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Sample records for alaskan petroleum reservoirs

  1. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  2. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  3. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  4. Petroleum systems of the Alaskan North Slope: a numerical journey from source to trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Lillis, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The complex petroleum province of the Alaskan North Slope contains six petroleum systems (Magoon and others, this session). Source rocks for four of these systems include the Hue-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ), pebble shale unit, Kingak Shale, and Shublik Formation. Geochemical data for these source rocks are investigated in greater detail and provide the basis for numerical petroleum migration models.

  5. Petroleum geochemistry of Alaskan North Slope - an update

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.

    1985-04-01

    Consideration of the basic requirements for oil occurrence (source, migration pathway, reservoir, trap, and seal) suggests that source rock adequacy may be a limiting factor in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Two geochemically distinct types of North Slope oil have been recognized: the Simpson-Umiat type (associated with a pebble-shale unit/Torok Formation source) and the Barrow-Prudhoe type (associated with a Shublik Formation/Kingak Shale source). Except for the oil from the Fish Creek 1 well and the reservoirs of Cretaceous age in the Prudhoe area, the Barrow-Prudhoe oil reservoirs are in Ellesmerian sequence rocks on the Barrow arch. The source-reservoir thermal-maturity patterns, the inferred timing of oil generation, and the structural configuration of the Ellesmerian rocks all suggest that the oil should have migrated to the Barrow area as well as to the Prudhoe area. The presence of subcommercial Barrow-Prudhoe-type oil in NPRA also suggests that deficiencies in the oil plumbing system do not explain the lack of oil accumulations along the Barrow arch. The large volumes of oil in the Prudhoe area, as compared to only oil shows in the Barrow area, are best explained by the greater amount and better quality or organic matter in the Shublik Formation and the Kingak Shale to the east of NPRA.

  6. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  7. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  8. Reservoirs and petroleum systems of the Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This GIS product was designed to provide a quick look at the ages and products (oil or gas) of major reservoir intervals with respect to the different petroleum systems that have been identified in the Gulf Coast Region. The three major petroleum source-rock systems are the Tertiary (Paleocene-Eocene) Wilcox Formation, Cretaceous (Turonian) Eagle Ford Formation, and Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation. The ages of the reservoir units extend from Jurassic to Pleistocene. By combining various GIS layers, the user can gain insights into the maximum extent of each petroleum system and the pathways for petroleum migration from the source rocks to traps. Interpretations based on these data should improve development of exploration models for this petroleum-rich province.

  9. Downhole fluid analysis and asphaltene science for petroleum reservoir evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Oliver C; Pomerantz, Andrew E; Zuo, Julian Y; Dong, Chengli

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoirs are enshrouded in mysteries associated with all manner of geologic and fluid complexities that Mother Nature can inspire. Efficient exploitation of petroleum reservoirs mandates elucidation of these complexities; downhole fluid analysis (DFA) has proven to be indispensable for understanding both fluids and reservoir architecture. Crude oil consists of dissolved gases, liquids, and dissolved solids, known as the asphaltenes. These different fluid components exhibit fluid gradients vertically and laterally, which are best revealed by DFA, with its excellent precision and accuracy. Compositional gradient analysis falls within the purview of thermodynamics. Gas-liquid equilibria can be treated with a cubic equation of state (EoS), such as the Peng-Robinson EoS, a modified van der Waals EoS. In contrast, the first EoS for asphaltene gradients, the Flory-Huggins-Zuo (FHZ) EoS, was developed only recently. The resolution of the asphaltene molecular and nanocolloidal species in crude oil, which is codified in the Yen-Mullins model of asphaltenes, enabled the development of this EoS. The combination of DFA characterization of gradients of reservoir crude oil with the cubic EoS and FHZ EoS analyses brings into view wide-ranging reservoir concerns, such as reservoir connectivity, fault-block migration, heavy oil gradients, tar mat formation, huge disequilibrium fluid gradients, and even stochastic variations of reservoir fluids. New petroleum science and DFA technology are helping to offset the increasing costs and technical difficulties of exploiting ever-more-remote petroleum reservoirs.

  10. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  11. High performance computing for domestic petroleum reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, G.; Auer, L.; Dendy, J.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. High-performance computing offers the prospect of greatly increasing the resolution at which petroleum reservoirs can be represented in simulation models. The increases in resolution can be achieved through large increases in computational speed and memory, if machine architecture and numerical methods for solution of the multiphase flow equations can be used to advantage. Perhaps more importantly, the increased speed and size of today`s computers make it possible to add physical processes to simulation codes that heretofore were too expensive in terms of computer time and memory to be practical. These factors combine to allow the development of new, more accurate methods for optimizing petroleum reservoir production.

  12. Inverse Theory for Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Liu, Ning

    This book is a guide to the use of inverse theory for estimation and conditional simulation of flow and transport parameters in porous media. It describes the theory and practice of estimating properties of underground petroleum reservoirs from measurements of flow in wells, and it explains how to characterize the uncertainty in such estimates. Early chapters present the reader with the necessary background in inverse theory, probability and spatial statistics. The book demonstrates how to calculate sensitivity coefficients and the linearized relationship between models and production data. It also shows how to develop iterative methods for generating estimates and conditional realizations. The text is written for researchers and graduates in petroleum engineering and groundwater hydrology and can be used as a textbook for advanced courses on inverse theory in petroleum engineering. It includes many worked examples to demonstrate the methodologies and a selection of exercises.

  13. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  14. Hydrodynamic modeling of petroleum reservoirs using simulator MUFITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    MUFITS is new noncommercial software for numerical modeling of subsurface processes in various applications (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). To this point, the simulator was used for modeling nonisothermal flows in geothermal reservoirs and for modeling underground carbon dioxide storage. In this work, we present recent extension of the code to petroleum reservoirs. The simulator can be applied in conventional black oil modeling, but it also utilizes a more complicated models for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs as well as for oil rim fields. We give a brief overview of the code by providing the description of internal representation of reservoir models, which are constructed of grid blocks, interfaces, stock tanks as well as of pipe segments and pipe junctions for modeling wells and surface networks. For conventional black oil approach, we present the simulation results for SPE comparative tests. We propose an accelerated compositional modeling method for sub- and supercritical flows subjected to various phase equilibria, particularly to three-phase equilibria of vapour-liquid-liquid type. The method is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic potential of reservoir fluid as a function of pressure, total enthalpy and total composition and storing its values as a spline table, which is used in hydrodynamic simulation for accelerated PVT properties prediction. We provide the description of both the spline calculation procedure and the flashing algorithm. We evaluate the thermodynamic potential for a mixture of two pseudo-components modeling the heavy and light hydrocarbon fractions. We develop a technique for converting black oil PVT tables to the potential, which can be used for in-situ hydrocarbons multiphase equilibria prediction under sub- and supercritical conditions, particularly, in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. We simulate recovery from a reservoir subject to near-critical initial conditions for hydrocarbon mixture. We acknowledge

  15. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Dellagnezze, Bruna Martins; de Sousa, Gabriel Vasconcelos; Martins, Laercio Lopes; Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; Limache, Elmer E G; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; da Cruz, Georgiana Feitosa; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-12-15

    Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications.

  16. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Dellagnezze, Bruna Martins; de Sousa, Gabriel Vasconcelos; Martins, Laercio Lopes; Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; Limache, Elmer E G; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; da Cruz, Georgiana Feitosa; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-12-15

    Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications. PMID:25457810

  17. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Sette, Lara Durães; Simioni, Karen Christina Marques; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio Vaz

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments. PMID:24031244

  18. The Bakken-An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    SciTech Connect

    Sarg, Frederick

    2012-03-01

    An integrated geologic and geophysical study of the Bakken Petroleum System, in the Williston basin of North Dakota and Montana indicates that: (1) dolomite is needed for good reservoir performance in the Middle Bakken; (2) regional and local fractures play a significant role in enhancing permeability and well production, and it is important to recognize both because local fractures will dominate in on-structure locations; and (3) the organic-rich Bakken shale serves as both a source and reservoir rock. Results from the lithofacies, mineral, and fracture analyses of this study were used to construct a dual porosity Petrel geo-model for a portion of the Elm Coulee Field. In this field, dolomitization enhances reservoir porosity and permeability. First year cumulative production helps locate areas of high well productivity and in deriving fracture swarm distribution. A fracture model was developed based on high productivity well distribution, and regional fracture distribution, and was combined with favorable matrix properties to build a dual porosity geo-model.

  19. Reservoir quality and potential, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.; Seidlitz, A.; Gibson, C.; Bascle, R.; Dygas, J. )

    1991-03-01

    As part of the reservoir management, resource assessment, and planning programs of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Alaska, the oil and gas resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) is undergoing review in light of new technical information, as well as changing national and international socioeconomic conditions. Emphasis is on integration of geological, petrophysical, geophysical, and engineering information to provide a refined, more technically substantive knowledge base for resource assessment and management. Brookian clastic rocks - in particular the Nanushuk Group and underlying Torok/Topagoruk intervals - have been the principal horizons of concern. Petrologic-mineralogic characteristics have been reinvestigated, related to petrophysical parameters and wireline log responses, and integrated with available engineering data, for key wells within and peripheral to the NPRA. Particular attention has been directed to diagenetic relationships, effects on reservoir quality, and implications for untested portions of this sizable basin. Similar efforts have been directed to pre-Brookian strata as well. Only some 127 exploratory wells (all but one under government aegis) have been drilled within or adjacent to NPRA (a geographic area on the order of 37,000 mi{sup 2} - about the size of the state of Indiana), many only to shallow depths. In almost every well drilled to any appreciable depth in the area, there have been manifestations of the presence of hydrocarbons. The results to date are actually rather promising from a qualitative geologic-geochemical perspective, in terms of potential for significant resources to be present.

  20. Molecular Biological Analysis of Microorganisms in Petroleum Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Son, H. A.; Im, K. C.; Back, K. H.; Kim, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs were analyzed to examine the potential to apply for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Genomic DNA (16S rDNA) were extracted from two heavy oil samples from Canadian oil sand and six light oil samples from the Salin fore-arc basin in Myanmar, and amplified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The microbes were identified by cloning the PCR products and pyrosequencing. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were common in both Canadian and Myanmar samples. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus belonging to the Firmicutes phylum are abundant in oil sands, while Propionibacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum and Coprothermobacter, Streptococcus, and Clostridia belonging to the Frimicutes phylum are contained in Myanmar samples. Streptococcus is known to use crude oil as nutrient, and produce organic acid, bio-gas and polysaccharide that could reduce oil viscosity, improve permeability by dissolving carbonate cement from pores throat, and reduce interfacial tension between oil and rock/water surface. Clostridia produce acids and gases by methanogenesis that could improve oil recovery.

  1. Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2012-11-01

    Analyses of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 21 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In samples originating from high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to thermophiles affiliated with members of the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and the order Thermoplasmatales, whereas bacterial sequences predominantly belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria. In contrast to high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, microorganisms belonging to the Proteobacteria, Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were the most encountered in samples collected from low-temperature petroleum reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures, in particular members of the Firmicutes and the genus Methanothermobacter showed positive correlation with temperature and the concentration of acetate. Overall, these data indicate the large occurrence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in petroleum reservoirs and imply that acetate metabolism via syntrophic oxidation may represent the main methanogenic pathway in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

  2. The Bakken - An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    SciTech Connect

    Sarg, J.

    2011-12-31

    An integrated geologic and geophysical study of the Bakken Petroleum System, in the Williston basin of North Dakota and Montana indicates that: (1) dolomite is needed for good reservoir performance in the Middle Bakken; (2) regional and local fractures play a significant role in enhancing permeability and well production, and it is important to recognize both because local fractures will dominate in on-structure locations; and (3) the organic-rich Bakken shale serves as both a source and reservoir rock. The Middle Bakken Member of the Bakken Formation is the target for horizontal drilling. The mineralogy across all the Middle Bakken lithofacies is very similar and is dominated by dolomite, calcite, and quartz. This Member is comprised of six lithofacies: (A) muddy lime wackestone, (B) bioturbated, argillaceous, calcareous, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (C) planar to symmetrically ripple to undulose laminated, shaly, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (D) contorted to massive fine-grained sandstone, to low angle, planar cross-laminated sandstone with thin discontinuous shale laminations, (E) finely inter-laminated, bioturbated, dolomitic mudstone and dolomitic siltstone/sandstone to calcitic, whole fossil, dolomitic lime wackestone, and (F) bioturbated, shaly, dolomitic siltstone. Lithofacies B, C, D, and E can all be reservoirs, if quartz and dolomite-rich (facies D) or dolomitized (facies B, C, E). Porosity averages 4-8%, permeability averages 0.001-0.01 mD or less. Dolomitic facies porosity is intercrystalline and tends to be greater than 6%. Permeability may reach values of 0.15 mD or greater. This appears to be a determinant of high productive wells in Elm Coulee, Parshall, and Sanish fields. Lithofacies G is organic-rich, pyritic brown/black mudstone and comprises the Bakken shales. These shales are siliceous, which increases brittleness and enhances fracture potential. Mechanical properties of the Bakken reveal that the shales have similar

  3. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; Owen, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  4. Terrisporobacter petrolearius sp. nov., isolated from an oilfield petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Yanwei; He, Mingxiong; Ma, Kedong; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Xiaorong; Kong, Delong; Yang, Zhirong; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, spore-forming, strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0A37T, was isolated from enrichment samples collected from a petroleum reservoir in Shengli oilfield. Cells of strain LAM0A37T were rod-shaped and motile by peritrichous flagella. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were 40 °C and 7.0–7.5, respectively. The strain did not require NaCl for growth but tolerated up to 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain LAM0A37T was able to utilize glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose, sorbitol, cellobiose, melibiose and melezitose as sole carbon sources. Sulfite was used as an electron acceptor. The main products of glucose fermentation were acetate and CO2. The predominant fatty acid was C16 : 0 (23.6 %). The main polar lipid profile comprised of five glycolipids, six phospholipids and two lipids. No menaquinone was detected. The genomic DNA G+C content was 27.1 ± 0.2 mol% as determined by the T m method. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Terrisporobacter, and was most closely related to Terrisporobacter glycolicus JCM 1401T and Terrisporobacter mayombei DSM 6539T with 98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to both. DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0A37T and type strains of Terrisporobacter glycolicus and Terrisporobacter mayombei were 45.6 ± 0.3 % and 38.3 ± 0.4 %, respectively. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0A37T is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Terrisporobacter, for which the name Terrisporobacter petrolearius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0A37T ( = ACCC 00740T = JCM 19845T).

