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Sample records for alaskan northern fur

  1. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  2. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  3. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation.

  4. Salmonella meningoencephalomyelitis in a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinsus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Roelke, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the brain of a neonatal northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) with gross and microscopic lesions of meningoencephalomyelitis. Microscopic lesions in the liver and lung suggested septicemia.

  5. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  6. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final estimates of annual fur... ] northern fur seals, NMFS is publishing the annual fur seal subsistence harvests on St. George and St. Paul Islands (the Pribilof Islands) for 2008 to 2010, and the annual estimates for the fur seal...

  7. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...) petitioned NMFS to revise regulations governing the subsistence taking of northern fur seals on St. Paul..., Alaska to: Take male young of the year (less than 1 year old) fur seals; take a total of up to 3,000...

  8. Extreme weather events influence dispersal of naive northern fur seals.

    PubMed

    Lea, Mary-Anne; Johnson, Devin; Ream, Rolf; Sterling, Jeremy; Melin, Sharon; Gelatt, Tom

    2009-04-23

    Since 1975, northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) numbers at the Pribilof Islands (PI) in the Bering Sea have declined rapidly for unknown reasons. Migratory dispersal and habitat choice may affect first-year survivorship, thereby contributing to this decline. We compared migratory behaviour of 166 naive pups during 2 years from islands with disparate population trends (increasing: Bogoslof and San Miguel Islands; declining: PI), hypothesizing that climatic conditions at weaning may differentially affect dispersal and survival. Atmospheric conditions (Bering Sea) in autumn 2005-2006 were anomalously cold, while 2006-2007 was considerably warmer and less stormy. In 2005, pups departed earlier at all sites, and the majority of PI pups (68-85%) departed within 1 day of Arctic storms and dispersed quickly, travelling southwards through the Aleutian Islands. Tailwinds enabled faster rates of travel than headwinds, a trend not previously shown for marine mammals. Weather effects were less pronounced at Bogoslof Island (approx. 400 km further south), and, at San Miguel Island, (California) departures were more gradual, and only influenced by wind and air pressure in 2005. We suggest that increasingly variable climatic conditions at weaning, particularly timing, frequency and intensity of autumnal storms in the Bering Sea, may alter timing, direction of dispersal and potentially survival of pups.

  9. THE SHIFTING BASELINE OF NORTHERN FUR SEAL ECOLOGY IN THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species i...

  10. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  11. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGES

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; ...

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  12. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation

  13. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  14. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern Alaskan landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D.A.; Webber, P.J.; Binnian, Emily F.; Everett, K.R.; Lederer, N.D.; Nordstrand, E.A.; Walker, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  15. [The parallelisms in of sound signal of domestic sheep and Northern fur seals].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A; Lisitsina, T Iu

    2011-01-01

    The parallelisms in communicative behavior of domestic sheep and Northern fur seals within a herd are accompanied by parallelisms in parameters of sound signal, the calling scream. This signal ensures ties between babies and their mothers at a long distance. The basis of parallelisms is formed by amplitude modulation at two levels: the one being a direct amplitude modulation of the carrier frequency and the other--modulation of the carrier frequency oscillation. Parallelisms in the signal oscillatory process result in corresponding parallelisms in the structure of its frequency spectrum.

  16. Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Becker, Paul R; Gribble, Matthew O; Lynch, Jennifer M; Moors, Amanda J; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects.

  17. Organohalogen contaminants and vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected during subsistence hunts in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Jessica L.; Becker, Paul R.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Moors, Amanda J.; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M.; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R.

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT and metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects. PMID:26142120

  18. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeppelin, T K; Johnson, D S; Kuhn, C E; Iverson, S J; Ream, R R

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators.

  19. Foraging habitats of lactating northern fur seals are structured by thermocline depths and submesoscale fronts in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Chad A.; Battaile, Brian C.; Cotté, Cédric; Trites, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    The relationships between fine-scale oceanographic features, prey aggregations, and the foraging behavior of top predators are poorly understood. We investigated whether foraging patterns of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) from two breeding colonies located in different oceanographic domains of the eastern Bering Sea (St. Paul Island—shelf; Bogoslof Island—oceanic) were a function of submesoscale oceanographic features. We tested this by tracking 87 lactating fur seals instrumented with bio-logging tags (44 St. Paul Island, 43 Bogoslof Island) during July-September, 2009. We identified probable foraging hotspots using first-passage time analysis and statistically linked individual areas of high-use to fine-scale oceanographic features using mixed-effects Cox-proportional hazard models. We found no overlap in foraging areas used by fur seals from the two islands, but a difference in the duration of their foraging trips—trips from St. Paul Island were twice as long (7.9 d average) and covered 3-times the distance (600 km average) compared to trips from Bogoslof Island. St. Paul fur seals also foraged at twice the scale (mean radius=12 km) of Bogoslof fur seals (6 km), which suggests that prey were more diffuse near St. Paul Island than prey near Bogoslof Island. Comparing first passage times with oceanographic covariates revealed that foraging hotspots were linked to thermocline depth and occurred near submesoscale surface fronts (eddies and filaments). St. Paul fur seals that mixed epipelagic (night) and benthic (day) dives primarily foraged on-shelf in areas with deeper thermoclines that may have concentrated prey closer to the ocean floor, while strictly epipelagic (night) foragers tended to use waters with shallower thermoclines that may have aggregated prey closer to the surface. Fur seals from Bogoslof Island foraged almost exclusively over the Bering Sea basin and appeared to hunt intensively along submesoscale fronts that may have

  20. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Zeppelin, T. K.; Johnson, D. S.; Kuhn, C. E.; Iverson, S. J.; Ream, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators. PMID:26030280

  1. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45 kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode.

  2. Isotopic and genetic insights into the persistence of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, P. L.; Hadly, E. A.; Pinsky, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    What factors allow some species to survive in the face of climate change, disease, or anthropogenic disturbance? How do species shift their geographic distributions in the face of such challenges? These pressing questions in ecology and conservation biology are difficult to answer when looking solely at modern populations or the recent historical record. We explore these questions through analysis of DNA and the isotopic composition of modern and ancient northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus). The NFS is an eared seal (otariid) that ranges along the north Pacific, where it breeds on offshore islands; by far the largest modern rookeries are on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The species shows a high degree of philopatry, and females feed while nursing, wean pups at 4 months, and spend the rest of the year foraging far offshore further south. Archaelogical study reveals that Holocene NFS had numerous breeding colonies from the Channel Islands to the Aleutians. Temperate latitude colonies collapsed in the late Holocene in response to hunting pressures and perhaps, environmental change. The species has recolonized parts of its former range since the 1960s. Despite facing similar threats, other marine mammals have failed to rebound (e.g., Guadalupe fur seals) or have exceptionally low genetic diversity indicating recent and prolonged bottlenecks (e.g., northern elephant seals). Isotopic analyses of sub-fossil growth series indicate that extirpated mid-latitude colonies weaned much later (≥12 months), like all other otariid species that breed at temperate latitudes. As a result, females were tied to rookery sites year-round and had a much-reduced migratory range relative to modern NFS females breeding in the Bering Sea, a result also supported by isotopic analyses. Serial coalescent simulations of ancient and modern DNA reveals that exceptionally high migration rates and Arctic refugia provided resilience to NFS. These traits allowed the species to

  3. Temperature calibration and phylogenetically distinct distributions for freshwater alkenones: Evidence from northern Alaskan lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, William M.; Theroux, Susanna; Giblin, Anne E.; Zheng, Yinsui; Dillon, James T.; Huang, Yongsong

    2016-05-01

    Alkenones are a class of unsaturated long-chain ketone biomarkers that have been used to reconstruct sea surface temperature and, more recently, continental temperature, by way of alkenone unsaturation indices (e.g. U37K and U37K‧). Alkenones are frequently found in brackish and saline lakes, however species effects confound temperature reconstructions when multiple alkenone-producing species with different temperature responses are present. Interestingly, available genetic data indicate that numerous freshwater lakes host a distinct phylotype of alkenone-producing haptophyte algae (the Group I or Greenland phylotype), providing evidence that species effects may be diminished in freshwater lakes. These findings encourage further investigation of alkenone paleotemperature proxies in freshwater systems. Here, we investigated lakes from northern Alaska (n = 35) and show that alkenones commonly occurred in freshwater lakes, where they featured distinct distributions, characterized by dominant C37:4 alkenones and a series of tri-unsaturated alkenone isomers. The distributions were characteristic of Group I-type alkenone distributions previously identified in Greenland and North America. Our analysis of suspended particulate matter from Toolik Lake (68° 38‧N, 149° 36‧W) yielded the first in situ freshwater U37K calibration (U37K = 0.021 * T - 0.68; r2 = 0.85; n = 52; RMSE = ±1.37 °C). We explored the environmental significance of the tri-unsaturated isomers using our northern Alaskan lakes dataset in conjunction with new data from haptophyte cultures and Canadian surface sediments. Our results show that these temperature-sensitive isomers are biomarkers for the Group I phylotype and indicators of multiple-species effects. Together, these findings highlight freshwater lakes as valuable targets for continental alkenone-based paleotemperature reconstructions and demonstrate the significance of the recently discovered tri-unsaturated isomers.

  4. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  5. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Aalderink, M T; Nguyen, H P; Kass, P H; Arzi, B; Verstraete, F J M

    2015-05-01

    Skulls from 145 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired from strandings along the west coast of the USA between 1896 and 2008. Seventy-one skulls (49.0%) were from male animals, 56 (38.6%) from female animals and 18 (12.4%) from animals of unknown sex. Their age varied from juvenile to adult, with 58 adult animals (40.0%) and 87 juvenile animals (60.0%). The majority of teeth were available for examination (95.1%); 3.4% of teeth were artefactually absent, 0.8% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.6% were deemed congenitally absent. Males were no more likely than females to have either acquired tooth loss (P = 0.054) or congenitally absent teeth (P = 0.919). Adults had significantly more acquired tooth loss than juveniles (P = 0.0099). Malformations were seen in 11 teeth (0.2% of all 4,699 teeth available for examination). Two roots, instead of the typical one root, were found on 14 teeth (0.3%). Supernumerary teeth were associated with 14 normal teeth (0.3%) in eight specimens (5.5% of the total number of specimens). A total of 22 persistent deciduous teeth were found, 19 of which were associated with the maxillary canine teeth. Attrition/abrasion was seen on 194 teeth (3.9%); the canine teeth were most often affected, accounting for 39.7% of all abraded teeth. Adults were found to have a greater prevalence of abraded teeth than juveniles (P <0.0001). No significant difference was found in the appearance of attrition/abrasion between males and females (P = 0.072). Tooth fractures were found in 24 specimens (16.6%), affecting a total of 54 teeth (1.1%). Periapical lesions were found in two skulls (1.4%). None of the specimens showed signs of enamel hypoplasia. About a fifth (18.6%) of alveoli, either with or without teeth, showed signs of alveolar bony changes consistent with periodontitis. A total of 108 specimens (74.5%) had at least one tooth

  6. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... season for herd conservation. To further minimize negative effects on the Pribilof Islands' fur seal... have been discussed with each tribal government as part of the co-management relationship and agreement... reasons. Weather conditions and availability of animals varies annually. The availability of wage...

  7. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  8. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period.

  9. Flipper strokes can predict energy expenditure and locomotion costs in free-ranging northern and Antarctic fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Trites, Andrew W.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Speakman, John R.; Guinet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flipper strokes have been proposed as proxies to estimate the energy expended by marine vertebrates while foraging at sea, but this has never been validated on free-ranging otariids (fur seals and sea lions). Our goal was to investigate how well flipper strokes correlate with energy expenditure in 33 foraging northern and Antarctic fur seals equipped with accelerometers, GPS, and time-depth recorders. We concomitantly measured field metabolic rates with the doubly-labelled water method and derived activity-specific energy expenditures using fine-scale time-activity budgets for each seal. Flipper strokes were detected while diving or surface transiting using dynamic acceleration. Despite some inter-species differences in flipper stroke dynamics or frequencies, both species of fur seals spent 3.79 ± 0.39 J/kg per stroke and had a cost of transport of ~1.6–1.9 J/kg/m while diving. Also, flipper stroke counts were good predictors of energy spent while diving (R2 = 0.76) and to a lesser extent while transiting (R2 = 0.63). However, flipper stroke count was a poor predictor overall of total energy spent during a full foraging trip (R2 = 0.50). Amplitude of flipper strokes (i.e., acceleration amplitude × number of strokes) predicted total energy expenditure (R2 = 0.63) better than flipper stroke counts, but was not as accurate as other acceleration-based proxies, i.e. Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration. PMID:27658718

  10. Short-term episodes of imposed fasting have a greater effect on young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in summer than in winter.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Volpov, Beth L; Trites, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected shortage of food may affect wildlife in a different way depending on the time of year when it occurs. We imposed 48 h fasts on six female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus; ages 6-24 months) to identify times of year when they might be particularly sensitive to interruptions in food supply. We monitored changes in their resting metabolic rates and their metabolic response to thermal challenges, and also examined potential bioenergetic causes for seasonal differences in body mass loss. The pre-fast metabolism of the fur seals while in ambient air or submerged in water at 4°C was higher during summer (June to Sepember) than winter (November to March), and submergence did not significantly increase metabolism, indicating a lack of additional thermoregulatory costs. There was no evidence of metabolic depression following the fasting periods, nor did metabolism increase during the post-fast thermal challenge, suggesting that mass loss did not negatively impact thermoregulatory capacity. However, the fur seals lost mass at greater rates while fasting during the summer months, when metabolism is normally high to facilitate faster growth rates (which would ordinarily have been supported by higher food intake levels). Our findings suggest that summer is a more critical time of year than winter for young northern fur seals to obtain adequate nutrition.

  11. Isolation of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus from Samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, J C; Madin, S H; Skilling, D E

    1978-01-01

    A virus was isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. It was later named San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV). State and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because SMSV was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Ground carcasses of northern fur seals, salvaged after harvesting pelts, are fed to mink on ranches in the United States. Domestic swine are kept on some of these same ranches. Samples withheld from lots of this seal carcass mink food were found to contain SMSV (serotype 5) in titers of 10(6.1) and 10(6.8) tissue culture infective doses.

  12. Introduction to special section on the Northern Chugach Mountains-Southern Copper River Basin Segment of the Alaskan Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Robert A.

    1989-11-01

    This special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is the second part of a collection of papers on the nature and evolution of the lithosphere in southern Alaska, specifically beneath the Chugach Mountains and Copper River Basin. The studies in this collection were conducted under the Trans-Alaska Lithosphere Investigation [Stone et al., 1986]: a coordinated geological and geophysical transect of the Alaskan lithosphere along the north-south, trans-Alaska oil pipeline corridor between Valdez and Prudhoe Bay and across the Pacific and Arctic continental margins. The Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) project of the U.S. Geological Survey was the primary source of support for these studies, including all the seismic refraction and reflection profiling and most of the geologic field investigations. The first part of the collection appeared in the April 1989 issue and focused on the geology and tectonics of the northern Chugach Mountains and southern Copper River Basin and on the interpretation of a 107-km-long seismic reflection profile along the transect. Appended to those papers, but not included in the introduction [Page, 1989], was an interpretation of the upper crustal structure of the Chugach terrane derived from a transverse (east-west) seismic refraction profile along the axis of the Chugach Mountains [Wolf and Levander, 1989].

  13. Molecular and morphometric evidence for separate species of Uncinaria (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in California sea lions and northern fur seals: hypothesis testing supplants verification.

    PubMed

    Nadler, S A; Adams, B J; Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R

    2000-10-01

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are each believed to host distinct hookworm species (Uncinaria spp.). However, a recent morphometric analysis suggested that a single species parasitizes multiple pinniped hosts, and that the observed differences are host-induced. To explore the systematics of these hookworms and test these competing hypotheses, we obtained nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (D2/D3 28S, D18/D19 28S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS] regions) from 20 individual hookworms parasitizing California sea lion and northern fur seal pups where their breeding grounds are sympatric. Five individuals from an allopatric population of California sea lions were also sampled for ITS-1 and D18/D19 28S sequences. The 28S D2/D3 sequences showed no diagnostic differences among hookworms sampled from individual sea lions and fur seals, whereas the 28S D18/D19 sequences had one derived (apomorphic) character demarcating hookworms from northern fur seals. ITS sequences were variable for 7 characters, with 4 derived (apomorphic) states in ITS-1 demarcating hookworms from California sea lions. Multivariate analysis of morphometric data also revealed significant differences between nematodes representing these 2 host-associated lineages. These results indicate that these hookworms represent 2 species that are not distributed indiscriminately between these host species, but instead exhibit host fidelity, evolving independently with each respective host species. This evolutionary approach to analyzing sequence data for species delimitation is contrasted with similarity-based methods that have been applied to numerous diagnostic studies of nematode parasites.

  14. [Frequency discrimination by the bottle-nosed dolphin and the Northern fur seal depending on sound parameters and sound conduction pathways].

    PubMed

    Babushkina, E S; Poliakov, M A

    2003-01-01

    Underwater differential frequency hearing thresholds in the Black Sea bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus p.) and the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) were measured depending on signal frequency and sound conduction pathways. The measurements were performed by the method of instrumental conditioned reflexes with food reinforcement under conditions of full and partial (with heads out of water at sound conduction through body tissues) submergence of animals into water. It was shown that in a frequency range of 5-100 kHz, underwater differential frequency hearing thresholds of the bottle-nosed dolphin changed from 0.46-0.60% to 0.21-0.34% and depended little on sound conduction pathways. The minimum underwater differential frequency hearing thresholds of the northern fur seal corresponded to the frequencies of maximum hearing sensitivity, changed from 1.7% to 1-2.3% in a frequency range of 1-20 kHz, sharply increased at the edges of the frequency hearing perception range, and depended little (in a range of 5-40 kHz) on sound conduction pathways. Thus, underwater sounds propagating through the body tissues of dolphin and fur seal reach the inner ear.

