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Sample records for alaskan oil pipeline

  1. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  2. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  3. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  4. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  6. A Report and Basic Proposal to Provide Alaskan Manpower Entry into the Pipeline and Related Construction Skills via Technical Training, Immediate and Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    To make policy makers and others more aware of possibilities for utilizing Alaskan manpower, information has been gathered on the manpower demand to construct the proposed 800 mile Alaska oil pipeline and its supporting system. The recruitment and training of chronically unemployed or underemployed workers (largely Eskimos and Indians) is being…

  7. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  8. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  9. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  10. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  11. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  12. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Biosynthesis from Crude Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six strains of Pseudomonas were tested for their abilities to synthesize poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) polymers from crude Pollock oil, a large volume byproduct of the Alaskan fishing industry. All six strains were found to produce PHA polymers from hydrolyzed Pollock oil with productivities (P; the...

  13. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.; Elashvili, I.; Valdes, J.J.; Kamely, D.; Chakrabarty, A.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30{degree}C and above.

  14. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Elashvili, I; Valdes, J J; Kamely, D; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above. PMID:1367420

  15. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Elashvili, I; Valdes, J J; Kamely, D; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above.

  16. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  17. Social Disruption and Psychological Stress in an Alaskan Fishing Community: The Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; And Others

    Technological accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 create man-made disaster situations that threaten community survival and the well-being and quality of life of community residents. This paper focuses on the social and psychological impact of the 1989 oil spill on Cordova, an isolated Alaskan community with high economic…

  18. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  19. Exxon Valdez oil spill: Fate and effects in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.G.; Butler, J.N.; Hughes, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia on April 26--28, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the transport and environmental effects, effects on fisheries and wildlife and remediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  1. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  2. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  3. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  4. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  5. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  6. 8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F. |

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils.

  8. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  9. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  10. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  11. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  12. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  13. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  14. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  15. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  16. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  17. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  18. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  19. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  20. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  1. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  2. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  3. Pipeline issues shape southern FSU oil, gas development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    To future production from southern republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU), construction and revitalization of pipelines are as important as the supply of capital. Export capacity will limit production and slow development activity in the region until new pipelines are in place. Plenty of pipeline proposals have come forward. The problem is politics, which for every proposal so far complicates routing or financing or both. Russia has made clear its intention to use pipeline route decisions to retain influence in the region. As a source of external pressure, it is not alone. Iran and Turkey also have made strong bids for the southern FSU`s oil and gas transport business. Diplomacy thus will say as much as commerce does about how transportation issues are settled and how quickly the southern republics move toward their potentials to produce oil and gas. The paper discusses possible routes and the problems with them, the most likely proposal, and future oil flows.

  4. Troll oil pipeline: Seabed surveying and pipeline routing in critical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Indreeide, A.; Nilsen, O.; Trodal, L.; Canu, M.; Baldascino, G.

    1996-12-01

    The 85 km long 16-in oil pipeline from the Troll Field to the Mongstad Refinery North of Bergen in Norway, including a nearshore/inshore section of some 30 km length which is characterized by a water depth down to 540 meters, complex and rocky seabed topography including extremely steep fjords walls. This inner section required a considerable amount of highly detailed and accurate surveying, in particular using remotely operated vehicles (ROV) to gather the required seabed documentation for pipeline routing engineering and construction. In particular a high precision in route definition was necessary, together with a common seabed reference system for engineering and construction in order to obtain a very accurate pipeline location within the actual narrow route corridor. This paper deals with the seabed surveying and documentation as well as the subsequent pipeline routing within the nearshore/inshore section of the pipeline route.

  5. Western European oil pipeline spills on land decline in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    European crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in 1992 had fewer incidents of oil spills than in 1991, spilled less in total volume, and recovered a larger portion of what was spilled than in any single year in the 5-year period beginning in 1988. Only seven incidents of oil spills from pipelines or related facilities occurred in 1992, compared with 14 in 1991 and an average of 12.9/year since 1971. Five spills were from pipelines; two from pump stations. Net loss of oil into the environment was 430 cu m (2,709 bbl) or barely 0.7 ppm of the total volume transported. Gross amount of spills totaled 804 cu m (5,065 bbl), least in the period 1988--92.

  6. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  7. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. PMID:17286169

  8. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  9. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  10. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  11. 78 FR 72878 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Filing, Indexing and Service by Oil Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... by Oil Pipelines, Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to eTariff Part 341 Type of Filing... the filing, indexing and service procedures used by oil pipelines.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective...: \\2\\ \\1\\ Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines, 143 FERC ] 61,137 (2013)...

  12. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  13. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  14. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-day... Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act. DATES: You must submit comments by... Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act. OMB Control Number: 1014-0012....

  15. Purification of Alaskan Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) Liver Oil Using Short Path Distillation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Alex C. M.; Miller, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand’s hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils. PMID:24858408

  16. Purification of Alaskan walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) liver oil using short path distillation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alex C M; Miller, Matthew R

    2014-05-22

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand's hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils.

  17. Troll Oil Pipeline: Current measurements and modelling. Data basis for pipeline free span design

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, P.E.; Moshagen, H.; Roeed, L.P.; Eidnes, G.; McClimans, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Troll Oil Pipeline -- TOR -- is a dedicated pipeline for transportation of oil from the Troll field to the onshore terminal at Mongstad on the west coast of Norway. When installed, TOR will be the first pipeline installed in a deep Norwegian fjord, namely Fensfjorden. The water depth ranges from about 250 m at the sill down to about 500 m at the deepest part. The maximum depth is 540 m and is located just inside of the sill. The entrance to the Fensfjord consists of a deep canyon in the Norwegian Trench leading into a sill just northwest of Holmengra. From the sill depth down to the maximum depth, the pipeline route follows a steep ravine through an area of rough and rocky sea bed. Current measurements have revealed higher current velocities than expected in this area. These currents were concluded to be due to heavy water occasionally overflowing the sill and into the fjord. In the present paper, the extensive measurement program, including 27 current meters in operation up tc 16 months, is described including aspects of the data analysis. In conjunction with the measurements, also laboratory and numerical modelling studies were performed and the results from these are presented. A comparison of measurements and model results are also presented.

  18. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line.

  19. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress. PMID:26543793

  20. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress.

  1. Production and pipeline transport of oil-water dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniani, E.; Celsi, A.; Ercolani, D.

    1997-07-01

    Oil-water dispersions are becoming increasingly important for their potential application in the economical exploitation of heavy-oil fields and as novel fuels to be utilized for gasification in industrial power plants and in small heating systems. Snamprogetti in co-operation with Agip and Eniricerche is involved in a research project, partially supported by the Holding Company ENI and Europen Union (Thermie project), for the developing of a new integrated process to produce heavy crude oil from the marginal fields located in the Adriatic Sea as oil-water dispersions. The process scheme provides the multiphase pipeline transportation of the oil in reservoir water dispersion (primary dispersion) from the platform to the onshore processing Oil Centre for oil production and for the preparation of a very stable dispersion of oil in fresh water (secondary dispersion) to be utilized for direct burning. To obtain the necessary information for the design of the production, transportation and processing systems Snamprogetti has equipped a pilot plant to perform dispersion preparations and characterizations, single phase and multiphase transportation tests. The present work provides experimental data relevant to pumping tests of primary and secondary dispersions showing a stable flow configuration for the secondary and a tendency to stratification for the primary in certain flow conditions. During multiphase pumping tests of primary dispersions a markedly non-newtonian behavior has been observed when strong segregation phenomena occur. A comparison with results obtained by one-phase and multiphase flow programs is also presented.

  2. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  3. Kuparuk pipeline system features unique river crossing structure

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    Oil is delivered to the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System (TAPS) by utilizing a unique support structure designed to cross a one mile wide area of the Kuparuk River. Arctic permafrost conditions require that the pipeline be entirely above ground. Consisting of a bent supported by 2 vertical supports and cross bracing designed to withstand 100-year flood conditions during spring breakup, the Kuparuk river crossing was initially planned to be buried but massive ice was encountered during core sampling.

  4. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Oil Gathering Pipeline Designed for Ugut Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Samigullin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the stress and strain state modeling of infield pipeline in Ugut oil field. The finite element models of the stress field distribution in the pipeline wall are presented in this paper. The attention is paid to the pipeline reliability under stress conditions induced by the internal pressure and external compressive or tensile loads.

  5. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, D. P.; Rybakov, E. A.; Gromakov, E. I.

    2015-04-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  6. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  7. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  8. Rapid hazard assessment of oil and gas pipeline based on the Shakemap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Hou, Benwei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The oil and gas pipeline is one of important lifeline systems. Based on the ground motion obtained by Shakemap, a method of rapid hazard evaluation for oil and gas pipelines is presented in this paper. The spatial distribution of PGA and PGV along the oil and gas pipeline could be obtained by Shakemap in about 30 minutes after the strong earthquake. It can be estimated whether or not the strain in pipeline caused by ground motion is larger than the allowable tension and compression strain of buried steel pipe. According to the density of population and the important level of pipeline, the possible consequences of the damage of oil and gas pipeline are classified. Considering the important level and the population density near the pipeline, the possible seismic disaster distribution along the total oil and gas pipeline is evaluated. The rapid hazard assessment of Nanjiang Gas Pipeline was realized with this method, which was affected by Pishan Ms 6.5 earthquake on July 3, 2015. The result provided the help for the oil and gas pipeline maintenance department to decide the emergency response after the earthquake.

  9. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy...

  10. 78 FR 32090 - Filing, Indexing, and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... tariffs in effect and applicable to shippers on a given day. Thus, an oil pipeline must post the currently... tariffs going into effect. This final rule does not change this requirement. Additionally, although... ICA oil pipeline tariffs that are in effect are in eTariff's electronic format. 65. The NPGA...

  11. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  12. A study of magnetic field annihilation and aurora-induced currents in a power transition line and in the Trans-Alaskan pipeline: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I.; Lee, L.C.

    1986-10-01

    Progress is reported for two research projects. The first research project is to learn how the magnetic field annihilation processes occur under magnetospheric, solar, and astrophysical conditions. The second project studies energy-related problems in the arctic regions which arise from auroral effects. These auroral effects include induced electrical current in powerline systems and the Trans-Alaska pipeline and the use of both man-made and natural electromagnetic waves in sounding permafrost, one of the most serious problems in extracting and transporting crude oil. 43 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Vertical magnetic field and its analytic signal applicability in oil field underground pipeline detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Dejun; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Yi; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose using the vertical component of the magnetic anomaly (vertical magnetic field (VMF)) and its analytic signal (AS) to detect oil field underground pipelines. The connection between two peaks of the VMF curves or the AS curves was used to calculate the pipeline azimuth, and the peak coordinates of the AS were used to determine the horizontal position of pipelines. Then, the effect of the pipeline magnetization direction and pipeline buried depth on the horizontal locating error was analyzed. Three typical pipeline models were used for verifying this method. Results indicate that this method can be used to precisely calculate the stretch direction of the pipeline and effectively improve the identification capability in detecting parallel pipelines. The horizontal position of the pipeline axis can be accurately located by the peak of the AS and the locating error increases with the increase in pipeline buried depth, but it is not affected by pipeline outer diameter, thickness, susceptibility. The instrument design and the VMF measurement strategy are realistic and applicable. The VMF detection with its AS provides a new effective method for horizontal locating and direction calculating of oil field underground pipelines.

  14. Mathematical modeling of wax deposition in oil pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Svendsen, J.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Deposition of wax on the wall of oil pipelines is often regarded as a problem since the tube diameter is reduced. Consequently, more power is needed to force the same amount of oil through the system. A mathematical model for quantitative prediction of wax deposition for each hydrocarbon component has been developed. Each component is characterized by weight fraction, heat of fusion, and melting point temperature. A model explains how a phase transition in the flow from liquid oil to waxy crystals may create a local density gradient and mass flux, which depends on the local temperature gradient. The model predicts that wax deposition can be considerably reduced even when the wall temperature is below the wax appearance point, provided the liquid/solid phase transition, expressed by the change in moles of liquid with temperature, is small at the wall temperature. Deposition as function of time has been obtained as a solution of differential equations derived from the principles of mass and energy conservation and the laws of diffusion.

  15. Involvement of thermophilic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    PubMed

    Davidova, Irene A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, B Monica; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-07-01

    Two thermophilic archaea, strain PK and strain MG, were isolated from a culture enriched at 80°C from the inner surface material of a hot oil pipeline. Strain PK could ferment complex organic nitrogen sources (e.g. yeast extract, peptone, tryptone) and was able to reduce elemental sulfur (S°), Fe(3+) and Mn(4+) . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organism belonged to the order Thermococcales. Incubations of this strain with elemental iron (Fe°) resulted in the abiotic formation of ferrous iron and the accumulation of volatile fatty acids during yeast extract fermentation. The other isolate, strain MG, was a H(2) :CO(2) -utilizing methanogen, phylogenetically affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter family. Co-cultures of the strains grew as aggregates that produced CH(4) without exogenous H(2) amendment. The co-culture produced the same suite but greater concentrations of fatty acids from yeast extract than did strain PK alone. Thus, the physiological characteristics of organisms both alone and in combination could conceivably contribute to pipeline corrosion. The Thermococcus strain PK could reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide, produce fatty acids and reduce ferric iron. The hydrogenotrophic methanogen strain MG enhanced fatty acid production by fermentative organisms but could not couple the dissolution Fe° with the consumption of water-derived H(2) like other methanogens.

  16. Troll oil pipeline: Advanced landfall solution at Mongstad

    SciTech Connect

    Sintini, G.L.; Bernardi, M.; Doerheim, M.K.; Kjosavik, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    The landfall of the 16-in. Troll Oil Pipeline is achieved by means of a 30-in. cased borehole routed through hard metamorphic rock using up-to-date technology for drilling, down hole directional control and path survey. The borehole, which extends over a total length of 760 m, starts in a clear area inside the Mongstad Refinery and pierces in the lowermost part of Fensfjord`s southern steep sided cliff at 314 m water depth. The deep waters at th4e offshore end required completely diverless operations. Pipeline installation inside the borehole was carried out as part of the pipelay start-up with the aid of an onshore located pull-in winch. Main topics faced during the design and the adopted technical solutions are presented, notably: borehole route and size; borehole approach route and intervention works, corrosion protection system; and auxiliary devices such as the bellmouth at the offshore end and the anchor block at the onshore end. Experience feedback from construction activities is discussed focusing on technology performance, contingencies and remedial actions.