  5. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years.

  6. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  7. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  8. Hydrocarbon composition of authigenic inclusions: Application to elucidation of petroleum reservoir filling history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsen, Dag A.; Nedkvitne, Tor; Larter, Steve R.; Bjørlykke, Knut

    1993-08-01

    Geochemical analysis of petroleum inclusions trapped in authigenic feldspar and quartz in the Ula Formation in the North Sea Ula oil field revealed a petroleum of markedly different composition than the oil presently in the reservoir. Using microthermometry and the burial history as a dating tools, it is concluded that the petroleum in the K-feldspar inclusions was present in the more porous and permeable parts of the Ula Formation as early as 45-75 My Bp when the field was at a depth of about 1.0-1.5 km, as compared with the current depth of 3.4 km. This early petroleum, which was trapped as inclusions in authigenic K-feldspar, shows a distinctly different distribution of tricyclic terpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes from that of the current petroleum charge in the Ula Formation, which was derived from the Mandal Formation source rock in late Neogene time. Molecular parameters show that the oil in the K-feldspar inclusions is significantly less mature than the crude oil in the present reservoir. The approximate 90°C temperature increase occurring after entrapment of the early petroleum in Kfeldspar (the field is currently at 143°C) appears not to have reset the low maturity signature of the oil in the K-feldspar inclusions. This could suggest that the temperature in the inclusions is too low for isomerization/selective thermal degradation to occur (lack of catalysts?), or that there are other controls on the ratio of some of these parameters. Still, parameters like the ratio of C 21 to C 28 triaromatic steroids, and those based on dimethyl- and trimethyl-naphthalenes, are comparatively similar in both the inclusions and in the reservoir crude. The oil inclusions in authigenic quartz and albite, formed from about 10 My BP (burial depth ≈ 2.5 km) until the present (burial depth = 3.4 km), are interpreted as representing a palaeo-petroleum charge having a composition intermediate between the oil found in K-feldspar inclusions and the oil charge in the present

  9. Mechanisms of arsenic enrichment in geothermal and petroleum reservoirs fluids in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Birkle, Peter; Bundschuh, Jochen; Sracek, Ondra

    2010-11-01

    The lack of chemical similarity between thermal fluids in geothermal and petroleum reservoirs in Mexico indicates a distinct origin for arsenic in both types of reservoirs. Deep fluids from geothermal reservoirs along the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) are characterized by elevated arsenic concentrations, within a range between 1 and 100 mg L(-1) at a depth from 600 to 3000 m b.s.l. Based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), arsenic is linked to typical geothermal species like lithium, silica, and boron. The lack of correlation between arsenic and salinity reflects the importance of secondary water-rock interaction processes. The predominance of arsenic compared to Fe- and Cu-concentrations, and the occurrence of secondary minerals (sulfides and clay minerals) in temperature-dependent hydrothermal zones, supports this hypothesis. Neither magmatic fluids input, nor As mineralization is a prerequisite for As enrichment in Mexican geothermal fluids. In contrast, petroleum reservoir waters from sedimentary basins in SE-Mexico show maximum As concentrations of 2 mg L(-1), at depths from 2900 to 6100 m b.s.l. The linear chloride-arsenic correlation indicates that evaporated seawater represents the major source for aqueous arsenic in oil reservoirs, and only minor arsenic proportions are derived from interaction with carbonate host rock. Speciation modeling suggests the lack of arsenic solubility control in both geothermal and petroleum reservoirs, but precipitation/co-precipitation of As with secondary sulfides could occur in petroleum reservoirs with high iron concentrations. Geothermal fluids from magmatic-type reservoirs (Los Azufres and Los Humeros at the TMVB and Las Tres Vírgenes with a granodioritic basement) show relative constant arsenic concentrations through varying temperature conditions, which indicates that temperatures above 230-250 °C provide optimal and stable conditions for arsenic mobility. In contrast, temperature conditions for sedimentary

  10. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years. PMID:22901961

  11. A petroleum system in search of a reservoir; the Palmyrid Region, Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.C.; Dembicki, H. Jr.; Dow, W.G.

    1995-08-01

    World class accumulations of hydrocarbons have not been discovered in the Palmyrid region of central Syria despite the presence of all of the essential elements of a petroleum system such as source rock, seal rock, trap and, to a lesser extent, reservoir rock. Recent exploration has resulted in an appreciation of why the Palmyrid region has failed to yield significant hydrocarbon discoveries even though active source generation appears more than adequate to charge the basin. The early Triassic Mulussa E, D1 and C2 source-reservoir system is characterized by an overall shallowing up sequence capped by Mulussa C-1 salt rock. Source rock quality and facies distribution and subsequent oil and gas generation and migration are correctly placed in time and space to take advantage of the structural evolution of traps. The sub-salt system fails primarily because of poor reservoir quality although patchy, unpredictable porosity-permeability enhancement provides adequate reservoir quality for the Ash Shaer and Cherrife gas fields. The Palmyrid petroleum system illustrates a case where all of the processes and elements required to form large accumulations are present but for one essential element, the reservoir, is insufficiently developed to form major hydrocarbon accumulations.

  12. Petroleum reservoir engineering support for the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In accordance with the ''Procedures for the Determination and Approval of Maximum Efficient Rates of Production from the Naval Petroleum Reserves'' issued by the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, US Department of Energy, dated January 1985, the proposed MER for the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs is herewith submitted. The subject Task Assignment was explicit as to certain operational restraints within which the MER determinations were to be made. In the case of the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs, these restraints were limited to a specification of the water injection rates, i.e., gradually building up to and maintaining an injection rate of 22,000 barrels water per day. Accordingly, the proposed MER results in an average of 8575 BOA/D for the six-month period ending March 31, 1987, and 8662 BOA/D for the nine-month period ending mid-year 1987. We believe that these rates will be both attainable and sustainable, and will be a reasonable target which is justified in terms of both maximizing ultimate recovery and providing a suitable economic return. The study was performed in the manner prescribed by the Department of Energy. It was based on the reservoir study which was made by Evans, Carey and Crozier, and which had an effective date of May 1, 1986. The proposed MER differs from that in the study only as a result of injection rates which vary slightly from those assumed in the latter. Each of the sections of this MER proposal contains a discussion, if appropriate, plus such graphical or tabular presentations as are necessary to explain and/or support the conclusions contained therein.

  13. Integrated hydraulic flow units analysis for carbonate and clastic conventional and unconventional petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Abirov, Rustem; Gulnur, Asan; Shopenova, Aigerim; Makarova, Maria; Telman, Meruert

    2014-05-01

    Thorough understanding of the phenomena in variation of pore properties and permeability in lithofacies of conventional carbonate and clastic petroleum reservoirs together with unconventional reservoirs before and after their hydraulic fracturing is the main concept in reservoir description. It is known that new reservoir description techniques will cut off the amount of unexplored hydrocarbon reserves. Discrepancies in pore geometry are the evidence of that there exist hydraulic flow units with similar or different characteristics. So the rock type determination processes cannot be accomplished only by one way. There is demand for several techniques in order to make away with different uncertainties by proper correlation and analysing the results. Classic determination of rock types is realized by geological observations and by the porosity versus permeability log. In this paper, the new methodology is proposed for determination of flow zones. The methodology is based on the Kozeny-Carmen equation where we can get the reservoir quality index which indicates the porosity versus permeability data. The specialty of this new technique is that it takes into account the influence of depositional and diagenetic units controlling the fluid flow besides the reservoir quality index. The proposed technique has been successfully tested in reservoirs. The paper describes the hydraulic flow units and presents graphs demonstrating the utility of this method.

  14. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  15. Effective Stress Approximation using Geomechanical Formulation of Fracturing Technology (GFFT) in Petroleum Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, A.; Asef, M.; Kharrat, R.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, rock mechanics and geophysics contribution in petroleum industry has been significantly increased. Wellbore stability analysis in horizontal wells, sand production problem while extracting hydrocarbon from sandstone reservoirs, land subsidence due to production induced reservoir compaction, reservoir management, casing shearing are samples of these contributions. In this context, determination of the magnitude and orientation of the in-situ stresses is an essential parameter. This paper is presenting new method to estimate the magnitude of in-situ stresses based on fracturing technology data. Accordingly, kirsch equations for the circular cavities and fracturing technology models in permeable formations have been used to develop an innovative Geomechanical Formulation (GFFT). GFFT introduces a direct reasonable relation between the reservoir stresses and the breakdown pressure of fracture, while the concept of effective stress was employed. Thus, this complex formula contains functions of some rock mechanic parameters such as poison ratio, Biot’s coefficient, Young’s modulus, rock tensile strength, depth of reservoir and breakdown/reservoir pressure difference. Hence, this approach yields a direct method to estimate maximum and minimum effective/insitu stresses in an oil field and improves minimum in-situ stress estimation compared to previous studies. In case of hydraulic fracturing; a new stress analysis method is developed based on well known Darcy equations for fluid flow in porous media which improves in-situ stress estimation using reservoir parameters such as permeability, and injection flow rate. The accuracy of the method would be verified using reservoir data of a case history. The concepts discussed in this research would eventually suggest an alternative methodology with sufficient accuracy to derive in-situ stresses in hydrocarbon reservoirs, while no extra experimental work is accomplished for this purpose.

  16. Dynamic processes of indigenous microorganisms from a low-temperature petroleum reservoir during nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei-Ke; Li, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Ling-Xia; Dai, Xue-Cheng; Tian, Hui-Mei; Dai, Liu-Bing; Wang, Hong-Bo; Huang, Hai-Dong; Chen, Yue-Hua; Ma, Ting

    2014-02-01

    Compared to medium-high temperature petroleum reservoirs (30°C-73°C), little is known about microbial regulation by nutrients in low-temperature reservoirs. In this study, we report the performance (oil emulsification and biogas production) and community structure of indigenous microorganisms from a low-temperature (22.6°C) petroleum reservoir during nutrient stimulation. Culture-dependent approaches indicated that the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria (HOB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and methane-producing bacteria (MPB) increased by between 10- and 1000-fold, while sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were observed at low levels during stimulation. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Halomonas and Marinobacter, which have the capability to produce surfactants, were selectively enriched. Methanoculleus, Methanosaeta, Methanocorpusculum and Methanocalculus showed the largest increase in relative abundance among archaea. Micro-emulsion formed with an average oil droplet diameter of 14.3 μm (ranging between 4.1 μm and 84.2 μm) during stimulation. Gas chromatographic analysis of gas production (186 mL gas/200 mL medium) showed the levels of CO2 and CH4 increased 8.97% and 6.21%, respectively. Similar to medium-high temperature reservoirs, HOB, NRB, SRB and MPB were ubiquitous in the low-temperature reservoir, and oil emulsification and gas production were the main phenomena observed during stimulation. Oil emulsification required a longer duration of time to occur in the low-temperature reservoir.

  17. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Each province profile figure consists of five strip charts and a boxplot. The five strip charts display for individual plays the following reservoir-fluid and reservoir properties: A, oil density (American Petroleum Institute [API] gravity in degrees); B, computed pseudo-Dykstra-Parsons coefficient; C, reservoir porosity (in percent); D, reservoir permeability (in millidarcies); and E, estimates of the original oil in place (OOIP) per unit volume of reservoir rock (in barrels per acre-foot). The OOIP per unit volume of reservoir rock is an indicator of the relative richness of the oil reservoir and is derived from estimates in the CRD of OOIP, reservoir acreage, and net pay. The net pay is the interval of productive reservoir rock. The same data for OOIP per unit volume are graphed as a strip chart (E) and a boxplot (F).