  15. Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

    2012-12-01

    While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged <25 km from 1975-2002 but increased to an average of >100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last

  16. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  17. A NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUS IN NORTHERN FUR SEALS (CALLORHINUS URSINUS) IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS) CARCINOMA-ASSOCIATED OTARINE HERPESVIRUS-1.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; DeLong, Robert; Gelatt, Tom; Archer, Linda; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-01-01

    Otarine herpesvirus 1 (OtHV1) is strongly associated with California sea lion (CSL, Zalophus californianus) urogenital carcinoma, the most common cancer documented in marine mammals. In addition to CSL, OtHV1 has also been found in association with carcinoma in South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), demonstrating it can infect related species. Northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus) are sympatric with CSL, and copulation between these species has been observed; yet, there are no reports of urogenital carcinoma in NFS. We describe a new Otarine herpesvirus found in vaginal swabs from NFS, herein called OtHV4. Partial sequencing of the polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene revealed OtHV4 is closely related to OtHV1, with 95% homology in the region of polymerase sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that they are sister taxa. An OtHV4-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR was developed and validated, and its use on vaginal swabs revealed 16 of 50 (32%) wild adult female NFS were positive for OtHV4. The identification of a virus highly similar to the carcinoma-associated OtHV1 in a sympatric species without carcinoma suggests that comparative genomics of OtHV1 and OtHV4 may identify candidate viral oncogenes.

  18. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Quakenbush, Lori; Frame, Elizabeth; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Sheffield, Gay; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Bryan, Anna; Kendrick, Preston; Ziel, Heather; Goldstein, Tracey; Snyder, Jonathan A; Gelatt, Tom; Gulland, Frances; Dickerson, Bobette; Gill, Verena

    2016-05-01

    Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast

  19. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  20. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  1. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  2. Mitochondrial DNA preservation across 3000-year-old northern fur seal ribs is not related to bone density: Implications for forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Barta, Jodi Lynn; Monroe, Cara; Crockford, Susan J; Kemp, Brian M

    2014-06-01

    While recent forensic research has focused on determining which skeletal elements are superior in their preservation of DNA over the long term, little focus has been placed on measuring intra-element variation. Moreover, there is a general belief that dense (cortical) bone material will contain better-preserved DNA than does spongy (cancellous) bone. To address these ideas, quantitative PCR was used to estimate the degree of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) preservation variance across sections of 19 northern fur seal ribs (Callorhinus ursinus) that date to ∼3000 years before present. Further, we developed a measure called the "density index" that was used to gauge the relative densities of the rib sections studied here to determine if density was an appropriate predictor of preservation. The average preservation among the samples was significantly different (ANOVA, p=1.9×10(-9)) with only 15% of the total variance observed within samples. However, 12 of the 19 specimens (∼63.2%) exhibited at least an order of magnitude difference in mtDNA preservation across the whole. Regression of the amount of mtDNA extracted per gram of bone material against the density index of the bone from which it was extracted demonstrates no relationship between these variables (R(2)=0.03, p=0.28).

  3. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  4. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  5. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  6. Accelerometers Identify New Behaviors and Show Little Difference in the Activity Budgets of Lactating Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) between Breeding Islands and Foraging Habitats in the Eastern Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Battaile, Brian C.; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.; Nordstrom, Chad A.; Rosen, David A. S.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    We tagged 82 lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) with tri-axial accelerometers and magnetometers on two eastern Bering Sea islands (Bogoslof and St. Paul) with contrasting population trajectories. Using depth data, accelerometer data and spectral analysis we classified time spent diving (30%), resting (~7%), shaking and grooming their pelage (9%), swimming in the prone position (~10%) and two types of previously undocumented rolling behavior (29%), with the remaining time (~15%) unspecified. The reason for the extensive rolling behavior is not known. We ground-truthed the accelerometry signals for shaking and grooming and rolling behaviors—and identified the acceleration signal for porpoising—by filming tagged northern fur seals in captivity. Speeds from GPS interpolated data indicated that animals traveled fastest while in the prone position, suggesting that this behavior is indicative of destination-based swimming. Very little difference was found in the percentages of time spent in the categorical behaviors with respect to breeding islands (Bogoslof or St. Paul Island), forager type (cathemeral or nocturnal), and the region where the animals foraged (primarily on-shelf <200m, or off-shelf > 200m). The lack of significant differences between islands, regions and forager type may indicate that behaviors summarized over a trip are somewhat hardwired even though foraging trip length and when and where animals dive are known to vary with island, forager type and region. PMID:25807552

  7. Accelerometers identify new behaviors and show little difference in the activity budgets of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) between breeding islands and foraging habitats in the eastern Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Battaile, Brian C; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nordstrom, Chad A; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We tagged 82 lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) with tri-axial accelerometers and magnetometers on two eastern Bering Sea islands (Bogoslof and St. Paul) with contrasting population trajectories. Using depth data, accelerometer data and spectral analysis we classified time spent diving (30%), resting (~7%), shaking and grooming their pelage (9%), swimming in the prone position (~10%) and two types of previously undocumented rolling behavior (29%), with the remaining time (~15%) unspecified. The reason for the extensive rolling behavior is not known. We ground-truthed the accelerometry signals for shaking and grooming and rolling behaviors--and identified the acceleration signal for porpoising--by filming tagged northern fur seals in captivity. Speeds from GPS interpolated data indicated that animals traveled fastest while in the prone position, suggesting that this behavior is indicative of destination-based swimming. Very little difference was found in the percentages of time spent in the categorical behaviors with respect to breeding islands (Bogoslof or St. Paul Island), forager type (cathemeral or nocturnal), and the region where the animals foraged (primarily on-shelf <200 m, or off-shelf > 200 m). The lack of significant differences between islands, regions and forager type may indicate that behaviors summarized over a trip are somewhat hardwired even though foraging trip length and when and where animals dive are known to vary with island, forager type and region.

  8. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  9. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  10. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  11. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  12. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  13. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  14. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  15. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  16. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  17. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  18. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  19. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  20. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  1. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  2. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  3. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  4. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  5. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  6. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  7. Marine-entry timing and growth rates of juvenile Chum Salmon in Alaskan waters of the Chukchi and northern Bering seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Stacy L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Murphy, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the Arctic has implications for influences on juvenile Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta early life-history patterns, such as altered timing of marine entry and/or early marine growth. Sagittal otoliths were used to estimate marine entry dates and daily growth rates of juvenile Chum Salmon collected during surface trawl surveys in summers 2007, 2012, and 2013 in the Chukchi and northern Bering seas. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to discriminate between freshwater and marine sagittal growth on the otoliths, and daily growth increments were counted to determine marine-entry dates and growth rates to make temporal and regional comparisons of juvenile Chum Salmon characteristics. Marine-entry dates ranged from mid-June to mid-July, with all region and year combinations exhibiting similar characteristics in entry timing (i.e. larger individuals at the time of capture entered the marine environment earlier in the growing season than smaller individuals in the same region/year), as well as similar mean marine-entry dates. Juvenile Chum Salmon growth rates were on average 4.9% body weight per day in both regions in summers 2007 and 2012, and significantly higher (6.8% body weight per day) in the Chukchi Sea in 2013. These results suggest that juvenile Chum Salmon in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas currently exhibit consistent marine-entry timing and early marine growth rates, despite some differences in environmental conditions between regions and among years. This study also provides a baseline of early marine life-history characteristics of Chum Salmon for comparisons with future climate change studies in these regions.

  8. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  9. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  10. An Alaskan legend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, H.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Jack Lee is a prominent personality, an Alaskan individualist and a skeptic worthy of remembrance if for no other reason than being inextricably associated with the catastrophic Katmai eruption in 1912. Jack remains a provocative reminder of Alaska's pre-1958 drilling and was quite possibly the earliest observer (excepting natives and possibly Russians) of the oil seeps in the area now encompassed by the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge. His observation of the impressive live oil seeps in the Ugashik and Becharof Lakes area, and his subsequent involvement in the early drilling entirely consumed his future interests. He is a firm believer that individualism and suspicion are powerful tools when forced to reconsider alternatives to readily accepted interpretations of modern exploration results. His individualism and sometimes annoying, but thought-provoking skepticism remains useful in any field where clich??s provide safe guards from new concepts.

  11. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  12. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  13. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  14. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  15. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  16. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  17. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for the Alaskan Arctic from four recent model intercomparison projects - NACP (North American Carbon Program) site and regional syntheses, TRENDY (Trends in net land atmosphere carbon exchanges), and WETCHIMP (Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project) - we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) for each quantity that follows. Mean annual absolute uncertainty was largest for soil carbon (14.0 ± 9.2 kg C m-2), then gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01 ± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), and CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). There were no consistent spatial patterns in the larger Alaskan Arctic and boreal regional carbon stocks and fluxes, with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic and larger boreal region.

  18. Field Lines of Flying Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that uses insulated conductors and hairs clipped from rabbit fur to help students visualize the electric field in three dimensions and motivate them to try their own variations. (JRH)

  19. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  20. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  1. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  2. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  3. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  4. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... less without a fur-content label. B. TFLA On December 18, 2010, the President signed TFLA into law... concerning consumer perception of the fur names required by the Name Guide. Does this evidence indicate...

  5. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, A. M.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) against the mean (x\\bar) for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x\\bar) was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), then net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m-2). The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity) analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β) and climate (γ), which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  6. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  7. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  8. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  9. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  10. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  11. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  12. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  13. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  14. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  15. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  16. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing...

  17. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  18. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  19. α-fur, an antisense RNA gene to fur in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Lefimil, C; Jedlicki, E; Holmes, D S

    2014-03-01

    A large non-coding RNA, termed α-Fur, of ~1000 nt has been detected in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encoded on the antisense strand to the iron-responsive master regulator fur (ferric uptake regulator) gene. A promoter for α-fur was predicted bioinformatically and validated using gene fusion experiments. The promoter is situated within the coding region and in the same sense as proB, potentially encoding a glutamate 5-kinase. The 3' termination site of the α-fur transcript was determined by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to lie 7 nt downstream of the start of transcription of fur. Thus, α-fur is antisense to the complete coding region of fur, including its predicted ribosome-binding site. The genetic context of α-fur is conserved in several members of the genus Acidithiobacillus but not in all acidophiles, indicating that it is monophyletic but not niche specific. It is hypothesized that α-Fur regulates the cellular level of Fur. This is the fourth example of an antisense RNA to fur, although it is the first in an extreme acidophile, and underscores the growing importance of cis-encoded non-coding RNAs as potential regulators involved in the microbial iron-responsive stimulon.

  20. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  1. Structure and regulon of Campylobacter jejuni ferric uptake regulator Fur define apo-Fur regulation.

    PubMed

    Butcher, James; Sarvan, Sabina; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Couture, Jean-François; Stintzi, Alain

    2012-06-19

    The full regulatory potential of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of proteins remains undefined despite over 20 years of study. We report herein an integrated approach that combines both genome-wide technologies and structural studies to define the role of Fur in Campylobacter jejuni (Cj). CjFur ChIP-chip assays identified 95 genomic loci bound by CjFur associated with functions as diverse as iron acquisition, flagellar biogenesis, and non-iron ion transport. Comparative analysis with transcriptomic data revealed that CjFur regulation extends beyond solely repression and also includes both gene activation and iron-independent regulation. Computational analysis revealed the presence of an elongated holo-Fur repression motif along with a divergent holo-Fur activation motif. This diversity of CjFur DNA-binding elements is supported by the crystal structure of CjFur, which revealed a unique conformation of its DNA-binding domain and the absence of metal in the regulatory site. Strikingly, our results indicate that the apo-CjFur structure retains the canonical V-shaped dimer reminiscent of previously characterized holo-Fur proteins enabling DNA interaction. This conformation stems from a structurally unique hinge domain that is poised to further contribute to CjFur's regulatory functions by modulating the orientation of the DNA-binding domain upon binding of iron. The unique features of the CjFur crystal structure rationalize the binding sequence diversity that was uncovered during ChIP-chip analysis and defines apo-Fur regulation.

  2. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.

  3. NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. LAKE UNION VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. TUNNEL PROCEEDS IN CUT AND COVER FASHION DIRECTLY BENEATH BATTERY STREET. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  4. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  5. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  6. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  7. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  8. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  9. Molecular Detection of Circovirus and Adenovirus in Feces of Fur Seals (Arctocephalus spp.).

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Catarina Marcon; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Amorim, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2017-03-01

    In some regions, little is known about exposure to viruses in coastal marine mammals. The present study aimed to detect viral RNA or DNA in 23 free-ranging fur seals on the northern coastline of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect nucleic acids of circoviruses, adenoviruses, morbilliviruses, vesiviruses, and coronaviruses in the feces from twenty-one South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) and two Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Adenovirus DNA fragments were detected in two South American fur seals; nucleotide sequences of these fragments revealed a high degree of similarity to human adenovirus type C. Circovirus DNA fragments were detected in six animals of the same species. Two were phylogenetically similar to the Circovirus genus, whereas the other four nucleotide fragments showed no similarity to any of the known genera within the family Circoviridae. RNA fragments indicating the presence of coronavirus, vesivirus, and morbillivirus were not detected. These findings suggest that adenoviruses and circoviruses are circulating in fur seal populations found along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  10. [Asthma caused by allergy to cat fur].

    PubMed

    May, K L; Hofman, T

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.

  11. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  12. MAIN CAR FERRY TERMINALS AT ALASKAN WAY AND MARION STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN CAR FERRY TERMINALS AT ALASKAN WAY AND MARION STREET. NOTE PIONEER SQUARE PARK ADJACENT TO ONE OF SEATTLE'S EARLY SKYSCRAPERS. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  13. Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2004-06-17

    Island colonization and subsequent dwarfing of Pleistocene proboscideans is one of the more dramatic evolutionary and ecological occurrences, especially in situations where island populations survived end-Pleistocene extinctions whereas those on the nearby mainland did not. For example, Holocene mammoths have been dated from Wrangel Island in northern Russia. In most of these cases, few details are available about the dynamics of how island colonization and extinction occurred. As part of a large radiocarbon dating project of Alaskan mammoth fossils, I addressed this question by including mammoth specimens from Bering Sea islands known to have formed during the end-Pleistocene sea transgression. One date of 7,908 +/- 100 yr bp (radiocarbon years before present) established the presence of Holocene mammoths on St Paul Island, a first Holocene island record for the Americas. Four lines of evidence--265 accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates from Alaskan mainland mammoths, 13 new dates from Alaskan island mammoths, recent reconstructions of bathymetric plots and sea transgression rates from the Bering Sea--made it possible to reconstruct how mammoths became stranded in the Pribilofs and why this apparently did not happen on other Alaskan Bering Sea islands.

  14. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  15. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section... § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a) General. (1) This section contains regulations for providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds...

  16. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  17. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  18. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  19. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  20. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  1. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  2. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia...

  3. The oldest known fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5–6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene ‘Topanga’ Formation (15–17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between ‘enaliarctine’ stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6–27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3–12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2–4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an ‘enaliarctine’-like ancestor. PMID:25672999

  4. The fur transcription regulator and fur-regulated genes in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibin; Ma, Junhua; Zang, Chengyuan; Song, Yingying; Liu, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming bacterium that can produce a very powerful neurotoxin that causes botulism. In this study, we have investigated the Fur transcription regulators in Clostridium botulinum and Fur-regulated genes in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502. We found that gene loss may be the main cause leading to the different numbers of Fur transcription regulators in different Clostridium botulinum strains. Meanwhile, 46 operons were found to be regulated by the Fur transcription regulator in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502, involved in several functional classifications, including iron acquisition, iron utilization, iron transport, and transcription regulator. Under an iron-restricted medium, we experimentally found that a Fur transcription regulator (CBO1372) and two operons (DedA, CBO2610-CBO2614 and ABC transporter, CBO0845-CBO0847) are shown to be differentially expressed in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502. This study has provided-us novel insights into the diversity of Fur transcription regulators in different Clostridium botulinum strains and diversity of Fur-targeted genes, as well as a better understanding of the dynamic changes in iron restriction occurring in response to this stress.

  5. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...The Federal Trade Commission proposes to amend its Regulations under the Fur Products Labeling Act to update its Fur Products Name Guide, provide more labeling flexibility, incorporate recently enacted Truth in Fur Labeling Act provisions, and eliminate unnecessary requirements. The Commission does not propose changing or providing alternatives to the required name on labels for nyctereutes......