  17. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

  18. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  19. Bio-oil transport by pipeline: a techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-09-01

    Bio-oil, produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass, has high energy density compared to 'as received' biomass. The study assesses and compares the cost of transportation ($/liter of bio-oil) of bio-oil by pipeline and truck. The fixed and variable cost components of transportation of bio-oil at a pipeline capacity of 560 m(3)/day and to a distance of 100 km are 0.0423$/m(3) and 0.1201$/m(3)/km, respectively. Pipeline transportation of bio-oil costs less than transportation by liquid tank truck (load capacity 30 m(3)) and super B-train trailer (load capacity 60 m(3)) above pipeline capacities of 1000 and 1700 m(3)/day, respectively. When transportation distance is greater than 100 km, bio-oil must be heated at booster stations. When transporting bio-oil by pipeline to a distance of 400 km, minimum pipeline capacities of 1150 and 2000 m(3)/day are required to compete economically with liquid tank trucks and super B-train tank trailers, respectively.

  20. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  1. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  2. Development and application of oil-spill risk assessment model for offshore pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Jia; Wei, Wenpu; Yang, Yong; An, Wei

    2014-06-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects: corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault; the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts' opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipeline in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  3. A comparison of pipeline versus truck transport of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Biomass-based energy and fuels are receiving attention because they are considered carbon neutral; i.e. the amount of CO(2) released during combustion of this biomass is nearly the same as that taken up by the plants during their growth. Bio-oil is a dark viscous liquid consisting of hydrocarbons. These are produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass. "As-is" biomass material has a low energy density (MJ m(-3)), hence, the cost of transporting this energy is high. Bio-oil has a high energy density as compared to "as-is" biomass material, consequently it helps in reducing the cost of energy transport. This study compares the life cycle assessment of transportation of bio-oil by pipeline with that by truck. The scope of the work includes the transportation of bio-oil by truck or pipeline from a centralized plant (supplied with forest biomass) to an end-user. Two cases are studied for pipeline transport of bio-oil: the first case considers a coal-based electricity supply for pumping the bio-oil through a pipeline; the second case considers an electricity supply from a renewable resource. The two cases of pipeline transport are compared to two cases of truck transport (truck trailer and super B-train truck). The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pipeline transport of bio-oil for the two cases of electricity supply are 345 and 17 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Similar values for transport by trailer (capacity - 30 m(3)) and super B-train truck (capacity - 60 m(3)) are 89 and 60 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Energy input for bio-oil transport is 3.95 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by pipeline, 2.59 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by truck and 1.66 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by super B-train truck. The results show that GHG emissions in pipeline transport are largely dependent on the source of electricity (higher for coal-based electricity). Substituting 250 m(3) day(-1) of pipeline-transported bio-oil for coal-based electricity can mitigate about 5.1 million tonnes of CO(2) per year

  4. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  5. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  6. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  7. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  8. Why the poor pay with their lives: oil pipeline vandalisation, fires and human security in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onuoha, Freedom C

    2009-07-01

    Since its discovery in Nigeria in 1956 crude oil has been a source of mixed blessing to the country. It is believed to have generated enormous wealth, but it has also claimed a great many lives. Scholarly attention on the impact of oil on security in Nigeria has largely focused on internal conflicts rather than on how disasters associated with oil pipeline vandalisation have impacted on human security in terms of causing bodily injuries and death, destroying livelihoods and fracturing families. This paper examines how pipeline vandalisation affects human security in these ways. It identifies women and children as those who are hardest hit and questions why the poor are the most vulnerable in oil pipeline disasters in this country. It recommends the adoption of a comprehensive and integrated framework of disaster management that will ensure prompt response to key early warning signs, risk-reduction and appropriate mitigation and management strategies.

  9. Custody transfer metering performance for turbine and positive displacement meters on batched crude oil pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; Coats, J.R.; Butts, H.W.; LaNasa, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The USA pipeline grid is quickly migrating from transporting low viscosity crude oils to large volumes of moderate to high viscosity crude oils. As a result, the challenges associated with custody transfer, loss control and line integrity have been brought to a new level. To assist in these challenges, an evaluation was undertaken on three flowmeters on a batched crude oil pipeline. A series of experiments are currently underway to evaluate the performance of a conventional turbine meter, a dual bladed helical turbine meter and a capillary seal positive displacement meter over a wide range of transport properties. The goal of this program is to assist the Northern American pipeline industry in determining economically acceptable alternatives in the handling of ever increasing high viscosity crude oils.

  10. Oil cuts a path across Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-04

    Nineteen photographs illustrate the Panamian jungle, swamp, and mountain terrain which oil-pipeline construction crews faced as they crossed the country from Chirique Grande to Puerto Armuelles. The pipeline, completed in October 1982, after only 14 months, will move Alaskan crude from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic considerably faster and cheaper. Modern technology made the project faster, cheaper, and safer than the Panama Canal construction of 70 years ago. (DCK)

  11. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  12. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  13. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  14. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  15. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... the ceiling levels for each 12 month period beginning January 1, ] l995,\\5\\ see Explorer Pipeline... for pipelines to use for the five-year period commencing July 1, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ 133 FERC ] 61,228 at P 1..., plus 2.65 percent, is positive 0.086011.\\3\\ Oil pipelines must multiply their July 1, 2011,...

  16. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... the ceiling levels for each 12 month period beginning January 1, l995,\\5\\ see Explorer Pipeline... for pipelines to use for the five-year period commencing July 1, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ 133 FERC ] 61,228 at P 1..., plus 2.65 percent, is positive 0.045923.\\3\\ Oil pipelines must multiply their July 1, 2012,...

  17. Drift card observations in northwestern Washington along portions of two proposed oil pipeline routes

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.M.; Ebbesmeyer, C.C.; Helseth, J.M.; Coomes, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    During April 1978 and July 1980, a total of 5257 drift cards were released along portions of two pipelines proposed to carry crude oil across Washington State. The thin floatable plastic cards, having a specific gravity close to most crude oils, drift predominantly under the influence of local currents and winds until beached. Their reported recovery assists in determining possible trajectories and shoreline impact areas of potential surface and near surface oil spills.

  18. Ability to protect oil/gas pipelines and subsea installations from icebergs in the Hibernia area

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Mobil Oil Canada has examined 2 pipeline routes from Hibernia to the Newfoundland coast. The Northern Route is from Hibernia to the Bay of Bulls, a distance of ca 200 miles. The Southern Route is from Hibernia to Trepassey Bay, a distance of ca 225 miles. Both these routes go through the Avalon channel which has water depths of 200 m, or over 600 ft, with very steep slopes on both sides of the channel. To protect pipelines from icebergs and iceberg scour, there is really only one obvious solution and that is to bury the pipeline several feet below the deepest known iceberg scour depth.

  19. A combined kriging and stochastic method to map paraffin scale growth in oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, R. K.; Novrianto, A. R.; Rahmawati, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Paraffin is a common deposit in oil production pipeline. It occurs when the oil flowing-temperature is under Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) or pour-point temperature. Several prediction models so far only estimatethe location where the paraffin-wax is possibly formed and there is no prediction about paraffin-wax growth over time. Therefore, this paper presents a new mathematical model to accurately predict paraffin-wax growth in oil production pipeline. The proposed model contains stochastic and kriging method. The stochastic model is developed based on Markov and Poisson model and used to describe the generation time and growth of scale. Kriging model is then combined to describe the position of scale along the production pipeline. As the result of the combined model, paraffin-wax thickness can be mapped in space and time. This prediction is important to determine and decide an effective production operation and efficient investment.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  1. Trials of a gamma-ray multiphase flow meter on oil production pipelines at Thevenard Island

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W.; Hartley, P.E.; Ellis, W.K.

    1994-12-31

    CSIRO has developed a gamma-ray multiphase flow meter (MFM) for the on-line determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in oil production pipelines. It is based on two gamma-ray transmission gauges mounted on a pipe carrying the full flow of the multiphase fluid. In trials, two of these MFMs were mounted on a test pipeline linking the test manifold to the test separator at the oil processing facilities on Thevenard Island. One MFM was always mounted on the vertical upflow section of the pipe. The other was in turn mounted on the vertical downflow section, and on two horizontal sections with different upstream conditions. The MFM mounted on the vertical (upflow) pipeline determined the flow rates to 4.0% relative for liquids, 7.5% for oil, 4.5% for water and 7.9% for gas. Water cut was determined to 3.6% relative. The MFM mounted on the vertical downflow pipeline determined flow rates to 3.3% relative for liquids, 6.1% for oil, 4.5% for water, and 7.7% for gas. Water cut was determined to 3.7%.

  2. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  3. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  4. Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines on U.S. Wildlife Refuges: Challenges for Managers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  5. Arctic and Offshore Research Subprogram: Reducing the uncertainties about producing oil and gas in the Alaskan Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    In assessing the research. The needs for the Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) Subprogram, Morgantown Energy Technology Center with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed a 5-year plan that includes the following activities: (1) AOR data base development and coordination; (2) ice research; (3) seafloor soils research; and (4) subice arctic research. The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research Subprogram was initiated in FY 83, the major programming activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the program evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 83. The current program activities have included determining the various Arctic bibliographic data bases and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multi-year ice properties, pipeline research, and subice feasibility studies. The seismic-measurements study continues the work initiated by the Energy Research and Development Administration, updated with an Arctic emphasis. The FY 83 accomplishments include redesigning the seafloor earthquake measurements system (SEMS) and assessing the preliminary Alaska site for potential SEMS deployment. 1 reference, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  6. An Alaskan legend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, H.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Jack Lee is a prominent personality, an Alaskan individualist and a skeptic worthy of remembrance if for no other reason than being inextricably associated with the catastrophic Katmai eruption in 1912. Jack remains a provocative reminder of Alaska's pre-1958 drilling and was quite possibly the earliest observer (excepting natives and possibly Russians) of the oil seeps in the area now encompassed by the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge. His observation of the impressive live oil seeps in the Ugashik and Becharof Lakes area, and his subsequent involvement in the early drilling entirely consumed his future interests. He is a firm believer that individualism and suspicion are powerful tools when forced to reconsider alternatives to readily accepted interpretations of modern exploration results. His individualism and sometimes annoying, but thought-provoking skepticism remains useful in any field where clich??s provide safe guards from new concepts.

  7. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Inquiry. SUMMARY:...

  8. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  9. Supplemental information concerning a survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The EXXON Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. The spreading of spilled oil raised concerns of native Alaskans that their subsistence seafoods (fish, marine mammals, and invertebrate organisms) were contaminated by the spilled petroleum. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs).

  10. A Model for Oil-Gas Pipelines Cost Prediction Based on a Data Mining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos A.; Spanidis, Phillip-Mark P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the problems associated with the cost estimation of oil/gas pipelines during the elaboration of feasibility assessments. Techno-economic parameters, i.e., cost, length and diameter, are critical for such studies at the preliminary design stage. A methodology for the development of a cost prediction model based on Data Mining (DM) process is proposed. The design and implementation of a Knowledge Base (KB), maintaining data collected from various disciplines of the pipeline industry, are presented. The formulation of a cost prediction equation is demonstrated by applying multiple regression analysis using data sets extracted from the KB. Following the methodology proposed, a learning context is inductively developed as background pipeline data are acquired, grouped and stored in the KB, and through a linear regression model provide statistically substantial results, useful for project managers or decision makers.

  11. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... discharging oil into or on any navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines must prepare and... substantial harm to the environment by discharging oil into or on any navigable waters of the United States or... Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  12. Exporting Alaska's oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.F.; Copulos, M.; Watkins, D.J.

    1983-02-22

    Federal legislation that prohibits the commercial export of oil and gas is creating a glut and discouraging oil production in California, while raising energy costs by shipping the fuel to the East and Gulf Coasts. The historical security reasons for blocking the export of Alaskan oil no longer exist, yet they continue to impose costs for the taxpayer. The optimum solution appears to be to export liquefied natural gas, using a pipeline paralleling the oil pipeline to Valdez. This would encourage the use and manufacture in Alaska of urea and ammonia fertilizer for export to the Far East, which would enhance US/Japan relations. The possibility of exports of additional oil, bringing a higher return for producers, will encourage production, reduce the need for OPEC oil, and moderate world oil prices. 5 references.

  13. Oil pipeline geohazard monitoring using optical fiber FBG strain sensors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Ferro, Andres; Mendez, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Pipelines are naturally vulnerable to operational, environmental and man-made effects such as internal erosion and corrosion; mechanical deformation due to geophysical risks and ground movements; leaks from neglect and vandalism; as well as encroachments from nearby excavations or illegal intrusions. The actual detection and localization of incipient and advanced faults in pipelines is a very difficult, expensive and inexact task. Anything that operators can do to mitigate the effects of these faults will provide increased reliability, reduced downtime and maintenance costs, as well as increased revenues. This talk will review the on-line monitoring of an extensive network of oil pipelines in service in Colombia using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for the measurement of strains and bending caused by geohazard risks such as soil movements, landslides, settlements, flooding and seismic activity. The FBG sensors were mounted on the outside of the pipelines at discrete locations where geohazard risk was expected. The system has been in service for the past 3 years with over 1,000 strain sensors mounted. The technique has been reliable and effective in giving advanced warning of accumulated pipeline strains as well as possible ruptures.

  14. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  16. Evaluating the economic impacts of pipeline useage on the Texas oil & gas supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jashandeep

    The objective of this dissertation is to find the minimum supply chain cost for the Texas oil and gas industry, when pipeline is used as the major mode of transporting oil. The problem is solved, by introducing a mixed -- integer linear programming model which will help in taking the necessary decisions based on the cost estimates for various scenarios. In order to meet the objective, specific objectives were put down to evaluate their impacts. First was to evaluate the economic impact of mode of transport and the infrastructure second was to evaluate the economic impact of refinery flow. Finally this dissertation aims at the mixed -- integer programming model to demonstrate the economic impacts of pipeline usage on the supply chain.