  18. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; William C. Parcell; Bruce S. Hart

    2006-03-06

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is to classify the known petroleum reservoirs in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by using a sequence stratigraphic framework based on T-R sequence terminology, to formulate exploration strategies for identifying specific facies with reservoir potential and for identifying possible stratigraphic traps using a sequence stratigraphic model in combination with the discovered reservoir classification, and to use these exploration strategies to assess the potential for underdeveloped and undiscovered petroleum resources in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.

  19. The design and use of a field and reservoir data base for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Nehring, R. )

    1991-03-01

    Field and reservoir data bases can have many valuable applications in petroleum exploration. Realizing this value requires careful attention to several general and specific design considerations. The primary general design considerations include (1) developing standard field and reservoir definitions that are applied uniformly across political boundaries (2) applying appropriate variable definitions consistently throughout the data base, (3) providing high rates of coverage for each variable, and (4) testing and editing the data thoroughly for consistency and correctness. Design considerations that are specific to intended uses of a field and reservoir data base include (1) the provision of complete field and reservoir size estimates, (2) the incorporation of a comprehensive set of play definitions, and (3) the use of cross-referencing variables to facilitate combined uses with the various well data bases. Well-designed field reservoir data bases provide a source of information between the often uninformative generality of aggregate statistics and the overwhelming detail of well data bases. They can be used as several different levels of aggregation. Their most valuable applications to exploration are found primarily in three areas: (1) basin, regional, and national reviews, (2) the generation of exploration concepts, and (3) evaluating prospects systematically within a play context.

  20. Life in the slow lane; biogeochemistry of biodegraded petroleum containing reservoirs and implications for energy recovery and carbon management

    PubMed Central

    Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.; Larter, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes underlying the formation of heavy oil has been transformed in the last decade. The process was once thought to be driven by oxygen delivered to deep petroleum reservoirs by meteoric water. This paradigm has been replaced by a view that the process is anaerobic and frequently associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation. The thermal history of a reservoir exerts a fundamental control on the occurrence of biodegraded petroleum, and microbial activity is focused at the base of the oil column in the oil water transition zone, that represents a hotspot in the petroleum reservoir biome. Here we present a synthesis of new and existing microbiological, geochemical, and biogeochemical data that expands our view of the processes that regulate deep life in petroleum reservoir ecosystems and highlights interactions of a range of biotic and abiotic factors that determine whether petroleum is likely to be biodegraded in situ, with important consequences for oil exploration and production. Specifically we propose that the salinity of reservoir formation waters exerts a key control on the occurrence of biodegraded heavy oil reservoirs and introduce the concept of palaeopickling. We also evaluate the interaction between temperature and salinity to explain the occurrence of non-degraded oil in reservoirs where the temperature has not reached the 80–90°C required for palaeopasteurization. In addition we evaluate several hypotheses that might explain the occurrence of organisms conventionally considered to be aerobic, in nominally anoxic petroleum reservoir habitats. Finally we discuss the role of microbial processes for energy recovery as we make the transition from fossil fuel reliance, and how these fit within the broader socioeconomic landscape of energy futures. PMID:25426105

  1. Improving the performance of a petroleum reservoir model on workstation clusters using MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Dantas, M.A.R.; Zaluska, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    The relatively low-performance of a petroleum reservoir model when it executes on a single workstation is one of the key motivating factors for exploiting high-performance computing on workstation clusters. Workstation clusters, connected through a Local Area Network, are at a stage where their effectiveness as a suitable configuration for high-performance parallel processing has already been established. This paper discusses the improvement in performance of an engineering application on a workstation cluster using the MPI (Message Passing Interface) software environment. The importance of this approach for many engineering and scientific applications is illustrated by the case study, which also provides a recommended porting methodology for similar applications.

  2. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  3. Microbial diversity and abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang long-term water-flooding petroleum reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Microbial populations associated with microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and their abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang water-flooding petroleum reservoir were investigated using 16S rRNA, nitrate reductases, dissimilatory sulfate reductase, and methyl coenzyme-M reductase-encoded genes to provide ecological information for the potential application of MEOR. 16S rRNA gene miseq sequencing revealed that this reservoir harbored large amounts of taxa, including 155 bacterial and 7 archeal genera. Among them, Arcobacter, Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Ochrobactrum, Hyphomonas, Acinetobacter, and Shewanella were dominant, and have the potential to grow using hydrocarbons as carbon sources. Metabolic gene clone libraries indicated that the nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) mainly belonged to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, Thauera, Magnetospirillum, Sinorhizobium, Azoarcus, and Rhodobacter; the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were Desulfarculus, Desulfomonile, Desulfosarcina, Desulfotignum, Desulfacinum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfovibrio; while the methanogens were archaea and belonged to Methanomethylovorans, Methanosaeta, Methanococcus, Methanolobus, and Methanobacterium. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the number of bacterial 16S rRNA reached 106 copies/mL, while the metabolic genes of NRB, SRB, and methanogens reached 104 copies/mL. These results show that the Luliang reservoir has abundant microbial populations associated with oil recovery, suggesting that the reservoir has potential for MEOR. PMID:25641701

  4. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  5. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  6. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis

  8. Noble gas as tracers for CO2 deep input in petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Magali; Stuart, Finlay; Gilfillan, Stuart; Montel, François; Masini, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The sub-salt hydrocarbon reservoirs in the deep offshore part of the Atlantic Ocean passive margins are a new key target for frontier oil and gas exploration. Type I source rocks locally rich in TOC (Total Organic Carbon) combined with an important secondary connected porosity of carbonate reservoirs overlain by an impermeable salt layer gives rise to reservoirs with high petroleum potential. However, some target structures have been found to be mainly filled with CO2 rich fluids. δ13C of the CO2 is generally between -9 and -4 permil, compatible with a deep source (metamorphic or mantle). Understanding the origin of the CO2 and the relative timing of its input into reservoir layers in regard to the geodynamic context appears to be a key issue for CO2 risk evaluation. The inertness and ubiquity of noble gases in crustal fluids make them powerful tools to trace the origin and migration of mixed fluids (Ballentine and Burnard 2002). The isotopic signature of He, Ne and Ar and the elemental pattern (He to Xe) of reservoir fluid from pressurized bottom hole samples provide an insight into fluid source influences at each reservoir depth. Three main end-members can be mixed into reservoir fluids (e.g. Gilfillan et al., 2008): atmospheric signature due to aquifer recharge, radiogenic component from organic fluid ± metamorphic influence, and mantle input. Their relative fractionation provides insights into the nature of fluid transport (Burnard et al., 2012)and its relative migration timing. In the studied offshore passive margin reservoirs, from both sides of South Atlantic margin, a strong MORB-like magmatic CO2 influence is clear. Hence, CO2 charge must have occurred during or after lithospheric break-up. CO2 charge(s) history appears to be complex, and in some cases requires several inputs to generate the observed noble gas pattern. Combining the knowledge obtained from noble gas (origin, relative timing, number of charges) with organic geochemical and thermodynamic

  9. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

  10. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Georgiana F; de Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Angolini, Célio Ff; Dellagnezze, Bruna M; Garcia, Isabel Ns; de Oliveira, Valéria M; Dos Santos Neto, Eugenio V; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2011-12-23

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses.

  11. CO 2 metasomatism in a basalt-hosted petroleum reservoir, Nuussuaq, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karyn L.; Neuhoff, Philip S.; Pedersen, Asger K.; Bird, Dennis K.

    2006-11-01

    Extensive subaerial exposures of a basalt-hosted petroleum reservoir around Marraat Killiit on Nuussuaq, West Greenland, provide an unparalleled opportunity to investigate water-rock-hydrocarbon interactions in an unconventional petroleum system. Exposed sections in this locality include picritic and olivine-phyric basalts, with both subaerial and subaqueous textures that initially had significant primary porosity in the form of gas vesicles, scorias, and interclast voids within hyaloclastites. Alteration of these low-silica, high-magnesium basalts formed regionally-extensive, silica-deficient zeolite-facies mineral assemblages that dominantly consist of mixed-layer chlorite/smectite clays, thomsonite, natrolite, gonnardite, analcime and chabazite. In the study area, faulting and fracturing allowed petroleum migration from sediments into the overlying basalts. Migration of petroleum and the associated brine led to the pseudomorphic replacement of zeolite and clay mineral assemblages by carbonates (siderite, magnesite, dolomite and calcite) and quartz. Carbonates associated with petroleum migration are rich in Mg and Fe, reflecting the interaction of a CO 2-rich fluid with a picritic basalt and associated Fe- and Mg-rich smectites. Only late stage carbonates are calcium-rich, the result of depletion of aqueous magnesium and iron following precipitation of magnesite-siderite solid solutions. Values of δ13C vPDB and δ18O vSMOW of carbonates at Marraat form two distinct groups: (1) paragenetically early dolomite veins and magnesite-siderite replacement of low-grade metamorphic minerals that have δ18O vSMOW between 12.6 and 20‰ and δ13C vPDB in the approximate range of 0 ± 5‰, and (2) late stage calcite veins that are lighter in 18O ( δ18O vSMOW between 6.4 and 8.7‰) and have a restricted range of δ13C vPDB that is near zero. Comparison with isotopic properties of carbonates from petroleum reservoirs worldwide and carbonates formed from meteoric water in

  12. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community associated with a high-temperature petroleum reservoir at an offshore oilfield.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong; Rong, Zhao-Feng; Zhang, Jie

    2007-04-01

    The microbial community and its diversity in production water from a high-temperature, water-flooded petroleum reservoir of an offshore oilfield in China were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from the community DNA and, using sequence analysis, 388 bacterial and 220 archaeal randomly selected clones were clustered with 60 and 28 phylotypes, respectively. The results showed that the 16S rRNA genes of bacterial clones belonged to the divisions Firmicutes, Thermotogae, Nitrospirae and Proteobacteria, whereas the archaeal library was dominated by methanogen-like rRNA genes (Methanothermobacter, Methanobacter, Methanobrevibacter and Methanococcus), with a lower percentage of clones belonging to Thermoprotei. Thermophilic microorganisms were found in the production water, as well as mesophilic microorganisms such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter-like clones. The thermophilic microorganisms may be common inhabitants of geothermally heated specialized subsurface environments, which have been isolated previously from a number of high-temperature petroleum reservoirs worldwide. The mesophilic microorganisms were probably introduced into the reservoir as it was being exploited. The results of this work provide further insight into the composition of microbial communities of high-temperature petroleum reservoirs at offshore oilfields.

  14. Characterization and simulation of an exhumed fractured petroleum reservoir. Final report, March 18, 1996--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, C.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.

    1998-12-01

    An exhumed fractured reservoir located near Alligator Ridge in central Nevada provides the basis for developing and testing different approaches for simulating fractured petroleum reservoirs. The fractured analog reservoir comprises a 90 m thickness of silty limestone and shaly interbeds within the Devonian Pilot Shale. A period of regional compression followed by ongoing basin and range extension has created faults and fractures that, in tern, have controlled the migration of both oil and gold ore-forming fluids. Open pit gold mines provide access for observing oil seepage, collecting the detailed fracture data needed to map variations in fracture intensity near faults, build discrete fracture network models and create equivalent permeability structures. Fault trace patterns mapped at the ground surface provide a foundation for creating synthetic fault trace maps using a stochastic procedure conditioned by the outcrop data. Conventional simulations of petroleum production from a 900 by 900 m sub-domain within the reservoir analog illustrate the possible influence of faults and fractures on production. The consequences of incorporating the impact of different stress states (e.g., extension, compression or lithostatic) are also explored. Simulating multiphase fluid flow using a discrete fracture, finite element simulator illustrates how faults acting as conduits might be poorly represented by the upscaling procedures used to assign equivalent permeability values within reservoir models. The parallelized reservoir simulators developed during this project provide a vehicle to evaluate when it might be necessary to incorporate very fine scale grid networks in conventional reservoir simulators or to use finely gridded discrete fracture reservoir simulators.

  15. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  16. [Microbial diversity in shengli petroleum reservoirs analyzed by T-RFLP].

    PubMed

    Yuan, San-qing; Xue, Yan-fen; Gao, Peng; Wang, Wei-dong; Ma, Yan-he; Li, Xi-ming; Xu, Guo-wang

    2007-04-01

    Recent investigations on the microbial ecology of oil reservoirs in a variety of locales indicated that these habitats harbor various assemblages. In this study, a cultured-independent molecular technique, Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to analyze the microbial diversity of an injection well (S12-ZHU) and three related production wells (S12-4, S12-5 and S12-19) in the ShengLi oilfield (Shandong province, China). The 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with the 5'carboxy-fluorescein (5-FAM)-labelled universal forward primers (27F for bacteria and 21F for archaea) and a universal reverse primer (1495R). Then the 16S rRNA genes were digested with restriction enzymes (Hae III and Hha I) and analyzed by using an automated DNA sequencer. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity index, based on the T-RFLP profiles, indicated that the bacterial and archaeal species richness in the injection well was higher than those of the production ones. The similarity coefficient showed the microbial community similarity among the four samples was 22.4%-30.8% (Bacteria) and 20.8%-34.5% (Archaea), respectively. According to the analysis by TAP T-RFLP program, species belonging to Pseudomonas, Marinobacter and Methanosarcina as well as some uncultured archaeon were supposed to be the dominant bacteria in all four samples. Thus, this study indicates that T-RFLP is useful for analysis of the microbial diversity in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:17552237

  17. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  18. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  19. New petrophysical magnetic methods MACC and MAFM in permeability characterisation of petroleum reservoir rock cleaning, flooding modelling and determination of fines migration in formation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.