  6. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  7. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  8. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  9. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  10. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  11. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  12. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  13. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  14. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  15. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  16. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  17. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  18. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  19. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  20. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  1. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  2. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  3. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  4. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  5. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  6. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  7. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  8. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  9. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  10. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  11. Infrasound Studies of Alaskan Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Arnoult, K.; Szuberla, C.; Olson, J. V.; Wilson, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Infrasound has been used to study a number of Alaskan volcanic eruptions over the last 15 years. Arrays include the I53US array of 8 sensors in Fairbanks installed in 2002 under the CTBT umbrella; an array of 4 sensors installed at Okmok Volcano in summer 2010 by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO); and a 6-sensor array installed in Dillingham in September 2010 by the UAF Infrasound Group. Individual sensors have been installed by AVO at Pavlof (1996), Shishaldin (1997), Augustine (2006), Fourpeaked (2006), and Redoubt (2009) volcanoes. These have been especially valuable because they provide precise source timing and signal strength that allow the correct identification of atmospheric paths. Small volcanic explosions have been recorded at local stations only for Pavlof, Shishaldin and Fourpeaked volcanoes. The more interesting large explosive eruptions have been recorded on both local stations and arrays from eruptions at Augustine in 2006 (13 events), Fourpeaked in 2006 (2 events), Cleveland in 2007 (1 event), Okmok in 2008 (1 sustained event), Kasatochi in 2008 (5 events), and Redoubt in 2009 (over 30 events). Pressures up to 6 Pa have been recorded for the largest Redoubt event at a distance of 547 km from the array, and 1.2 Pa for the largest Kasatochi event at a distance of 2104 km. We determined reduced pressures (equivalent pressure at 1 km assuming 1/r decay) and find that Kasatochi exceeds 2500 Pa and Redoubt 1600 Pa. The smaller explosive eruptions at Augustine yield reduced pressures of 40 to 300 Pa. There is reasonable correlation between measured pressures and signal durations and the ash cloud heights and tephra volumes, hence the infrasound data are useful for hazard assessment. However, the long travel times (3 sec per km) suggest that infrasound array data arrive too late for primary detection but are good for estimating other attributes such as size. Infrasound data may also be combined with seismic data to determine the partitioning of energy

  12. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  13. Population trends of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Ornithology in Alaska formally began with the observations of Georg Wilhelm Steller during Vitus Bering's voyage of discovery in 1741. Steller's journal makes brief mention of various seabird species he encountered during his travels in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands (Frost and Engel 1988). For more than 100 years following Steller, the Russian-American Company was active in commercial fur harvesting throughout southern coastal Alaska, but this period saw little contribution to a scientific understanding of the region's avifauna. With the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, a period of American exploration began that included significant work by pioneering naturalists such as Dall (1873, 1874), Elliot (1881), Nelson (1883), and Turner (1885, 1886). While this activity established a comprehensive list and general knowledge of the distribution of seabird species occurring in Alaska, early observers provided no quantitative estimates of abundance for any colony or region.The observations of Heath (1915) and Willett (1912, 1915, 1917) at two locations in southeastern Alaska are notable for including the first numerical estimates of any seabird populations for comparison with recent data. Willett's (1912, 1915) estimates of 13 species are given in Table 1 with results from a 1976 Survey at Forrester Island (DeGange et al. 1977) and a 1981 survey at St. Lazaria Island (Nelson et al 1982). In the aggregate, seabird numbers appeared to increase dramatically at both sites, but the differences may be largely artificial. Because Willett (1915) did not employ rigorous sampling methods, DeGange et al. (1977) surmised that he grossly underestimated the populations of burrowing species such as storm-petrels, Cassin's Auklets. and Rhinoceros Aulkets. Nelson et al. (1982) offered a similar interpretation of total storm-petrel numbers at St. Lazaria, but felt that a shift in the species ratio of Leach's and Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels had likely occurred. It

  14. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertisement to a color of the fur which was caused by dyeing, bleaching or other artificial coloring, such... Dyed Persian Lamb Since 1900 or X Company Manufacturers of Fine Muskrat Coats, Capes and Stoles...

  15. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Annual reports of principal investigators for the year ending March 1980. Volume 7. Transport data management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The study is a compilation of annual reports dealing with transport and data-management subjects. Transport reports include sediment dynamics in a northern Arctic lagoon, Prudhoe Bay diffusivity measurements, Bristol Bay oceanographic processes, Oil pooling under sea ice, and Transsport of oil under sea ice. Data-management reports include operation of an Alaskan facility for applications of remote sensed data.

  16. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  17. Fur-mediated global regulatory circuits in pathogenic Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-12-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits.

  18. Diffusive summer methane flux from lakes to the atmosphere in the Alaskan arctic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masafumi; Kim, Yong-Won; Uchida, Masao; Utsumi, Motoo

    2016-09-01

    Dissolved methane concentrations (DM) in thirty lakes along Dalton Highway were measured in the open water season in 2008 and in 2012 to estimate diffusive flux from lake surfaces and to verify the enhancive effect of thawing permafrost on flux in the Alaskan arctic zone. An inverse relationship between lake size and DM was obtained in lakes in the regions as was found for European boreal lakes. There was no evidence indicating an effect of thawing permafrost on DM in these lakes. DM in lakes in the taiga region, however, were higher than those in the tundra region. All lake images on a map larger than 0.001 km2 were analyzed, and the area and number distributions were obtained in order to calculate regional mass fluxes of diffusive methane. The total area of all lakes (339,733) in the Alaskan Arctic zone (northern region from 64.00°N) is 25.5 × 103 km2. Regional summer diffusive flux of methane from lakes in the Alaskan arctic zone was estimated to be 22 Gg CH4 yr-1. Average diffusive flux density (per lake area) was 0.86 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, which is similar to that in European boreal lakes.

  19. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  20. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    PubMed

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  1. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALASKAN GOLD PROJECT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, John C.; Cathrall, John; Tripp, Richard

    1984-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey has begun a state-wide study of Alaskan gold deposits. The immediate goals are to determine the relationship of gold in placer deposits to possible primary sources, to determine how nuggets form, to contribute to existing knowledge of principles for prospecting for placer deposits, and determine if minerals associated with placer deposits might suggest important deposits of other metals. The project started in 1982 with a study of placer mines in the Brooks Range.

  2. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed China Mink Fur Origin: China (3) In addition to the required disclosure of country of origin the name of... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia...

  3. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  4. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  5. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  6. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  7. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  8. Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide

  9. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  10. Characterizing Variation of Isotopic Markers in Northern Alaskan Caribou Forages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanSomeren, L.; Barboza, P. S.; Gustine, D. D.; Parrett, L. S.; Stricker, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic markers in feces and tissues are a potential tool for monitoring the importance of feeding areas for migratory herbivores such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Many of these techniques are currently limited by gaps in our knowledge of how these isotopic signatures vary over the landscape. We collected seven species of preferred caribou forages along a latitudinal gradient in the summer ranges of the Central Arctic (9 sites) and Teshekpuk Lake (4 sites) caribou herds during 2011 and 2012. We analyzed forages at peak protein content and at the end of the season to characterize temporal, species-specific, and spatial variation in isotopic markers. The availability of C and N was measured by digestion in vitro. Isotopic signatures of digested samples were used to calculate fractionation that would bias the isotopic signature of feces. The range of values for isotopes (all values ‰) of nitrogen (δ15N -9.5 - +4.3), and sulfur (δ34S -3.6 - +15.5) were greater than those for carbon (δ13C -30.5 - -24.9). Small declines in forage δ13C with latitude (Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra, and S. richardsonii [all P < 0.01]), season (all species except C. bigelowii [all P ≤ 0.01]), and season x year (S. richardsonii; P = 0.01) were probably associated with changes in water availability. Fractionation of δ13C in early season forages was 0.1 × 1.0 and positively related to C availability (58% × 15%; P < 0.01) with the greatest fractionation for the highly digestible forb Pedicularis langsdorfii (1.43 × 0.44; P < 0.01). Sedges (Carex and Eriophorum) were significantly higher in δ15N than Salix spp. and other dicots (2.0 × 1.1 vs. -2.9 × 2.2; P < 0.01). For Salix spp., δ15N was consistent over the season and between years. Fractionation of δ15N in early season forages was 0.2 × 1.8 and not related to N availability (60% × 17%). For S. pulchra, δ34S may indicate usage of coastal habitats over foothills because δ34S was higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills (11.1 × 3.3 and 3.1 × 2.6; P < 0.01). Isotopic ratios in N and S show the greatest promise for tracking diet and location of migratory caribou whereas the narrow range in δ13C is affected by species, season and location.

  11. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  12. Alaskan Native Early School Leavers: A Study with Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumb, Jeanmarie

    In response to a request by the Anchorage Native Caucus and the Anchorage Native Education Coalition, this study by the Anchorage School District Community Relations Department focuses on the Alaskan Native dropout problem. The study indicates that between September 1976 and March 1981, Native Alaskans, who compose approximately 4% of the total…

  13. A Statistical Profile: Women in the Alaskan Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seppanen, Loretta J.

    Women's status as students and employees in Alaska's community colleges is greatly influenced by the unique Alaskan environment, where women make up only 47.6% of the population and where the population is on the whole very young. Women comprised 58% of all enrolled students in Alaskan community colleges in fall 1982 and received 56% of the…

  14. AERIAL VIEW OF ALASKAN WAY VIADUCT, WHICH STARTS AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF ALASKAN WAY VIADUCT, WHICH STARTS AT LEFT OF RAIL YARDS, BECOMES DOUBLE-DECK VIADUCT CLOSE TO COAST GUARD YARD JUST ABOVE RAIL YARDS, AND PROCEEDS ALONG SHORELINE UP INTO MIDDLE OF PICTURE. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  15. Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives Since 1867.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Thomas Robert

    The study compiles and records the history of the administration of education for Alaskan natives since the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1876. Chapter 1, An Overview of the Development of the Alaskan Native, covers the development of missionary and government schools, the growth and development of Native education from 1906…

  16. Impact of the Alaskan Stream flow on surface water dynamics, temperature, ice extent, plankton biomass, and walleye pollock stocks in the eastern Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Andreev, A. G.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Year-to-year changes of the Alaskan Stream surface flow, forming the northern boundary of the western subarctic cyclonic gyre in the Pacific, impact the dynamics of water in the eastern Okhotsk Sea. It is shown by Lagrangian simulation of transport of the Alaskan Stream waters in 20 year-long AVISO velocity field and direct computation of the corresponding fluxes that an intensification/weakening of the Alaskan Stream current leads to increased/decreased northward fluxes in the areas of the Krusenstern and Fourth Kuril straits connected the Okhotsk Sea with the Pacific Ocean. Enhancement of the Alaskan Stream flux is accompanied by an increase in water temperature and decreasing ice area in the Okhotsk Sea in winter. The Alaskan Stream surface flux is shown to be negatively correlated with satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration in May from r = - 0.68 to - 0.73 in 1998-2013 and with winter-spring biomass of large-sized zooplankton with r = - 0.70 in 1995-2012. It is positively correlated with winter-spring biomass of small- and medium-sized zooplankton in the eastern Okhotsk Sea with r = 0.74 in 1995-2012.

  17. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and... Article II(2)(b) of the Treaty (see § 23.89). The import, export, or re-export of fur skins and fur...

  18. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  19. Expression of fur and its antisense α-fur from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 as response to light and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martin-Luna, Beatriz; Sevilla, Emma; Gonzalez, Andres; Bes, M Teresa; Fillat, Maria F; Peleato, M Luisa

    2011-12-15

    Ferric uptake regulation (Fur) proteins are prokaryotic transcriptional regulators that integrate signaling of iron metabolism and oxidative stress responses with several environmental stresses. In photosynthetic organisms, Fur proteins regulate many genes involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and other key processes. Also, Fur triggers the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens, and Fur from Microcystis aeruginosa has been shown to bind promoter regions of the microcystin synthesis gene cluster. In this work, we studied transcriptional responses of fur genes under different light intensities and oxidative stress. An antisense of fur, the α-fur RNA, plays an important role in regulating fur expression under oxidative stress, affecting levels of Fur protein in cells. Importantly, an active photosynthetic electron chain is required for the expression of the fur gene.

  20. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  1. Comparison of Ecological Impacts of Postulated Oil Spills at Selected Alaskan Locations. Volume 1. Introduction, Summary, Methodology, Evaluation and Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Terrestrial Marsh Edges Mammals^ Harbor Seal Near Shore Areas Northern Fur Seal* Sea Otter1,2 Sea Lion Beluga Whale Rocky Beaches Coves...former population much reduced. Present mainly on east side. Local copulation highs just off map. An estimated 100 to 300 beluga whales...Beaches Sea Lion1 Rocky Caves Rivers Beaches Sea Otter Nearshore Seas Beluga Whales Ducks Open Sea Open Sea Mud Flats Estuaries Marshes

  2. Monoamine Release during Unihemispheric Sleep and Unihemispheric Waking in the Fur Seal

    PubMed Central

    Lyamin, Oleg I.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Kosenko, Peter O.; Kodama, Tohru; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Korneva, Svetlana M.; Peever, John H.; Mukhametov, Lev M.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the control of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been entirely based on studies of animals with bilateral sleep. The study of animals with unihemispheric sleep presents the opportunity of separating the neurochemical substrates of waking and sleep EEG from the systemic, bilateral correlates of sleep and waking states. Methods: The release of histamine (HI), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5HT) in cortical and subcortical areas (hypothalamus, thalamus and caudate nucleus) was measured in unrestrained northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using in vivo microdialysis, in combination with, polygraphic recording of EEG, electrooculogram, and neck electromyogram. Results: The pattern of cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in fur seals is similar during bilaterally symmetrical states: highest in active waking, reduced in quiet waking and bilateral slow wave sleep, and lowest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in seals is highly elevated during certain waking stimuli and behaviors, such as being sprayed with water and feeding. However, in contrast to acetylcholine (ACh), which we have previously studied, the release of HI, NE, and 5HT during unihemispheric sleep is not lateralized in the fur seal. Conclusions: Among the studied neurotransmitters most strongly implicated in waking control, only ACh release is asymmetric in unihemispheric sleep and waking, being greatly increased on the activated side of the brain. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 491. Citation: Lyamin OI, Lapierre JL, Kosenko PO, Kodama T, Bhagwandin A, Korneva SM, Peever JH, Mukhametov LM, Siegel JM. Monoamine release during unihemispheric sleep and unihemispheric waking in the fur seal. SLEEP 2016;39(3):625–636. PMID:26715233

  3. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  4. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  5. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  6. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  7. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  8. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe...

  9. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  10. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Characterization of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Iron and Fur Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao; McClure, Ryan; Daou, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Neisseria gonorrhoeae ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein controls expression of iron homeostasis genes in response to intracellular iron levels. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of an N. gonorrhoeae fur strain, we defined the gonococcal Fur and iron regulons and characterized Fur-controlled expression of an ArsR-like DNA binding protein. We observed that 158 genes (8% of the genome) showed differential expression in response to iron in an N. gonorrhoeae wild-type or fur strain, while 54 genes exhibited differential expression in response to Fur. The Fur regulon was extended to additional regulators, including NrrF and 13 other small RNAs (sRNAs), and two transcriptional factors. One transcriptional factor, coding for an ArsR-like regulator (ArsR), exhibited increased expression under iron-replete conditions in the wild-type strain but showed decreased expression across iron conditions in the fur strain, an effect that was reversed in a fur-complemented strain. Fur was shown to bind to the promoter region of the arsR gene downstream of a predicted σ70 promoter region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis confirmed binding of the ArsR protein to the norB promoter region, and sequence analysis identified two additional putative targets, NGO1411 and NGO1646. A gonococcal arsR strain demonstrated decreased survival in human endocervical epithelial cells compared to that of the wild-type and arsR-complemented strains, suggesting that the ArsR regulon includes genes required for survival in host cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the N. gonorrhoeae Fur functions as a global regulatory protein to repress or activate expression of a large repertoire of genes, including additional transcriptional regulatory proteins. IMPORTANCE Gene regulation in bacteria in response to environmental stimuli, including iron, is of paramount importance to both bacterial replication and, in the case of pathogenic

  13. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  14. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  15. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  16. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  17. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  18. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  19. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  20. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  1. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  2. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  3. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  4. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  5. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  6. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  7. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  8. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  9. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  10. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  11. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  12. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  13. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  14. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  15. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  16. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  17. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  18. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  19. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  20. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  1. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  2. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  3. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  4. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  5. Long-term climate patterns in Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation and their biological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Fleming, Michael D.; Berg, Jared S.; Ashton, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Mean monthly climate maps of Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation produced by the parameter-elevation regression on independent slopes model (PRISM) were analyzed. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones with consistent but different climatic variability separated by a transition region; it has maximum interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)- and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-type events influence Alaska surface temperatures weakly (1-2/spl deg/C) statewide. PDO has a stronger influence than ENSO on precipitation but its influence is largely localized to coastal central Alaska. The strongest influence of Arctic oscillation (AO) occurs in northern and interior Alaskan precipitation. Four major ecosystems are defined. A major eco-transition zone occurs between the interior boreal forest and the coastal rainforest. Variability in insolation, surface temperature, precipitation, continentality, and seasonal changes in storm track direction explain the mapped ecosystems. Lack of westward expansion of the interior boreal forest into the western shrub tundra is influenced by the coastal marine boundary layer (enhanced cloud cover, reduced insolation, cooler surface and soil temperatures).

  6. The structure of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator Fur reveals three functional metal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dian, Cyril; Vitale, Sylvia; Leonard, Gordon A; Bahlawane, Christelle; Fauquant, Caroline; Leduc, Damien; Muller, Cécile; de Reuse, Hilde; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Terradot, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Fur, the ferric uptake regulator, is a transcription factor that controls iron metabolism in bacteria. Binding of ferrous iron to Fur triggers a conformational change that activates the protein for binding to specific DNA sequences named Fur boxes. In Helicobacter pylori, HpFur is involved in acid response and is important for gastric colonization in model animals. Here we present the crystal structure of a functionally active HpFur mutant (HpFur2M; C78S-C150S) bound to zinc. Although its fold is similar to that of other Fur and Fur-like proteins, the crystal structure of HpFur reveals a unique structured N-terminal extension and an unusual C-terminal helix. The structure also shows three metal binding sites: S1 the structural ZnS₄ site previously characterized biochemically in HpFur and the two zinc sites identified in other Fur proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopy analyses of purified wild-type HpFur and various mutants show that the two metal binding sites common to other Fur proteins can be also metallated by cobalt. DNA protection and circular dichroism experiments demonstrate that, while these two sites influence the affinity of HpFur for DNA, only one is absolutely required for DNA binding and could be responsible for the conformational changes of Fur upon metal binding while the other is a secondary site.

  7. Correlations between elements in the fur of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Długaszek, Maria; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    There is little data on the elemental composition of wild animals fur. In the paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the concentration of elements in the fur of roe deer, wild boar and hare. The contents of following elements: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Their content was in the range 0.01 (Cd) to 1,519 (Ca) μg/g. Correlations between the content of Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Cr, Ni in the fur of animals, liver and muscle tissues were found. Thus it can be assumed that the fur of wild animals can provide an information on the bioavailability of elements and environmental exposure and can be considered as an useful biomarker in animals and environmental studies, although research on this subject should be continued.

  8. 11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans and Co., from Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, published 1902 for the City's 220th birthday - Arcade Building, Fifteenth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions....

  10. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus), river otter (Lontra canadensis),...

  11. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  12. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  2. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 3: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    The third book in a series of natural science handbooks for Alaskan students focuses on Alaskan plantlife. The first chapter, on trees, gives general information about trees and explains how to identify and locate trees in the three main Alaskan tree families: pine, willow, and birch. The second chapter, on plants, describes 14 kinds of edible…

  11. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-09-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability.