  17. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  18. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  19. Identification of environmentally vulnerable areas with priority for prevention and management of pipeline crude oil spills.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Cervantes, Irene Sommer; Orozco, Oralia Oropeza

    2011-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the main productive activities in Mexico and has a huge infrastructure, including a wide pipeline network that crosses urban, industrial, agricultural and natural areas. The threat of crude oil spills is greatest in those regions with a high concentration of oil extraction and refining activities, as in the case of the Coatzacoalcos and Tonalá Rivers Low Basin. This study ranked the geosystems of the basin in terms of vulnerability to pipeline crude oil spills. Very high vulnerability (level I) was assigned to the water bodies (lakes and rivers) and their margins of influence, including surfaces that flood during normal hydraulic load. High vulnerability areas (level II) comprised surfaces that can flood during extraordinary hydraulic load related with extreme hydrometeorological events. The remaining three vulnerability levels were defined for areas with low or negligible flooding potential, these were ranked according to physical (slope, relief and permeability), biological (richness, singularity and integrity) and socio-economic (social marginalization index and economic activities index) conditions. These results are presented on a map for better visualization and interpretation. This study will be useful to establish preventive and effective emergency management actions in order to reduce remediation costs and adverse effects on wild species. It also can help local and national authorities, oil industry and civil protection corps to better protect ecosystems, natural resources and human activities and goods.

  20. Effects of hydrocarbon spills from an oil pipeline break on ground water. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Helweg, O.J.; Hwang, H.H.M.

    1993-08-03

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of an oil spill, which might be caused by a seismic event rupturing a crude oil pipe line which crosses the recharge area of the Memphis Sands Aquifer. To do this, two numerical models were used to simulate a potential rupture of the 40 inch crude oil pipeline located in Wolf River fluvial valley susceptible to liquefaction. The simulation approach used two two-dimensional upstream weighted finite element models to predict the three-dimensional flow phenomenon of released crude in the saturated and unsaturated zones. ARMOS (Areal Multiphase Organic Simulator) was used to simulate the crude oil migration horizontally and to evaluate the extent of the crude dispersion on the ground water table.

  1. Criteria for performance assessment and calibration of in-line inspections of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Hallen, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    Oil and gas pipeline operators routinely use magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic (UT) in-line inspection (ILI) to detect, locate and size metal losses caused by corrosion. As a preliminary step in fitness-for-service evaluations, the quality of the ILI is assessed through statistical comparison of the ILI data with data gathered in the field at dig sites. This work presents generalized criteria for the performance assessment and calibration of MFL and UT ILI tools from field measurements. The proposed criteria are capable of accounting for the measurement errors of both the ILI tool and the field instrument. The performance assessment of the ILI run is based on the determination of the minimum number of unsuccessful field verifications required to reject the ILI at a given significance level. The calibration of the ILI data uses new, simplified, error-in-variables methods to estimate the true size of the corrosion metal losses reported by the ILI tool. The proposed methodology also allows for determination of the errors associated with the estimation of the true defect depths. This information is of utmost importance in conducting reliability and risk assessments of pipelines based on either the probability distribution properties of the pipeline defect population, or the probability of failure of each individual defect in the pipeline. The proposed criteria are tested using Monte Carlo simulations and a real-life case study is presented to illustrate their application.

  2. A tracer study in an Alaskan gravel beach and its implications on the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C

    2011-06-01

    Despite great efforts including bioremediation, the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spills persist in many gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. To explore this mystery, a lithium tracer study was conducted along two transects on one of these beaches. The tracer injections and transports were successfully simulated using the 2-dimensional numerical model MARUN. The tracer stayed much longer in the oil-persisting, right transect (facing landwand) than in the clean, left transect. If the tracer is approximately regarded as oils, oils in the upper layer would have more opportunities to enter the lower layer in the right transect than in the left one. This may qualitatively explain the oil persistence within the right transect. When the tracer is regarded as nutrients, the long stay of nutrients within the right transect implies that the oil persistence along the right transect was not due to the lack of nutrients during the bioremediation. PMID:21492883

  3. World Bank oil-pipeline project designed to prevent HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Kigotho, A W

    1997-11-29

    A World Bank-funded oil pipeline project, in Chad and Cameroon, is the first large-scale construction project in sub-Saharan Africa to incorporate an HIV/AIDS prevention component. The project entails the development of oil fields in southern Chad and construction of 1100 km of pipeline to port facilities on Cameroon's Atlantic coast. 3000 construction workers from the two countries will be employed between 1998 and 2001, including about 600 truck drivers. In some areas along the pipeline route, 50% of the prostitutes (who are frequented by truck drivers) are HIV-infected. The HIV/AIDS intervention aims to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among project workers through social marketing of condoms, treatment of STDs in prostitutes along the route, and health education to modify high-risk behaviors. The program is considered a test case for African governments and donors interested in whether the integration of a health component in major construction projects can avoid AIDS epidemics in affected countries.

  4. Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Duncan, Kathleen E; Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Smith, Whitney; Bonifay, Vincent; Biri, Bernadette; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 'cookies,' revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted.

  5. Nutrient and oxygen concentrations within the sediments of an Alaskan beach polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boufadel, Michel C; Sharifi, Youness; Van Aken, Benoit; Wrenn, Brian A; Lee, Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    Measurements of the background concentrations of nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO), and salinity were obtained from a beach that has oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Two transects were set across the beach, one passed through an oil patch while the other transect was clean. Three pits were dug in each transect, and they ranged in depth from 0.9 to 1.5 m. The DO was around 1.0 mg L(-1) at oiled pits and larger than 5 mg L(-1) at clean pits. The average nutrient concentrations in the beach were 0.39 mg-N L(-1) and 0.020 mg-P L(-1). Both concentrations are lower than optimal values for oil biodegradation (2 to 10 mg-N L(-1) and 0.40 to 2.0 mg-P L(-1)), which suggests that they are both limiting factors for biodegradation. The lowest nitrate and DO values were found in the oiled pits, leading to the conclusion that microbial oil consumption was probably occurring under anoxic conditions and was associated to denitrification. We present evidence that the oxygen level may be a major factor limiting oil biodegradation in the beaches. PMID:20809617

  6. Nutrient and oxygen concentrations within the sediments of an Alaskan beach polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boufadel, Michel C; Sharifi, Youness; Van Aken, Benoit; Wrenn, Brian A; Lee, Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    Measurements of the background concentrations of nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO), and salinity were obtained from a beach that has oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Two transects were set across the beach, one passed through an oil patch while the other transect was clean. Three pits were dug in each transect, and they ranged in depth from 0.9 to 1.5 m. The DO was around 1.0 mg L(-1) at oiled pits and larger than 5 mg L(-1) at clean pits. The average nutrient concentrations in the beach were 0.39 mg-N L(-1) and 0.020 mg-P L(-1). Both concentrations are lower than optimal values for oil biodegradation (2 to 10 mg-N L(-1) and 0.40 to 2.0 mg-P L(-1)), which suggests that they are both limiting factors for biodegradation. The lowest nitrate and DO values were found in the oiled pits, leading to the conclusion that microbial oil consumption was probably occurring under anoxic conditions and was associated to denitrification. We present evidence that the oxygen level may be a major factor limiting oil biodegradation in the beaches.

  7. Large-scale cold water dispersant effectiveness experiments with Alaskan crude oils and Corexit 9500 and 9527 dispersants.

    PubMed

    Belore, Randy C; Trudel, Ken; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2009-01-01

    There continues to be reluctance in some jurisdictions to use chemical dispersants as a viable countermeasure for accidental oil spills. One argument used by some opponents to dispersant use is that "chemical dispersants do not work effectively in cold water". To address this issue, the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) funded and conducted two series of large-scale dispersant experiments in very cold water at Ohmsett - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility, located in Leonardo, New Jersey in February-March 2006 and January-March 2007. Alaska North Slope, Endicott, Northstar and Pt. McIntyre crude oils and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were used in the two test series. The crude oils were tested both when fresh and after weathering. Results demonstrated that both Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were 85-99% effective in dispersing the fresh and weathered crude oils tested at cold temperatures. The MMS expects that results from these test series will assist government regulators and responders in making science based decisions on the use of dispersants as a response tool for oil spills in the Arctic. PMID:19007943

  8. Large-scale cold water dispersant effectiveness experiments with Alaskan crude oils and Corexit 9500 and 9527 dispersants.

    PubMed

    Belore, Randy C; Trudel, Ken; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2009-01-01

    There continues to be reluctance in some jurisdictions to use chemical dispersants as a viable countermeasure for accidental oil spills. One argument used by some opponents to dispersant use is that "chemical dispersants do not work effectively in cold water". To address this issue, the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) funded and conducted two series of large-scale dispersant experiments in very cold water at Ohmsett - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility, located in Leonardo, New Jersey in February-March 2006 and January-March 2007. Alaska North Slope, Endicott, Northstar and Pt. McIntyre crude oils and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were used in the two test series. The crude oils were tested both when fresh and after weathering. Results demonstrated that both Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants were 85-99% effective in dispersing the fresh and weathered crude oils tested at cold temperatures. The MMS expects that results from these test series will assist government regulators and responders in making science based decisions on the use of dispersants as a response tool for oil spills in the Arctic.

  9. Trans-oceanic pipeline: reaffirms Panama's strategic position

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-24

    The Trans-Panama Pipeline, which began in July 1980 and was finished October 1, 1982, will transport Alaskan crude from Puerto Armuelles, in the Pacific Ocean, to Chiriqui Grande, in the Atlantic. Built at a total cost of $400 million, the facility will speed deliveries of North Slope crude to refining centers in Houston, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and New Jersey; it is expected to move about 800,000 barrels/day by January 1983. With construction of a pump station near Chiriqui Grande, the pipeline could easily be altered for reverse-flow capability. This issue of Energy Detente reviews the use of the new pipeline, as it cuts crude oil transportation time and cost and provides an alternative to the Panama Canal. The issue also updates the fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  10. The Troll oil pipeline project: A welcome challenge to survey technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trodal, L.; Nilsen, O.

    1995-12-01

    The design and engineering of the Troll oil pipeline has been totally dependent on recent development within detailed underwater survey/mapping techniques. To achieve the required data accuracy, resolution and density, a large extent of the survey work has been carried out with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV). This project is considered a first step into the kind of detailed subsea survey work which will be required in deeper waters (1,500--2,000 meters) for engineering and construction purposes, within the next 5 years.

  11. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  12. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  13. Physical and biological remediation of oil-polluted river bed and hillside sediments resulting from a ruptured oil pipeline in

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfa, I.; Mcintosh, R.S.; Gambera

    1993-12-31

    An oil spill of several tens of thousands of liters ocurred when an underground pipeline ruptured next to the Rio Barca, a torrential mountain stream in Italy. The spill ocurred during a time when the Rio Barca was almost totally dry, therefore allowing the fuel-oil to saturate the sediments which form the bed of the watercourse. This paper describes the feasibility study performed to determine the possibility of conducting in situ remediation. In addition, a two-step strategy was developed to remove the hydrocarbons in the stream: (1) Mechanical liberation and recovery of the free-phase hydrocarbon trapped in the sediments; (2) In situ treatment via an Enhanced Natural Bioremediation program. The residual hydrocarbon contamination in the hillside soils were addressed by in situ remediation incorporating air sparging below the water table, soil vapor extraction of the vadose zone and nutrient addition to the soils via infiltration trenches.

  14. Influence of an oil soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in a diesel transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Mohanan, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-01-01

    Microbial degradation of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitor (OSCI) Baker NC 351 contributed to a decrease in inhibitor efficiency. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by the rotating cage and flow loop methods. The nature of the biodegradation of the corrosion inhibitor was also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The influence of bacterial activity on the degradation of the corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX were evaluated using a weight loss technique and impedance studies. Serratia marcescens ACE2 and Bacillus cereus ACE4 can degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the corrosion inhibitor. The present study also discusses the demerits of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum product pipeline.

  15. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing menhaden fish meal and oil with APVM in practical diets of largemouth bass (LMB) to sustain or improve general performance while maintaining substantial amounts of the n-3 fatty acids in the fillets. The n-3 highly unsaturated fat...

  16. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest.

  17. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    , cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  18. Detection of oil pollution along the pipeline routes in tropical ecosystem from multi-spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Ogutu, Booker

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted in an oil producing environment dominated by mangrove and swamp vegetation in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ancillary data including oil pipeline map and GPS of spill points were used in selecting sample sites to identify and detect polluted locations. A number of polluted and non-polluted sites were selected and vegetation spectral reflectance and indices for these sample sites were extracted from TM data of January and December 1986. A statistical T-test was used to test for significant differences between vegetation spectral reflectance and indices from polluted and non-polluted sites. The initial results from the analysis of spectral reflectance between polluted and non-polluted did not show any significant difference in all the six spectral bands with p-value <0.005. The results from analysis of various vegetation indices some did not show any significance differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites (e.g. the SRI, SAVI and EVI2). Other VIs (NDVI, MSAVI2 and ARVI2) showed significant differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. From these preliminary results we can conclude that pollution from oil spills may result to the changes in leaf biochemistry of the Mangroves in the Niger Delta which are detectable from remote sensing data. Future work will focus on undertaking further temporal analysis of additional spill sites to determine what quantity of spilt oil arises in spectral changes of vegetation.

  19. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  20. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to determine the

  1. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... beginning January 1, 1995,\\5\\ see Explorer Pipeline Company, 71 FERC 61,416 at n.6 (1995). \\2\\ Bureau of... Finished Goods (PPI-FG), plus one point three percent (PPI+1.3). The Commission determined in an ``Order Establishing Index For Oil Price Change Ceiling Levels'' issued March 21, 2006, that PPI+1.3 is the...

  2. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  3. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in striped bass Morone saxatilis and sunshine bass M. chrysops X M. saxatilis diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of waste by-products from the Alaskan fishery and use in fish feeds can potentially reduce pressure on fish harvested for animal feed applications. However, little data exist evaluating these by-products in moronid diets. Striped bass and sunshine bass growth, body composition, and imm...

  4. Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, Najmedin

    2006-01-01

    All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented.

  5. How to avoid major hazards from oil- and gas pipelines in the coastal- and inner waters of Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Thygesen, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Dansk Olie and Naturgas A/S owns and operates approx. 500 km of offshore gas and oil pipelines running from the platforms in the Danish sector of North Sea platforms to the mainland and through the inner waters towards Sweden. The paper describes the preventive measures taken by Dansk Olie and Naturgas A/S to avoid major hazards and their effects on the marine environment. Inspection methods to detect deficiencies before they develop into a hazardous situation are described along with emergency plans for how to handle hazardous situations, should they occur, the surveillance for possible damage, prior to repair including the safety precautions to be taken, and finally in the case of the oil pipeline, the oil spill clean-up procedures are described.

  6. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident.