    2012-04-01

    Potential applications of magnetic techniques and methods in petroleum engineering and petrophysics (Ivakhnenko, 1999, 2006; Ivakhnenko & Potter, 2004) reveal their vast advantages for the petroleum reservoir characterisation and formation evaluation. In this work author proposes for the first time developed systematic methods of the Magnetic Analysis of Core Cleaning (MACC) and Magnetic Analysis of Fines Migration (MAFM) for characterisation of reservoir core cleaning and modelling estimations of fines migration for the petroleum reservoir formations. Using example of the one oil field we demonstrate results in application of these methods on the reservoir samples. Petroleum reservoir cores samples have been collected within reservoir using routine technique of reservoir sampling and preservation for PVT analysis. Immediately before the MACC and MAFM studies samples have been exposed to atmospheric air for a few days. The selected samples have been in detailed way characterised after fluid cleaning and core flooding by their mineralogical compositions and petrophysical parameters. Mineralogical composition has been estimated utilizing XRD techniques. The petrophysical parameters, such as permeability and porosity have been measured on the basis of total core analysis. The results demonstrate effectiveness and importance of the MACC and MAFM methods for the routine core analysis (RCAL) and the special core analysis (SCAL) in the reservoir characterisation, core flooding and formation damage analysis.

  20. Isolation and characterization of alkane degrading bacteria from petroleum reservoir waste water in Iran (Kerman and Tehran provenances).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad; Tebyanian, Hamid; Kariminik, Ashraf

    2013-08-15

    Petroleum products spill and leakage have become two major environmental challenges in Iran. Sampling was performed in the petroleum reservoir waste water of Tehran and Kerman Provinces of Iran. Alkane degrading bacteria were isolated by enrichment in a Bushnel-Hass medium, with hexadecane as sole source of carbon and energy. The isolated strains were identified by amplification of 16S rDNA gene and sequencing. Specific primers were used for identification of alkane hydroxylase gene. Fifteen alkane degrading bacteria were isolated and 8 strains were selected as powerful degradative bacteria. These 8 strains relate to Rhodococcus jostii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter piechaudii, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodococcus erythropolis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa genera. The optimum concentration of hexadecane that allowed high growth was 2.5%. Gas chromatography results show that all strains can degrade approximately half of hexadecane in one week of incubation. All of the strains have alkane hydroxylase gene which are important for biodegradation. As a result, this study indicates that there is a high diversity of degradative bacteria in petroleum reservoir waste water in Iran.

  1. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: part II. Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, M Indira; Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Kelley, John J

    2013-12-15

    Composition and concentration of hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes, triterpenoids, steranes, and PAHs) in nearshore surface sediments from Elson Lagoon (EL), Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay (CDPB) and Beaufort Lagoon (BL), Alaskan Beaufort Sea, were assessed for spatio-temporal variability. Principal component analysis of the molecules/biomarkers concentrations delineated CDPB and BL samples into two groups, and cluster analysis identified three station groups in CDPB. Overall there was no geographic distribution pattern in the groups. The diversities between groups and individual samples are attributed to differences in n-alkanes and PAHs contents, which are influenced predominantly by sediment granulometry and sitespecific fluvial input. The predominant hydrocarbon source is biogenic, mainly terrigenous, with hardly any contribution from natural oil seeps, oil drill effluents and/or refined crude. The terrigenous source is corroborated by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and OC/N of sediment organic matter. Time interval (1976-1977, 1984 and 1997) changes in hydrocarbon compositions and concentrations in CDPB are not significant.

  2. Genome sequence of Brevibacillus agri strain 5-2, isolated from the formation water of petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    She, Yuehui; Wu, Wenqiong; Hang, Chunchun; Jiang, Xiawei; Chai, Lujun; Yu, Gaoming; Shu, Fuchang; Wang, Zhengliang; Su, Sanbao; Xiang, Tingsheng; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Hou, DuJie; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Beiwen

    2014-12-01

    Brevibacillus agri strain 5-2 was isolated from the formation water of a deep oil reservoir in Changqing Oilfield, China. This bacterium was found to have a capacity for degrading tetradecane, hexadecane and alkanesulfonate. To gain insights into its efficient metabolic pathway for degrading hydrocarbon and organosulfur compounds, here, we report the high quality draft genome of this strain. Two putative alkane 1-monooxygenases, one putative alkanesulfonate monooxygenase, one putative alkanesulfonate transporter, one putative sulfate permease and five putative sulfate transporters were identified in the draft genome. The genomic data of strain 5-2 may provide insights into the mechanism of microorganisms adapt to the petroleum reservoir after chemical flooding. PMID:25194923

  3. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  4. Geochemical relationships of petroleum in Mesozoic reservoirs to carbonate source rocks of Jurassic Smackover Formation, southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, G.E.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-07-01

    Algal carbonate mudstones of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are the main source rocks for oil and condensate in Mesozoic reservoir rocks in southwestern Alabama. This interpretation is based on geochemical analyses of oils, condensates, and organic matter in selected samples of shale (Norphlet Formation, Haynesville Formation, Trinity Group, Tuscaloosa Group) and carbonate (Smackover Formation) rocks. Potential and probable oil source rocks are present in the Tuscaloosa Group and Smackover Formation, respectively. Extractable organic matter from Smackover carbonates has molecular and isotopic similarities to Jurassic oil. Although the Jurassic oils and condensates in southwestern Alabama have genetic similarities, they show significant compositional variations due to differences in thermal maturity and organic facies/lithofacies. Organic facies reflect different depositional conditions for source rocks in the various basins. The Mississippi Interior Salt basin was characterized by more continuous marine to hypersaline conditions, whereas the Manila and Conecuh embayments periodically had lower salnity and greater input of clastic debris and terrestrial organic matter. Petroleum and organic matter in Jurassic rocks of southwestern Alabama show a range of thermal transformations. The gas content of hydrocarbons in reservoirs increases with increasing depth and temperature. In some reservoirs where the temperature is above 266/degrees/F(130/degrees/C), gas-condensate is enriched in isotopically heavy sulfur, apparently derived from thermochemical reduction of Jurassic evaporite sulfate. This process also resulted in increase H/sub 2/S and CO in the gas, and depletion of saturated hydrocarbons in the condensate liquids.

  5. The effect of carboxylic acid anions on the stability of framework mineral grains in petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C.; Ewing, R.E. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper presents experimental and empirical evidence to show that carboxylic acid anions (CAA's) are a major diagenetic control on first-cycle basins in Jurassic-to-Pleistocene reservoirs in the 80-to-120{degrees}C thermal window.

  6. Research program on fractured petroleum reservoirs. Fourth quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1993-01-31

    Progress reports are presented for project 2-supersaturation, critical saturation and residual gas saturation in porous media and for project 5-simulation of fractured reservoirs. Under project 2, a visual high-pressure core-holder has been designed and constructed to be used in critical gas saturation and some other measurements. The apparatus has been used to measure critical gas saturation for a low viscosity mixture. These measurements reconfirm the investigators` previously published data that critical gas saturation for low viscosity fluids are low-around 1 percent. The apparatus is being currently used to measure critical gas saturation of an 11 API oil. Unlike light oils, heavy oil reservoirs, especially fractured heavy oil reservoirs might have an extremely high recovery efficiency with solution gas-drive. The critical gas saturation is an important element of recovery efficiency for such reservoirs.

  7. Exploration for fractured petroleum reservoirs using radar/Landsat merge combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Waite, W.; Borengasser, M.; Tolman, D.; Elachi, C.

    1981-01-01

    Since fractures are commonly propagated upward and reflected at the earth's surface as subtle linears, detection of these surface features is extremely important in many phases of petroleum exploration and development. To document the usefulness of microwave analysis for petroleum exploration, the Arkansas part of the Arkoma basin is selected as a prime test site. The research plan involves comparing the aircraft microwave imagery and Landsat imagery in an area where significant subsurface borehole geophysical data are available. In the northern Arkoma basin, a positive correlation between the number of linears in a given area and production from cherty carbonate strata is found. In the southern part of the basin, little relationship is discernible between surface structure and gas production, and no correlation is found between gas productivity and linear proximity or linear density as determined from remote sensor data.

  8. Characterization of petroleum reservoirs in the Eocene Green River Formation, Central Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, C.D.; Bereskin, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The oil-productive Eocene Green River Formation in the central Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah is divided into five distinct intervals. In stratigraphically ascending order these are: 1) Uteland Butte, 2) Castle Peak, 3) Travis, 4) Monument Butte, and 5) Beluga. The reservoir in the Uteland Butte interval is mainly lacustrine limestone with rare bar sandstone beds, whereas the reservoirs in the other four intervals are mainly channel and lacustrine sandstone beds. The changing depositional environments of Paleocene-Eocene Lake Uinta controlled the characteristics of each interval and the reservoir rock contained within. The Uteland Butte consists of carbonate and rare, thin, shallow-lacustrine sandstone bars deposited during the initial rise of the lake. The Castle Peak interval was deposited during a time of numerous and rapid lake-level fluctuations, which developed a simple drainage pattern across the exposed shallow and gentle shelf with each fall and rise cycle. The Travis interval records a time of active tectonism that created a steeper slope and a pronounced shelf break where thick cut-and-fill valleys developed during lake-level falls and rises. The Monument Butte interval represents a return to a gentle, shallow shelf where channel deposits are stacked in a lowstand delta plain and amalgamated into the most extensive reservoir in the central Uinta Basin. The Beluga interval represents a time of major lake expansion with fewer, less pronounced lake-level falls, resulting in isolated single-storied channel and shallow-bar sandstone deposits.

  9. Research program on fractured petroleum reservoirs. Second quarterly, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1995-07-31

    Very large compositional variation both areally and vertically has been observed in some hydrocarbon reservoirs. Several mechanisms are believed to contribute to such variations: gravitational segregation, molecular diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal convection. At isothermal conditions only gravitational segregation and molecular diffusion contribute to vertical compositional grading. The Gibbs segregation concept can properly account for this process. Under nonisothermal conditions, which is often the case, the process is thermodynamically irreversible and therefore Gibbs criteria of equilibrium cannot be invoked. The current literature often combines the Gibbs segregation concept and the natural convection process to formulate the interaction of convection and gravity segregation for multicomponent systems at nonisothermal conditions. The Dary law is also used without the modification of the velocity weighing for multicomponent systems. Such a formulation may not describe the process properly. This report formulates compositional variation in hydrocarbon reservoirs at nonisothermal condition. Results for the special case of gravity and thermal diffusion are also presented.

  10. Research program on fractured petroleum reservoirs. Final report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1997-05-01

    Multiphase flow in fractured porous media is a complex problem. While the study of single phase flow in a fractured or a layered medium can be pursued by some kind of averaging process, there is no meaning to averaging two-phase flow when capillarity is an active force. For a two-layer system comprised of high and low permeable layers, the performance of gas-oil gravity can be less efficient than the homogeneous low permeable medium. On the other hand, heterogeneity may enhance water imbibition due to capillarity. Due to the above and various other complexities, current tools for predicting the performance of fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs are not reliable. Based on the research work carried out at the Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, and some other Institutions, a good deal of progress has been made in recent years. But still we are a long way from good predictive reservoir models. In this final report, we summarize some of our achievements in the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured media. Since some of the features of two-phase flow in fractured and layered many are similar due to the capillary forces, the work includes progress in both types of media. There are some basic issues of flow in both fractured and unfractured media that are currently unresolved. These issues include: (1) new phase formation such as the formation of liquid phase in gas condensate reservoirs, and gas phase formation in solution gas drive process and (2) composition variation due to thermal convection and diffusion processes. In the following, a brief summary of our findings in the last three years during the course of the project is presented.

  11. Petroleum potential of Mississippi fan: exploration analogs to flex trend reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, P.

    1989-03-01

    The Mississippi fan is a large mud-dominated submarine fan over 4 km thick that was deposited in the deep Gulf of Mexico during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. The fan contains deep-water sediments coeval to the Flex Trend turbidite reservoirs deposited in the continental slope to the north. The fan reflects turbidite deposition in an unconfined basin, in contrast to the confined intraslope basins. Analysis of 19,000 km of multifold seismic data across the fan defined 17 seismic sequences, each characterized by a series of channel, levee, and associated overbank deposits and other mass transport deposits. At the base of nine sequences is a series of seismic facies consisting of mounded, hummocky, chaotic, and subparallel reflections which constitute 10-20% of the sediments of each sequence. These facies are externally mounded in cross section and occur in two general regions of the fan. In the upper and middle fan, they occur below channels and are elongate in shape, mimicking the channel's distribution. In the middle to lower fan, they have a fan-shaped distribution, increasing in width downfan. These facies are interpreted to have formed as disorganized slides, debris flows, and turbidites and are informally called mass complexes. The Mississippi fan has four prospective reservoir intervals and serves as a possible exploration model for Flex trend reservoirs: channel sands with linear trends, unchannelized sands beyond the terminus of the channel downdip that are areally widespread, potentially sandprone levees immediately adjacent to initial channels deposited in some sequences, and limited portions of mass transport complexes. Large structural traps are present where the fan has been deformed by salt and the Mississippi fan foldbelt.

