang, Yongsong

    2016-05-01

    Alkenones are a class of unsaturated long-chain ketone biomarkers that have been used to reconstruct sea surface temperature and, more recently, continental temperature, by way of alkenone unsaturation indices (e.g. U37K and U37K‧). Alkenones are frequently found in brackish and saline lakes, however species effects confound temperature reconstructions when multiple alkenone-producing species with different temperature responses are present. Interestingly, available genetic data indicate that numerous freshwater lakes host a distinct phylotype of alkenone-producing haptophyte algae (the Group I or Greenland phylotype), providing evidence that species effects may be diminished in freshwater lakes. These findings encourage further investigation of alkenone paleotemperature proxies in freshwater systems. Here, we investigated lakes from northern Alaska (n = 35) and show that alkenones commonly occurred in freshwater lakes, where they featured distinct distributions, characterized by dominant C37:4 alkenones and a series of tri-unsaturated alkenone isomers. The distributions were characteristic of Group I-type alkenone distributions previously identified in Greenland and North America. Our analysis of suspended particulate matter from Toolik Lake (68° 38‧N, 149° 36‧W) yielded the first in situ freshwater U37K calibration (U37K = 0.021 * T - 0.68; r2 = 0.85; n = 52; RMSE = ±1.37 °C). We explored the environmental significance of the tri-unsaturated isomers using our northern Alaskan lakes dataset in conjunction with new data from haptophyte cultures and Canadian surface sediments. Our results show that these temperature-sensitive isomers are biomarkers for the Group I phylotype and indicators of multiple-species effects. Together, these findings highlight freshwater lakes as valuable targets for continental alkenone-based paleotemperature reconstructions and demonstrate the significance of the recently discovered tri-unsaturated isomers.

  16. Mercury Methylation in Alaskan Peatlands Spanning a Large Range of Trophic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Zhang, L.; Hines, M. E.; Barkay, T.; Schaefer, J.; Aiken, G.

    2015-12-01

    The process of mercury (Hg) methylation has long been recognized as a key area of research in order to understand spatial and temporal variability of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) on the landscape. Numerous factors affect MeHg production, the most important generally falling into those that affect inorganic Hg(II) bioavailability (e.g., Hg(II) concentration and ligand composition), and those that affect microbial community composition and activity. The principal goal of this project is to decipher the details of MeHg production in Alaskan peatlands exhibiting a range of trophic status, including those lacking in electron acceptors that support the traditional respiratory pathway of MeHg production (e.g., sulfate reduction). MeHg production is carried out by a diverse group of microorganisms that possess the gene cluster (hgcAB), including the well-studied sulfate and iron- reducing bacteria (SRB and FeRB). However, less well known bacteria also possess the hgcAB genes, including: syntrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and fermenters. Methylation and demethylation activities were determined by injecting trace levels of the stable isotope (198Hg and Me204Hg) into intact peat cores. In addition, the short-lived radioisotope 197Hg was used in laboratory incubations. Laboratory studies also included assays for changes in diagnostic gas concentrations (CH4, CO2, H2) and LMW organic acids (formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate) to infer specific microbial processes, and the use of genomics to confirm microbial assemblages and the presence/absence of hgcAB genes. Overall, we observed Hg methylation rates were greatest at minerotrophic sites with active syntrophy and methanogenesis. Methylation and demethylation rates corresponded significantly across sites. There was no evidence of SO4- reduction in these samples, and addition of SO4- did not stimulate methylation suggesting that methylation was conducted by SRB that were metabolizing syntrophically and/or by fermentation.