  7. The Isiokpo oil-pipeline leakage: total organic carbon/organic matter contents of affected soils.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-08-01

    The environmental impact of the 1997 leakage of the high-pressure crude-oil pipeline at Isiokpo in the Niger Delta in the southeast of Nigeria was evaluated, with particular reference to total-organic-carbon (TOC) and total-organic-matter (TOM) contents of soils within the vicinity of the oil spillage. The soils, taken from depths of 0-15 cm (surface) and 15-30 cm (subsurface), were found to be more acidic (pH 4.2-5.6) than the unpolluted soils, with a high average moisture content of 6.8%. The extractable hydrocarbon content ranged from 2.71-3.48 mg/kg, indicating hydrocarbon contamination. However, contrary to expectation, the TOC and TOM contents of the polluted soils did not show any significant increase in concentration, supposedly due to natural rehabilitation of the affected mat layer of soils. Thus, notwithstanding the possible proliferation of heterotrophic organisms by the presence of the added petroleum hydrocarbons, environmental conditions such as weathering and climatic predispositions, as well as physico-chemical parameters such as pH, moisture content, and temperature must have encumbered the carbon-mineralizing capacity of the heterotrophs, thereby reducing the turnover of carbon and the decomposition of organic matter. The restrictions by high moisture content might not come directly from H(2)O itself, but are probably a consequence of hindered soil ventilation, which reduces O(2) supply and gaseous diffusion, conditions that might have been substantially aggravated by the added petroleum hydrocarbons.

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  9. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  10. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  11. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  12. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  13. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  14. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; McInerney, Michael J.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens. PMID:24639674

  15. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  16. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  17. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  18. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated.

  19. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated. PMID:20674145

  20. Predictive and preventive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines in the area North Monagas-Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Predictive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines has allowed the prediction of operational failures. Specially due to the thermodynamic behavior of the produced fluids, contaminants present in the oil and gas such as sand, water, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, asphaltene deposition, high temperatures and pressures, physicochemical characteristics of the soil, etc. lead to risks of the installations. In order to minimize risks of failures, the author has established a control and monitoring preventive program of the variables that influence these conditions, such as: nondestructive testing, wall thickness measurements and two dimensional B Scan measurements to detect impurities, laminations and inclusions in the pipeline material, corrosion evaluation of pipelines, characterization of the soil corrosive potential of flow stations and compressing plants. Additionally, he has implemented predictive control through the application of external corrosion prevention techniques such as cathodic protection and coatings. For internal corrosion, the use of corrosion inhibitors, asphaltene dispersants and material selection are used. Increasing the protection through preventive and predictive maintenance can reduce the operational risks involved for the oil and gas production.

  1. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  2. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  3. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig.

  4. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

  5. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  6. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... Director of the Bureau of Land Management in accordance with regulations in 43 CFR part 2800. Any...

  7. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  8. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  9. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  10. 76 FR 28968 - Imperial Oil and ExxonMobil Oil Corporation, v. Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Lights) LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on May 11, 2011, pursuant to Rule 206 of the Rules of... Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC (Respondent). Complainants are challenging certain rates, terms...

  11. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  12. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  13. Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran.

    PubMed

    Kalatpoor, Omid; Goshtasp, Kambiz; Khavaji, Solieman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was assessing health, safety and environmental risk of a gas transfer pipeline in an oily area of Gachsaran. In this method, we used the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method except that to facilitate using the method more practically some changes were exerted into Kent's method. A pipeline with 16 kilometers length was selected considering surrounding nature of the pipeline. It was divided into two sections. Analogous to Kent's method, in this method, parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factor, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. The difference here was that for consequence scoring we used ALOHA 5.6 software instead of Kent's pattern. Results showed that health, safety and environmental risks of section 2 (the next 13 kilometers of outgoing pipeline from gas station after the first 3 kilometers) were greater. It seems the main cause of gaining a bigger risk number was related to more activities of interested parties around section 2. Because all figures gathered from indexes are almost close to gather except third parties activity.

  14. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  15. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-04-02

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  16. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  17. Induced electric currents in the Alaska oil pipeline measured by gradient, fluxgate, and SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. H.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The field gradient method for observing the electric currents in the Alaska pipeline provided consistent values for both the fluxgate and SQUID method of observation. These currents were linearly related to the regularly measured electric and magnetic field changes. Determinations of pipeline current were consistent with values obtained by a direct connection, current shunt technique at a pipeline site about 9.6 km away. The gradient method has the distinct advantage of portability and buried- pipe capability. Field gradients due to the pipe magnetization, geological features, or ionospheric source currents do not seem to contribute a measurable error to such pipe current determination. The SQUID gradiometer is inherently sensitive enough to detect very small currents in a linear conductor at 10 meters, or conversely, to detect small currents of one amphere or more at relatively great distances. It is fairly straightforward to achieve imbalance less than one part in ten thousand, and with extreme care, one part in one million or better.

  18. Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Al/Al2O3 Duplex Coating on Pipeline Steel X80 in Simulated Oil and Gas Well Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ping-Gu; Shi, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe-Al coating and Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investigated. Mono-layer Fe-Al coating consists of Fe2Al5 and FeAl, which is a suitable transitional layer for the preparation of ceramic coating by MAO on the surface of pipeline steel X80. Under the same corrosion condition at 373 K for 168 h with 1 MPa CO2 and 0.1 MPa H2S, corrosion weight loss rate of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating decreased to 23% of original pipeline steel X80, which improved by 10% than that of pipeline steel X80 with mono-layer Fe-Al coating. It cannot find obvious cracks and pits on the corrosion surface of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating.

  19. 77 FR 65513 - Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... statement that the previous tariff publication remains in effect.'' \\16\\ 18 CFR 341.4(f) (2012). 17. This... pipeline to make non-ministerial tariff changes without filing to withdraw any pending proposal and making... adopted Order No. 714, which required that all tariffs and tariff revisions and rate change...

  20. Pyrosequencing Investigation into the Bacterial Community in Permafrost Soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills. PMID:23300754

  1. Pyrosequencing investigation into the bacterial community in permafrost soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP).

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills.

  2. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  3. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Boyd, Alison C

    2012-01-01

    One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

  4. Ground motion values for use in the seismic design of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Robert A.; Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Coulter, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which would traverse the state north to south from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to Valdez on Prince William Sound, will be subject to serious earthquake hazards over much of its length. To be acceptable from an environmental standpoint, the pipeline system is to be designed to minimize the potential of oil leakage resulting from seismic shaking, faulting, and seismically induced ground deformation. The design of the pipeline system must accommodate the effects of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 8.5 as specified in the 'Stipulations for Proposed Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.' This report characterizes ground motions for the specified earthquakes in terms of peak levels of ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement and of duration of shaking. Published strong motion data from the Western United States are critically reviewed to determine the intensity and duration of shaking within several kilometers of the slipped fault. For magnitudes 5 and 6, for which sufficient near-fault records are available, the adopted ground motion values are based on data. For larger earthquakes the values are based on extrapolations from the data for smaller shocks, guided by simplified theoretical models of the faulting process.

  5. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified

  6. Oceanic pipeline computations

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, A.

    1980-01-01

    yechnical and economic feasibility, design, and construction of oil, gas, and two-phase oceanic pipelines systems are discussed. In addition, formulae, references, examples, and programmable calculator software (Hewlett-Packard-67) are given. The contents include: preliminary pipeline sizing; fluid characteristics; preliminary hydraulics; oceanographis; preliminary corridor selection; route selection; final pipeline design; hydraulic design; wall thickness selection; oceanographic design computations; stress analysis; and construction parameters. (JMT)

  7. Survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Volume 1. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.

  8. New Journal index will measure gas pipeline inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1982-09-20

    This article marks the start of a new pipeline cost index, for gas pipelines. Its objective is to complement the Journal's oil pipeline cost index, started with the Nov. 19, 1979 issue. This new gas pipeline cost index will be published quarterly, as will the OGJ MORGAN Oil Pipeline Cost Index.

  9. Pipeline transport of biomass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

    2004-01-01

    The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification.

  10. Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chis, T.

    1996-12-31

    The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

  11. Troll oil pipeline: Assessment of slope and gravel sleeper stability in steep fjord areas

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, A.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Nadim, F.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the slope stability evaluation in the steep areas of the Fensfjord. The main focus in the study has been to establish appropriate undrained shear strength for static and dynamic stability analyses, make a reasonable prediction of the earthquake induced permanent deformation and evaluate the post-earthquake static stability. The special laboratory testing and analysis conducted showed that the only consequence of earthquake loading is limited permanent deformations. Analysis of gravel supports on soft clay showed that three supports needed counter fills in order to fulfill the design requirements. At the tunnel entrance point of the pipeline at Mongstad, the soft clay at the seabed had to be excavated in order to attain satisfactory stability for the gravel support.

  12. Pipeliners beat designers across Panama's jungle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-27

    Hard-driving pipeline crews are slashing a path down the steep slopes of the Andes range on Panama's Caribbean coast for the final leg of an 80-mile Pacific-Atlantic oil link that will reduce shipping times for North Slope crude to Gulf Coast refineries. When completed in late August, the trans-isthmus tube will be able to drain the Panama Canal of Alaskan oil, which currently must be pumped from large tankers to 65,000 ton ships before passage through the 50-mile cut. The 36 and 40-in.-dia pipe will connect an existing Northville oil transshipment terminal at Puerto Armuelles, near Costa Rica on the Pacific Coast, with a new 2.5-million-bbl storage area at Chiriqui Grande on the Caribbean coast. Two pumping stations, one at Puerto Armuelles and another at the base of the Serrania de Tabasara mountains, will lift the oil 4,000 ft over the Continental Divide. Gravity flows of 7 1/2 ft per second down the steep drop to the swamps along the Caribbean will feed three 833,000-bbl tanks being built on a hillside overlooking Chiriqui Bay. From there, two 36-in. lines will feed concrete-coated pipe sections trenched into the surf zone and placed on the muddy bottom for the remaining distance to two marine loading buoys over a mile offshore. The catenary anchor-leg mooring buoys are designed to handle tankers of up to 160,000 tons in 65 ft of water at maximum fill rates of 120,000 bbl per hour.

  13. 1997 annual pipeline directory and equipment guide

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This annual guide is divided into the following sections: Equivalent valve tables; Complete 1997 line pipe tables; Engineering and construction services; Crude oil pipeline companies; Slurry companies; Natural gas companies; Gas distribution pipeline companies; Municipal gas systems; Canadian pipeline companies; International pipeline companies; and Company index. The tables list component materials, manufacturers, and service companies.

  14. The trans-Alaska pipeline controversy: Technology, conservation, and the frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was the object of perhaps the most passionately fought conservation battle in the U.S. Although numerous authors documented the pipeline construction during its construction, there is, surprisingly, no previous scholarly treatment of this event written by an historian. Coates is an environmental historian who views the most interesting aspect of the controversy to be [open quote]its relationship to earlier engineering projects and technological innovations in Alaska and the debates that accompanied them.[close quotes] Thus, he describes how the conservationist and environmental ideas arose during numerous earlier major Alaskan projects and controversies, including the Alaska Highway (1938-41), Canol Pipeline (1943-45), exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number Four (Pet 4, 1944-1953), DEWline (1953-57), oil development in the Kenai National Moose Range (1957-58), statehood (1958), the creation of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge (1960), Project Chariot (1958-63), and Rampart Dam (1959-67). The history starts with the acquisition of Alaska in 1867 and finishes about the time of the Valdez oil spill in 1989.

  15. Desulfovibrio gabonensis sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an oil pipeline.

    PubMed

    Tardy-Jacquenod, C; Magot, M; Laigret, F; Kaghad, M; Patel, B K; Guezennec, J; Matheron, R; Caumette, P

    1996-07-01

    Two moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from an African oil pipeline and designated strains SEBR 3640 and SEBR 2840T (T = type strain). Both of these strains possess traits that define the genus Desulfovibrio. The cells of both isolates were motile curved rods that had a single polar flagellum and contained desulfoviridin, and both isolates utilized lactate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, succinate, and ethanol in the presence of sulfate. Sulfite, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur were also used as an electron acceptors in the presence of lactate. However, both strains tolerated higher concentrations of NaCl (up to 17%) than all other Desulfovibrio species except Desulfovibrio halophilus, which tolerated a similar level of NaCl. The results of a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also placed the designated type strain, strain SEBR 2840, in the genus Desulfovibrio but revealed that this organism was significantly different from D. halophilus and all other validly described Desulfovibrio species. On the basis of our results, we propose that strain SEBR 2840T is a member of a new species of the genus Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio gabonensis. The type strain of D. gabonensis is strain SEBR 2840 (= DSM 10636).

  16. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  17. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  18. Zonation and assessment of frozen-ground conditions along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route from Mo’he to Daqing, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Hao, J.; Chang, X.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP), 813 mm in diameter, is designed to transport 603,000 barrels of Siberian crude oil per day using conventional burial across 1,030 km of frozen-ground. About 500 boreholes, with depths of 5 to 20 m, were drilled and cored for analyses, and the frozen-ground conditions were evaluated. After detailed surveys and analyses of the permafrost conditions along the pipeline route, a conventional burial construction mode at a nominal depth of 1.5 m was adopted. This paper discusses the principles and criteria for the zonation and assessment of the frozen-ground environments and conditions of engineering geology for the design, construction, operation of the pipeline system based on an extensive and in-depth summary and analysis of the survey and exploration data. Full consideration of the characteristics of pipelining crude oil at ambient temperatures in the permafrost regions and the interactive processes between the pipeline and foundation soils were taken into account. Two zones of frozen-ground environment and conditions of engineering geology, i. e. seasonally-frozen-ground and permafrost, were defined on the basis of the regional distribution and differentiations in frozen-ground environments and conditions. Then, four subzones of the permafrost zone were classified according to the areal extent, taking into consideration the temperatures and thicknesses of permafrost, as well as changes in vegetation coverage. In the four subzones, 151 sections of engineering geology were categorized according to the ice/moisture contents of the permafrost, as well as the classes of frost-heaving and thaw-settlement potentials. These 151 sections are comprehensively summarized into four types for engineering construction and operation: good, fair, poor, and very poor, for overall conditions of engineering geology. The zonation, assessment principles and criteria have been applied in the design of the pipeline. They have also been

  19. Alaskan North Slope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Warren

    The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

  20. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall be inspected...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  4. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Leek, Donald M; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Ripmeester, John A

    2013-05-21

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests.