  1. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  2. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv. PMID:26910324

  3. FurIOS: A Web-Based Tool for Identification of Vibrionaceae Species Using the fur Gene

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Henrique; Cardoso, João; Giubergia, Sonia; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Gene based methods for identification of species from the Vibrionaceae family have been developed during the last decades to address the limitations of the commonly used 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, we found that the ferric-uptake regulator gene (fur) can be used as a single identification marker providing species discrimination, consistent with multi-locus sequencing analyses and whole genome phylogenies. To allow for broader and easy use of this marker, we have developed an online prediction service that allows the identification of Vibrionaceae species based on their fur-sequence. The input is a DNA sequence that can be uploaded on the web service; the output is a table containing the strain identifier, e-value, and percentage of identity for each of the matches with rows colored in green for hits with high probability of being the same species. The service is available on the web at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/furIOS-1.0/. The fur-sequences can be derived either from genome sequences or from PCR-amplification of the genomic region encoding the fur gene. We have used 191 strains identified as Vibrionaceae based on 16S rRNA gene sequence to test the PCR method and the web service on a large dataset. We were able to classify 171 of 191 strains at the species level and 20 strains remained unclassified. Furthermore, the fur phylogenetics and subsequent in silico DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that two strains (ATCC 33789 and ZS-139) previously identified as Vibrio splendidus are more closely related to V. tasmaniensis and V. cyclitrophicus, respectively. FurIOS is an easy-to-use online service that allows the identification of bacteria from the Vibrionaceae family at the species level using the fur gene as a single marker. Its simplistic design and straightforward pipeline makes it suitable for any research environment, from academia to industry. PMID:28348552

  4. FurIOS: A Web-Based Tool for Identification of Vibrionaceae Species Using the fur Gene.

    PubMed

    Machado, Henrique; Cardoso, João; Giubergia, Sonia; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Gene based methods for identification of species from the Vibrionaceae family have been developed during the last decades to address the limitations of the commonly used 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, we found that the ferric-uptake regulator gene (fur) can be used as a single identification marker providing species discrimination, consistent with multi-locus sequencing analyses and whole genome phylogenies. To allow for broader and easy use of this marker, we have developed an online prediction service that allows the identification of Vibrionaceae species based on their fur-sequence. The input is a DNA sequence that can be uploaded on the web service; the output is a table containing the strain identifier, e-value, and percentage of identity for each of the matches with rows colored in green for hits with high probability of being the same species. The service is available on the web at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/furIOS-1.0/. The fur-sequences can be derived either from genome sequences or from PCR-amplification of the genomic region encoding the fur gene. We have used 191 strains identified as Vibrionaceae based on 16S rRNA gene sequence to test the PCR method and the web service on a large dataset. We were able to classify 171 of 191 strains at the species level and 20 strains remained unclassified. Furthermore, the fur phylogenetics and subsequent in silico DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that two strains (ATCC 33789 and ZS-139) previously identified as Vibrio splendidus are more closely related to V. tasmaniensis and V. cyclitrophicus, respectively. FurIOS is an easy-to-use online service that allows the identification of bacteria from the Vibrionaceae family at the species level using the fur gene as a single marker. Its simplistic design and straightforward pipeline makes it suitable for any research environment, from academia to industry.

  5. Quantification of the effects of fur, fur color, and velocity on Time-Of-Flight technology in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Salau, Jennifer; Bauer, Ulrike; Haas, Jan H; Thaller, Georg; Harms, Jan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    With increasing herd sizes, camera based monitoring solutions rise in importance. 3D cameras, for example Time-Of-Flight (TOF) cameras, measure depth information. These additional information (3D data) could be beneficial for monitoring in dairy production. In previous studies regarding TOF technology, only standing cows were recorded to avoid motion artifacts. Therefore, necessary conditions for a TOF camera application in dairy cows are examined in this study. For this purpose, two cow models with plaster and fur surface, respectively, were recorded at four controlled velocities to quantify the effects of movement, fur color, and fur. Comparison criteria concerning image usability, pixel-wise deviation, and precision in coordinate determination were defined. Fur and fur color showed large effects (η (2)=0.235 and η (2)=0.472, respectively), which became even more considerable when the models were moving. The velocity of recorded animals must therefore be controlled when using TOF cameras. As another main result, body parts which lie in the middle of the cow model's back can be determined neglecting the effect of velocity or fur. With this in mind, further studies may obtain sound results using TOF technology in dairy production.

  6. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  7. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species.

  8. Global analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Fur regulon and the iron starvation stimulon.

    PubMed

    Baichoo, Noel; Wang, Tao; Ye, Rick; Helmann, John D

    2002-09-01

    The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake repressor (Fur) protein coordinates a global transcriptional response to iron starvation. We have used DNA microarrays to define the Fur regulon and the iron starvation stimulon. We identify 20 operons (containing 39 genes) that are derepressed both by mutation of fur and by treatment of cells with the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl. These operons are direct targets of Fur regulation as judged by DNase I footprinting. Analyses of lacZ reporter fusions to six Fur-regulated promoter regions reveal that repression is highly selective for iron. In addition to the Fur regulon, iron starvation induces members of the PerR regulon and leads to reduced expression of cytochromes. However, we did not find any evidence for genes that are directly activated by Fur or repressed by Fur under iron-limiting conditions. Although genome searches using the 19 bp Fur box consensus are useful in identifying candidate Fur-regulated genes, some genes associated with Fur boxes are not demonstrably regulated by Fur, whereas other genes are regulated from sites with little apparent similarity to the conventional Fur consensus.

  9. Assessment of the permafrost changes in the 21st century and their impact on infrastructure in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Muskett, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Thawing and freezing of Arctic soils is affected by many factors, with air temperature, vegetation, snow accumulation, and soil moisture among the most significant. Here, we employ the permafrost module of the Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Model (AIEM) and establish several high spatial resolution (1km x 1km) and very high resolution (30m x 30m) scenarios of changes in permafrost characteristics in the Alaskan Arctic in response to projected climate change. Impact of these changes in permafrost on northern Alaskan ecosystems and infrastructure are assessed and regional maps of the possible impacts are developed. The GIPL-2 numerically simulates soil temperature dynamics and the depth of seasonal freezing and thawing by solving the 1-D non-linear heat equation with phase change. In this model the processes of soil freezing and thawing are occurring in accordance with the volumetric unfrozen water content curve and soil thermal properties. The snow temperature and thickness dynamics are simulated assuming the snow accumulation, compaction and phase change processes. We validate our model simulations by comparing with available active layer, permafrost temperature and snow depth records from existing permafrost observatories operated by USGS and the Geophysical Institute of UAF in the North Slope region. Properties of surface vegetation, soil type, layering and moisture content are up-scaled using the Ecosystems of Northern Alaska map (Jorgenson and Heiner, 2003).

  10. A functional ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Almarza, Oscar; Valderrama, Katherine; Ayala, Manuel; Segovia, Cristopher; Santander, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS). The P. salmonis iron acquisition mechanisms and its molecular regulation are unknown. Iron is an essential element for bacterial pathogenesis. Typically, genes that encode for the iron acquisition machinery are regulated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. P. salmonis fur sequence database reveals a diversity of fur genes without functional verification. Due to the fastidious nature of this bacterium, we evaluated the functionality of P. salmonis fur in the Salmonella Δfur heterologous system. Although P. salmonis fur gene strongly differed from the common Fur sequences, it restored the regulatory mechanisms of iron acquisition in Salmonella. We concluded that P. salmonis LF-89 has a conserved functional Fur protein, which reinforces the importance of iron during fish infection. [Int Microbiol 2016; 49-55].

  11. Large volcanic eruptions and the PETM: Geochemistry from the Fur Formation, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Willumsen, Pi

    2015-04-01

    The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean during the early Cenozoic was accompanied by substantial volcanism that resulted in the deposition of numerous ash layers over much of northern Europe. This volcanism was contemporaneous with the extreme greenhouse climate of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), and is therefore of particular interest for volcanism-climate interactions. The island of Fur, northern Denmark, contains abundant outcrops of volcanic ash layers deposited in a shallow marine environment. Over 179 distinct ash horizons (those greater than ~1 cm are numbered #-39 to #+140) are found within the ~60 m thick Fur Formation. The ash layers are predominantly black and composed of volcanic glass particles ranging from silt to sand in size. Each bed is normally graded and lacks any evidence of significant reworking. There were no volcanoes in the vicinity of Fur during this time, and the outcrops are >700 km from the break-up axis, indicating that at least some of the ash layers were formed during very large eruptions and transported a long way from the source volcanoes. A few thick grey ash layers (e.g. #-33 and #+19) are believed to have originated from volcanoes in East Greenland. Here we present geochemical data from two key sections within the Fur Formation, a beach section at Stolleklint where ashes #-34 to #-31 are exposed, and a quarry section at Jenshøj that covers ashes #+17 to #+35. The #-33 and #+19 ashes are both prominent marker horizons around 15-20 cm thick. The Stolleklint section is clay rich while the quarry section is dominated by diatomite. At Stolleklint, bulk rock total organic carbon (TOC) δ13C values throughout a 1.5 m section are relatively steady at -30.7 to -31.7 o typical of the carbon isotope excursion values of the PETM at Fur. Just above ash layer #-33, δ13C = -27.9 o characteristic of post-PETM values. The bulk rock TOC is high, 1.5 to 4 wt. %. The post-PETM quarry section is much poorer in organic material (0

  12. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity.

  13. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  14. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  15. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  16. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  17. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  18. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  19. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  20. Cross-Cultural Issues in Alaskan Education. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray, Ed.

    A collection of 15 articles on cross-cultural issues in Alaskan education addresses educational policy issues, educational development issues, community/school issues, and teaching/learning issues. The one theme that permeates all of the articles is the value of participation by community members in all levels of the education of their children.…

  1. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  2. Profiles in Change: Names, Notes and Quotes for Alaskan Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brelsford, Ginna

    This publication tells the stories of contemporary Alaskan women who have contributed to the state's economic, social, and political development, and who may serve as role models for younger women in need of inspiration. It also attempts to illustrate the relationship between personal empowerment and societal change. The book contains 12 lengthy…

  3. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Mathematics. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Ned; Ostrom, Robert

    STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th graders on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been using…

  4. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  5. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  6. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  7. Native Alaskan Engagement with Social Constructions of Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherval, Meg

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that defining and measuring "rurality" is problematic. In states such as Alaska on the western Pacific coast of the United States, more than two-thirds of the State is classified as "remote rural". In 2000, despite only 10 per cent of the general Alaskan population living in these regions, for more than 41 per…

  8. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  9. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  10. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  11. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  12. Policy Statements on Collection Development. A Compendium from Alaskan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Carol, Ed.

    Developed as part of a statewide coordinated collection development effort, this document is a compendium of the narrative statements of collection development policies from 19 Alaskan university, public, school, and special libraries. Only the basic narrative plus any unique appendices are included for each policy, and some of the policies are…

  13. Expression of the gonococcal global regulatory protein Fur and genes encompassing the Fur and iron regulon during in vitro and in vivo infection in women.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sarika; Sebastian, Shite; Szmigielski, Borys; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2008-05-01

    The ferric uptake regulatory protein, Fur, functions as a global regulatory protein of gene transcription in the mucosal pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We have shown previously that several N. gonorrhoeae Fur-repressed genes are expressed in vivo during mucosal gonococcal infection in men, which suggests that this organism infects in an iron-limited environment and that Fur is expressed under these conditions. In this study we have demonstrated expression of the gonococcal fur gene in vitro, in human cervical epithelial cells, and in specimens from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection. In vitro studies confirmed that the expression of the gonococcal fur gene was repressed during growth under iron-replete growth conditions but that a basal level of the protein was maintained. Using GFP transcriptional fusions constructed from specific Fur binding sequences within the fur promoter/operator region, we determined that this operator region was functional during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR analysis, as well as microarray analysis, using a custom Neisseria Fur and iron regulon microarray revealed that several Fur- and iron-regulated genes were expressed during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Microarray analysis of specimens obtained from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection corroborated our in vitro findings and point toward a key role of gonococcal Fur- and iron-regulated genes in gonococcal disease.

  14. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  15. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  16. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  17. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  18. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  19. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  20. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  1. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  2. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  3. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  4. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  5. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  6. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  7. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  8. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  9. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  10. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  11. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  12. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  13. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  14. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  15. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  16. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  17. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  18. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  19. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  20. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  1. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  2. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  3. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS....24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  4. Regulation of haemolysin (VvhA) production by ferric uptake regulator (Fur) in Vibrio vulnificus: repression of vvhA transcription by Fur and proteolysis of VvhA by Fur-repressive exoproteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Mi-Ae; Park, Soon-Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2013-05-01

    VvhA produced by Vibrio vulnificus exhibits cytolytic activity to human cells including erythrocytes. Since haemolysis by VvhA may provide iron for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, we investigated the expression of VvhA to elucidate the regulatory roles of Fur, a major transcription factor controlling iron-homeostasis. Fur repressed the transcription of vvhBA operon via binding to the promoter region. However, haemolysin content and haemolytic activity were lowered in cell-free supernatant of fur mutant. This discrepancy between the levels of vvhA transcript and VvhA protein in fur mutant was caused by exoproteolytic activities of the elastase VvpE and another metalloprotease VvpM, which were also regulated by Fur. vvpE gene expression was repressed by Fur via binding to the Fur-box homologous region. Regulation of VvpM expression by Fur did not occur at the level of vvpM transcription. In vitro proteolysis assays showed that both proteases efficiently degraded VvhA. In addition, the extracellular levels of VvhA were higher in culture supernatants of vvpE or vvpM mutants than in the wild type. Thus this study demonstrates that Fur regulates haemolysin production at the transcription level of the vvhBA operon and at the post-translation level by regulating the expressions of two VvhA-degrading exoproteases, VvpE and VvpM.

  5. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Pelliciari, Simone; Vannini, Andrea; Roncarati, Davide; Danielli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur toward apo-operators, while the binding toward holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur toward the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to antibiotics.

  6. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-01

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25-70 Pg C in peatland and 13-22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36-63 Pg C at present, including 27-48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9-15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5-3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3-0.6 Pg C in peatlands and 2.2-3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr-1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr-1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr-1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.

  7. 8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR NEW WINDOW OPENINGS. NORTH WING, FIRST FLOOR DURING REHABILITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe fur... accomplished in a humane manner; (ii) Is for the protection or welfare of the animal, is for the protection of... steps designed to ensure the return of the animal to its natural habitat, if feasible; and (iv)...

  9. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of...

  10. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe...

  11. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe...

  12. Discovery of Fur binding site clusters in Escherichia coli by information theory models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehua; Lewis, Karen A.; Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Lyakhov, Ilya G.; Zheng, Ming; Doan, Bernard; Storz, Gisela; Schneider, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    Fur is a DNA binding protein that represses bacterial iron uptake systems. Eleven footprinted Escherichia coli Fur binding sites were used to create an initial information theory model of Fur binding, which was then refined by adding 13 experimentally confirmed sites. When the refined model was scanned across all available footprinted sequences, sequence walkers, which are visual depictions of predicted binding sites, frequently appeared in clusters that fit the footprints (∼83% coverage). This indicated that the model can accurately predict Fur binding. Within the clusters, individual walkers were separated from their neighbors by exactly 3 or 6 bases, consistent with models in which Fur dimers bind on different faces of the DNA helix. When the E. coli genome was scanned, we found 363 unique clusters, which includes all known Fur-repressed genes that are involved in iron metabolism. In contrast, only a few of the known Fur-activated genes have predicted Fur binding sites at their promoters. These observations suggest that Fur is either a direct repressor or an indirect activator. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis Fur models are highly similar to the E. coli Fur model, suggesting that the Fur–DNA recognition mechanism may be conserved for even distantly related bacteria. PMID:17921503

  13. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) knockout mutant in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Ebanks, Roger O; Goguen, Michel; Knickle, Leah; Dacanay, Andrew; Leslie, Andrew; Ross, Neil W; Pinto, Devanand M

    2013-03-23

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis; a serious infectious disease in aquaculture raised salmonids. Iron acquisition has been shown to be critical for the survival of pathogenic bacteria during the course of infection. Previous work has demonstrated that A. salmonicida expresses iron-repressible IROMP proteins, suggesting the presence of iron acquisition systems that are under the control of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur). In this study, the A. salmonicida fur has been sequenced and a fur deletion strain generated. The A. salmonicida fur gene has an open reading frame of 428 bp, coding for a protein of 143 amino acids, and with high homology to previously described Fur proteins. The Fur protein product had a 94% sequence identity and 96% sequence similarity to the Aeromonas hydrophila Fur protein product. Transcription of the A. salmonicida fur gene was not regulated by the iron status of the bacterium and is not autoregulated, as in Escherichia coli. Proteomic analysis of the A. salmonicida fur mutant, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. The A. salmonicida fur::KO mutant shows significantly reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild-type parental strain. In addition, the A. salmonicida fur mutant provides an important tool for further investigation of the iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by A. salmonicida.

  14. Identification of the fur-binding site in regulatory region of the vulnibactin-receptor gene in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2012-01-01

    The Vibrio vulnificus vuuA gene, of which expression is repressed by a complex of iron and ferric uptake regulator (Fur), was characterized to localize the Fur-binding site in its upstream regulatory region. In silico analysis suggested the presence of two possible Fur-binding sites; one is a classical Fur-box and the other is a previously reported distinct Fur-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis and DNase I protection assays revealed the binding site for the iron-Fur complex, which includes an extended inverted repeat containing a homologous sequence to the classical Fur-box.