  12. Middle Jurassic incised valley fill (eolian/estuarine) and nearshore marine petroleum reservoirs, Powder River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Fox, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Paleovalleys incised into the Triassic Spearfish Formation (Chugwater equivalent) are filled with a vertical sequence of eolian, estuarine, and marine sandstones of the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian age) Canyon Springs Sandstone Member of the Sundance Formation. An outcrop exemplifying this is located at Red Canyon in the southern Black Hills, Fall River County, South Dakota. These paleovalleys locally have more than 300 ft of relief and are as much as several miles wide. Because they slope in a westerly direction, and Jurassic seas transgressed into the area from the west there was greater marine-influence and more stratigraphic complexity in the subsurface, to the west, as compared to the Black Hills outcrops. In the subsurface two distinctive reservoir sandstone beds within the Canyon Springs Sandstone Member fill the paleovalleys. These are the eolian lower Canyon Springs unit (LCS) and the estuarine upper Canyon Springs unit (UCS), separated by the marine {open_quotes}Limestone Marker{close_quotes} and estuarine {open_quotes}Brown Shale{close_quotes}. The LCS and UCS contain significant proven hydrocarbon reservoirs in Wyoming (about 500 MMBO in-place in 9 fields, 188 MMBO produced through 1993) and are prospective in western South Dakota, western Nebraska and northern Colorado. Also prospective is the Callovian-age Hulett Sandstone Member which consists of multiple prograding shoreface to foreshore parasequences, as interpreted from the Red Canyon locality. Petrographic, outcrop and subsurface studies demonstrate the viability of both the Canyon Springs Sandstone and Hulett Sandstone members as superior hydrocarbon reservoirs in both stratigraphic and structural traps. Examples of fields with hydrocarbon production from the Canyon Springs in paleovalleys include Lance Creek field (56 MMBO produced) and the more recently discovered Red Bird field (300 MBO produced), both in Niobrara County, Wyoming.

  13. Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Chen, Shuo; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the worldwide anoxic and mesophilic habitats. Recently, the existence and activity of anammox bacteria have been detected in some thermophilic environments, but their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not reported. This study investigated the abundance, distribution and functional diversity of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 high-temperature oil reservoirs by molecular ecology analysis. High concentration (5.31–39.2 mg l−1) of ammonium was detected in the production water from these oilfields with temperatures between 55°C and 75°C. Both 16S rRNA and hzo molecular biomarkers indicated the occurrence of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 samples. Most of 16S rRNA gene phylotypes are closely related to the known anammox bacterial genera Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia, while hzo gene phylotypes are closely related to the genera Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia. The total bacterial and anammox bacterial densities were 6.4 ± 0.5 × 103 to 2.0 ± 0.18 × 106 cells ml−1 and 6.6 ± 0.51 × 102 to 4.9 ± 0.36 × 104 cell ml−1, respectively. The cluster I of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed distant identity (<92%) to the known Candidatus Scalindua species, inferring this cluster of anammox bacteria to be a new species, and a tentative name Candidatus “Scalindua sinooilfield” was proposed. The results extended the existence of anammox bacteria to the high-temperature oil reservoirs. PMID:20740282

  14. Middle Jurassic incised valley fill (eolian/estuarine) and nearshore marine petroleum reservoirs, Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Fox, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Paleovalleys incised into the Triassic Spearfish Formation (Chugwater equivalent) are filled with a vertical sequence of eolian, estuarine, and marine sandstones of the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian age) Canyon Springs Sandstone Member of the Sundance Formation. An outcrop exemplifying this is located at Red Canyon in the southern Black Hills, Fall River County, South Dakota. These paleovalleys locally have more than 300 ft of relief and are as much as several miles wide. Because they slope in a westerly direction, and Jurassic seas transgressed into the area from the west there was greater marine-influence and more stratigraphic complexity in the subsurface, to the west, as compared to the Black Hills outcrops. In the subsurface two distinctive reservoir sandstone beds within the Canyon Springs Sandstone Member fill the paleovalleys. These are the eolian lower Canyon Springs unit (LCS) and the estuarine upper Canyon Springs unit (UCS), separated by the marine "Limestone Marker" and estuarine "Brown Shale". The LCS and UCS contain significant proven hydrocarbon reservoirs in Wyoming (about 500 MMBO in-place in 9 fields, 188 MMBO produced through 1993) and are prospective in western South Dakota, western Nebraska and northern Colorado. Also prospective is the Callovian-age Hulett Sandstone Member which consists of multiple prograding shoreface to foreshore parasequences, as interpreted from the Red Canyon locality. Petrographic, outcrop and subsurface studies demonstrate the viability of both the Canyon Springs Sandstone and Hulett Sandstone members as superior hydrocarbon reservoirs in both stratigraphic and structural traps. Examples of fields with hydrocarbon production from the Canyon Springs in paleovalleys include Lance Creek field (56 MMBO produced) and the more recently discovered Red Bird field (300 MBO produced), both in Niobrara County, Wyoming. At Red Bird field the primary exploration target was the Pennsylvanian "Leo sands" of the Minnelusa Formation, and

  15. Research program on fractured petroleum reservoirs: Quarterly report, October 1 through December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1995-01-31

    This report covers Task 3, Immiscible gas-oil flow in fractured/layered porous media, Part 1, Viscous displacement in fractured porous media: Experiments and Analysis of experiments and Task 5, Simulation of fractured reservoirs, Dual-porosity simulation incorporating reinfiltration and capillary continuity concepts, Part 3, Interaction between grid cells. In some fractured reservoirs, a gas pressure gradient of the order of 0.1 psi/ft may be established in the fractures due to flow. Such a pressure gradient could result in recovery enhancement of the matrix oil. Several tests were conducted to study viscous displacement in fractured porous media. These tests included both gravity drainage with free gas displacement and forced gas displacement. The results show that there is considerable recovery improvement due to viscous displacement. Numerical results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. In Task 5, the authors propose a method which accounts for reinfiltration and capillary continuity not only within a grid cell, but also between various grid cells. A reinfiltration term is added to the dual-porosity model and the exchange term between the matrix and the fracture is calculated in a simple manner. Four example problems demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  16. Petroleum and aqueous inclusions from deeply buried reservoirs: Experimental simulations and consequences for overpressure estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironon, Jacques; Bourdet, Julien

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic hydrocarbon and aqueous inclusions have been created in the laboratory batch reactors in order to mimic inclusion formation or re-equilibration in deeply buried reservoirs. Inclusions were synthesized in quartz and calcite using pure water and Mexican dead oil, or n-tetradecane (C 14H 30), at a temperature and pressure of 150 °C and 1 kbar. One-phase hydrocarbon inclusions are frequently observed at standard laboratory conditions leading to homogenization temperatures between 0 and 60 °C. UV epifluorescence of Mexican oil inclusions is not uniform; blue and green-yellow colored inclusions coexist; however, no clear evidence of variations in fluid chemistry were observed. Homogenization temperatures were recorded and the maxima of Th plotted on histograms are in good agreement with expected Th in a range of 6 °C. Broad histograms were reconstructed showing non-symmetrical Th distributions over a 20 °C temperature range centered on the expected Th. This histogram broadening is due to the fragility of the fluid inclusions that were created by re-filling of pre-existing microcavities. Such Th histograms are similar to Th histograms recorded on natural samples from deeply buried carbonate reservoirs. Th values lower than those expected were measured for hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz and calcite, and for aqueous inclusions in calcite. However, the results confirm the ability of fluid inclusions containing two immiscible fluids to lead to PT reconstructions, even in overpressured environments.

  17. Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Victorine, J.; Watney, W.L.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of ATP measurements to the microbiological evaluation of a petroleum reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    The objective of the work reported in this document was to determine whether the bioluminescent luciferin/luciferase based adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay could be used as a rapid field tests for determining the presence and numbers of microorganisms in oil field fluids. The ATP-photometric technique employed is based on the ATP-mediated bioluminescent oxidation of firefly luciferin. Light production is stoichiometrically related to ATP concentration; ATP concentration is related to numbers of living organisms present in a sample. Samples used in this study comprised reservoir fluids collected from several Southern California oilfields. Based on experimental evidence, it was concluded that the ATP assay could be profitably applied to Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) process monitoring and control. The theoretical basis for the assay, field-usage methodologies, and fundamentals of data interpretation are presented to make the document usable as a field manual.

  19. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  20. Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2006-12-31

    The project developed, built, and tested three apparatuses for studying different interactions of carbon dioxide with geologic materials. In Year 1, an online instrument was constructed by coupling a high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction system with a flame ionization detector that can yield a real-time profile and quantitative measurements of hydrocarbons removed from materials such as coal and petroleum reservoir rock. In Years 2 and 3, one instrument was built to measure the excess sorption of carbon dioxide in geologic materials such as coal and showed that measurable uptake of carbon dioxide into the coal matrix is rapid. The final apparatus was built to expose geologic materials to carbon dioxide for long periods of time (weeks to months) under the range of pressures and temperatures relevant to carbon dioxide sequestration. The apparatus allows as many as twenty gram-sized samples of geologic materials to be exposed simultaneously and can also include exposures with geologic brines. The system was used to demonstrate complete conversion of magnesium silicate to magnesium carbonate in less than 4 weeks when exposed to clean water or brine, compared to no measurable conversion of dry magnesium carbonate.

  1. Extracting Energy from Petroleum Reservoirs at Large Scale without CO2 Emissions -Is it possible? Is The Attempt Desirable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larter, Steve; Strous, Marc; Bryant, Steven

    2016-04-01

    One of our greatest challenges is the rapid transition to a carbon-neutral energy future. Alberta, with vast petroleum resources and a key role in Canada's current economy, embodies this global challenge of balancing environmental, economic and energy security goals - the "energy trilemma." The proposition that limiting future global warming requires holding atmospheric CO2 concentrations below a target value leads inexorably to the conclusion that the carbon in most of the world's fossil fuels, has to remain underground. Most fossil fuel resources would be stranded, as so would the economic wealth associated with those resources - unless resource development can be accomplished by maintaining a fossil fuel industry with a reduced and eventually eliminated environmental footprint. If achievable, there are potential political and economic benefits evident, that could greatly accelerate broader, desirable energy system changes. In this alternate paradigm, petroleum reservoirs might play a transitional role as storehouses of chemical energy, but instead of utilizing that energy by surface combustion, an alternative is to convert it into other forms of chemical or electrical energy. By carrying out this conversion in situ, CO2 can be left in the reservoir. By choosing energy forms such as hydrogen, hydrogen rich fuels or electricity, that emit no CO2 when used to power our machines and devices, we can in principle, continue to derive value from fossil fuel resources and provide economic drivers for a complete and rapid transformation of our energy supply systems and economies. We examine the technical and political aspects of this route emphasizing the need for safeguards against emergent issues that might slow a rapid transition towards dominant renewable energy sources in the medium and long terms. Technologies such as conventional carbon capture and storage can only have a small effect on oil related emissions, as downstream emissions dominate. So, dramatic

  2. Metagenomic and geochemical characterization of pockmarked sediments overlaying the Troll petroleum reservoir in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pockmarks (depressions in the seabed) have been discovered throughout the world’s oceans and are often related to hydrocarbon seepage. Although high concentrations of pockmarks are present in the seabed overlaying the Troll oil and gas reservoir in the northern North Sea, geological surveys have not detected hydrocarbon seepage in this area at the present time. In this study we have used metagenomics to characterize the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the surface sediments in the Troll area in relation to geochemical parameters, particularly related to hydrocarbon presence. We also investigated the possibility of increased potential for methane oxidation related to the pockmarks. Five metagenomes from pockmarks and plain seabed sediments were sequenced by pyrosequencing (Roche/454) technology. In addition, two metagenomes from seabed sediments geologically unlikely to be influenced by hydrocarbon seepage (the Oslofjord) were included. The taxonomic distribution and metabolic potential of the metagenomes were analyzed by multivariate analysis and statistical comparisons to reveal variation within and between the two sampling areas. Results The main difference identified between the two sampling areas was an overabundance of predominantly autotrophic nitrifiers, especially Nitrosopumilus, and oligotrophic marine Gammaproteobacteria in the Troll metagenomes compared to the Oslofjord. Increased potential for degradation of hydrocarbons, especially aromatic hydrocarbons, was detected in two of the Troll samples: one pockmark sample and one from the plain seabed. Although presence of methanotrophic organisms was indicated in all samples, no overabundance in pockmark samples compared to the Oslofjord samples supports no, or only low level, methane seepage in the Troll pockmarks at the present time. Conclusions Given the relatively low content of total organic carbon and great depths of hydrocarbon containing sediments in the Troll area, it is possible that

  3. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  4. Fractal characterization of geological fractures in an exposed analog of a petroleum reservoir and its application to fluid flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez, A.; Tolson, G.