  5. Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Peru). Oil and gas field exploration, drilling, production, and pipeline machinery and equipment, July 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    After five years of contraction, import demand for oil and gas field exploration, drilling, production and pipeline machinery and equipment will surge at a faster rate as Peru must expand low domestic reserves and current production to meet internal demand and to avoid excessive-expensive imports of crude. Petroperu's financial condition has improved but it still has serious debt arrears. Congress is expected to issue a new oil law which may liberalize procedures to approve exploration contracts while setting up the framework for at least partial privatization of Petroperu.

  6. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... holder of a right-of-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged...

  10. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  11. Issues facing the future use of Alaskan NorthSlope natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1983-05-12

    The North Slope of Alaska contains over 26 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. In 1977, the President and the Congress approved construction of a 4800-mile gas pipeline to bring this gas to US consumers by 1983. However, completion of the project is not now expected until late 1989 at the earliest. This report examines the status and outlook for the Alaskan gas pipeline (the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System). It also evaluates the pros and cons of (1) alternative systems to deliver this gas to market, including a gas pipeline with Alaska for export of liquefied natural gas; (2) processing the gas in Alaska by converting it to methanol and petrochemicals for export; and (3) using the gas within Alaska.

  12. OMAE 1993: Proceedings. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, M.; Murray, A.; Thygesen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of conference proceedings is volume five of a five volume series dealing with offshore and arctic pipeline, marine riser, platforms, and ship design and engineering. This volume is a result of increased use of pipeline transportation for oil, gas, and liquid products and the resultant need for lower design and operating costs. Papers in this conference cover topics on environmental considerations, pipeline automation, computer simulation techniques, materials testing, corrosion protection, permafrost problems, pipeline integrity, geotechnical concerns, and offshore engineering problems.

  13. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE TO MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin Chukwu

    2004-01-01

    The Alaskan North Slope (ANS) is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the United States where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Because the domestic gas market in the continental United States is located thousands of miles from the ANS, transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS to the market is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundant resource. The focus of this project is to study the operational challenges involved in transporting the gas in converted liquid (GTL) form through the existing Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). A three-year, comprehensive research program was undertaken by the Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks, under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40016 to study the feasibility of transporting GTL products through TAPS. Cold restart of TAPS following an extended winter shutdown and solids deposition in the pipeline were identified as the main transportation issues in moving GTL products through the pipeline. The scope of work in the current project (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41248) included preparation of fluid samples for the experiments to be conducted to augment the comprehensive research program.

  14. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  15. Seismic hazard along a crude oil pipeline in the event of an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.H.M.; Chen, C.H.S.

    1990-04-16

    An assessment of the seismic hazard that exists along the major crude oil pipeline running through the New Madrid seismic zone from southeastern Louisiana to Patoka, Illinois is examined in the report. An 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake with moment magnitude 8.2 is assumed to occur at three locations where large historical earthquakes have occurred. Six pipeline crossings of the major rivers in West Tennessee are chosen as the sites for hazard evaluation because of the liquefaction potential at these sites. A seismologically-based model is used to predict the bedrock accelerations. Uncertainties in three model parameters, i.e., stress parameter, cutoff frequency, and strong-motion duration are included in the analysis. Each parameter is represented by three typical values. From the combination of these typical values, a total of 27 earthquake time histories can be generated for each selected site due to an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake occurring at a postulated seismic source.

  16. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  17. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section...

  19. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  20. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  1. 77 FR 31347 - High Prairie Pipeline, LLC v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, High Prairie Pipeline, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Prairie Pipeline, LLC v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership;...

  2. Turbine cooling waxy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, J.S.

    1987-10-27

    A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

  3. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  4. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  5. Helping Kids Succeed--Alaskan Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Alaska School Boards, Juneau.

    The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for individuals helping to make Alaskan communities places where youth can grow up to be strong, capable, and caring. The book is built around the Search Institute's Youth Developmental Assets Framework, which is comprised of the key building blocks in youth development. The book notes 40 assets that…

  6. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  7. Landscape scale ecological monitoring as part of an EIA of major construction activities: experience at the Turkish section of the BTC crude oil pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sükran; Kurum, Ekrem

    2009-09-01

    Ecological monitoring is a complementary component of the overall environmental management and monitoring program of any Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report. The monitoring method should be developed for each project phase and allow for periodic reporting and assessment of compliance with the environmental conditions and requirements of the EIA. Also, this method should incorporate a variance request program since site-specific conditions can affect construction on a daily basis and require time-critical application of alternative construction scenarios or environmental management methods integrated with alternative mitigation measures. Finally, taking full advantage of the latest information and communication technologies can enhance the quality of, and public involvement in, the environmental management program. In this paper, a landscape-scale ecological monitoring method for major construction projects is described using, as a basis, 20 months of experience on the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Crude Oil Pipeline Project, covering Turkish Sections Lot B and Lot C. This analysis presents suggestions for improving ecological monitoring for major construction activities.

  8. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  10. Russian Arctic battles pipeline leak

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1995-05-12

    An estimated 100,000 barrels of oil have leaked from a corroded pipeline in northern Russia`s Komi Republic since last August. The oil threatens salmon fisheries and marshlands used for grazing cattle and raindeer. This article discusses the spill in relation to other large spills and the possible ecological damage. Russian authorities, first reluctant to come to grips with the spill, are changing their attitudes, a position essential to gaining access to threatened regions for important monitoring studies.

  11. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  12. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  14. Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives Since 1867.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Thomas Robert

    The study compiles and records the history of the administration of education for Alaskan natives since the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1876. Chapter 1, An Overview of the Development of the Alaskan Native, covers the development of missionary and government schools, the growth and development of Native education from 1906…

  15. Pipeline Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  16. Speedy repair returns Basin Pipeline to service

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that a ruptured section of the Basin Pipeline, a 24-in., crude-oil line 25 miles northeast of Wichita Falls, Tex., was quickly replaced after the Red River cut a new channel and damaged the pipeline during May 30-31 flooding. Until that time, the pipeline, operated by Texaco Pipeline Inc., had safely delivered more than 400,000 b/d of crude oil from Jal, N.M., to Cushing, Okla. Because of flooding caused by heavy rains, the river broke through a levee, traversed a flood plain, then cut a new channel about 1,000 ft wide and 16 ft deep, approximately 1,000 ft north of its original shore. It was under the new channel that the pipeline rupture occurred. There was no damage at the original spanned crossing of the river. Also described are the welding progress and the procedures involved in removal of the damaged pipe.

  17. Pipelines & Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Edward A.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a poster describing how oil is made, discovered, recovered, distributed, and used with suggestions for using it. Includes cards for an oil vocabulary game with its playing instructions and seven oil scramble words. Gives three addresses of sources for additional information. (YP)

  18. A multi-dimensional high performance liquid chromatographic method for fingerprinting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkyl-homologs in the heavy gas oil fraction of Alaskan North Slope crude.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Helferty, Anjali; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2007-07-13

    We report an offline multi-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique for the group separation and analysis of PAHs in a heavy gas oil fraction (boiling range 287-481 degrees C). Waxes present in the heavy gas oil fraction were precipitated using cold acetone at -20 degrees C. Recovery studies showed that the extract contained 93% (+/-1%; n=3) of the PAHs that were originally present while the wax residue contained only 6% (+/-0.5%; n=3). PAHs present in the extract were fractionated, based on number of rings, into five fractions using a semi-preparative silica column (normal-phase HPLC). These fractions were analyzed using reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). The method separated alkyl and un-substituted PAHs on two reverse-phase columns in series using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. UV spectra of the chromatographic peaks were used to differentiate among PAH groups. Further characterization of PAHs within a given group to determine the substituent alkyl carbon number used retention time matching with a suite of alkyl-PAH standards. Naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene and fluorene and their C1-C4 alkyl isomers were quantified. The concentrations of these compounds obtained using the current method were compared with that of a GC-MS analysis obtained from an independent oil chemistry laboratory. PMID:17482627

  19. Recession holds quarterly pipeline building costs to less than 1%

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-02-21

    Pipeline construction costs for the first 6 months of 1982 were substantially retarded when material costs fell drastically. Discusses first half (1982) cost components; steel line pipe; rail freight rates; labor rates; pumping unit costs; and steel storage tanks. Presents graphs showing the OGJ-Morgan oil pipeline cost index and cost component indexes. Gives table which indicates that the total composite cost index for building oil pipelines increased a meager 0.97.

  20. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1013 - Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1013 Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants. Failure to comply...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In addition...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1017 - Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for construction under pipeline... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1017 Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The lessee shall ensure the...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An applicant,...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted under the...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1018 Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) Assignment may be made of a...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1011 Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. (a) When you apply for,...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You must submit an original...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A right-of-way grant or a...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  5. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for the Alaskan Arctic from four recent model intercomparison projects - NACP (North American Carbon Program) site and regional syntheses, TRENDY (Trends in net land atmosphere carbon exchanges), and WETCHIMP (Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project) - we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) for each quantity that follows. Mean annual absolute uncertainty was largest for soil carbon (14.0 ± 9.2 kg C m-2), then gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01 ± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), and CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). There were no consistent spatial patterns in the larger Alaskan Arctic and boreal regional carbon stocks and fluxes, with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic and larger boreal region.

  6. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  7. Subsea Target Measurement Technique of High Resolution Multi-Beam Sonar System -A Case Study of Ocean Oil & Gas Production Platform and Pipeline Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Tang, Q.; Zhou, X.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: with fast development of modern science and technology, subsea pipeline detection means have been increasingly improved which have not only improved detection efficiency, but also extremely advanced the detection precision. The article has integrated the performance characteristics of high resolution multi-beam measurement system in recent years, which has introduced the relevant technique and detection achievement of subsea pipeline detecting (especially for exposed pipeline) by detection cases. The final detection result has been verified that high resolution multi-beam measurement system could accurately detect subsea minisize target object, which has provided the technical reference with popularization and application of new characteristics.

  8. 77 FR 48112 - Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... enforcement authority for oil spill response plan compliance under section 4202 of the Oil Pollution Act of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 190, 192, 193, 195, and 199 RIN 2137-AE29 Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections AGENCY: Pipeline...

  9. Frequency of genes in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways within bacterial populations from Alaskan sediments.

    PubMed

    Sotsky, J B; Greer, C W; Atlas, R M

    1994-11-01

    A significant proportion of the naturally occurring hydrocarbon-degrading populations within Alaskan sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill had both the xylE and alkB genes and could convert hexadecane and naphthalene to carbon dioxide; a greater proportion of the population had xylE than had alkB, reflecting the composition of the residual oil at the time of sampling; nearly equal populations with xylE alone, alkB alone, and xylE + alkB genes together were found after exposure to fresh crude oil; populations with xylE lacking alkB increased after enrichment on naphthalene. Thus, the genotypes of hydrocarbon-degrading populations reflected the composition of the hydrocarbons to which they were exposed. PMID:7804909

  10. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  11. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  12. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements.

  13. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  14. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  15. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, A. M.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) against the mean (x\\bar) for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x\\bar) was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), then net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m-2). The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity) analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β) and climate (γ), which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  16. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline—soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West—East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  17. Seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Nyman, D.J.; Hammond, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The status of knowledge on the seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States is reviewed. Types of ground response to earthquake motions that result in pipeline failure and pipeline response to such motions are discussed. The primary focus is on oil and gas transmission lines constructed of welded steel pipe. Results of vulnerability studies, the need for better determination of the potential for existing pipeline failures, and design procedures for new pipelines are presented.

  18. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  19. Subacute necrotising encephalopathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A; Robinson, T; Cooper, B J; Brenner, O; O'Toole, T D; Olson, J; Beckman, K B; Glass, E; Reynolds, A J

    1999-12-01

    A 29-month-old female Alaskan husky was presented recumbent, tetraparetic and in a state of dementia, with blindness and cranial nerve deficits. The dog's progress was followed for over two months, as the signs resolved to an non-progressive mild hypermetria with slight proprioceptive ataxia, a diminished menace response and inability to prehend food. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cavitation extending from the thalamus to the medulla, with less pronounced degenerative lesions in the caudate nucleus, putamen and claustrum. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations were in their normal ranges. Necropsy and histological examination confirmed the MRI findings as well as neuronal degeneration of the cerebellar cortex in the vermis and degenerative changes in the neocortex at the depths of the cerebral sulci. In view of the similarity of lesions to subacute necrotising encephalomyelopathy, known as Leigh's disease in humans, a tentative diagnosis of a mitochondrial encephalopathy was made.

  20. Gastritis in Alaskan racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, J W; Davis, M S; Breshears, M A; Willard, M D; Williamson, K K; Royer, C M; Payton, M E; Cragun, A S

    2011-07-01

    Alaskan racing sled dogs are a well-established model of exercise-induced gastric disease. The aim of this study was to define the temporal development of microscopical gastric lesions during long distance racing. Two groups of dogs were examined: group I comprised conditioned dogs that were exercising and group II were conditioned dogs not exercising. The gastric mucosa was examined endoscopically and sampled for routine histopathology and microscopical scoring, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and detection of apoptotic epithelial cells. Overall, group I dogs exhibited more significant epithelial lesions, including ulcers, compared with dogs in group II. Group II dogs exhibited the most severe mucosal inflammatory infiltrates. Although the intensity of inflammation differed, the nature of the inflammation was similar between groups, consisting of diffuse lymphocytic infiltration and a unique interface-type infiltrate that obscured the basement membrane zone and was accompanied by intraepithelial infiltration of lymphocytes. IHC confirmed the presence of CD3(+) T and CD79(+) B lymphocytes within the mucosal infiltrates; however, most of the intraepithelial and interface infiltrates were CD3(+) T cells. Spiral-shaped bacterial organisms were seen in the gastric tissues; however, their presence did not correlate with either the severity of epithelial lesions, inflammation or the pattern of interface inflammation. The number of apoptotic epithelial cells was widely variable and not significantly different between groups. These findings confirm previous observations that gastric ulcers develop in conditioned dogs under racing stress. The unique nature of the interface-type gastric inflammation is similar to that of human lymphocytic gastritis and may suggest an immune-mediated mechanism for the changes seen in Alaskan racing sled dogs.

  1. OMAE 1994. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Fernandez, M.L.; Thygesen, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The pipeline industry in the 1990s faces significant technical challenges requiring innovative design, operating, and maintenance strategies. Public safety, system reliability, environmental issues, and cost reductions are constant concerns. These and other issues are developed and expanded upon in this conference proceedings that represents one volume of a five volume set pertaining to offshore development of mineral resources, predominantly oil and gas. Papers deal with materials and corrosion; numerical modeling; pipeline design and integrity; geotechnical and permafrost; operation and maintenance; pipeline laying in deep water; on-bottom stability; and various case histories.