  17. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  18. Deciduous Tree Species Alter Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability in Mid-successional Alaskan Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In Alaskan boreal forest, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering successional processes and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Fire is a common disturbance in Interior Alaska and typically burns forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow nutrient turnover and high soil organic matter accumulation rates. Historically, low severity fires have driven black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow nutrient cycling rates and large soil organic matter stocks. In contrast, high severity fires consume the organic layer and can lead to the establishment of deciduous tree species on exposed mineral soil, which produce less recalcitrant leaf litter and exhibit faster nutrient cycling rates. To improve our understanding of the long-term impacts of tree species composition on nutrient cycling in boreal forest, we quantified nitrogen (N) cycling rates and estimated soil N, phosphorus (P), and base cation pools in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1960 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Results indicate significantly higher net N mineralization in paper birch soils relative to black spruce for both the fibric organic layer and top 10 cm of mineral soil during 30-day and 90-day lab incubation studies. Net nitrification was significantly higher in the paper birch fibric layer after 90 days. Total soil N concentrations did not differ between paper birch and black spruce stands, however the black spruce organic layer was significantly larger than that of birch, resulting in larger organic layer N stocks (130 vs. 87 g N m2). In contrast, total P concentrations were significantly higher in the organic layer in birch forest, but the total P stocks did not differ significantly between species because of the larger mass of soil organic matter in the black spruce. These findings suggest that a shift towards greater deciduous

  19. An estimate of carbon emissions from 2004 wildfires across Alaskan Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, S.; Howard, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Wildfires are an increasingly important component of the forces that drive the global carbon (C) cycle and climate change as progressive warming is expected in boreal areas. This study estimated C emissions from the wildfires across the Alaskan Yukon River Basin in 2004. We spatially related the firescars to land cover types and defined the C fractions of aboveground biomass and the ground layer (referring to the top 15 cm organic soil layer only in this paper) consumed in association with land cover types, soil drainage classes, and the C stocks in the ground layer. Results: The fires led to a burned area of 26,500 km2 and resulted in the total C emission of 81.1 ?? 13.6 Tg (Tg, Teragram; 1 Tg = 1012g) or 3.1 ?? 0.7 kg C m-2 burned. Of the total C emission, about 73% and 27% could be attributed to the consumption of the ground layer and aboveground biomass, respectively. Conclusion: The predominant contribution of the ground layer to the total C emission implies the importance of ground fuel management to the control of wildfires and mitigation of C emissions. The magnitude of the total C emission depends on fire extent, while the C loss in kg C m-2 burned is affected strongly by the ground layer and soil drainage condition. The significant reduction in the ground layer by large fires may result in profound impacts on boreal ecosystem services with an increase in feedbacks between wildfires and climate change. ?? 2007 Tan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Alder Expansion as a Coastal Warming Signal - Linking Coastal Alaskan Carbon to Vegetation Change with Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.; Moy, C. M.; McGeachy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Corser Bog (60.5296364oN, 145.453858oW), 21 km east of Cordova, AK is a sphagnum-dominated peatland 42 m asl. adjacent to Sheridan Glacier and the Copper River Delta. Deglaciation at 11.5 ka began with shallow pond deposition, reflecting regional warmth with the pioneers Alnus crispa subsp. sinuata, Salix, and ferns colonizing the fresh, mineral soils on the landscape. Continued early Holocene warming/melting of glaciers led to the foundation species Alnus dominance and peatland formation, surrounded by shrubs such as Rubus spectabilis, Sambucus racemosa, and wetland species such as Myrica gale and Potentilla palustris. As Sphagnum peat accumulated, the highest rates of carbon accumulation for a few centuries are represented at 50 g/m2/a, similar to short-term very high rates in the early Holocene throughout the circumboreal region but varying within the early Holocene due to development of local wet, bryophytic environments. A shift to sedge peat regionally along the South-Central Alaskan coast 7.6 - 3.7 ka is paralleled by a more evaporative, drier climate with Rhododendron groenlandicum presence, lower carbon accumulation (13 g/m2/a), and minimal macrofossil preservation, which is paralleled regionally in coastal muskegs both to the northwest and southeast and by a hiatus in a nearby lake record. A cooler, moister climate is evident in Corser Bog with the shift to Sphagnum peat at 3.7 ka, regional shifts from sedge to Sphagnum peat throughout the entire coastline from Yakutat to Girdwood, AK and the demonstration of glacial advances in the region. Alnus pollen markedly increases to 60% in the uppermost sample, indicative of a major signal for glacial recession in this region.