  15. Origins of specificity and cross-talk in metal ion sensing by Bacillus subtilis Fur.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Faulkner, Melinda J; Helmann, John D

    2012-12-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in many bacteria, but how it responds specifically to Fe(II) in vivo is not clear. Biochemical analyses of Bacillus subtilis Fur (BsFur) reveal that in addition to Fe(II), both Zn(II) and Mn(II) allosterically activate BsFur-DNA binding. Dimeric BsFur co-purifies with site 1 structural Zn(II) (Fur(2) Zn(2) ) and can bind four additional Zn(II) or Mn(II) ions per dimer. Metal ion binding at previously described site 3 occurs with highest affinity, but the Fur(2) Zn(2) :Me(2) form has only a modest increase in DNA binding affinity (approximately sevenfold). Metallation of site 2 (Fur(2) Zn(2) :Me(4) ) leads to a ~ 150-fold further enhancement in DNA binding affinity. Fe(II) binding studies indicate that BsFur buffers the intracellular Fe(II) concentration at ~ 1 μM. Both Mn(II) and Zn(II) are normally buffered at levels insufficient for metallation of BsFur site 2, thereby accounting for the lack of cross-talk observed in vivo. However, in a perR mutant, where the BsFur concentration is elevated, BsFur may now use Mn(II) as a co-repressor and inappropriately repress iron uptake. Since PerR repression of fur is enhanced by Mn(II), and antagonized by Fe(II), PerR may co-regulate Fe(II) homeostasis by modulating BsFur levels in response to the Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio.

  16. Fur Trade Era Interpretation. The Voyageur Sash and Garter and a Fur Trade Emblem: A Curiosity Ripe for Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wendy; Henderson, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Provides outdoor educators with background information for historical interpretation activities during Canadian canoe trips. Discusses the history, evolution, and uses of brightly colored sashes and garters worn by voyageurs during the fur trade era, and speculates on the origins of the Lauburu canoe emblem, used by both the Mic Mac peoples and…

  17. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  18. Haemosporidian parasite infections in grouse and ptarmigan: Prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites in resident Alaskan birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Matthew M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Merizon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Projections related to future climate warming indicate the potential for an increase in the distribution and prevalence of blood parasites in northern regions. However, baseline data are lacking for resident avian host species in Alaska. Grouse and ptarmigan occupy a diverse range of habitat types throughout the northern hemisphere and are among the most well-known and important native game birds in North America. Information regarding the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in tetraonid species is limited, with few recent studies and an almost complete lack of genetic data. To better understand the genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites in Alaskan tetraonids and to determine current patterns of geographic range and host specificity, we used molecular methods to screen 459 tissue samples collected from grouse and ptarmigan species across multiple regions of Alaska for infection by Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium blood parasites. Infections were detected in 342 individuals, with overall apparent prevalence of 53% for Leucocytozoon, 21% for Haemoproteus, and 9% for Plasmodium. Parasite prevalence varied by region, with different patterns observed between species groups (grouse versus ptarmigan). Leucocytozoon was more common in ptarmigan, whereas Haemoproteus was more common in grouse. We detected Plasmodium infections in grouse only. Analysis of haemosporidian mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences revealed 23 unique parasite haplotypes, several of which were identical to lineages previously detected in other avian hosts. Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between haplotypes from our study and those identified in Alaskan waterfowl for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. In contrast, Leucocytozoon lineages were structured strongly by host family. Our results provide some of the first genetic data for haemosporidians in grouse and ptarmigan species, and provide an initial baseline on the prevalence and diversity

  19. Haemosporidian parasite infections in grouse and ptarmigan: Prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites in resident Alaskan birds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew M; Van Hemert, Caroline; Merizon, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Projections related to future climate warming indicate the potential for an increase in the distribution and prevalence of blood parasites in northern regions. However, baseline data are lacking for resident avian host species in Alaska. Grouse and ptarmigan occupy a diverse range of habitat types throughout the northern hemisphere and are among the most well-known and important native game birds in North America. Information regarding the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in tetraonid species is limited, with few recent studies and an almost complete lack of genetic data. To better understand the genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites in Alaskan tetraonids and to determine current patterns of geographic range and host specificity, we used molecular methods to screen 459 tissue samples collected from grouse and ptarmigan species across multiple regions of Alaska for infection by Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium blood parasites. Infections were detected in 342 individuals, with overall apparent prevalence of 53% for Leucocytozoon, 21% for Haemoproteus, and 9% for Plasmodium. Parasite prevalence varied by region, with different patterns observed between species groups (grouse versus ptarmigan). Leucocytozoon was more common in ptarmigan, whereas Haemoproteus was more common in grouse. We detected Plasmodium infections in grouse only. Analysis of haemosporidian mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences revealed 23 unique parasite haplotypes, several of which were identical to lineages previously detected in other avian hosts. Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between haplotypes from our study and those identified in Alaskan waterfowl for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. In contrast, Leucocytozoon lineages were structured strongly by host family. Our results provide some of the first genetic data for haemosporidians in grouse and ptarmigan species, and provide an initial baseline on the prevalence and diversity

  20. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  1. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  2. Repeat Photography of Alaskan Glaciers and Landscapes as Both Art and as a Means of Communicating Climat Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    , Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Denali National Park and Preserve, the northern and northwestern Prince William Sound area of the Chugach National Forest, and the Mendenhall Glacier area of the Tongass National Forest to document and determine the extent of changing glaciers and landscapes. The use of repeat photography to document temporal change is not new. It originated as a glacier-monitoring technique in the European Alps more than 150 years ago. What is unique in this Alaskan application of repeat photography is the systematic approach being used to obtain photographic documentation of glacier and landscape change for every glacier-hosting fiord in western southcentral Alaska, as well as at many Alaskan valley glacier sites. What is also unique is the development of an annotated website which presents many pairs of these photographs as well as ancillary materials to help convey the basics of Alaskan glaciers and climate change. The website, titled 'Glacier and Landscape Change in Response to Changing Climate', (http://www.usgs.gov/climate_landuse/glaciers/) was awarded the 2010 USGS Shoemaker External Communications Award.

  3. Identification of three novel antisense RNAs in the fur locus from unicellular cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Emma; Martín-Luna, Beatriz; González, Andrés; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús A; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2011-12-01

    The interplay between Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins and small, non-coding RNAs has been described as a key regulatory loop in several bacteria. In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, a large dicistronic transcript encoding the putative membrane protein Alr1690 and an α-furA RNA is involved in the modulation of the global regulator FurA. In this work we report the existence of three novel antisense RNAs in cyanobacteria and show that a cis α-furA RNA is conserved in very different genomic contexts, namely in the unicellular cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Syα-fur RNA covers only part of the coding sequence of the fur orthologue sll0567, whose flanking genes encode two hypothetical proteins. Transcriptional analysis of fur and its adjacent genes in Microcystis unravels a highly compact organization of this locus involving overlapping transcripts. Maα-fur RNA spans the whole Mafur CDS and part of the flanking dnaJ and sufE sequences. In addition, Mafur seems to be part of a dicistronic operon encoding this regulator and an α-sufE RNA. These results allow new insights into the transcriptomes of two unicellular cyanobacteria and suggest that in M. aeruginosa PCC 7806, the α-fur and α-sufE RNAs might participate in a regulatory connection between the genes of the dnaJ-fur-sufE locus.

  4. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.

  5. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  6. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  7. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  8. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Annual reports of principal investigators for the year ending March 1981. Volume 5. Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A compilation of 8 annual reports on the following subjects: the interaction of oil with sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, circulation processes in Bristol Bay using dissolved methane as a tracer, modeling of tides and circulations of the Bering Sea, meteorology of the Alaskan arctic coast, nearshore hydrodynamics of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas; sources, transport pathways, depositional sites and dynamics of sediments in the lagoon and adjacent shallow marine region, northern Arctic Alaska; numerical trajectory modeling and associated field measurements in the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea nearshore areas, and fluid transport processes in the North Aleutian Shelf and St. George Basin.

  9. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  10. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  11. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  12. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  13. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  15. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  16. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  17. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  19. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  20. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  1. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  8. FurA from Anabaena PCC 7120: New insights on its regulation and the interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. A.; López-Gomollón, S.; Pellicer, S.; Martín, B.; Sevilla, E.; Bes, M. T.; Peleato, M. L.; Fillat, M. F.

    2006-08-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins are global regulatory proteins involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. They recognize specific DNA sequences denoted iron boxes. It is assumed that Fur proteins act as classical repressors. Under iron-rich conditions, Fur dimers complexed with ferrous ions bind to iron boxes, preventing transcription. In addition to iron homeostasis, Fur proteins control the concerted response to oxidative and acidic stresses in heterotrophic prokaryotes. Our group studies the interaction between Fur proteins and target DNA sequences. Moreover, the regulation of FurA in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, whose genome codes for three fur homologues has been investigated. We present an overview about the different factors involved in the regulation of FurA and analyze the parameters that influence FurA-DNA interaction in the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120.

  9. Regional differences in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity and interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in the fur seal.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Pavlova, Ivetta F; Kosenko, Peter O; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2012-12-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is characterized by a highly expressed interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, called 'unihemispheric' or 'asymmetrical' SWS. The aim of this study was to examine the regional differences in slow wave activity (SWA; power in the range of 1.2-4.0 Hz) within one hemisphere and differences in the degree of interhemispheric EEG asymmetry within this species. Three seals were implanted with 10 EEG electrodes, positioned bilaterally (five in each hemisphere) over the frontal, occipital and parietal cortex. The expression of interhemispheric SWA asymmetry between symmetrical monopolar recordings was estimated based on the asymmetry index [AI = (L-R)/(L+R), where L and R are the power in the left and right hemispheres, respectively]. Our findings indicate an anterior-posterior gradient in SWA during asymmetrical SWS in fur seals, which is opposite to that described for other mammals, including humans, with a larger SWA recorded in the parietal and occipital cortex. Interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in fur seals was recorded across the entire dorsal cerebral cortex, including sensory (visual and somatosensory), motor and associative (parietal or suprasylvian) cortical areas. The expression of asymmetry was greatest in occipital-lateral and parietal derivations and smallest in frontal-medial derivations. Regardless of regional differences in SWA, the majority (90%) of SWS episodes with interhemispheric EEG asymmetry meet the criteria for 'unihemispheric SWS' (one hemisphere is asleep while the other is awake). The remaining episodes can be described as episodes of bilateral SWS with a local activation in one cerebral hemisphere.

  10. An Authentic Voice in the Technocratic Wilderness: Alaskan Natives and the "Tundra Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick; James, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Examines a pair of critical challenges to the cultural integrity of Alaskan Natives around 1960 as pivotal episodes in the process of native resistance to U. S. dominance. Historically evaluates the fragility of native culture in terms of the political, scientific, and economic interests expressed in the mainstream Alaskan press, particularly the…

  11. Common Ground 1989: Suggested Literature for Alaskan Schools, Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Intended to assist Alaskan school districts in their own selection and promotion of reading and literature, this guide to literature for use in grades K-8 has five purposes: (1) to encourage reading and the use of literature throughout Alaskan schools; (2) to promote the inclusion of Alaska native literature, and minority literature, in addition…

  12. Common Ground 1989: Suggested Literature for Alaskan Schools, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Intended to assist Alaskan school districts in their own selection and promotion of reading and literature, this guide to literature for use in grades 7-12 has five purposes: (1) to encourage reading and the use of literature throughout Alaskan schools; (2) to promote the inclusion of Alaska Native literature, and minority literature, in addition…

  13. Alaskan Native High School Dropouts: A Report Prepared for Project ANNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Desa

    Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…

  14. Alaskan Native Education: An Historical Perspective. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 18-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Charles K.

    Designed to help Alaskan Native communities and organizations, State and Federal officials, citizens of Alaska, and professional educators in dealing with changing educational situations, the report provides a reliable and succinct history of Alaskan education from the time of the area's purchase from Russia in 1867. One of the major problems in…

  15. Sled Dogs, Musher Math, and More: Theme Teaching and the Alaskan Iditarod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park-Seldomridge, Anne

    1995-01-01

    A teacher of upper elementary deaf students describes a multidisciplinary study unit focused on the Alaskan dogsled race, the Iditarod. Activities included studying Alaskan geography and history, following specific racers (mushers) through daily updates faxed from Alaska, writing letters to mushers, calculating math facts related to the race,…

  16. 46. SECOND FLOOR CEILING FRAMING. The 1812 furring strips are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. SECOND FLOOR CEILING FRAMING. The 1812 furring strips are still in place, fastened to the undersides of the 1755 joists. The joists frame into the bottom chords of the 1755 salvaged trusses. Note the numerals, VIII (8), N (9), X (10), and XI (11) on alternate panels of the bottom chord of the truss. Between the reinforcing plates note the numeral VII (7), added for the 1812 installation - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Metal content in the fur of domestic and experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, R.; Nakaya, K.; Ohno, H.; Yamashita, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasai, S.

    1986-08-01

    Bird feathers and animal hairs accumulate various metals, and they have been used often as analytical materials for biological monitoring of essential and pollutant metals. The usefulness of those materials, however, is relatively limited probably owing to insufficient knowledge on inter- and intra-species characteristics of metal accumulation in animals. The present report deals with the characteristics of metal accumulation in the fur of domestic and experimental animals.

  18. Comparative genomics reveals 'novel' Fur regulated sRNAs and coding genes in diverse proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Jayavel; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2013-03-10

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and plays an important role in pathogenesis. Fur-regulated sRNAs/CDSs were found to have upstream Fur Binding Sites (FBS). We have constructed a Positional Weight Matrix from 100 known FBS (19 nt) and tracked the 'Orphan' FBSs. Possible Fur regulated sRNAs and CDSs were identified by comparing their genomic locations with the 'Orphan' FBSs identified. Thirty-eight 'novel' and all known Fur regulated sRNAs in nine proteobacteria were identified. In addition, we identified high scoring FBSs in the promoter regions of the 304 CDSs and 68 of them were involved in siderophore biosynthesis, iron-transporters, two-component system, starch/sugar metabolism, sulphur/methane metabolism, etc. The present study shows that the Fur regulator controls the expression of genes involved in diverse metabolic activities and it is not limited to iron metabolism alone.

  19. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals. Final technical report for Phase II, July 1, 1977-February 29, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P. D.; Wolff, E. N.

    1980-10-01

    This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Alaska, with its large coal resources, could supply the nation with environmentally acceptable low-ash, low-sulfur coals. Washability characteristics were determined for eleven coal samples, from the Northern Alaska, Broad Pass, Little Tonzona, Tramway Bar, Beluga, Yentna, Kenai and Nenana coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities. Detailed results of the testing are given.

  20. Identification and characterization of novel Helicobacter pylori apo-fur-regulated target genes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; McKelvey, Ann M; Maynard, Ernest L; Li, Zhao-Zhang; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-12-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has evolved additional regulatory functions not seen in other bacteria; it can repress and activate different groups of genes in both its iron-bound and apo forms. Because little is understood about the process of apo-Fur repression and because only two apo-Fur-repressed genes (pfr and sodB) have previously been identified, we sought to expand our understanding of this type of regulation. Utilizing published genomic studies, we selected three potential new apo-Fur-regulated gene targets: serB, hydA, and the cytochrome c553 gene. Transcriptional analyses confirmed Fur-dependent repression of these genes in the absence of iron, as well as derepression in the absence of Fur. Binding studies showed that apo-Fur directly interacted with the suspected hydA and cytochrome c553 promoters but not that of serB, which was subsequently shown to be cotranscribed with pfr; apo-Fur-dependent regulation occurred at the pfr promoter. Alignments of apo-regulated promoter regions revealed a conserved, 6-bp consensus sequence (AAATGA). DNase I footprinting showed that this sequence lies within the protected regions of the pfr and hydA promoters. Moreover, mutation of the sequence in the pfr promoter abrogated Fur binding and DNase protection. Likewise, fluorescence anisotropy studies and binding studies with mutated consensus sequences showed that the sequence was important for apo-Fur binding to the pfr promoter. Together these studies expand the known apo-Fur regulon in H. pylori and characterize the first reported apo-Fur box sequence.

  1. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) mutant of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kelly S; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L; Yang, Zamin; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H; Alm, Eric J; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Wall, Judy D

    2007-09-01

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profile of the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of the Fur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test the involvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulation of D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deleting the fur gene. Growth of the resulting Deltafur mutant (JW707) was not affected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increased sensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type. Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts as a traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and other genes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter. Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D. vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB and TolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genes predicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by the presence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could be interpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed. Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a global regulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D. vulgaris.

  2. Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses to Characterize the Function of Fur and Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Wu, Liyou; Parsons, Andrea; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining iron homeostasis is a key metabolic challenge for most organisms. In many bacterial species, regulation of iron homeostasis is carried out by the global transcriptional regulator Fur. Physiological examination showed that Shewanella oneidensis harboring a fur deletion mutation had deficiencies in both growth and acid tolerance response. However, the fur mutant better tolerated iron-limited environments than the wild-type strain MR-1. Transcriptomic studies comparing the fur mutant and MR-1 confirmed previous findings that iron acquisition systems were highly induced by Fur inactivation. In addition, the temporal gene expression profiling of the fur mutant in response to iron depletion and repletion suggested that a number of genes involved in energy transport were iron-responsive but Fur-independent. Further identification of Fur-independent genes was obtained by generating a gene co-expression network from temporal gene expression profiles. A group of genes is involved in heat shock and has an rpoH-binding site at their promoters, and genes related to anaerobic energy transport has a highly conserved Crp binding site at the promoters. Together, this work provides useful information for the characterization of the function of Fur and the iron response in S. oneidensis.

  3. From Peptide Aptamers to Inhibitors of FUR, Bacterial Transcriptional Regulator of Iron Homeostasis and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sophie; Cissé, Cheickna; Vitale, Sylvia; Ahmadova, Aynur; Degardin, Mélissa; Pérard, Julien; Colas, Pierre; Miras, Roger; Boturyn, Didier; Covès, Jacques; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle

    2016-09-16

    FUR (Ferric Uptake Regulator) protein is a global transcriptional regulator that senses iron status and controls the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis, virulence, and oxidative stress. Ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria and absent in eukaryotes, FUR is an attractive antivirulence target since the inactivation of the fur gene in various pathogens attenuates their virulence. The characterization of 13-aa-long anti-FUR linear peptides derived from the variable part of the anti-FUR peptide aptamers, that were previously shown to decrease pathogenic E. coli strain virulence in a fly infection model, is described herein. Modeling, docking, and experimental approaches in vitro (activity and interaction assays, mutations) and in cells (yeast two-hybrid assays) were combined to characterize the interactions of the peptides with FUR, and to understand their mechanism of inhibition. As a result, reliable structure models of two peptide-FUR complexes are given. Inhibition sites are mapped in the groove between the two FUR subunits where DNA should also bind. Another peptide behaves differently and interferes with the dimerization itself. These results define these novel small peptide inhibitors as lead compounds for inhibition of the FUR transcription factor.