  2. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  3. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  4. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R. ); Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A. )

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the [delta][sup +13]C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average [minus]29.3 0.1%. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average [delta][sup 13]C value of [minus]23.8 [+-]0.1%. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggestes a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt ([delta][sup +13]C = [minus]23.6%) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil-like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Carlson, Paul R.; Threlkeld, Charles N.; Warden, Augusta

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the δ13C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average -29.3 ±0.1‰. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average δ13C value of -23.8 ±0.1‰. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggests a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt (δ13C = -23.6‰) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil- like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound.

  6. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  7. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  8. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  9. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-21

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  10. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  11. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  12. Records set, drilling calculation refined in Dutch pipeline crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Spiekhout, J.; Gorter, J.; Hartlief )

    1993-01-04

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling for pipeline installation which made significant progress in The Netherlands in 1991 with establishment of two diameter records and development of a simplified design calculation method. The records were established in two natural gas pipeline projects by N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen. In companion, waterway-crossing projects, installation of two 48-in. gas lines by directional drilling set a record for diameter-to-length ratio. Also, directional drilling for a 36-in. pipeline crossing established a record for entry and exit angles for such large-diameter pipe. Precise location was particularly important in this second project because a pipeline bundle (12-in. insulated oil pipeline, 10-in. chloride pipeline, 12-in. nitrogen pipeline) was installed to run parallel over part of the distance.

  13. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 3: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    The third book in a series of natural science handbooks for Alaskan students focuses on Alaskan plantlife. The first chapter, on trees, gives general information about trees and explains how to identify and locate trees in the three main Alaskan tree families: pine, willow, and birch. The second chapter, on plants, describes 14 kinds of edible…

  14. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  16. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  7. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  9. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  10. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  16. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  17. Structural monitoring helps assess deformations in Arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, K.J.; Lara, P.F.

    1986-11-10

    Advanced structural monitoring systems can play an important role in the evaluation of arctic pipeline distortions along the alignment. These systems can influence pipeline design requirements, reduce capital costs, and improve operating reliability. Differential soil movements resulting from terrain instabilities are the main features which threaten a pipeline's structural integrity and affect the design of buried pipeline systems in the Arctic. Economic, aesthetic, and safety concerns make conventional buried construction an optimum design choice for an arctic crude-oil or gas-pipeline transportation system. However, variable frozen and thawed soil conditions underlying the pipeline along a discontinuous permafrost corridor pose a challenge to the design and operation of such systems. Crude-oil pipelines which must operate at elevated temperatures can be installed in unfrozen soils or in permafrost soils where initially frozen segments will exhibit limited settlement under the thawed conditions imposed by pipeline construction and operation. Ice-rich portions of the frozen alignment may have an unacceptable settlement potential for a warm buried pipeline. In contrast, natural-gas pipelines can be operated cold to increase throughput capability and to prevent the problems associated with thawing permafrost.

  18. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  19. Risk-managed approach for routing petroleum pipelines: Keystone XL pipeline, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Roy F; Hirsh, Aaron J

    2012-12-01

    TransCanada's proposed international crude oil pipeline route over sensitive, relatively pristine, subirrigated land underlain by the Ogallala aquifer led to increased scrutiny and eventual rejection of the Keystone XL pipeline. Pipeline routing could be made much more acceptable by adopting risk-managed routes that lessen the potential to adversely impact high-quality groundwater and, should a release occur, decrease the longevity of hazardous groundwater contaminants. Threats to water quality are taken quite seriously in states like Nebraska where 85% of the population depend on groundwater for potable water.

  20. Risk-managed approach for routing petroleum pipelines: Keystone XL pipeline, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Roy F; Hirsh, Aaron J

    2012-12-01

    TransCanada's proposed international crude oil pipeline route over sensitive, relatively pristine, subirrigated land underlain by the Ogallala aquifer led to increased scrutiny and eventual rejection of the Keystone XL pipeline. Pipeline routing could be made much more acceptable by adopting risk-managed routes that lessen the potential to adversely impact high-quality groundwater and, should a release occur, decrease the longevity of hazardous groundwater contaminants. Threats to water quality are taken quite seriously in states like Nebraska where 85% of the population depend on groundwater for potable water. PMID:23134326

  1. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI...

  3. 78 FR 42061 - Notice of Complaint; Chevron Products Company v. Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... 343.2(c) of the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.1(a... Pipeline Company, LLC Take notice that on July 3, 2013, pursuant to sections 13(1), 15(1) and 16(1) of the... Products Pipeline Company, LLC (Respondent) challenging the lawfulness of the Respondent's FERC Tariff...

  4. Strength and deformation characteristics of Alaskan offshore silts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive series of undrained shear tests were performed on representative samples of Alaskan silts in both the normally consolidated and overconsolidated state. The type of tests performed were triaxial compression and extension, torvane and miniature laboratory vane tests. It was found that the Alaskan silt exhibited dilative behavior during undrained shear. Also, the silt is highly anisotropic with respect to the stress-strain characteristics and the undrained shear strength. Sample disturbance reduced the measured strength in the unconsolidated undrained tests. The normalized strength parameter was shown to vary from one silt to another. The importance of evaluating the properties of each new silt deposit are described.

  5. 76 FR 17430 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activities: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau...: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands... pipeline on or across the outer Continental Shelf of oil or gas shall require that the pipeline be...

  6. Oil Spill Dispersion Forecasting System for the Region of Installation of the Burgas Alexandroulopis Pipeline Outlet(N.E. Aegean) in the Framework of ``DIAVLOS'' Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzali, M.; Sofianos, S.; Kallos, G.; Mantziafou, A.; Zafeirakou, A.; Dermisis, V.; Koutitas, Ch.; Zervakis, V.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the project DIAVLOS, a 48-hours oil spill dispersion forecasting system was developed and implemented in the Northern Aegean Sea aiming at oil spill dispersion management at the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil-pipe terminal (N.E. Aegean Sea). The system is based on wind, wave and ocean circulation models coupled with the operational systems ALERMO and SKIRON of the University of Athens and an oil-spill dispersion model. The various components of the system were successfully developed, improved through sensitivity tests and coupled to form an operational oil spill dispersion forecasting system, available at an independent and interactive web-site (http://diavlos.oc.phys.uoa.gr), in order to be used by interested authorities. The system was also tested against field observations of special drifting floats that monitor the trajection and spreading of oil spills. It gives satisfactory results and in most cases the forecasting error is quite small, allowing the operational use of the system. Additionally, high-resolution atmospheric and oceanic forecasting in the region is provided, to facilitate operations to contain oil spill spreading/beaching.

  7. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  8. EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL INOCULA IN ENHANCING BIODEGRADATION OF WEATHERED CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATING A PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a laboratory study evaluating the effectiveness of 10 commercial products in stimulating enhanced biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil, two of the products provided significantly greater alkane degradation in closed flasks than indigenous Alaskan bacterial population...

  9. Microbial communities in bulk fluids and biofilms of an oil facility have similar composition but different structure.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Bradley S; Drilling, Heather S; Lawson, Paul A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Parisi, Victoria A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2011-04-01

    The oil-water-gas environments of oil production facilities harbour abundant and diverse microbial communities that can participate in deleterious processes such as biocorrosion. Several molecular methods, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA libraries, were used to characterize the microbial communities from an oil production facility on the Alaskan North Slope. The communities in produced water and a sample from a 'pig envelope' were compared in order to identify specific populations or communities associated with biocorrosion. The 'pigs' are used for physical mitigation of pipeline corrosion and fouling and the samples are enriched in surface-associated solids (i.e. paraffins, minerals and biofilm) and coincidentally, microorganisms (over 10(5) -fold). Throughout the oil production facility, bacteria were more abundant (10- to 150-fold) than archaea, with thermophilic members of the phyla Firmicutes (Thermoanaerobacter and Thermacetogenium) and Synergistes (Thermovirga) dominating the community. However, the structure (relative abundances of taxa) of the microbial community in the pig envelope was distinct due to the increased relative abundances of the genera Thermacetogenium and Thermovirga. The data presented here suggest that bulk fluid is representative of the biofilm communities associated with biocorrosion but that certain populations are more abundant in biofilms, which should be the focus of monitoring and mitigation strategies.

  10. Microbial communities in bulk fluids and biofilms of an oil facility have similar composition but different structure.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Bradley S; Drilling, Heather S; Lawson, Paul A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Parisi, Victoria A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2011-04-01

    The oil-water-gas environments of oil production facilities harbour abundant and diverse microbial communities that can participate in deleterious processes such as biocorrosion. Several molecular methods, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA libraries, were used to characterize the microbial communities from an oil production facility on the Alaskan North Slope. The communities in produced water and a sample from a 'pig envelope' were compared in order to identify specific populations or communities associated with biocorrosion. The 'pigs' are used for physical mitigation of pipeline corrosion and fouling and the samples are enriched in surface-associated solids (i.e. paraffins, minerals and biofilm) and coincidentally, microorganisms (over 10(5) -fold). Throughout the oil production facility, bacteria were more abundant (10- to 150-fold) than archaea, with thermophilic members of the phyla Firmicutes (Thermoanaerobacter and Thermacetogenium) and Synergistes (Thermovirga) dominating the community. However, the structure (relative abundances of taxa) of the microbial community in the pig envelope was distinct due to the increased relative abundances of the genera Thermacetogenium and Thermovirga. The data presented here suggest that bulk fluid is representative of the biofilm communities associated with biocorrosion but that certain populations are more abundant in biofilms, which should be the focus of monitoring and mitigation strategies. PMID:21261797

  11. Policy Statements on Collection Development. A Compendium from Alaskan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Carol, Ed.

    Developed as part of a statewide coordinated collection development effort, this document is a compendium of the narrative statements of collection development policies from 19 Alaskan university, public, school, and special libraries. Only the basic narrative plus any unique appendices are included for each policy, and some of the policies are…

  12. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  13. Definition of Alaskan Aviation Training Requirements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, M. K.; And Others

    Because of high accident rates and the unique conditions faced in Arctic flying, a project was conducted to develop a training program for airline pilots flying over Alaska. Data were gathered, through the critical incident method in conjunction with traditional job-analysis procedures, about how experienced Alaskan pilots learned to cope with the…

  14. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  15. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  16. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Science. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Gary; Costello, Bill

    STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th graders on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been using…

  17. Adequacy of the regulatory oversight of the Trans-Alaska pipeline and terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Exxon Valdez spill abruptly brought to the nation's attention the risks of transporting crude oil. While oil tanker transportation received many of the headlines, the safety of pipelines carrying oil and the terminals that store it have also been called into question. GAO testified on the adequacy of regulatory oversight of the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and the terminal at Valdez, Alaska. This paper reports increased and coordinated regulatory oversight as a major component of an effective operational and emergency response strategy for the pipeline. The current lack of comprehensive and systematic oversight is of particular concern because of recent revelations of significant corrosion problems in the pipeline.

  18. Women and Rapid Economic Change: The Alaska Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Monica E.

    The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline project and accompanying increases in economic wealth have had an enormous impact, particularly on Alaskan women. Prior to pipeline construction, the civilian labor force participation by Alaskan women was close to the national average. During and since pipeline construction, this participation rate has soared.…

  19. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M.; Chesnut, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  20. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  1. Innovative Techniques of Multiphase Flow in Pipeline System for Oil-Gas Gathering and Transportation with Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bofeng; Guo, Liejin; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhang, Ximin; Gu, Hanyang

    2010-03-01

    Multiphase flow measurement, desanding, dehumidification and heat furnace are critical techniques for the oil and gas gathering and transportation, which influnce intensively the energy-saving and emission-reduction in the petroleum industry. Some innovative techniques were developed for the first time by the present research team, including an online recognation instrument of multiphase flow regime, a water fraction instrument for multuphase flow, a coiled tube desanding separator with low pressure loss and high efficiency, a supersonic swirling natural gas dehumifier, and a vacuum phase-change boiler. With an integration of the above techniques, a new oil gas gathering and transpotation system was proposed, which reduced the establishment of one metering station and several transfer stations compared with the tranditional system. The oil and gas mixture transpotation in single pipes was realized. The improved techniques were applied in the oilfields in China and promoted the productivity of the oilfields by low energy consumption, low emissions, high efficiency and great security.

  2. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 29.21-9 Section 29.21-9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... Gathering lines and associated structures used solely in the production of oil and gas under valid leases on... adjacent foreign state and reenters the United States, shall be subject to all of the limitation...

  3. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  4. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  5. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  6. Pipeline padding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Osadchuk, M.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a pipeline padding assembly for movement on a surface in a forward direction along the side of an excavated pipeline trough while separating fine material from excavated spoil piled on the underlying soil surface and placing the fine material in the pipeline trough. It comprises vehicle means adapted for movement on the surface along the pipeline trough; means for separating spoil into fine material and rough material; means for returning fine material from the separating means into the pipeline trough; means for transferring spoil piled along the pipeline trough to the separator means; a spoil guide positioned in the front of the transferring means and having an open bottom configuration which is open substantially the entire width of the transferring means; at least two spaced guide projections being on the spoil guide; a flat, planar extending ground engaging lower surface on each the guide projection.

  7. Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel M. (Inventor); Littman, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multinode parallel-processing computer is made up of a plurality of innerconnected, large capacity nodes each including a reconfigurable pipeline of functional units such as Integer Arithmetic Logic Processors, Floating Point Arithmetic Processors, Special Purpose Processors, etc. The reconfigurable pipeline of each node is connected to a multiplane memory by a Memory-ALU switch NETwork (MASNET). The reconfigurable pipeline includes three (3) basic substructures formed from functional units which have been found to be sufficient to perform the bulk of all calculations. The MASNET controls the flow of signals from the memory planes to the reconfigurable pipeline and vice versa. the nodes are connectable together by an internode data router (hyperspace router) so as to form a hypercube configuration. The capability of the nodes to conditionally configure the pipeline at each tick of the clock, without requiring a pipeline flush, permits many powerful algorithms to be implemented directly.