    2012-12-01

    The quantification of fracture systems is important to understand the phenomenon of fluid flow in naturally fractured petroleum reservoirs. In this work, we present a case of detailed analysis of filled fracture networks (veins) covering four orders of magnitude of scale. For our analysis we selected rocks of the El Doctor platform in the state of Querétaro, Central Mexico, which is an exposed analog of naturally fractured carbonate reservoir rocks common in the near-offshore oil fields in southeast Mexico. The fractal properties of one and two dimensional natural fracture patterns mapped on limestone outcrops, are present and compared to the results obtained in other studies at different scales. The fractal dimension of different fracture properties, such as spacing, thickness, spatial distribution, density, connectivity and length are investigated and measured using different methods. The principal fractal parameters obtained in this study include the cumulative-frequency exponent of spacing and thickness, box-counting dimension, correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent in 1D analysis; whereas the 2D analysis included the cumulative-length exponent (fragmentation dimension), box-counting dimension, mass dimension (mid and intersection points of fractures), lacunarity and connectivity. In addition, we analyzed the orientation, density and intensity of the fracture arrays. The results of the 1D analysis indicate that the fracture spacing can be characterised using the parameters mentioned before, but the best fractal parameter to characterize the distribution and array of fractures is the Lyapunov exponent, because it's value (1.06-1.42) can differentiate between different types of array. The fractal dimension obtained for cumulative-frequency of the spacing, shows a power law with a negative exponent between -1.08 and -0.70. In the case of box-counting and correlation dimensions, the values of dimension were 0.30-0.68 and 0.40-0.63 respectively. With respect

  5. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  6. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  7. Using gas geochemistry to delineate structural compartments and assess petroleum reservoir-filling directions: A Venezuelan case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, G.; Escobar, M.; Lorenzo, E.; Gallego, J. R.; Tocco, R.

    2013-04-01

    Here we examined the light hydrocarbon and nitrogen content and isotopic signatures of eleven gaseous samples in order to evaluate lateral intra-reservoir continuity in a Venezuelan reservoir in the central area of Lake Maracaibo Basin. At least three single compartments, located in the northern-central and southern parts of the reservoir, are revealed by nitrogen concentrations showing clear step-like compositional breaks. The occurrence of step-breaks was also supported by the isotopic signature of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the range of C1-C4 alkanes. Samples presented only slight differences in N2 and hydrocarbon gas compositions within the central and northern parts of the reservoir, and therefore it was not possible to infer structural barriers in coherence with the geological section. Some oil bulk parameters corroborate gradual changes that provide additional information on the reservoir-filling history, thus suggesting that the lateral physical-chemical equilibrium of fluids was not reached in this reservoir.

  8. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  9. Evidence for syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in the high-temperature petroleum reservoir of Yabase oil field (Japan).

    PubMed

    Mayumi, Daisuke; Mochimaru, Hanako; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Sakata, Susumu; Maeda, Haruo; Miyagawa, Yoshihiro; Ikarashi, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Mio; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2011-08-01

    The methanogenic communities and pathways in a high-temperature petroleum reservoir were investigated through incubations of the production water and crude oil, combined with radiotracer experiments and molecular biological analyses. The incubations were conducted without any substrate amendment and under high-temperature and pressurized conditions that mimicked the in situ environment (55°C, 5 MPa). Changes in methane and acetate concentrations during the incubations indicated stoichiometric production of methane from acetate. Rates of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis measured using [(14)C]-bicarbonate were 42-68 times those of acetoclastic methanogenesis measured using [2-(14) C]-acetate, implying the dominance of methane production by syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in the environment. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the incubated production water showed bacterial communities dominated by the genus Thermacetogenium, known as a thermophilic syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium, and archaeal communities dominated by thermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens belonging to the genus Methanothermobacter. Furthermore, group-specific real-time PCR assays revealed that 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of the hydrogenotrophic methanogens affiliated with the order Methanobacteriales were almost identical to those of archaeal 16S rRNA genes. This study demonstrates that syntrophic acetate oxidation is the main methanogenic pathway in a high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

  10. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  11. The energy-water nexus: Potential groundwater-quality degradation associated with petroleum production from shale and tight reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharaka, Y. K.; Gans, K. D.; Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.

    2013-12-01

    Oil and natural gas are the main sources of primary energy in the USA, providing 63% of total energy consumption in 2011. Production of petroleum from shale and very low permeability reservoirs has increased substantially due to recent developments in deep horizontal drilling, downhole telemetry and massive multi-stage hydraulic fracturing using ';slick water'. Production of natural gas from shale has increased rapidly, from 0.4 Tcf in 2000, to 6.8 Tcf in 2011, almost 30% of gas production in USA; it is projected to increase to account for 49% of USA gas in 2035. U.S. crude oil production has also increased from 5.0 Mbpd in 2008 to 5.6 Mbpd in 2011; oil from unconventional sources in 2035 is projected to be 0.7 to 2.8 Mbpd, accounting for 36% of domestic production. Hydraulic fracturing is carried out by injecting large volumes (~10,000-50,000 m3/well) of fresh water with added proppant, and organic and inorganic chemicals at high fluid pressures. Approximately 500-5,000 m3/well of water are also used for drilling the wells. The total water used for shale gas wells is relatively low compared to the consumptive total water usage in wet regions (e.g. 0.06% of water for the Marcellus Shale); but is much higher in arid regions (e.g. 0.8% for the Haynesville Shale) where water used could be a significant constraint for gas development because its use could impact the available water supply. Fluid pressure is lowered following hydraulic fracturing, causing the ';flowback' brine, which is a mixture of fracturing fluid and formation water, to return to the surface through the casing. During the 2-3 weeks of the ';flowback' period for a Marcellus Shale well, 10-50% of the fracturing fluid returns to the surface, initially at high rates (~1,000 m3/day), decreasing finally to ~ 50 m3/day. The salinity of the ';flowback' water is initially moderate (45,000 mg/L TDS), reflecting the composition of the fracturing water, and increasing to ~200,000 mg/L TDS. Production of natural

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  13. An Alaskan legend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, H.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Jack Lee is a prominent personality, an Alaskan individualist and a skeptic worthy of remembrance if for no other reason than being inextricably associated with the catastrophic Katmai eruption in 1912. Jack remains a provocative reminder of Alaska's pre-1958 drilling and was quite possibly the earliest observer (excepting natives and possibly Russians) of the oil seeps in the area now encompassed by the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge. His observation of the impressive live oil seeps in the Ugashik and Becharof Lakes area, and his subsequent involvement in the early drilling entirely consumed his future interests. He is a firm believer that individualism and suspicion are powerful tools when forced to reconsider alternatives to readily accepted interpretations of modern exploration results. His individualism and sometimes annoying, but thought-provoking skepticism remains useful in any field where clich??s provide safe guards from new concepts.

  14. [Hygienic assessment of the water quality of water reservoirs in regions with developed petrochemical and petroleum refining industries].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, R A

    1996-01-01

    The pollution intensity of the Belay River was studied in different periods of petroleum refining processes over many years. The extent of river pollution was determined. The calculated complex indices for river pollution allow one to make hygienic ranging of the river by the basic hazard indices.

  15. Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

    1996-01-01

    The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

  16. Understanding Reservoir Quality in Ara Stringers of the Ediacaran - early Cambrian Petroleum System of the South Oman Salt Basin: Diagenetic relationships in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Reuning, L.; Morwinski, J.; Kukla, P. A.; Abe, S.; Li, S.; Urai, J. L.; Farqani, S.; Lopes Cardozo, G.; Rawahi, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group of the South Oman Salt Basin consists of six carbonate to evaporite (rock salt, gypsum) sequences. These Ara Group carbonates are termed A0C to A6C from the bottom towards the top of the basin. Differential loading of locally 5 km thick Cambrian to Ordovician clastics onto the mobile rock salt of the Ara Group caused growth of isolated salt diapirs, which resulted in strong fragmentation and faulting of the carbonate intervals into several isolated so-called 'stringers'. These carbonate stringers represent a unique intra-salt petroleum system, which has been successfully explored in recent years. However, some of the stringers failed to produce at significant rates due to the complex diagenetic history from the shallow to the deep burial realm. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, to unravel the complex diagenesis and its relative timing and link them to the burial history of the salt basin. Secondly, to detect spatial distribution patterns of diagenetic phases and their effect on reservoir properties. Mineralogy, rock fabrics, paragenetic relationships and geochemistry of ~ 400 samples from several petroleum wells from the late Neoproterozoic A2C interval were analyzed and combined with pre-existing data. The spatial distribution of diagenetic phases and petrophysical characteristics will be displayed in field-scale distribution maps. These maps comprise crucial information for better prediction of reservoir quality in the analyzed fields, planning of new exploration wells and better volumetric calculations. An integration of the paragenetic sequence derived from thin-section analysis with results from finite element and discrete element models further helps to constrain the effect of salt tectonics on fracture formation and fluid evolution within the stringers.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a nonculturable Methanococcus maripaludis strain extracted in a metagenomic survey of petroleum reservoir fluids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Philip; Volk, Herbert; Sutherland, Tara D

    2011-10-01

    Extraction of genome sequences from metagenomic data is crucial for reconstructing the metabolism of microbial communities that cannot be mimicked in the laboratory. A complete Methanococcus maripaludis genome was generated from metagenomic data derived from a thermophilic subsurface oil reservoir. M. maripaludis is a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic species that is common in mesophilic saline environments. Comparison of the genome from the thermophilic, subsurface environment with the genome of the type species will provide insight into the adaptation of a methanogenic genome to an oil reservoir environment.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Nonculturable Methanococcus maripaludis Strain Extracted in a Metagenomic Survey of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Philip; Volk, Herbert; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of genome sequences from metagenomic data is crucial for reconstructing the metabolism of microbial communities that cannot be mimicked in the laboratory. A complete Methanococcus maripaludis genome was generated from metagenomic data derived from a thermophilic subsurface oil reservoir. M. maripaludis is a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic species that is common in mesophilic saline environments. Comparison of the genome from the thermophilic, subsurface environment with the genome of the type species will provide insight into the adaptation of a methanogenic genome to an oil reservoir environment. PMID:21914896

  19. Contributions in petroleum geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A.H.; Koederitz, L.; Honarpour, M. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses petroleum reservoir components and properties. The contents include: Systems of units. Reservoir Rocks. Reservoir fluids. Relative permeability and capillarity. Reservoir volume and fluid flow. Naturally fractured reservoirs. Natural production mechanisms. Prediction of oil and gas recovery. Analysis of well performance. Gas-condensate reservoirs. Enhanced oil recovery processes.

  20. The abundance and distribution of diamondoids in biodegraded oils from the San Joaquin Valley: Implications for biodegradation of diamondoids in petroleum reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Peters, K.E.; Wang, Y.; Xiang, W.

    2007-01-01

    The biodegradability of diamondoids was investigated using a collection of crude oil samples from the San Joaquin Valley, California, that had been biodegraded to varying extent in the reservoir. Our results show that diamondoids are subjected to biodegradation, which is selective as well as stepwise. Adamantanes are generally more susceptible to biodegradation than other diamondoids, such as diamantanes and triamantanes. We report a possible pathway for the microbial degradation of adamantane. This cage hydrocarbon possibly breaks down to a metabolic intermediate through the action of microbes at higher levels of biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs. Microbial alteration has only a minor effect on diamondoid abundance in oil at low levels of biodegradation. Our results suggest that most diamondoids (with the exception of adamantane) are resistant to biodegradation, like the polycyclic terpanes (e.g. C19-C24 tricyclic terpanes, hopanes, gammacerane, oleananes, Ts, Tm, C29 Ts), steranes and diasteranes. Microbial alteration of diamondoids has a negligible impact on the quantification of oil cracking achieved using the diamondoid-biomarker method. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sandstone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, R.J.; Tillman, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain province of the United States contains structural and stratigraphic traps from which petroleum is produced from all types of sandstone reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian to the Eocene. Three large typical stratigraphic traps in this province, where reservoirs are of Cretaceous age, are described. The Cut Bank Field, Montana produces from aluvial point bar sandstones; Patrick Draw field, Wyoming produces from marine shoreline sandstones; and, Hartzog Draw field, Wyoming produces from marine shelf sandstone. 10 refs.

  2. Petroleum production operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book is a study of petroleum production written for those with technical expertise between novice and professional. Covers petroleum reservoirs and drive mechanisms, well completion, well performance evaluation, primary cementing, perforating, squeeze cementing, packer and tubing forces, problem well analysis, workover methods, workover planning, and beam pumping.

  3. Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Characterization of Microbial Assemblages Associated with High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Orphan, V. J.; Taylor, L. T.; Hafenbradl, D.; Delong, E. F.