  4. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Bes, M. Teresa; Peleato, M. Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria. PMID:26967347

  5. Geographic patterns and dynamics of Alaskan climate interpolated from a sparse station record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Michael D.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Cramer, W.; Hufford, Gary L.; Serreze, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Data from a sparse network of climate stations in Alaska were interpolated to provide 1-km resolution maps of mean monthly temperature and precipitation-variables that are required at high spatial resolution for input into regional models of ecological processes and resource management. The interpolation model is based on thin-plate smoothing splines, which uses the spatial data along with a digital elevation model to incorporate local topography. The model provides maps that are consistent with regional climatology and with patterns recognized by experienced weather forecasters. The broad patterns of Alaskan climate are well represented and include latitudinal and altitudinal trends in temperature and precipitation and gradients in continentality. Variations within these broad patterns reflect both the weakening and reduction in frequency of low-pressure centres in their eastward movement across southern Alaska during the summer, and the shift of the storm tracks into central and northern Alaska in late summer. Not surprisingly, apparent artifacts of the interpolated climate occur primarily in regions with few or no stations. The interpolation model did not accurately represent low-level winter temperature inversions that occur within large valleys and basins. Along with well-recognized climate patterns, the model captures local topographic effects that would not be depicted using standard interpolation techniques. This suggests that similar procedures could be used to generate high-resolution maps for other high-latitude regions with a sparse density of data.

  6. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rykhus, Russell P.; Lu, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas.

  7. (Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklind, C.A.; Bennett, F.L. . Inst. of Northern Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology.

  8. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-25

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25–70 Pg C in peatland and 13–22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36–63 Pg C at present, including 27–48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9–15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5–3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3–0.6 Pg C in peatlandsmore » and 2.2–3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr−1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr−1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr−1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.« less

  9. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, John B.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Commane, Roisin; Dinardo, Steven; Henderson, John M.; Lindaas, Jacob; Lin, John C.; Luus, Kristina A.; Newberger, Tim; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C.; Wolter, Sonja; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-04-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ˜ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM-WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear to persist during some wintertime

  10. Mutagenesis of conserved amino acids of Helicobacter pylori fur reveals residues important for function.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; Gancz, Hanan; Benoit, Stéphane L; Evans, Sarah; Olsen, Cara H; Michel, Sarah L J; Maier, Robert J; Merrell, D Scott

    2010-10-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of the medically important pathogen Helicobacter pylori is unique in that it has been shown to function as a repressor both in the presence of an Fe2+ cofactor and in its apo (non-Fe2+-bound) form. However, virtually nothing is known concerning the amino acid residues that are important for Fur functioning. Therefore, mutations in six conserved amino acid residues of H. pylori Fur were constructed and analyzed for their impact on both iron-bound and apo repression. In addition, accumulation of the mutant proteins, protein secondary structure, DNA binding ability, iron binding capacity, and the ability to form higher-order structures were also examined for each mutant protein. While none of the mutated residues completely abrogated the function of Fur, we were able to identify residues that were critical for both iron-bound and apo-Fur repression. One mutation, V64A, did not alter regulation of any target genes. However, each of the five remaining mutations showed an effect on either iron-bound or apo regulation. Of these, H96A, E110A, and E117A mutations altered iron-bound Fur regulation and were all shown to influence iron binding to different extents. Additionally, the H96A mutation was shown to alter Fur oligomerization, and the E110A mutation was shown to impact oligomerization and DNA binding. Conversely, the H134A mutant exhibited changes in apo-Fur regulation that were the result of alterations in DNA binding. Although the E90A mutant exhibited alterations in apo-Fur regulation, this mutation did not affect any of the assessed protein functions. This study is the first for H. pylori to analyze the roles of specific amino acid residues of Fur in function and continues to highlight the complexity of Fur regulation in this organism.

  11. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  12. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  14. Positive regulation of the Vibrio cholerae porin OmpT by iron and fur.

    PubMed

    Craig, S A; Carpenter, C D; Mey, A R; Wyckoff, E E; Payne, S M

    2011-12-01

    The transcription factor Fur regulates the expression of a number of genes in Vibrio cholerae in response to changes in the level of available iron. Fur usually acts as a repressor, but here we show that Fur positively regulates the expression of ompT, which encodes a major outer membrane porin. OmpT levels increased when the bacteria were grown in medium containing relatively high levels of iron, and this effect required Fur. The level of ompT mRNA also is increased in the presence of iron and Fur. The effect of iron on OmpT levels was independent of the known ompT regulators ToxR and Crp, and it did not require RyhB, which has been shown to be responsible for positive regulation by iron of some V. cholerae genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that Fur binds upstream of the ompT transcription start site in a region overlapping known binding sites for ToxR and Crp. These data suggest that Fur and iron positively regulate ompT expression through the direct binding of Fur to the ompT promoter.

  15. Entanglements of Consumption, Cruelty, Privacy, and Fashion: The Social Controversy over Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathryn M.; Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Posits a critical approach to the study of contemporary social controversy. Examines objectives to the use of fur as oppositional argument, rhetoric that veers from the goal of persuasion to block conventional associations and refashion communication norms. Shows how pro-fur responses illustrate strategies available to bolster, alter, or abandon…

  16. The Fur Trade as an Environment for Education: Problems and Implications from Hudson Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S. H.

    Fur trade settlements in North America were a fertile environment for cultural education. The fur trade became a network of closely linked social spheres in which individuals had to acquire competence in order to function and survive. The Hudson Bay Company's decision to plant permanent posts on the shores of the Hudson Bay put settlers and their…

  17. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  18. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  19. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  20. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  1. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  2. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  3. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  4. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  5. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  6. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ji, Chang-Jun; Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  7. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  8. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  9. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  10. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  11. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  12. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  13. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  14. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  15. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  16. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  17. Suppression of pleiotropic phenotypes of a Burkholderia multivorans fur mutant by oxyR mutation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akane; Yuhara, Satoshi; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2012-05-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-responsive transcriptional regulator in many bacterial species, and the fur mutant of Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616 exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes, such as an inability to efficiently use several carbon sources, as well as high sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), paraquat (a superoxide-producing compound) and nitric oxide (NO). To gain more insight into the pleiotropic role of the Fur protein of ATCC 17616, spontaneous suppressor mutants of the ATCC 17616 fur mutant that restored tolerance to NO were isolated and characterized in this study. The microarray-based comparative genomic analysis and subsequent sequencing analysis indicated that such suppressor mutants had a 2 bp deletion in the oxyR gene, whose orthologues encode H(2)O(2)-responsive transcriptional regulators in other bacterial species. The suppressor mutants and the reconstructed fur-oxyR double-deletion mutant showed indistinguishable phenotypes in that they were all (i) more resistant than the fur mutant to H(2)O(2), superoxide, NO and streptonigrin (an iron-activated antibiotic) and (ii) able to use carbon sources that cannot efficiently support the growth of the fur mutant. These results clearly indicate that the oxyR mutation suppressed the pleiotropic effect of the B. multivorans fur mutant. The fur-oxyR double mutants were found to overexpress the KatG (catalase/peroxidase) and AhpC1 and AhpD (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunits C and D) proteins, and their enzymic activities to remove reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were suggested to be responsible for the suppression of phenotypes caused by the fur mutation.

  18. Fur activates expression of the 2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductase genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; West, Abby L; Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Michel, Sarah; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ∼50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO(2). Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended -10 element but a poorly conserved -35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ∼130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [K(d)] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori.

  19. Lithostratigraphic, conodont, and other faunal links between lower Paleozoic strata in northern and central Alaska and northeastern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Gagiev, Mussa; Bradley, Dwight C.; Repetski, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Lower Paleozoic platform carbonate strata in northern Alaska (parts of the Arctic Alaska, York, and Seward terranes; herein called the North Alaska carbonate platform) and central Alaska (Farewell terrane) share distinctive lithologic and faunal features, and may have formed on a single continental fragment situated between Siberia and Laurentia. Sedimentary successions in northern and central Alaska overlie Late Proterozoic metamorphosed basement; contain Late Proterozoic ooid-rich dolostones, Middle Cambrian outer shelf deposits, and Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian shallow-water platform facies, and include fossils of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces. The presence in the Alaskan terranes of Siberian forms not seen in wellstudied cratonal margin sequences of western Laurentia implies that the Alaskan rocks were not attached to Laurentia during the early Paleozoic.The Siberian cratonal succession includes Archean basement, Ordovician shallow-water siliciclastic rocks, and Upper Silurian–Devonian evaporites, none of which have counterparts in the Alaskan successions, and contains only a few of the Laurentian conodonts that occur in Alaska. Thus we conclude that the lower Paleozoic platform successions of northern and central Alaska were not part of the Siberian craton during their deposition, but may have formed on a crustal fragment rifted away from Siberia during the Late Proterozoic. The Alaskan strata have more similarities to coeval rocks in some peri-Siberian terranes of northeastern Russia (Kotelny, Chukotka, and Omulevka). Lithologic ties between northern Alaska, the Farewell terrane, and the peri-Siberian terranes diminish after the Middle Devonian, but Siberian afµnities in northern and central Alaskan biotas persist into the late Paleozoic.

  20. Movements of a polar bear from northern Alaska to northern Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    1995-01-01

    Using satellite telemetry, we monitored the movements of an adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as she traveled from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast to northern Greenland. She is the first polar bear known to depart the Beaufort Sea region for an extended period, and the first polar bear known to move between Alaska and Greenland. This bear traveled for four months across the polar basin and came within 2 degrees of the North Pole. During the first year following her capture, she traveled 5256 km. Evidence to suggest her use of maternity dens in northern Alaska and in northern Greenland demonstrates the potential for genetic exchange between two widely separate populations of polar bears. The long life spans of polar bears and the rarity of their long-range movements means the significance of interpopulation movement can be assessed after long-term monitoring of individuals.

  1. Seasonal and interannual variations in boreal Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using atmospheric measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Dinardo, S. J.; Miller, J. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; Luus, K. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Tans, P. P.; Henderson, J.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Lin, J. C.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are expected to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate in the coming decades. Because the daytime lower atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of CO2 and CH4 mole fractions is a promising method for the detection of change throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use greenhouse gas measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability over several years. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PVPRM), to infer fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated mole fractions agree remarkably well with tower observations, indicating that the model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are largely correct. CO2 flux signals at the tower are larger than predicted by the model, however, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by the model. Using the same WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are lower than those estimated by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska, with emissions persisting during some wintertime periods, augmenting those observed during the summer and fall. The presence of significant fall and winter CO2 and CH4 fluxes underscores the need for year-round in situ

  2. Random and site-specific mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator provides insight into Fur structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; Benoit, Stéphane L; Besold, Angelique N; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J; Michel, Sarah L J; Maynard, Ernest L; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wild-type (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3) respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in manganese-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2 and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1-0490 TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in Alaskan Natives 5b. GRANT NUMBER...to pol ychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hy pothesis is that increased exposure to t

  4. Oil production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: the technology and the Alaskan oil context

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.M.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of issues focusing on the oil-field technology being used to develop the Alaskan North Slope's oil resources and the likely configuration of that technology as it might be applied in the future to the coastal plain and the prospects for future North Slope oil production, especially the likelihood that the flow of oil through the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System will suffer a serious decline during the next decade.

  5. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  6. Airborne measurements of gases and particles from an Alaskan wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, J. D.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Ward, Darold E.

    1993-08-01

    Airborne measurements of several gaseous and particulate chemical species were obtained in the emissions from a wildfire that burned in an old black spruce forest in Alaska during the summer of 1990. The relative proportions of most of the measured plume constituents are consistent with ground-based and airborne measurements in the plumes of several other biomass fires, and with laboratory measurements. Possible exceptions include the mean fine-particle emission factor, which was about 3 times larger than predicted from a regression relation based on measurements of the smoke from several prescribed biomass fires, and the mean CH4/CO molar emission ratio which was at the low end of a range of values measured for other biomass fires. Measurements of water-soluble particulate ions in the smoke plume from the Alaskan wildfire indicate that acids formed from the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen were partially neutralized inside cloud droplets by NH3 absorbed from the plume.

  7. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  8. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  9. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  10. Biocorrosive thermophilic microbial communities in Alaskan North Slope oil facilities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Gieg, Lisa M; Parisi, Victoria A; Tanner, Ralph S; Tringe, Susannah Green; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M

    2009-10-15

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptide- and amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely reinjected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and can provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  11. The interaction of mental illness, criminal behavior and culture: native Alaskan mentally ill criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Inui, T S

    1986-06-01

    The rapid changes experienced by non-Western ethnic groups as they become "acculturated" to Western life-styles are frequently associated with disintegration of the traditional cultures and psychosocial dysfunction of the groups' members. How culture changes lead to maladaptation remains a mystery. As a first step in clarifying this relationship, this paper proposes a method for analyzing the interaction of cultural change and psychosocial maladjustment. It uses Native Alaskans as a paradigmatic example of a group that is undergoing rapid changes and describes in detail a maladjusted subgroup of Native Alaskans--mentally ill criminal offenders. It compares 567 Native Alaskan criminal offenders who were referred to mental health professionals (from 1977 thru 1981) to 939 White Alaskan offenders. We find that alcohol abuse, the dominant social problem for Native Alaskans, is not clearly associated with the degree of sociocultural change. Residence in larger communities and higher educational achievement are associated with greater psychosocial maladjustment. The region of residence (i.e., Native Corporation) has a stronger influence on the rate and type of maladjustment than the ethnic group (i.e., Eskimo, Indian, or Aleut) or the "ethnic density" of the community of residence (i.e., the proportion of Native Alaskans in the population). We emphasize the importance of using such quantitative findings to focus the questions that should be addressed by ethnographic research.

  12. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Lopez, Carlos A; Hu, Han; Xia, Yu; Freedman, David S; Reddington, Alexander P; Daaboul, George G; Unlü, M Selim; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2014-01-01

    The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  13. Effect of the amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain of the Fur regulator on production of pyoverdine.

    PubMed

    Valešová, Renáta; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Stěpánek, Václav; Babiak, Peter; Kyslík, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator gene (fur), its promoter region and Fur box of pvdS gene involved in siderophore-mediated iron uptake system were sequenced in the parent strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and in the fur mutant FPA121 derived from the strain PAO1. We identified the gene fur 179 bearing a novel, single-point mutation that changed the amino acid residue Gln60Pro in the DNA-binding domain of the Fur protein. The synthesis of pyoverdine was studied in cultures of the strains PAO1 and FPA121 grown in iron-deplete and iron-replete (60 μmol/L FeIII) medium. The amino acid replacement in the regulatory Fur protein is responsible for the overproduction of pyoverdine in iron-deplete and iron-replete medium. No mutation was identified in the Fur box of the gene pvdS.

  14. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  15. The Regulatory Role of Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) during Anaerobic Respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system. PMID:24124499

  16. Sleeping on animal fur is related to asthma outcomes in later childhood.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina; Standl, Marie; Lehmann, Irina; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Animal furs might represent a "proxy" for high and diverse microbial exposures within a critical time window of immune development. We assessed whether sleeping on animal fur shortly after birth is associated with asthma and atopy up to the age of 10 years. LISAplus participants (n=2441) from Munich and Leipzig, Germany, were included in the analysis. Animal fur exposure, cofactors and health outcomes were obtained periodically up to 10 years of age by parental questionnaires. Information on specific IgE to aeroallergens was available at 10 years. Cytokine-producing peripheral T-cells were assessed in a subgroup of children at 2 and 3 years. Confounder-adjusted associations were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Sleeping on animal fur was very common (55%). In adjusted logistic regression analyses, sleeping on animal fur was inversely associated with recurrent early wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93) and current asthma at 6 years (adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1.01). Furthermore, sleeping on animal fur during the first 3 months of life was significantly associated with a persistently stimulated interferon-γ response until the age of 3 years. Animal fur could be an effective measure of creating environments associated with higher microbial exposure.

  17. Adrenal activity and anxiety-like behavior in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Marina F; Monfort, Steven L; Busso, Juan Manuel; Carlini, Valeria P; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-05-01

    Due to its complexity, in combination with a lack of scientific reports, fur-chewing became one of the most challenging behavioral problems common to captive chinchillas. In the last years, the hypothesis that fur-chewing is an abnormal repetitive behavior and that stress plays a role in its development and performance has arisen. Here, we investigated whether a relationship existed between the expression and intensity of fur-chewing behavior, elevated urinary cortisol excretion and anxiety-related behaviors. Specifically, we evaluated the following parameters in behaviorally normal and fur-chewing animals of both sexes: (1) mean concentrations of urinary cortisol metabolites and (2) anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus-maze test. Urinary cortisol metabolites were higher only in females that expressed the most severe form of the fur-chewing behavior (P≤0.05). Likewise, only fur-chewing females exhibited increased (P≤0.05) anxiety-like behaviors associated with the elevated plus-maze test. Overall, these data provided additional evidence to support the concept that fur-chewing is a manifestation of physiological stress in chinchilla, and that a female sex bias exists in the development of this abnormal behavior.

  18. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  19. fur (-) mutation increases the survival time of Escherichia coli under photooxidative stress in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Darcan, C; Aydin, Ebru

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the survival of the wild type Escherichia coli (QC771) and fur- mutant strain (QC1732) under photooxidative stress in different water sources. The survival of fur- mutant and wild type E. coli was seen as a significant decrease in the visible light samples in the presence of methylene blue (MB). The fur-E. coli strain lived longer than the wild type E. coli strain on exposure to MB and visible light, which generates singlet oxygen, in both lake water (48-h) and pure water (16-h). It is interesting to note that the survival of both wild type and the fur- mutant strain was more protected at 24 °C than at other temperatures. The Fur protein does not have any relation to the entry of E. coli into the viable but nonculturable state (VBNC) under photooxidative stress. This is the first study which shows that fur- mutation increases the resistance of E. coli to photooxidative stress in aquatic environments, and the Fur protein does not have any relation to the entry of E. coli into the VBNC state.