  8. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  9. Hereditary encephalomyelopathy and polyneuropathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A

    2009-12-01

    An Alaskan husky puppy was examined for a neurologic disease which began at six weeks of age with generalised paresis that progressed resulting in recumbency by 18 weeks. Thoracic limbs primarily exhibited lower motor neuron signs that included distal muscle atrophy and persistent elbow and carpal flexion that resisted manual extension. Pelvic limb signs primarily exhibited upper motor neuron and general proprioceptive deficits, but also included lower motor neuron signs. Abnormal vocalisation suggested a laryngeal paresis. Histopathologic lesions included a diffuse axonopathy and secondary demyelination in the nerves of the limbs and larynx and a similar bilaterally symmetrical degeneration in the spinal cord white matter suggestive of a dying back axonopathy. In addition, a degenerative process was present in nuclei in the brain stem and cerebellum. Recognition of this disease through clinical and pathologic examination in other related Alaskan Huskies suggested an autosomal recessive inherited disorder.

  10. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI...

  11. 75 FR 17706 - Flint Hills Resources, LP, Complainant v. Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC, Respondent; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... 385.206; the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.2 and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources, LP, Complainant v. Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC... Hills Resources, LP (Complainant) filed a complaint against Mid-America Pipeline Company,...

  12. 78 FR 46938 - St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC v. Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 385.206, and section 343.1(a) of the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline... Energy Regulatory Commission St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC v. Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC... a formal complaint against Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC (Respondent) pursuant to sections...

  13. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  14. European pipelines spill near record amounts in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-06

    European pipelines in 1993 spilled as much crude oil and petroleum products as in any year since 1971, when statistics first began to be reported. Final cost of cleanup will exceed $10 million, by far the most ever spent by western European oil pipelines operating on land. This cost figure is only preliminary: costs for three spills totaling nearly 2,600 cu m (approximately 16,380 bbl; 43.6% of total spilled) had not been reported through November 1994. Ten incidents of oil spills from pipelines occurred in 1993, compared with seven for 1992 and an average of 12.7/year since 1971. Total length of oil industry cross-country pipelines operating in Western Europe at the end of 1993 was 21,600 km, up from nearly 19,000 km in 1989. In all, 601 million cu m (3.8 billion bbl) of crude oil and refined products moved through the pipeline system. The paper briefly describes several of the accidents.

  15. H. R. 3277: Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Reform Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, September 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill would improve Federal laws relating to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System in light of the recent Valdez oil spill and its environmental consequences. The bill explains provisions for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System fund and liability; the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System trust fund; improvement of the pipeline system (establishes a Presidential task force); Alaska oil spill recovery institute; penalties; provisions applicable to Alaska natives; and state laws and programs.

  16. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  17. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  18. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  19. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-08-01

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  20. The influence of petroleum acids and solid surface energy on pipeline wettability in relation to hydrate deposition.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, G; Høiland, S; Barth, T; Askvik, K M

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms by which hydrates deposit in a petroleum production-line are probably related to pipeline surface properties, e.g. pipeline material, surface energy and roughness. In this work, the wettability alteration of pipeline surfaces from contact with oil, and the adhesion energy between water and solid in the presence of oil is investigated. Contact angles for model systems are determined as a function of solid material and oil composition. Although contact angles in oil/brine/solid systems have previously been extensively reported in the literature, the variety of solids that mimic a pipeline surface is limited. In this study, we include various metal surfaces in addition to glass and epoxy coating. The results show that both the presence of petroleum acids in the oil, and low surface free energy of the pipeline material, lead to more oil-wet systems and consequently reduced adhesion energy between water and solid.

  1. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chard Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

  5. Impact of nitrate on the structure and function of bacterial biofilm communities in pipelines used for injection of seawater into oil fields.

    PubMed

    Schwermer, Carsten U; Lavik, Gaute; Abed, Raeid M M; Dunsmore, Braden; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Stoodley, Paul; Gieseke, Armin; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-05-01

    We studied the impact of NO(3)(-) on the bacterial community composition, diversity, and function in in situ industrial, anaerobic biofilms by combining microsensor profiling, (15)N and (35)S labeling, and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting. Biofilms were grown on carbon steel coupons within a system designed to treat seawater for injection into an oil field for pressurized oil recovery. NO(3)(-) was added to the seawater in an attempt to prevent bacterial H(2)S generation and microbially influenced corrosion in the field. Microprofiling of nitrogen compounds and redox potential inside the biofilms showed that the zone of highest metabolic activity was located close to the metal surface, correlating with a high bacterial abundance in this zone. Upon addition, NO(3)(-) was mainly reduced to NO(2)(-). In biofilms grown in the absence of NO(3)(-), redox potentials of <-450 mV at the metal surface suggested the release of Fe(2+). NO(3)(-) addition to previously untreated biofilms induced a decline (65%) in bacterial species richness, with Methylophaga- and Colwellia-related sequences having the highest number of obtained clones in the clone library. In contrast, no changes in community composition and potential NO(3)(-) reduction occurred upon subsequent withdrawal of NO(3)(-). Active sulfate reduction was below detection levels in all biofilms, but S isotope fractionation analysis of sulfide deposits suggested that it must have occurred either at low rates or episodically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that pitting corrosion occurred on all coupons, independent of the treatment. However, uniform corrosion was clearly mitigated by NO(3)(-) addition. PMID:18344353

  6. Numerical simulation of pipeline deformation caused by rockfall impact.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liang, Zheng; Han, Chuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Rockfall impact is one of the fatal hazards in pipeline transportation of oil and gas. The deformation of oil and gas pipeline caused by rockfall impact was investigated using the finite element method in this paper. Pipeline deformations under radial impact, longitudinal inclined impact, transverse inclined impact, and lateral eccentric impact of spherical and cube rockfalls were discussed, respectively. The effects of impact angle and eccentricity on the plastic strain of pipeline were analyzed. The results show that the crater depth on pipeline caused by spherical rockfall impact is deeper than by cube rockfall impact with the same volume. In the inclined impact condition, the maximum plastic strain of crater caused by spherical rockfall impact appears when incidence angle α is 45°. The pipeline is prone to rupture under the cube rockfall impact when α is small. The plastic strain distribution of impact crater is more uneven with the increasing of impact angle. In the eccentric impact condition, plastic strain zone of pipeline decreases with the increasing of eccentricity k.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Pipeline Deformation Caused by Rockfall Impact

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zheng; Han, Chuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Rockfall impact is one of the fatal hazards in pipeline transportation of oil and gas. The deformation of oil and gas pipeline caused by rockfall impact was investigated using the finite element method in this paper. Pipeline deformations under radial impact, longitudinal inclined impact, transverse inclined impact, and lateral eccentric impact of spherical and cube rockfalls were discussed, respectively. The effects of impact angle and eccentricity on the plastic strain of pipeline were analyzed. The results show that the crater depth on pipeline caused by spherical rockfall impact is deeper than by cube rockfall impact with the same volume. In the inclined impact condition, the maximum plastic strain of crater caused by spherical rockfall impact appears when incidence angle α is 45°. The pipeline is prone to rupture under the cube rockfall impact when α is small. The plastic strain distribution of impact crater is more uneven with the increasing of impact angle. In the eccentric impact condition, plastic strain zone of pipeline decreases with the increasing of eccentricity k. PMID:24959599

  8. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... April 2, 2012, PHMSA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) seeking to revise the...

  9. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778; 12/15/2003...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...). SUMMARY: PHMSA is considering whether changes are needed to the regulations governing the safety of...

  10. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  17. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  1. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  3. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  4. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  5. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  6. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  7. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  8. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  9. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  10. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  11. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  16. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  17. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  18. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  19. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  20. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is

  1. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  2. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  3. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  4. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  5. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  6. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  7. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  8. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  9. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  10. An Authentic Voice in the Technocratic Wilderness: Alaskan Natives and the "Tundra Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick; James, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Examines a pair of critical challenges to the cultural integrity of Alaskan Natives around 1960 as pivotal episodes in the process of native resistance to U. S. dominance. Historically evaluates the fragility of native culture in terms of the political, scientific, and economic interests expressed in the mainstream Alaskan press, particularly the…

  11. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... live Alaskan reindeer may pass to the deceased owner's Native heirs by descent or devise. (b) In...

  12. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  13. European pipeline spills in 1990 fewest on record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports that fewer spills from petroleum pipelines occurred in Western Europe in 1990 than in any of the previous 20 years for which such statistics have been compiled. Only three reportable spills occurred in 1990, the most recent year for which data have been compiled. Total amount of spilled crude oil and petroleum product amounted to 582 cu m (3,667 bbl), of which 520 cu m (3,276 bbl) were lost in the environment. The gross quantity spilled has only been lower once, in 1975. The results were reported by Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (Concawe), Brussels, in its annual report Performance of Oil Industry Cross-Country Pipelines in Western Europe. Sixty-three companies operating oil pipelines in Western Europe participated in the report.

  14. Impacts of recent environmental regulations on pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Irion, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years pipeline facilities have been subjected to an increasing variety of interpretations by state and regional agencies concerning agency jurisdiction over the regulation of environmental activities at breakout tanks, pump stations, and terminals. The focus of agency interpretation is not on the pipelines themselves, but on loading and unloading activities and on auxiliary tankage. Loading and unloading activities can be to truck, railcar or barge. Tanks are used in a variety of pipeline operations. Tanks are used to collect from gathering lines and transport to a refinery. Tanks can be used to gather and offload to a truck, railcar or vessel. Other tanks are receipt for unloading by ship or barge, which is then transferred by pipeline to a refining or distribution facility. Pipelines, like other industries, were regulated solely by a single agency prior to the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Until recently, pipelines and their connecting tankage were regulated as transportation facilities under the Department of Transportation (DOT). Although the prevention of pollution of surface water by oil and petroleum products is one of the earliest environmental regulations, dating back to 1970, most of the pipeline facilities remained exempt from most environmental regulation by EPA until very recently. Within the last decade, and accelerating within the last five years, pipeline facilities have been increasingly affected by several burgeoning environmental regulations. A summary of the effects and consequences, as well as suggestions for avoiding unnecessary regulation, are presented.

  15. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  16. Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

  17. 75 FR 57285 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines, Extension of a Collection... Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands Act. DATES: Submit written comments by November 19... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the...

  18. (Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklind, C.A.; Bennett, F.L. . Inst. of Northern Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology.

  19. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2003-12-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the US have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by maurer Technology, noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R and D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. They plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. They also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. They are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. They hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, the goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  20. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by Maurer Technology, Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. We plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. We also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. We are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. We hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, our goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  1. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-07-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  2. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-06-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  3. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  4. Four barges mobilized for job: Indian offshore pipeline work demands comprehensive coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and commissioning timeframe developed for the Oil and Natural Gas Commission of India. Offshore Hyundai International Inc. and Offshore Pipelines International have completed the installation of 47 pipelines, six platforms, and a single-point mooring system in the Arabian Sea. The coordination and work scheduling problems are described along with the engineered placement of the pipelines in an already congested area.

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCTS IN SALT AND FRESHWATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten oil spill bioremediation products were tested in the laboratory for their ability to enhance biodegradation of weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil in both fresh and salt-water media. The products included: nutrients to stimulate inoculated microorganisms, nutrients plus a...

  6. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  7. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new

  8. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2004-11-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the

  9. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  11. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  12. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  13. 30 CFR 550.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the bond coverage required in 30 CFR part 256 and 30 CFR part 556) that guarantees compliance with all... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and...

  14. 30 CFR 550.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the bond coverage required in 30 CFR part 256 and 30 CFR part 556) that guarantees compliance with all... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  17. 30 CFR 550.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the bond coverage required in 30 CFR part 256 and 30 CFR part 556) that guarantees compliance with all... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and...

  18. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Thomas Williams; Bjorn Paulsson; Alexander Goertz

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a drilling hazard by the oil and gas industry for years. Drilling engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous problems, including drilling kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates as a potential energy source agree that the resource potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained from physical samples taken from actual hydrate-bearing rocks. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The project team drilled and continuously cored the Hot Ice No. 1 well on Anadarko-leased acreage beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and used for determining physical characteristics of hydrates and surrounding rock. After the well was logged, a 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was recorded to calibrate the shallow geologic section with seismic data and to investigate techniques to better resolve lateral subsurface variations of potential hydrate-bearing strata. Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. deployed their 80 level 3C clamped borehole seismic receiver array in the wellbore to record samples every 25 ft. Seismic vibrators were successively positioned at 1185 different surface positions in a circular pattern around the wellbore. This technique generated a 3D image of the subsurface. Correlations were

  19. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  20. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is...

  1. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: PHMSA and the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  2. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  3. Phlorotannins from Alaskan seaweed inhibit carbolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-10-22

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  4. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  5. Chemical and biological assessment of two offshore drilling sites in the Alaskan Arctic.

    PubMed

    Trefry, John H; Dunton, Kenneth H; Trocine, Robert P; Schonberg, Susan V; McTigue, Nathan D; Hersh, Eric S; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective chemical and biological study was carried out in Camden Bay, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, where single exploratory oil wells were drilled at two sites more than two decades ago. Barium from discharged drilling mud was present in sediments at concentrations as high as 14%, ~200 times above background, with significantly higher concentrations of Ba, but not other metals, within 250 m of the drilling site versus reference stations. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were found only at two stations within 25 m of one drilling site. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; however, TPAH were elevated in Ba-rich layers from naturally occurring perylene in ancient formation cuttings. Infaunal biomass and species abundance were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; infauna were less diverse at drilling-site stations. Our assessment showed that discharges from single wells within large areas caused minimal long-term, adverse impacts to the benthic ecosystem.

  6. Chemical and biological assessment of two offshore drilling sites in the Alaskan Arctic.

    PubMed

    Trefry, John H; Dunton, Kenneth H; Trocine, Robert P; Schonberg, Susan V; McTigue, Nathan D; Hersh, Eric S; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective chemical and biological study was carried out in Camden Bay, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, where single exploratory oil wells were drilled at two sites more than two decades ago. Barium from discharged drilling mud was present in sediments at concentrations as high as 14%, ~200 times above background, with significantly higher concentrations of Ba, but not other metals, within 250 m of the drilling site versus reference stations. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were found only at two stations within 25 m of one drilling site. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; however, TPAH were elevated in Ba-rich layers from naturally occurring perylene in ancient formation cuttings. Infaunal biomass and species abundance were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; infauna were less diverse at drilling-site stations. Our assessment showed that discharges from single wells within large areas caused minimal long-term, adverse impacts to the benthic ecosystem. PMID:23535013

  7. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-04-20

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale within the United States. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies (so called WRE450 and WRE550 stabilization scenarios) and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The analysis reveals that between 11,000 and 23,000 additional miles of dedicated CO2 pipeline might be needed in the U.S. before 2050 across these two cases. While that is a significant increase over the 3,900 miles that comprise the existing national CO2 pipeline infrastructure, it is critically important to realize that the demand for additional CO2 pipeline capacity will unfold relatively slowly and in a geographically dispersed manner as new dedicated CCS-enabled power plants and industrial facilities are brought online. During the period 2010-2030, the growth in the CO2 pipeline system is on the order of a few hundred to less than a thousand miles per year. In comparison during the period 1950-2000, the U.S. natural gas pipeline distribution system grew at rates that far exceed these projections in growth in a future dedicated CO2 pipeline system. This analysis indicates that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a major obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies in the U.S. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be some associated regulatory and siting issues to work through but these issues should not be unmanageable based on the size of infrastructure requirements alone.