    2000-01-01

    Recent investigations of oil reservoirs in a variety of locales have indicated that these habitats may harbor active thermophilic prokaryotic assemblages. In this study, we used both molecular and culture-based methods to characterize prokaryotic consortia associated with high-temperature, sulfur-rich oil reservoirs in California. Enrichment cultures designed for anaerobic thermophiles, both autotrophic and heterotrophic, were successful at temperatures ranging from 60 to 90°C. Heterotrophic enrichments from all sites yielded sheathed rods (Thermotogales), pleomorphic rods resembling Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermococcus-like isolates. The predominant autotrophic microorganisms recovered from inorganic enrichments using H2, acetate, and CO2 as energy and carbon sources were methanogens, including isolates closely related to Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, and Methanoculleus species. Two 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) libraries were generated from total community DNA collected from production wellheads, using either archaeal or universal oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of the universal library indicated that a large percentage of clones were highly similar to known bacterial and archaeal isolates recovered from similar habitats. Represented genera in rDNA clone libraries included Thermoanaerobacter, Thermococcus, Desulfothiovibrio, Aminobacterium, Acidaminococcus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Desulfomicrobium. The archaeal library was dominated by methanogen-like rDNAs, with a lower percentage of clones belonging to the Thermococcales. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that sulfur-utilizing and methane-producing thermophilic microorganisms have a widespread distribution in oil reservoirs and the potential to actively participate in the biogeochemical transformation of carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in situ. PMID:10653739

  4. Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

    1995-12-31

    Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

  5. Influence of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnsen, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more regionally extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound influence on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain region has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been influenced by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of regional hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.

  6. [Identification of Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Dietzia Bacteria from Petroleum Reservoirs Based on Phenotypic Properties and Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Shumkova, E S; Sokolova, D Sh; Babich, T L; Zhurina, M V; Xue, Yan-Fen; Osipov, G A; Poltaraus, A B; Tourova, T P

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic position of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacterial strains 263 and 32d isolated from formation water of the Daqing petroleum reservoir (PRC) was determined by polyphasic taxonomy techniques, including analysis of the 16S rRNA and the gyrB genes. The major chemotaxonomic characteristics of both strains, including the IV type cell wall, composition of cell wall fatty acids, mycolic acids, and menaquinones, agreed with those typical of Dietzia strains. The DNA G+C content of strains 263 and 32d were 67.8 and 67.6 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strain 32d revealed 99.7% similarity to the gene of D. maris, making it possible to identify strain 32d as belonging to this species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 263 exhibited 99.7 and 99.9% similarity to those of D. natronolimnaea and D. cercidiphylli YIM65002(T), respectively. Analysis of the gyrB genes of the subterranean isolates and of a number of Dietzia type strains confirmed classiffication of strain 32d as a D. maris strain and of strain 263, as a D. natronolimnaea strain. A conclusion was made concerning higher resolving power of phylogenetic analysis of the gyrB gene compared to the 16S rRNA gene analysis in the case of determination of the species position of Dietzia isolates.

  7. Alaskan North Slope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Warren

    The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

  8. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  9. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  10. Radioisotopic, culture-based, and oligonucleotide microchip analyses of thermophilic microbial communities in a continental high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Chernyh, Nikolai A; Nazina, Tamara N; Ivoilov, Valery S; Belyaev, Sergey S; Boulygina, Eugenia S; Lysov, Yury P; Perov, Alexander N; Mirzabekov, Andrei D; Hippe, Hans; Stackebrandt, Erko; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Jeanthon, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Activity measurements by radioisotopic methods and cultural and molecular approaches were used in parallel to investigate the microbial biodiversity and its physiological potential in formation waters of the Samotlor high-temperature oil reservoir (Western Siberia, Russia). Sulfate reduction with rates not exceeding 20 nmol of H(2)S liter(-1) day(-1) occurred at 60 and 80 degrees C. In upper horizons (AB, A, and B), methanogenesis (lithotrophic and/or acetoclastic) was detected only in wells in which sulfate reduction did not occur. In some of the wells from deeper (J) horizons, high-temperature sulfate reduction and methanogenesis occurred simultaneously, the rate of lithotrophic methanogenesis exceeding 80 nmol of CH(4) liter(-1) day(-1). Enrichment cultures indicated the presence of diverse physiological groups representing aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles; fermentative organotrophs were predominant. Phylogenetic analyses of 15 isolates identified representatives of the genera Thermotoga, Thermoanaerobacter, Geobacillus, Petrotoga, Thermosipho, and Thermococcus, the latter four being represented by new species. Except for Thermosipho, the isolates were members of genera recovered earlier from similar habitats. DNA obtained from three samples was hybridized with a set of oligonucleotide probes targeting selected microbial groups encompassing key genera of thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Oligonucleotide microchip analyses confirmed the cultural data but also revealed the presence of several groups of microorganisms that escaped cultivation, among them representatives of the Aquificales/Desulfurobacterium-Thermovibrio cluster and of the genera Desulfurococcus and Thermus, up to now unknown in this habitat. The unexpected presence of these organisms suggests that their distribution may be much wider than suspected. PMID:14532074

  11. Romania's petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. ); Popescu, B.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In Romania, nine onshore petroleum systems and one offshore petroleum system have recently been identified. Of the onshore systems, three are related to the compressional folded basins: Teleajen-Sita (early Middle Cretaceous marine source rocks), and Puciossa-Fusaru and Alunis-Kliwa (Oligocene-early Miocene marine source rocks). In the same category, we have included the recently discovered Deleni petroleum system with source rocks of not yet identified origin but whose reservoirs certainly belong to a folded basin. In the foreland platform basins, two systems can be distinguished: Rimesti-Fauresti (Middle Jurassic marine source rocks) and Infra-Anhydrite (with presumed Middle Jurassic or middle Miocene marine source rocks). The areas corresponding to the posttectonic basins include three onshore petroleum systems and one offshore system: the Pannonian (Badenian marine and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks), the Valea Caselor-Borsa (oligocene marine source rocks) and the Transylvanian (Badenian marine shales source and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks). Offshore, there is only one petroleum system consisting of Oligocene-Miocene marine source rock and Cretaceous or Eocene reservoirs. The majority of the mentioned petroleum systems reservoirs are Paleozoic to Pliocene clastics, but in the platform areas, carbonate reservoirs are found in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In all the petroleum systems, despite the different ages of the source rocks, most of the hydrocarbons have been expelled relatively recently during the Late Sarmatian-Pliocene interval. This face is substantiated by examples from two petroleum systems: the Rimesti-Fauresti (duration time 173 m.y., preservation 2 m.y.) and the Alunis-Kliwa (duration time 29-30 m.y., preservation 4 m.y.). The hydrocarbons were first expelled and migrated into described systems reservoirs after Late Styrian and Moldavian overthrusting, i.e. not earlier than 12-14 m.y.

  12. A study of reservoir characteristics of the Nanushuk and Colville groups, Umiat test well 11, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, J.E.; Lambert, P.W.; Pitman, J.K.; Wu, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Cretaceous sandstones in the Umiat Anticline contain the largest volume of oil discovered to date in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Umiat test well 11, although dry and abandoned, penetrated the most complete sequence of Cretaceous rocks in the Umiat area. Cretaceous formations cored (oldest to youngest) were the Grandstand, Chandler, and Ninuluk Formations of the Nanushuk Group and the Seabee and Prince Creek Formations of the Colville Group. Cores from sandstone beds in each of the formations penetrated were studied to identify the factors influencing porosity and permeability. Based on lithologic, textural, sedimentary-structural, faunal and floral, and regional paleogeographic evidence, the Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence in the Umiat area can be described as complexly interbedded delta-front and delta-plain facies (named the Umiat delta). The Grandstand Formation and Killik Tongue of the Chandler Formation represent one thick progradational sequence of delta-front and delta-plain facies, respectively. This sequence was followed by deposition of transgressive marine facies of the Ninuluk and Seabee Formations, which were in turn overlain by another progradational delta-plain facies, the Tuluvak Tongue of the Prince Creek Formation. The delta-front sandstone of the Grandstand Formation is well-sorted, fine-grained to very fine grained, angular to subangular chert arenite and phyllarenite. Authigenic cements include dolomite, calcite, siderite, quartz overgrowth, kaolinite, chert, pyrite, and possibly some small flakes of chlorite. The source terrane was southwest of Umiat and, on the basis of the aforementioned petrographic evidence, consisted of low-grade metamorphic rocks and possibly sandstone and cherty limestone. The weighted average porosity, based on well-log analyses, for the lower part of the Grandstand Formation is 15.1 percent and for the upper part is 15.6 percent; the weighted average permeability is 58.6 md for the lower part and 167

  13. Interfingering sand-rich aprons and Var Fan lobe deposits off Corsica: Analog for thick and laterally extensive turbidite petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Escutia, C. ); Savoye, B. ); Rehault, J.P. )

    1996-01-01

    The sand-rich Var submarine fan initiates off Nice, France, extends 230 km to the southeast, and then deposits a distal lobe (80 x 40 km) that parallels the northwestern base of the Corsican continental slope. Interfingering with the lobe deposits are base-of-slope, sand-rich aprons derived from Corsica. Both the fan lobe and aprons onlap the outcropping steep (6-110) slopes of Corsica. The fan lobe is characterized by generally flat-bedded layers with the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranging from 60-94% of the Holocene deposits. The aprons are characterized by feeder canyons exhibiting common sediment failures and proximal regions with numerous chaotic layers. With increasing distance from the apron apexes, high amplitude wedging reflectors grade laterally to flatter ones, reflector continuity increases, chaotic layers thin, and some incipient channels form. Chaotic layers are the dominant deposit shown on seismic profiles of the aprons. The layers extend as much as 15 km laterally onto the fan lobe and maximum thicknesses of single layers reach 35-70 m, The prolonged echo character with poor penetration, together with irregular surfaces and possible large blocks seen in sidescan sonar records, suggest that apron deposits are coarse grained. Gravel is found in apron layers that extend 21 km onto the fan lobe and the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranges from 37-79% of the Holocene deposits. Because the estimated sand : shale ratio averages 8.6:1 in the Holocene highstand deposits of the interfingering Corsican aprons and Var Fan lobe, this combined environment is an intriguing setting that could provide large continuous reservoirs if it occurred in a suitable ancient petroleum province.

  14. Interfingering sand-rich aprons and Var Fan lobe deposits off Corsica: Analog for thick and laterally extensive turbidite petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Escutia, C.; Savoye, B.; Rehault, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The sand-rich Var submarine fan initiates off Nice, France, extends 230 km to the southeast, and then deposits a distal lobe (80 x 40 km) that parallels the northwestern base of the Corsican continental slope. Interfingering with the lobe deposits are base-of-slope, sand-rich aprons derived from Corsica. Both the fan lobe and aprons onlap the outcropping steep (6-110) slopes of Corsica. The fan lobe is characterized by generally flat-bedded layers with the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranging from 60-94% of the Holocene deposits. The aprons are characterized by feeder canyons exhibiting common sediment failures and proximal regions with numerous chaotic layers. With increasing distance from the apron apexes, high amplitude wedging reflectors grade laterally to flatter ones, reflector continuity increases, chaotic layers thin, and some incipient channels form. Chaotic layers are the dominant deposit shown on seismic profiles of the aprons. The layers extend as much as 15 km laterally onto the fan lobe and maximum thicknesses of single layers reach 35-70 m, The prolonged echo character with poor penetration, together with irregular surfaces and possible large blocks seen in sidescan sonar records, suggest that apron deposits are coarse grained. Gravel is found in apron layers that extend 21 km onto the fan lobe and the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranges from 37-79% of the Holocene deposits. Because the estimated sand : shale ratio averages 8.6:1 in the Holocene highstand deposits of the interfingering Corsican aprons and Var Fan lobe, this combined environment is an intriguing setting that could provide large continuous reservoirs if it occurred in a suitable ancient petroleum province.

  15. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  16. [Regulation of geochemical activity of microorganisms in a petroleum reservoir by injection of H2O2 or water-air mixture].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Pavlova, N K; Ni, F; Shestakova, N M; Ivoĭlov, V S; Feng, Q; Dongyun, Z; Prusakova, T S; Beliaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

    2008-01-01

    In the course of pilot trials of biotechnologies for the enhancement of oil recovery in the Gangxi bed of the Dagang oil field (China), microbiological processes were investigated. The biotechnologies were based on injection into the petroleum reservoir of different oxygen sources (H2O2 solution or a water-air mixture) with nitrogen and phosphorus salts. The injection of water-air mixture with nitrogen and phosphorus salts resulted in an increase in the number of aerobic and anaerobic organotrophic bacteria, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in formation water and also the content of CO2 (from 4.8-12 to 15-23.2%) and methane (from 86-88 to 91.8%) in the gas. The preferential consumption of isotopically light bicarbonate by methanogens resulted in a higher content of the light 12C in methane; the delta13C/CH4 value changed from -45.1...-48.3 to -50.7...-59.3 per thousand). At the same time, mineral carbonates of the formation water became isotopically heavier; the delta13C/Sigmacarbonates value increased from 3.4...4.0 to 5.4...9.6 per thousand. Growth of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria was accompanied by production of biosurfactants and decreased interfacial tension of formation water. Injection of H2O2 solution resulted in the activation of aerobic processes and in suppression of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methane content in the gas decreased from 86-88 to 75.4-79.8%, probably due to its consumption by methanotrophs. Due to consumption of isotopically light methane, the residual methane carbon became heavier, with the delta13C/CH4 values from -39.0 to -44.3 per thousand. At the same time, mineral carbonates of the formation water became isotopically considerably lighter; the delta13C/Sigmacarbonates value decreased from 5.4... 9.6 to -1.4...2.7 per thousand). The additional amount of oil recovered during the trial of both variants of biotechnological treatment was 3819 t.