  20. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  1. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fur Regulon▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lydgia A.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Day, Michael W.; Zaitshik, Jeremy B.; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure survival in the host, bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire the essential element iron. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ferric uptake regulator Fur regulates metabolism through transcriptional control of iron-responsive genes by binding conserved Fur box (FB) sequences in promoters during iron-replete growth. Our previous studies showed that Fur also controls the transcription of secondary regulators that may, in turn, control pathways important to pathogenesis, indicating an indirect role for Fur in controlling these downstream genes. To better define the iron-regulated cascade of transcriptional control, we combined three global strategies—temporal transcriptome analysis, genomewide in silico FB prediction, and Fur titration assays (FURTA)—to detect genomic regions able to bind Fur in vivo. The majority of the 300 iron-repressed genes were predicted to be of unknown function, followed by genes involved in iron metabolism, cell communication, and intermediary metabolism. The 107 iron-induced genes encoded hypothetical proteins or energy metabolism functions. We found 28 predicted FBs in FURTA-positive clones in the promoters and within the open reading frames of iron-repressed genes. We found lower levels of conservation at critical thymidine residues involved in Fur binding in the FB sequence logos of FURTA-positive clones with intragenic FBs than in the sequence logos generated from FURTA-positive promoter regions. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies, intragenic FBs bound Fur with a lower affinity than intergenic FBs. Our findings further indicate that transcription under iron stress is indirectly controlled by Fur through 12 potential secondary regulators. PMID:19854902

  2. Interferometric detection of freeze-thaw displacements of Alaskan permafrost using ERS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Charles L.; Gabriel, Andrew K.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of making large scale (50 km) measurements of motions of the earth's surface with high resolution (10 m) and very high accuracy (1 cm) from multipass SAR interferometry was established in 1989. Other experiments have confirmed the viability and usefulness of the method. Work is underway in various groups to measure displacements from volcanic activity, seismic events, glacier motion, and in the present study, freeze-thaw cycles in Alaskan permafrost. The ground is known to move significantly in these cycles, and provided that freezing does not cause image decorrelation, it should be possible to measure both ground swelling and subsidence. The authors have obtained data from multiple passes of ERS-1 over the Toolik Lake region of northern Alaska of suitable quality for interferometry. The data are processed into images, and single interferograms are formed in the usual manner. Phase unwrapping is performed, and the multipass baselines are estimated from the images using both orbit ephemerides and scene tie points. The phases are scaled by the baseline ratio, and a double-difference interferogram (DDI) is formed. It is found that there is a residual 'saddle-shape' phase error across the image, which is postulated to be caused by a small divergence (10(exp -2) deg.) in the orbits. A simulation of a DDI from divergent orbits confirms the shape and magnitude of the error. A two-dimensional least squares fit to the error is performed, which is used to correct the DDI. The final, corrected DDI shows significant phase (altitude) changes over the period of the observation.

  3. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat

  4. Recovery of plant biomass and soil N cycling in Alaskan tundra following an unusual fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret-Harte, M. S.; Mack, M. C.; Huebner, D. C.; Johnston, M.; Shaver, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate warming is likely to increase the frequency of disturbances in the Arctic. The Anaktuvuk River fire of 2007 burned 1039 km2 of northern Alaskan tundra; this was unprecedented for this vegetation, which is clonal, slow-growing, and long-lived. We harvested plant biomass and soils from severely and moderately burned areas and controls in 2011 to assess recovery of plant productivity and soil N cycling four years after the fire. Biomass of vascular plants had recovered to nearly control levels in moderately burned areas, due primarily to resprouting by graminoids, particularly Eriophorum vaginatum. Graminoid biomass was actually greater in moderately burned tundra than in unburned tundra. Deciduous shrub and evergreen shrub biomass in moderately burned tundra was approximately half that seen in unburned tundra, but non-vascular plant biomass was much less, so that total aboveground biomass in moderately burned tundra had not returned to control levels. Severely burned tundra had less of all components of the community than in moderately burned tundra, except that there was higher biomass of non-vascular plants, due to colonization by fire-following liverworts and mosses. Productivity of vascular plants was similar in unburned and severely burned tundra plots, and higher in moderately burned plots, due in part to higher soil N availability. Recovery of plant biomass was largely due to resprouting of species that survived the fire, though numerous seedlings were seen. Biomass of vascular plants has recovered rapidly in the moderately burned sites, while severely burned sites and nonvascular plants are recovering more slowly, but the relative abundance of different species differs from unburned tundra. The relationship between spectral indices (NDVI, EVI-2) collected at the plot level and either biomass or NPP varied with burn category, which may complicate assessments of NPP by remote sensing following fire.

  5. Vertical profiles of trapped greenhouse gases in Alaskan permafrost active layers before the spring thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Eunji; Yang, Ji-woong; Kim, Yongwon; Ahn, Jinho

    2015-04-01

    Seasonally frozen ground over permafrost is important in controlling annual greenhouse gas exchange between permafrost and atmosphere. Soil microbes decompose soil carbon and generate carbon dioxide and methane when they become activated. However, the actual greenhouse gas emission follows various efflux pathways. For example, seasonal freezing of the top soil layers can either restrain or press the gas emission from deeper layers. It has been reported that abrupt release of methane during spring is attributable to the emission of trapped gases that had failed to be released instantly after formation (1, 2). In order to examine the seasonally trapped greenhouse gases, we drilled five Alaskan permafrost cores before spring thaw; one from coastal tundra, two from typical boreal forests, one from area where fire occurred, and one from peat accumulated sites. Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were obtained with 5-10 cm depth intervals. We found methane peaks from two cores, indicating inhibition of methane efflux. We also analyzed organic carbon, nitrogen and water contents and compared them with the greenhouse gas profiles. We are continuing analysis for the soil temperature profiles of the sampling boreholes because the detailed temperature information might be related to microbial activity, and can be used as indirect indicators of soil water freezing and latent heat influences at some active layer depth (zero curtain effects). All the high-resolution analyses for subsurface environments may help to improve understanding greenhouse gas emission from permafrost regions. 1. Mastepanov M, et al. (2008) Large tundra methane burst during onset of freezing. Nature 456(7222):628-630. 2. Song C, et al. (2012) Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region. Environmental Research Letters 7(3):034009.

  6. Encephalitozoonosis in 2 South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) Pups

    PubMed Central

    Seguel, M.; Howerth, E. W.; Ritter, J.; Paredes, E.; Colegrove, K.; Gottdenker, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral and disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in 2 free-ranging South American fur seal pups found dead at Guafo Island (43°33′S 74°49′W) in southern Chile. In the brain, lesions were characterized by random foci of necrosis with large numbers of macrophages containing numerous microsporidial organisms within parasitophorous vacuoles. In addition, occasional histiocytes loaded with numerous mature and immature microsporidia spores consistent with Encephalitozoon sp were observed in pulmonary alveolar septa, splenic red pulp, glomerular capillaries, and proximal renal tubules by Gram and immunohistochemical stains. To our knowledge, microsporidial infection in a marine mammal species has not been previously reported. PMID:25248519

  7. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  8. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade.

    PubMed

    Pepperell, Caitlin S; Granka, Julie M; Alexander, David C; Behr, Marcel A; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Jamieson, Frances B; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-04-19

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6(Quebec) genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710-1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate.

  9. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin S.; Granka, Julie M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Jamieson, Frances B.; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6Quebec genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710–1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate. PMID:21464295

  10. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  11. Volcano-climate interactions during the PETM and U-Pb dating from the Fur Formation, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan; Augland, Lars; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Willumsen, Pi

    2016-04-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~56 Ma is one of the most extreme global warming events in Earth's history. Vast quantities of CO2 and CH4 were released to the atmosphere, causing a rapid (within 20,000 years) 5-6 °C warming that persisted for ~170,000 years. The PETM occurred during an abnormally warm period in Earth history, and was followed by other hyperthermal events later in the Eocene. The PETM also coincided with the second and major pulse of magmatism from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) during the break-up of Laurentia and Eurasia at 54-56 Ma. Evidence of explosive volcanism is prevalent at Fur, an island in northern Denmark, where over 180 distinct >1 cm thick ash horizons are preserved in a shallow marine succession (numbered from #-39 to #+140). These ash layers are believed to have originated from volcanic centres in east Greenland and western UK, which indicates that that they were formed during very large volcanic eruptions. Here we present the results of two key sections of the Fur Formation: a beach section at Stolleklint that includes sediment deposited syn-PETM, and a quarry section at Jenshøj that encompasses post-PETM sediments. A detailed chemostratigraphic log of δ13C (TOC) and δ15N values through the section suggests that there may be part of sequence missing, either through glaciotectonism or a depositional hiatus. The δ13C values around ash #-33 are typical of the PETM negative carbon isotope excursion (-31 to -32 ‰), yet are back to background values of ~-26 ‰ just four metres up section. The quarry section around ash #+19 displays further variations in δ13C values, suggesting a coincidence with one of the later Eocene hyperthermal events. High precision U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from ash layer #+19 conforms to a post-PETM depositional age, giving a mean deposition rate of approximately ~5 cm kyr-1. The correlation between the largest ash layers (#-33 and #+19) and the largest perturbations to

  12. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XS60 Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of... accessible. Do not submit Confidential Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected...

  13. Fur regulation of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and iron-acquisition systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Chi, Chia; Lin, Jing-Ciao; Chen, Yeh; Peng, Hwei-Ling

    2011-02-01

    The ferric uptake regulator Fur has been reported to repress the expression of rmpA, a regulatory gene for the mucoid phenotype, leading to decreased capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43. Here, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that Fur also repressed the expression of the CPS regulatory genes rmpA2 and rcsA. Interestingly, deletion of rmpA or rcsA but not rmpA2 from the Δfur strain was able to suppress the deletion effect of Fur. The availability of extracellular iron affected the amount of CPS, suggesting that Fur regulates CPS biosynthesis in an Fe(II)-dependent manner. Increased production of siderophores was observed in the Δfur strain, suggesting that uptake of extracellular iron in K. pneumoniae is regulated by Fur. Fur titration assays and qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that at least six of the eight putative iron-acquisition systems, identified by a blast search in the contig database of K. pneumoniae CG43, were directly repressed by Fur. We conclude that Fur has a dual role in the regulation of CPS biosynthesis and iron acquisition in K. pneumoniae.

  14. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  15. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous keratopathy was not identified antemortem.An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore,appropriate diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful.Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized.Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with bilateral hypermature resorbed cataracts and retinal detachments with rosette formation.

  16. Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Brian F.

    1979-01-01

    Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

  17. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nation. Colonies, possessions or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country shall be... “country of origin.” Furs taken outside such territorial waters, or on the high seas, shall have as...

  18. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nation. Colonies, possessions or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country shall be... “country of origin.” Furs taken outside such territorial waters, or on the high seas, shall have as...

  19. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nation. Colonies, possessions or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country shall be... “country of origin.” Furs taken outside such territorial waters, or on the high seas, shall have as...

  20. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  1. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    PubMed

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.

  2. Use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions in the manufacture of fur materials.

    PubMed

    Danylkovych, Anatoliy G; Lishchuk, Viktor I; Romaniuk, Oksana O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of characteristics of electrochemically activated aqueous processing mediums in the treatment of fur skins with different contents of fatty substances was investigated. The use of electroactive water, namely anolytes and catholytes, forgoing antiseptics or surface-active materials, helped to restore the hydration of fur skins and to remove from them soluble proteins, carbohydrates and fatty substances. The activating effect of anolyte and catholyte in solutions of water on the processes of treating raw furs is explained by their special physical and chemical properties, namely the presence of free radicals, ions and molecules of water which easily penetrate cells' membranes and into the structure of non-collagen components and microfiber structure of dermic collagen. The stage of lengthy acid and salt treatment is excluded from the technical treatment as a result of using electroactivated water with high oxidizing power. A low-cost technology of processing different kinds of fur with the use of electroactivated water provides for substantial economy of water and chemical reagents, a two to threefold acceleration of the soaking and tanning processes and creation of highly elastic fur materials with a specified set of physical and chemical properties. At the same time the technology of preparatory processes of fur treatment excludes the use of such toxic antiseptics as formalin and sodium silicofluoride, which gives grounds to regard it as ecologically safe.

  3. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

  4. Two flysch belts having distinctly different provenance suggest no stratigraphic link between the Wrangellia composite terrane and the paleo-Alaskan margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hults, Chad P.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Donelick, Raymond A.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The provenance of Jurassic to Cretaceous flysch along the northern boundary of the allochthonous Wrangellia composite terrane, exposed from the Lake Clark region of southwest Alaska to the Nutzotin Mountains in eastern Alaska, suggests that the flysch can be divided into two belts having different sources. On the north, the Kahiltna flysch and Kuskokwim Group overlie and were derived from the Farwell and Yukon-Tanana terranes, as well as smaller related terranes that were part of the paleo-Alaskan margin. Paleocurrent indicators for these two units suggest that they derived sediment from the north and west. Sandstones are predominantly lithic wacke that contain abundant quartz grains, lithic rock fragments, and detrital mica, which suggest that these rocks were derived from recycled orogen and arc sources. Conglomerates contain limestone clasts that have fossils matching terranes that made up the paleo-Alaskan margin. In contrast, flysch units on the south overlie and were derived from the Wrangellia composite terrane. Paleocurrent indicators for these units suggest that they derived sediment from the south. Sandstones are predominantly feldspathic wackes that contain abundant plagioclase grains and volcanic rock fragments, which suggest these rocks were derived from an arc. Clast compositions in conglomerate south of the boundary match rock types of the Wrangellia composite terrane. The distributions of detrital zircon ages also differentiate the flysch units. Flysch units on the north average 54% Mesozoic, 14% Paleozoic, and 32% Precambrian detrital zircons, reflecting derivation from the older Yukon-Tanana, Farewell, and other terranes that made up the paleo-Alaskan margin. In comparison, flysch units on the south average 94% Mesozoic, 1% Paleozoic, and 5% Precambrian zircons, which are consistent with derivation from the Mesozoic oceanic magmatic arc rocks in the Wrangellia composite terrane. In particular, the flysch units on the south contain a large

  5. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  11. Single asparagine to arginine mutation allows PerR to switch from PerR box to fur box.

    PubMed

    Caux-Thang, Christelle; Parent, Aubérie; Sethu, Ramakrishnan; Maïga, Arhamatoulaye; Blondin, Geneviève; Latour, Jean-Marc; Duarte, Victor

    2015-03-20

    Fur family proteins, ubiquitous in prokaryotes, play a pivotal role in microbial survival and virulence in most pathogens. Metalloregulators, such as Fur and PerR, regulate the transcription of genes connected to iron homeostasis and response to oxidative stress, respectively. In Bacillus subtilis, Fur and PerR bind with high affinity to DNA sequences differing at only two nucleotides. In addition to these differences in the PerR and Fur boxes, we identify in this study a residue located on the DNA binding motif of the Fur protein that is critical to discrimination between the two close DNA sequences. Interestingly, when this residue is introduced into PerR, it lowers the affinity of PerR for its own DNA target but confers to the protein the ability to interact strongly with the Fur DNA binding sequence. The present data show how two closely related proteins have distinct biological properties just by changing a single residue.

  12. Fur Is Involved in Manganese-Dependent Regulation of mntA (sitA) Expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Platero, Raúl; Peixoto, Lucía; O'Brian, Mark R.; Fabiano, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Fur is a transcriptional regulator involved in iron-dependent control of gene expression in many bacteria. In this work we analyzed the phenotype of a fur mutant in Sinorhizobium meliloti, an α-proteobacterium that fixes N2 in association with host plants. We demonstrated that some functions involved in high-affinity iron transport, siderophore production, and iron-regulated outer membrane protein expression respond to iron in a Fur-independent manner. However, manganese-dependent expression of the MntABCD manganese transport system was lost in a fur strain as discerned by constitutive expression of a mntA::gfp fusion reporter gene in the mutant. Thus, Fur directly or indirectly regulates a manganese-dependent function. The data indicate a novel function for a bacterial Fur protein in mediating manganese-dependent regulation of gene expression. PMID:15240318

  13. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most concentrated plumes. Ice features are most clearly seen on MSS 7 imagery; fracture patterns and the movement of specific floes can be used to map circulation in the winter when runoff is restricted, if appropriate allowance is made for wind influence. Current patterns interpreted from satellite data are only two-dimensional, but since most biological activity and pollution are concentrated near the surface, the information developed can be of direct utility. Details of Alaska inshore circulation of importance to coastal engineering, navigation, pollution studies, and fisheries development have been clarified with satellite data. ERTS has made possible the analysis of circulation in many parts of the Alaskan coast.

  14. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report for research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.W.; Mitchell, G.A.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1981-10-28

    Research on revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils and related topics was conducted at three mine locations in 1980 and 1981. One of the locations was at an active commercial mine, another at an abandoned mine, and the third at a test pit in a coal field that appears on the verge of development. The research included a number of plantings to test the adaptability of plant materials at various sites, time-of-planting and planting method trials, tests to determine fertilizer needs and plant responses to specific elements, numerous soil samplings to characterize minesoil materials and relate soil conditions to apparent performance of reclamation plantings that have been conducted at one mine over a period of nine years, base studies assessing faunal populations and their representation on replanted mine spoils, and studies of nutrient quality of native vegetation and reclamation plantings. This report will be presented in three sections. The first section will deal with the fertility and minesoil characterization studies, the second with the plant material studies, and the third with the faunal and plant quality studies.

  15. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  16. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  17. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  18. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2003-11-13

    About 70% of North American large mammal species were lost at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. The causes of this extinction--the role of humans versus that of climate--have been the focus of much controversy. Horses have figured centrally in that debate, because equid species dominated North American late Pleistocene faunas in terms of abundance, geographical distribution, and species variety, yet none survived into the Holocene epoch. The timing of these equid regional extinctions and accompanying evolutionary changes are poorly known. In an attempt to document better the decline and demise of two Alaskan Pleistocene equids, I selected a large number of fossils from the latest Pleistocene for radiocarbon dating. Here I show that horses underwent a rapid decline in body size before extinction, and I propose that the size decline and subsequent regional extinction at 12,500 radiocarbon years before present are best attributed to a coincident climatic/vegetational shift. The present data do not support human overkill and several other proposed extinction causes, and also show that large mammal species responded somewhat individualistically to climate changes at the end of the Pleistocene.