  8. Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals Propagation in Buried Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, A. L.; Lapshin, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the issues concerning acoustic signals propagation in the large-diameter oil pipelines caused by mechanical action on the pipe body. Various mechanisms of signals attenuation are discussed. It is shown that the calculation of the attenuation caused only by internal energy loss, i.e, the presence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and liquid pipeline wall friction lead to low results. The results of experimental studies, carried out using the existing pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm. are shown. It is experimentally proved that the main mechanism of signal attenuation is the energy emission into the environment. The numerical values of attenuation coefficients that are 0,14- 0.18 dB/m for the pipeline of 1200 mm in diameter, in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 500 Hz, are determined.

  9. Experience of cathodic protection, fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, S.; Pettersen, N.H.

    1996-08-01

    Statoil is the major operator of the oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. Different coating systems have been used for external corrosion protection of the pipelines. The paper presents the company`s experience regarding cathodic protection design and fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines.

  10. Ekofisk pipelines undergo requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Tangeland, T.G.; Collberg, L.

    1996-09-23

    Requalification of 19 pipelines and 29 risers in the Ekofisk field required new approaches for loads, capacities, and deterioration evaluations and predictions. Requalification is a re-assessment of an installation`s design with changed design parameters so that the facility can continue to operate. In some cases, original design requirements may have been unrealistically conservative. The Ekofisk field experienced seabed subsidence as a result of compaction of the producing formation. A total of 25 pipeline systems with diameters of 6--36 inches now run within the subsidence bowl. The existing pipelines and the risers had to be requalified because of new design conditions. The paper describes Ekofisk subsidence, reasons and regulations for requalification, structural design, materials and corrosion, deterioration mechanisms, subsidence effects, calculation of forces, capacities, accumulated strain, local buckling, and mine lessons learned from the requalification projects.

  11. Recommissioning NPS 30 pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Z.A.; O`Rourke, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will discuss all the steps taken to reclaim an 80 kilometer (50 Mile) NPS 30 pipeline loop, including the project planning, the labor requirements, the techniques utilized to complete the various stages of the project, some of the unique problems encountered, as well as some options that were examined for hydrostatic test leak detection and water treatment. This project was a component of the Trans Mountain, Cdn $30 million, Stage 2 capacity expansion. This component of Stage 2 resulted in an increase of 3,000 m{sup 3}/d (18,909 barrel/d) to the overall pipeline capacity achieving a 36,300 m{sup 3}/d sustainable pipeline pumping capacity (230,000 barrel/d).

  12. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... the ANPRM on this subject that PHMSA published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2009 (74 FR... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule...

  13. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  14. Hydrogen pipeline compressors annual progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.

    2011-07-15

    The objectives are: (1) develop advanced materials and coatings for hydrogen pipeline compressors; (2) achieve greater reliability, greater efficiency, and lower capital in vestment and maintenance costs in hydrogen pipeline compressors; and (3) research existing and novel hydrogen compression technologies that can improve reliability, eliminate contamination, and reduce cost. Compressors are critical components used in the production and delivery of hydrogen. Current reciprocating compressors used for pipeline delivery of hydrogen are costly, are subject to excessive wear, have poor reliability, and often require the use of lubricants that can contaminate the hydrogen (used in fuel cells). Duplicate compressors may be required to assure availability. The primary objective of this project is to identify, and develop as required, advanced materials and coatings that can achieve the friction, wear, and reliability requirements for dynamically loaded components (seal and bearings) in high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen environments prototypical of pipeline and forecourt compressor systems. The DOE Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop identified critical needs in the development of advanced hydrogen compressors - notably, the need to minimize moving parts and to address wear through new designs (centrifugal, linear, guided rotor, and electrochemical) and improved compressor materials. The DOE is supporting several compressor design studies on hydrogen pipeline compression specifically addressing oil-free designs that demonstrate compression in the 0-500 psig to 800-1200 psig range with significant improvements in efficiency, contamination, and reliability/durability. One of the designs by Mohawk Innovative Technologies Inc. (MiTi{reg_sign}) involves using oil-free foil bearings and seals in a centrifual compressor, and MiTi{reg_sign} identified the development of bearings, seals, and oil-free tribological coatings as crucial to the successful

  15. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  16. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  17. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non-contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with nine case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  18. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  19. 77 FR 16052 - Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Number: 1014-0016. Abstract: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1331 et... through the submerged lands of the OCS for pipelines ``* * * for the transportation of oil, natural gas... initial 60-day FR notice and now, BSEE requested and obtained OMB approval via a Notice of Action...

  20. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  1. UQ Pipeline Lorenz Portlet

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    This is web client software that can help initiate UQ Pipeline jobs on LLNL's LC compute systems and visually shows the status of such jobs in a browser window. The web client interacts with LC's interactive compute nodes using (LLNL) Lorenz REST API to initiate action and obtain status data in JSON format.

  2. Pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a great deal of technology and experience in and from the Pneumatic Tube System industry that must be tapped because it is directly and/or indirectly applicable to the Pneumatic Freight Pipeline industry. Otherwise a great deal of time will be spent re-inventing the wheel.

  3. The JWST Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine; Muzerolle, James; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Izela Diaz, Rosa; Bushouse, Howard A.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will launch in 2018 and carry four science instruments that will observe the sky at 0.7 - 29 micron: the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS), the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), and the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is currently building a data reduction pipeline that will provide not only basic calibrated data but also higher level science products. All of the JWST detectors will be operated in non-destructive readout mode. Therefore, the first step in the pipeline will be to calculate the slopes of indivudal non-destructive readout ramps or integrations. The next step will be to generate calibrated slope images that are represent the basic calibrated data. The final step will be to combine data taken across multiple integrations and exposure. For the direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy modes, the pipeline will produce calibrated mosaicks. For the coronagraphic modes, the pipeline will produce contrast curves and PSF subtracted images.

  4. Suppressing turbulence and enhancing liquid suspension flow in pipelines with electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Gu, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Flows through pipes, such as crude oil through pipelines, are the most common and important method of transportation of fluids. To enhance the flow output along the pipeline requires reducing viscosity and suppressing turbulence simultaneously and effectively. Unfortunately, no method is currently available to accomplish both goals simultaneously. Here we show that electrorheology provides an efficient solution. When a strong electric field is applied along the flow direction in a small section of pipeline, the field polarizes and aggregates the particles suspended inside the base liquid into short chains along the flow direction. Such aggregation breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the fluid viscosity anisotropic. In the directions perpendicular to the flow, the viscosity is substantially increased, effectively suppressing the turbulence. Along the flow direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced; thus the flow along the pipeline is enhanced. Recent field tests with a crude oil pipeline fully confirm the theoretical results.

  5. Suppressing turbulence and enhancing liquid suspension flow in pipelines with electrorheology.

    PubMed

    Tao, R; Gu, G Q

    2015-01-01

    Flows through pipes, such as crude oil through pipelines, are the most common and important method of transportation of fluids. To enhance the flow output along the pipeline requires reducing viscosity and suppressing turbulence simultaneously and effectively. Unfortunately, no method is currently available to accomplish both goals simultaneously. Here we show that electrorheology provides an efficient solution. When a strong electric field is applied along the flow direction in a small section of pipeline, the field polarizes and aggregates the particles suspended inside the base liquid into short chains along the flow direction. Such aggregation breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the fluid viscosity anisotropic. In the directions perpendicular to the flow, the viscosity is substantially increased, effectively suppressing the turbulence. Along the flow direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced; thus the flow along the pipeline is enhanced. Recent field tests with a crude oil pipeline fully confirm the theoretical results.

  6. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  7. Linkage among Vegetation, Microbes and Methanogenic Pathways in Alaskan Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sidelinger, W.; Shu, H.; Varner, R. K.; Hines, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands are thought to account for one third of the naturally emitted CH4. However, methane production pathways in northern peatlands are poorly understood, yet are predicted to change in response to vegetation shifts due to warming. Previous studies noted that acetate conversion to methane (acetoclastic methanogenesis, AM) in northern wetlands is largely impeded and acetate accumulates, however AM tends to increase with minerotrophy. To understand methanogenic pathways and to provide linkage among pathways, we studied Alaskan wetlands in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, laboratory incubations were conducted in three peatlands representing trophic gradients from bogs to fens. During 2014, 37 different sites in Fairbanks and Anchorage were studied that represented wetlands with pH values from 3.5 to 5.5 and vegetation from primarily Sphagnum to sedges. Measurements in 2014 included vegetation composition, gases (CH4, CO2, H2, and CO), 13CH4 and 13CO2, volatile fatty acids, DOC, other electron acceptors. Further incubation studies are being conducted to decipher controls on decomposition pathways. Gene sequencing was used to characterize microbial community composition, and metagenomic and transcriptomics were conducted to describe community activity. Results showed that methanogenesis was higher in fens than bogs, but hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (HM) was dominant at all sites. End product ratios showed that AM was occurring in fens, albeit slowly. Fermentation was an important end-point in decomposition and microbial syntrophy was weak. These data, regardless of trophic status, differed greatly from data obtained from temperate wetlands in which terminal respiratory processes were strong and C flow through syntrophy was important. Trophic status influenced C flow in the Alaskan sites, but terminal processes were weak and end product formation tended to end at primary fermentation, which dominated as the terminal step in decomposition.

  8. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  9. Offshore pipeline failures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 1000 offshore pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico Offshore waters has been compiled from combined records of the Department of Transportation Office of pipeline Safety, U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center, and the Department of Interior Minerals Management Service. The data has been analyzed to identify trends and initial recommendations for future data collection have been suggested.

  10. Insulated pipelines between the underwater Manifold Centre and Cormorant a platform in the northern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, G.J.; Brink, F.I.A.; Henry, D.

    1983-05-01

    Oil flows from the UMC to the Cormorant 'A' platform through a system of subsea pipelines. Therefore, oil from the wells must travel a considerable distance, up to ten kilometres, before reaching processing facilities on the platform. During this trip the oil could cool to the ambient seawater temperature of 5/sup 0/C. Studies have shown that the acceptance of crude oil at such a low temperature could cause unacceptable emulsion, hydrate, and wax deposition problems. To overcome these problems, a unique insulated pipeline was engineered to keep the crude oil temperature above 40/sup 0/C during production and above 13/sup 0/C for well testing. This paper describes efforts required to identify the problem and engineer a solution. The resultant pipeline incorporated an insulated pipe-withina-pipe bundle that was installed by a mid-depth tow method.

  11. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  12. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years.

  13. World pipeline construction to slip for 1994 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1994-02-07

    World pipeline construction planned in 1994 and beyond has fallen in the past year, reflecting uncertainties in energy markets. Still, significant expansions are under way or planned for Latin America, Asia and the Pacific regions, and Europe. Latest Oil and Gas Journal data, derived from its survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information, show more than 55,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline planned for 1994 and beyond. The data include projections for pipeline construction in Russia and former republics of the Soviet Union. Western Russia and all countries west of the Ural Mountains are included under totals for Europe, eastern Russia and countries east of the Urals under totals for the Asia-Pacific region. The paper discusses the following: European gas lines; North Sea projects; Gulf of Thailand; Yacheng subsea pipeline; Australian gas lines; other Asian lines; Russian activity; Algeria-Europe gas lines; Southeast US; Gulf gathering systems; Western US; South America; Trans-Ecuadorian expansion; Chilean gas network; and Bolivia-Brazil gas line.

  14. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  15. Sludge pipeline design.

    PubMed

    Slatter, P T

    2001-01-01

    The need for the design engineer to have a sound basis for designing sludge pumping and pipelining plant is becoming more critical. This paper examines both a traditional text-book approach and one of the latest approaches from the literature, and compares them with experimental data. The pipelining problem can be divided into the following main areas; rheological characterisation, laminar, transitional and turbulent flow and each is addressed in turn. Experimental data for a digested sludge tested in large pipes is analysed and compared with the two different theoretical approaches. Discussion is centred on the differences between the two methods and the degree of agreement with the data. It is concluded that the new approach has merit and can be used for practical design.

  16. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  17. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  18. Sludge pipeline design.

    PubMed

    Slatter, P T

    2001-01-01

    The need for the design engineer to have a sound basis for designing sludge pumping and pipelining plant is becoming more critical. This paper examines both a traditional text-book approach and one of the latest approaches from the literature, and compares them with experimental data. The pipelining problem can be divided into the following main areas; rheological characterisation, laminar, transitional and turbulent flow and each is addressed in turn. Experimental data for a digested sludge tested in large pipes is analysed and compared with the two different theoretical approaches. Discussion is centred on the differences between the two methods and the degree of agreement with the data. It is concluded that the new approach has merit and can be used for practical design. PMID:11794641

  19. Leak detection on petroleum pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Poynter, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Accident statitics clearly show that pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardous to life, property and the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planning to install real-time methods for determining when leak occur. The intent is to detect leaks as soon as possible to permit the operator to shut down a pipeline and minimize the amount of stock loss and potential hazard to the public. Some federal and state regulations require some form of leak detection on pipelines which transport hazardous fluids through populated and otherwise sensitive areas. There are three basic methods for monitoring pipeline systems for leaks: (1) EXS (external sensors) which use acoustical devices or hydrocarbon sensors which may be buried with the pipe or placed at critical above ground locations along the path of the pipeline; (2) VIVO (volume in/volume out) which relies on volumetric measurement and comparison of everything which enters a pipeline system with everything that leaves the system; and (3) PPA (Pressure Point Analysis) is a dynamic method for monitoring the energy balance on a pipeline as represented by pressure and velocity readings at various points in the pipeline system. These systems are discussed.

  20. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://docketsinfo.dot.gov . Docket: For... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...