  19. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models (DEMs), we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Our ice elevation changes reveal that glacier dynamics (surges, phase of the tidewater cycle, etc...) have a profound effect on the wastage of Alaska glaciers. 3D satellite view of Columbia glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. (Copyright CNES 2007, Distribution Spot Image, processing E. Berthier CNRS)

  20. Stable lead isotope ratios in Alaskan arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturges, W. T.; Hopper, J. F.; Barrie, L. A.; Schnell, R. C.

    Aerosol samples collected at Barrow, Alaska, during February and March 1990 were found to have uniform stable lead isotope compositions. The mean 208Pb/ 207Pb ratio was 2.423±0.009 and the mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio was 1.161±0.014. The latter ratio is essentially the same as that obtained from an earlier study of aerosols at two Canadian stations in the High Arctic and is typical of, but not unique to, Eurasian sources of atmospheric lead. Further discriminating power was available in this study through the inclusion of 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios, which provided additional evidence that the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe are major contributors to atmospheric particulate lead in the Alaskan Arctic, accounting for around two-thirds of the particulate lead measured at Barrow. The remaining third of the lead is attributed to west European sources. There was no evidence for a substantial North American component, other than local contamination.

  1. Molecular characterization of a homolog of the ferric-uptake regulator, Fur, from the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    PubMed

    Barker, Ryan A; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A; Gärdes, Astrid; Carrano, Mary W; Carrano, Paul N; Gillian, Christopher; Carrano, Carl J

    2015-02-01

    Full length recombinant iron regulatory protein, Fur, has been isolated and characterized from the algal-associated marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Under nondenaturing conditions the Fur protein behaves on size exclusion chromatography as a dimer while it is monomeric under SDS PAGE conditions. ICP-MS and fluorescence quenching experiments show that Mb-Fur binds a single metal ion (Zn, Mn, or Co) per monomer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to probe the interaction of Mb-Fur with the purported Fur box in the promoter region upstream of the vibrioferrin biosynthetic operon. Interaction of Mb-Fur with a 100 bp DNA fragment containing the Fur box in the presence of 10 µM Mn, Co or Zn(II) resulted in decreased migration of DNA on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel. In the absence of the Fur protein or the metal, no interaction is seen. The presence of EDTA in the binding, loading or running buffers also abolished all activity demonstrating the importance of the metal in formation of the promoter-repressor complex. Based on a high degree of similarity between Mb-Fur and its homolog from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) whose X-ray structure is known we developed a structural model for the former which suggested that only one of the several metal binding sites found in other Fur's would be functional. This is consistent with the single metal binding stoichiometry we observed. Since the purported metal binding site was one that has been described as "structural" rather than "functional" in PA and yet the monometallic Mb-Fur retains DNA Fur box binding ability it reopens the question of which site is which, or if different species have adapted the sites for different purposes.

  2. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters - The role of the Alaskan Gyre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Scoy, Kim A.; Olson, Donald B.; Fine, Rana A.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrographic data, tritium data, and potential vorticity calculations suggest that although North Pacific Intermediate Water is formed in the northwest, the Alaskan Gyre might be an additional ventilation site. The proposed ventilation is quantified by a vertical column tritium inventory, which indicates an excess of 0.08 kg of tritium in the Alaskan Gyre. An evaluation of the energy stored in the water column and of wind and buoyancy forcing shows that during winter conditions enough energy can be pumped into the system to force 26.80 sigma(theta) to outcrop in the Alaskan Gyre. Model results suggest that relatively limited outcrops in time and space (tens of days and several hundred kilometers in diameter) can account for the excess tritium.

  3. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  4. Effect of sampling strategy on the detection of fur mites within a naturally infested colony of mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Rice, Kelly A; Wrighten, Roberta; Watson, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Fur mites are one of the most common ectoparasites of laboratory mice and traditionally are diagnosed through surveillance of individual colony animals. Although multiple diagnostic modalities exist, few recommendations suggest optimal testing methods, target colony populations, or sampling sites. We compared the fur pluck and sticky paper techniques for the diagnosis of Myocoptes musculinus in naturally infested immunocompetent mice and evaluated the effect of mouse age and sampling site on the efficacy of fur plucks. We found that the sticky paper technique was more likely to detect fur mites than were fur plucks. Housing mice individually increased the incidence of false-negative fur pluck tests, whereas sensitivity was equivalent for preweanling and adult mice. The ventral abdomen was the most likely single sampling location to detect evidence of any stage of Myocoptes musculinus, but fur mite eggs were overrepresented on the neck. We found that the surface temperature of the murine neck surface was warmer than was the rump and therefore may represent a unique microenvironment for fur mite egg development. Given our findings, we recommend that group-housed adult or preweanling mice should be selected for Myocoptes musculinus evaluation and that the ventral abdomen should be sampled. When possible, the postmortem sticky paper technique should be used rather than the antemortem fur pluck method.

  5. Fur-Regulated Iron Uptake System of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Influence on Pathogenesis and Immunogenicity in the Catfish Host

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry. PMID:22615248

  6. Hookworm Infection in South American Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus australis) Pups.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Muñoz, F; Navarrete, M J; Paredes, E; Howerth, E; Gottdenker, N

    2017-03-01

    Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343.3 intestinal hookworms and marked fibrinohemorrhagic peritonitis. In all pups that died as a consequence of hookworm infection, the intestinal villi were short, blunt, and fused, and there were variable numbers of free and intrahistiocytic gram-negative bacteria in submucosal hookworm feeding tracks, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, blood vessels, and liver sinusoids. Pups that died of causes unrelated to the hookworm infection (trauma) had hookworm feeding tracks confined to the apical portions of the mucosa, and moderate to marked catarrhal eosinophilic enteritis. The number of hookworms was negatively correlated with intestinal villous length and number of leukocytes in the intestine. Pups with hookworm peritoneal penetration had nematodes with little or no blood in the hookworm intestine, suggesting that lack of food for the nematode could be associated with peritoneal penetration. Findings suggest that the initial burden of larval infection, the level of the host tissue response, or a combination determine the number of nematodes in the intestine, the severity of hookworm tissue damage, and pup mortality.

  7. Caroline Furness and the Evolution of Visual Variable Star Observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars by Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, was published in October 2015. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars as well as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness’s work is therefore a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. Furness’s book and its reception in the scientific community are analyzed, and parallels with (and departures from) the current advice given by the AAVSO to beginning variable star observers today are highlighted.

  8. Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongge; Gosset, Guillermo; Barabote, Ravi; Gonzalez, Claudio S; Cuevas, William A; Saier, Milton H

    2005-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) controls expression of the iron regulon in response to iron availability while the cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) regulates expression of the carbon regulon in response to carbon availability. We here identify genes subject to significant changes in expression level in response to the loss of both Fur and Crp. Many iron transport genes and several carbon metabolic genes are subject to dual control, being repressed by the loss of Crp and activated by the loss of Fur. However, the sodB gene, encoding superoxide dismutase, and the aceBAK operon, encoding the glyoxalate shunt enzymes, show the opposite responses, being activated by the loss of Crp and repressed by the loss of Fur. Several other genes including the sdhA-D, sucA-D, and fumA genes, encoding key constituents of the Krebs cycle, proved to be repressed by the loss of both transcription factors. Finally, the loss of both Crp and Fur activated a heterogeneous group of genes under sigmaS control encoding, for example, the cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, Cfa, the glycogen synthesis protein, GlgS, the 30S ribosomal protein, S22, and the mechanosensitive channel protein, YggB. Many genes appeared to be regulated by the two transcription factors in an apparently additive fashion, but apparent positive or negative cooperativity characterized several putative Crp/Fur interactions. Relevant published data were evaluated, putative Crp and Fur binding sites were identified, and representative results were confirmed by real-time PCR. Molecular explanations for some, but not all, of these effects are provided.

  9. Response of plant community structure and primary productivity to experimental drought and flooding in an Alaskan fen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, A.C.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; McGuire, Anthony; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2014-01-01

    Northern peatlands represent a long-term net sink for atmospheric CO2, but these ecosystems can shift from net carbon (C) sinks to sources based on changing climate and environmental conditions. In particular, changes in water availability associated with climate control peatland vegetation and carbon uptake processes. We examined the influence of changing hydrology on plant species abundance and ecosystem primary production in an Alaskan fen by manipulating the water table in field treatments to mimic either sustained flooding (raised water table) or drought (lowered water table) conditions for 6 years. We found that water table treatments altered plant species abundance by increasing sedge and grass cover in the raised water table treatment and reducing moss cover while increasing vascular green area in the lowered water table treatment. Gross primary productivity was lower in the lowered treatment than in the other plots, although there were no differences in total biomass or vascular net primary productivity among the treatments. Overall, our results indicate that vegetation abundance was more sensitive to variation in water table than total biomass and vascular biomass accrual. Finally, in our experimental peatland, drought had stronger consequences for change in vegetation abundance and ecosystem function than sustained flooding.

  10. Using Tree Rings, CO2 Fluxes, and Long-Term Measurements to Understand Carbon Dynamics in an Alaskan Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Anderson, C.; Crump, A.; Stegen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Decadal and centennial processes are usually poorly constrained by data, but many opportunities exist to combine disparate data sources such as tree rings, greenhouse gas fluxes from the soil to atmosphere, and long-term tree inventories. At high northern latitudes, permafrost (and its current degradation across large scales) is presumed to exert a strong control on long-term ecosystem carbon uptake and storage. We integrate a variety of data from both Canada and Alaska, focusing on two years of observations across a permafrost gradient in a black spruce Alaskan watershed (the Caribou/Poker Creek Research Watershed ~50 km northeast of Fairbanks, AK, USA). Permafrost depth changes were strongly associated with changes in vegetation and leaf morphology, as well as soil greenhouse fluxes (0.1-2.0 μmol/m2/s, with strong spatial dependencies) and aboveground net primary production (60-550 gC/m2/yr). We use tree-ring data covering the last century to examine how tree response to climate variability changes with elevation and permafrost depth, both along small-scale transects and across the entire 104 km2 watershed. A weakness is that these results are from a single site and point in successional time; we quantify potential variability in this area using 16 years of observations from a Canadian boreal chronosequence. We emphasize that both short and long term observations and experiments, using multiple approaches, are necessary to constrain ecosystem carbon uptake and storage.

  11. Paleoecological implications of Alaskan terrestrial vertebrate fauna in latest Cretaceous time at high paleolatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, William A.; Gayle Nelms, L.

    1993-06-01

    The latest Cretaceous cool temperate environment of the Alaskan North Slope included dinosaurs (some species represented by both juveniles and adults) and mammals, all probably endothermic, and freshwater fish among its terrestrial vertebrate fauna. No traces have been found of amphibians or nondinosaurian reptiles, ectothermic vertebrates that are abundantly represented in approximately contemporaneous faunas of North American middle paleolatitudes. A geologically brief period of intense cold and darkness has been hypothesized as the primary cause of terminal Cretaceous extinctions. However, the extinction of the lineages of Alaskan dinosaurs and mammals, in contrast to the survival of most lineages of amphibians and nondinosaurian reptiles into the Tertiary, contradicts this hypothesis.

  12. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  13. Rock-forming metals and Pb in modern Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, Todd K.

    1993-01-01

    Metal concentrations in annual and subannual increments of snowpack from the accumulation zone of a south central Alaska glacier indicate that the deposition of Pb with and upon snow is decoupled from that of rock dusts. Rock dusts accumulate, apparently as dry deposition, on the topmost, exposed surfaces of snowpacks in spring and summer, whereas Pb does not. Pb concentration is elevated throughout the latest one third of an annual snowpack, whereas that of rock dusts is not. For whole-year snowpacks, there is a generally sympathetic relationship among concentration of Pb, concentration of rock dust, degree of dominance of rock dusts over ocean solutes, and ferromagnesian character of the rock dusts; however, the fractional abundance of Pb in whole year samples may decrease when rock dust masses become large and/or when rock dusts dominate most strongly over salts. The metal suite chosen to characterize rock dusts and to distinguish them from ocean solutes gives detailed information about rock type of dust source areas and about the nature of the degraded rock products that are taken up, transported, and deposited by the atmosphere. Rock dusts are present at concentrations of only about 300 nanograms (ng) of dust per gram of snow in the Alaskan snowpacks. Concentrations of Pb in the Alaska snow samples are moderate, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng Pb/g snow. This contrasts with larger Pb concentrations of 0.4 to 0.9 ng Pb/g snow in whole-year snowpack samples from the Sierra Nevada, California; with similar to smaller concentrations from north and south Greenland of about 0.04 ng Pb/g snow or less, and about 0.2 ng Pb/g snow or less, respectively, and with much smaller concentrations from Antarctica, now believed to range from a minimum of about 0.001 to a maximum of 0.005 (or 0.01) ng Pb/g snow.

  14. Contaminants in arctic snow collected over northwest Alaskan sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Leiker, T.J.; Hoffman, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfall from the 1995-1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cations and anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds were determined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, and PCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70-80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow was highly enriched in sulfates (69- 394 mg L-1), with high proportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination through long-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum, frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of total mercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavy metals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported over land areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and the high content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

  15. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  16. Aerial monitoring of marine waterfowl in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephen R; Noel, Lynn E; Gazey, William J; Hawkes, Virgil C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a monitoring protocol for marine waterfowl in the central Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The study provides an important case-study of how a long-term monitoring program may be affected by unanticipated human disturbances. Because of its overwhelming and widespread abundance, relatively sedentary behavior, ease in counting, and the extensive historical database, the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) was selected as the focal species. Two null hypotheses were formulated concerning potential changes in the numbers and distribution of long-tailed ducks in relation to disturbance in an industrial study area, compared to a reference study area located about 50 km to the east. A 9-year historical database (1977-1984, 1989) of long-tailed duck densities and other important data recorded during systematic aerial surveys was analyzed retrospectively using multiple regression techniques. The retrospective analyses determined which of several predictor variables recorded were significantly related to long-tailed duck density. Separate analyses were conducted for two periods: (1) the overall period when long-tailed ducks were present in the lagoon study areas, and (2) the shorter adult male molt period. The results of the two analyses indicated that 57% and 68%, respectively, of the total variation in long-tailed duck density during the two periods could be explained by variables recorded during the surveys. Predictor variables representing habitat, day of the year, time of day, amount of ice, and wave height recorded on-transect during surveys were most closely associated with long-tailed duck density. Measurement error during the surveys, and influences outside the study area such as nesting success in tundra habitats and mortality during migration and in over-wintering areas likely also had strong influences on the results, but these factors were not measurable in our study. Based on results of the retrospective analyses, a long

  17. Molecular characterization of a homolog of the ferric-uptake regulator, Fur, from the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ryan A.; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A.; Gärdes, Astrid; Carrano, Mary W.; Carrano, Paul N.; Gillian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full length recombinant iron regulatory protein, Fur, has been isolated and characterized from the algal-associated marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Under nondenaturing conditions the Fur protein behaves on size exclusion chromatography as a dimer while it is monomeric under SDS PAGE conditions. ICP-MS and fluorescence quenching experiments show that Mb-Fur binds a single metal ion (Zn, Mn, or Co) per monomer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to probe the interaction of Mb-Fur with the purported Fur box in the promoter region upstream of the vibrioferrin biosynthetic operon. Interaction of Mb-Fur with a 100 bp DNA fragment containing the Fur box in the presence of 10 μM Mn, Co or Zn(II) resulted in decreased migration of DNA on a 7.5 % polyacrylamide gel. In the absence of the Fur protein or the metal, no interaction is seen. The presence of EDTA in the binding, loading or running buffers also abolished all activity demonstrating the importance of the metal in formation of the promoter-repressor complex. Based on a high degree of similarity between Mb-Fur and its homolog from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) whose X-ray structure is known we developed a structural model for the former which suggested that only one of the several metal binding sites found in other Fur’s would be functional. This is consistent with the single metal binding stoichiometry we observed. Since the purported metal binding site was one that has been described as “structural” rather than “functional” in PA and yet the monometallic Mb-Fur retains DNA Fur box binding ability it reopens the question of which site is which, or if different species have adapted the sites for different purposes. PMID:25528647

  18. Fur homolog regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence under low-iron/heme conditions through a complex regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Ciuraszkiewicz, J; Smiga, M; Mackiewicz, P; Gmiterek, A; Bielecki, M; Olczak, M; Olczak, T

    2014-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key pathogen responsible for initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of iron and heme uptake that allow P. gingivalis to express virulence factors and survive in the hostile environment of the oral cavity, so we initiated characterization of a P. gingivalis Fur homolog (PgFur). Many Fur paralogs found in microbial genomes, including Bacteroidetes, confirm that Fur proteins have a tendency to be subjected to a sub- or even neofunctionalization process. PgFur revealed extremely high sequence divergence, which could be associated with its functional dissimilarity in comparison with other Fur homologs. A fur mutant strain constructed by insertional inactivation exhibited retarded growth during the early growth phase and a significantly lower tendency to form a homotypic biofilm on abiotic surfaces. The mutant also showed significantly weaker adherence and invasion to epithelial cells and macrophages. Transcripts of many differentially regulated genes identified in the fur mutant strain were annotated as hypothetical proteins, suggesting that PgFur can play a novel role in the regulation of gene expression. Inactivation of the fur gene resulted in decreased hmuY gene expression, increased expression of other hmu components and changes in the expression of genes encoding hemagglutinins and proteases (mainly gingipains), HtrA, some extracytoplasmic sigma factors and two-component systems. Our data suggest that PgFur can influence in vivo growth and virulence, at least in part by affecting iron/heme acquisition, allowing efficient infection through a complex regulatory network.

  19. The behavioural response of Australian fur seals to motor boat noise.

    PubMed

    Tripovich, Joy S; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P Y

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10'S, 146°18'E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64-70 dB) versus high (75-85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats.

  20. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998