  17. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  19. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  20. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  1. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  2. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  4. Trends in reservoir performance prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, A.S.

    1994-12-31

    Stronger links between geoscience and petroleum engineering are being fostered by new tools and organizations. These linkages are improving the effectiveness of business decisions concerning reservoir performance, and are generating new challenges for the next generation of tools.

  5. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  6. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses

  7. Alaskan marine mammal tissue archival project: a project description including collection protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1988-03-01

    The Alaskan Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project was initiated in 1987. Although the emphasis is on the collection of tissues for analysis of contaminants that may be associated with the petroleum industry, the development of an archive of marine mammal tissues collected and stored using carefully controlled procedures provides an important resource addressing questions concerning the transport of elements and compounds (contaminants and non-contaminants) throughout the polar ecosystem. The document provides the basic information on Project objectives and management, justification for the species, tissues, and contaminants of interest, and specific instructions for collecting, handling, and storing samples.

  8. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  9. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2003-12-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the US have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by maurer Technology, noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R and D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. They plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. They also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. They are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. They hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, the goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by Maurer Technology, Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. We plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. We also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. We are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. We hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, our goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  11. Helping Kids Succeed--Alaskan Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Alaska School Boards, Juneau.

    The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for individuals helping to make Alaskan communities places where youth can grow up to be strong, capable, and caring. The book is built around the Search Institute's Youth Developmental Assets Framework, which is comprised of the key building blocks in youth development. The book notes 40 assets that…

  12. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  13. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  14. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  15. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-07-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  16. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-06-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  17. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  18. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  19. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  20. Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives Since 1867.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Thomas Robert

    The study compiles and records the history of the administration of education for Alaskan natives since the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1876. Chapter 1, An Overview of the Development of the Alaskan Native, covers the development of missionary and government schools, the growth and development of Native education from 1906…

  1. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  2. Flow instabilities of Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, James Bradley

    Over 300 of the largest glaciers in southern Alaska have been identified as either surge-type or pulse-type, making glaciers with flow instabilities the norm among large glaciers in that region. Consequently, the bulk of mass loss due to climate change will come from these unstable glaciers in the future, yet their response to future climate warming is unknown because their dynamics are still poorly understood. To help broaden our understanding of unstable glacier flow, the decadal-scale ice dynamics of 1 surging and 9 pulsing glaciers are investigated. Bering Glacier had a kinematic wave moving down its ablation zone at 4.4 +/- 2.0 km/yr from 2002 to 2009, which then accelerated to 13.9 +/- 2.0 km/yr as it traversed the piedmont lobe. The wave first appeared in 2001 near the confluence with Bagley Ice Valley and it took 10 years to travel ~64 km. A surge was triggered in 2008 after the wave activated an ice reservoir in the midablation zone, and it climaxed in 2011 while the terminus advanced several km into Vitus Lake. Ruth Glacier pulsed five times between 1973 and 2012, with peak velocities in 1981, 1989, 1997, 2003, and 2010; approximately every 7 years. A typical pulse increased ice velocity 300%, from roughly 40 m/yr to 160 m/yr in the midablation zone, and involved acceleration and deceleration of the ice en masse; no kinematic wave was evident. The pulses are theorized to be due to deformation of a subglacial till causing enhanced basal motion. Eight additional pulsing glaciers are identified based on the spatiotemporal pattern of their velocity fields. These glaciers pulsed where they were either constricted laterally or joined by a tributary, and their surface slopes are 1-2°. These traits are consistent with an overdeepening. This observation leads to a theory of ice motion in overdeepenings that explains the cyclical behavior of pulsing glaciers. It is based on the concept of glaciohydraulic supercooling, and includes sediment transport and erosion

  3. Reservoir sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, R.W.; Weber, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of papers focuses on sedimentology of siliclastic sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Shows how detailed sedimentologic descriptions, when combined with engineering and other subsurface geologic techniques, yield reservoir models useful for reservoir management during field development and secondary and tertiary EOR. Sections cover marine sandstone and carbonate reservoirs; shoreline, deltaic, and fluvial reservoirs; and eolian reservoirs. References follow each paper.

  4. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for the Alaskan Arctic from four recent model intercomparison projects - NACP (North American Carbon Program) site and regional syntheses, TRENDY (Trends in net land atmosphere carbon exchanges), and WETCHIMP (Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project) - we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) for each quantity that follows. Mean annual absolute uncertainty was largest for soil carbon (14.0 ± 9.2 kg C m-2), then gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01 ± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), and CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). There were no consistent spatial patterns in the larger Alaskan Arctic and boreal regional carbon stocks and fluxes, with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic and larger boreal region.

  5. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  6. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B. E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com; Susilowati E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  7. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  8. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new

  9. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE TO MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin Chukwu

    2004-01-01

    The Alaskan North Slope (ANS) is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the United States where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Because the domestic gas market in the continental United States is located thousands of miles from the ANS, transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS to the market is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundant resource. The focus of this project is to study the operational challenges involved in transporting the gas in converted liquid (GTL) form through the existing Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). A three-year, comprehensive research program was undertaken by the Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks, under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40016 to study the feasibility of transporting GTL products through TAPS. Cold restart of TAPS following an extended winter shutdown and solids deposition in the pipeline were identified as the main transportation issues in moving GTL products through the pipeline. The scope of work in the current project (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41248) included preparation of fluid samples for the experiments to be conducted to augment the comprehensive research program.

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Thomas Williams; Bjorn Paulsson; Alexander Goertz

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a drilling hazard by the oil and gas industry for years. Drilling engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous problems, including drilling kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates as a potential energy source agree that the resource potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained from physical samples taken from actual hydrate-bearing rocks. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The project team drilled and continuously cored the Hot Ice No. 1 well on Anadarko-leased acreage beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and used for determining physical characteristics of hydrates and surrounding rock. After the well was logged, a 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was recorded to calibrate the shallow geologic section with seismic data and to investigate techniques to better resolve lateral subsurface variations of potential hydrate-bearing strata. Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. deployed their 80 level 3C clamped borehole seismic receiver array in the wellbore to record samples every 25 ft. Seismic vibrators were successively positioned at 1185 different surface positions in a circular pattern around the wellbore. This technique generated a 3D image of the subsurface. Correlations were

  11. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  12. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  13. The K/T-boundary carbonate breccia succession at the Cantarell Field, Campeche Bay area: a representative example of the influence of the Chicxulub meteorite-impact event on the formation of extraordinary petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; García-Hernández, J.

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, intense petroleum exploration and exploitation activities have been conducted in the Campeche Bay area. Detailed stratigraphic studies in this region based on seismic, well logs, and core data have allowed the documentation of numerous deep-water carbonate breccia deposits throughout the Cretaceous stratigraphic column. However, the uppermost carbonate breccia succession is very distinctive in terms of its sedimentological properties compared to the underlying and older calcareous breccia layers. The unique characteristics of this deposit include: its unusual thickness, stratigraphic position, distribution, and content of impact-metamorphic constituents. At the Cantarell field, this carbonate breccia sedimentary package is a representative example of how the Chuxulub meteorite-impact event influenced the formation of a remarkable carbonate reservoir. This deposit was the most important oil-producing stratigraphic horizon for long time in that field. Nevertheless, this reservoir is still important not only in that field but also in other fields in offshore Campeche. The K/T boundary carbonate breccia succession is a typical fining-upward deposit made up, from base to top, of three units. The 50 to 300-m thick, basal Unit 1 consists of a coarse-grained carbonate breccia. Unit 2 is a 10 to 20 m-thick, fine-grained carbonate breccia. The 25 to 30 m-thick, uppermost Unit 3 is a greenish interval of friable sand, silt and clay-sized constituents with abundant ejecta material. In some wells, a 10 to 20 m-thick, non-oil producing fine-grained calcareous breccia occurs interbedded within Unit 3. The K/T boundary carbonate sedimentary package is underlain and overlain by deep-water shaly calcareous facies of Upper Maastrichtian and Lower Paleocene age, respectively. Studies of cronostratigraphic-equivalent outcrop analogs of this K/T boundary carbonate reservoir carried out by the authors in the Sierra de Chiapas (El Guayal, Tabasco and Bochil, Chiapas

  14. Reservoir Modeling for Production Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1989-03-21

    For both petroleum and geothermal resources, many of the reservoirs are fracture dominated--rather than matrix-permeability controlled. For such reservoirs, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (i.e., pre-existing fractures) is critical to the efficient exploitation of the resource through proper pressure management. Our experience and that reported by others indicates that a reduction in the reservoir pressure sometimes leads to an overall reduction in production rate due to the ''pinching off'' of the joint network, rather than the anticipated increase in production rate. This effect occurs not just in the vicinity of the wellbore, where proppants are sometimes employed, but throughout much of the reservoir region. This follows from the fact that under certain circumstances, the decline in fracture permeability (or conductivity) with decreasing reservoir pressure exceeds the far-field reservoir ''drainage'' flow rate increase due to the increased pressure gradient. Further, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs or reinjection procedures for geothermal reservoirs.

  15. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  16. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, A. M.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) against the mean (x\\bar) for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x\\bar) was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), then net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m-2). The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity) analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β) and climate (γ), which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  17. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  18. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  19. Subacute necrotising encephalopathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A; Robinson, T; Cooper, B J; Brenner, O; O'Toole, T D; Olson, J; Beckman, K B; Glass, E; Reynolds, A J

    1999-12-01

    A 29-month-old female Alaskan husky was presented recumbent, tetraparetic and in a state of dementia, with blindness and cranial nerve deficits. The dog's progress was followed for over two months, as the signs resolved to an non-progressive mild hypermetria with slight proprioceptive ataxia, a diminished menace response and inability to prehend food. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cavitation extending from the thalamus to the medulla, with less pronounced degenerative lesions in the caudate nucleus, putamen and claustrum. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations were in their normal ranges. Necropsy and histological examination confirmed the MRI findings as well as neuronal degeneration of the cerebellar cortex in the vermis and degenerative changes in the neocortex at the depths of the cerebral sulci. In view of the similarity of lesions to subacute necrotising encephalomyelopathy, known as Leigh's disease in humans, a tentative diagnosis of a mitochondrial encephalopathy was made.

  20. Gastritis in Alaskan racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, J W; Davis, M S; Breshears, M A; Willard, M D; Williamson, K K; Royer, C M; Payton, M E; Cragun, A S

    2011-07-01

    Alaskan racing sled dogs are a well-established model of exercise-induced gastric disease. The aim of this study was to define the temporal development of microscopical gastric lesions during long distance racing. Two groups of dogs were examined: group I comprised conditioned dogs that were exercising and group II were conditioned dogs not exercising. The gastric mucosa was examined endoscopically and sampled for routine histopathology and microscopical scoring, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and detection of apoptotic epithelial cells. Overall, group I dogs exhibited more significant epithelial lesions, including ulcers, compared with dogs in group II. Group II dogs exhibited the most severe mucosal inflammatory infiltrates. Although the intensity of inflammation differed, the nature of the inflammation was similar between groups, consisting of diffuse lymphocytic infiltration and a unique interface-type infiltrate that obscured the basement membrane zone and was accompanied by intraepithelial infiltration of lymphocytes. IHC confirmed the presence of CD3(+) T and CD79(+) B lymphocytes within the mucosal infiltrates; however, most of the intraepithelial and interface infiltrates were CD3(+) T cells. Spiral-shaped bacterial organisms were seen in the gastric tissues; however, their presence did not correlate with either the severity of epithelial lesions, inflammation or the pattern of interface inflammation. The number of apoptotic epithelial cells was widely variable and not significantly different between groups. These findings confirm previous observations that gastric ulcers develop in conditioned dogs under racing stress. The unique nature of the interface-type gastric inflammation is similar to that of human lymphocytic gastritis and may suggest an immune-mediated mechanism for the changes seen in Alaskan racing sled dogs.

  1. Factorial kriging analysis applied to geological data from petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquet, O.

    1989-10-01

    A regionalized variable, thickness of the reservoir layer, from a gas field is decomposed by factorial kriging analysis. Maps of the obtained components may be associated with depositional environments that are favorable for petroleum exploration.

  2. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-04-12

    Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

  3. Basin Analysis of Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2001-03-01

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE for review. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. The information on the source rocks is being prepared for inclusion in the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern and western parts of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis continues. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Two underdeveloped Smackover reservoirs have been identified. They are the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - This task has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock information will continue to be prepared for the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Study of Smackover underdeveloped reservoirs will continue with focus on the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs.

  4. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Lee C.; Carr, Timothy R.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-02-24

    This report covers the fourth year of the Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project. The DPA is a longterm effort to develop a new methodology for efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA is a new and evolving approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies.

  5. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  6. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  7. A finite element simulation system in reservoir engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Xiaozhong

    1996-03-01

    Reservoir engineering is performed to predict the future performance of a reservoir based on its current state and past performance and to explore other methods for increasing the recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. Reservoir simulations are routinely used for these purposes. A reservoir simulator is a sophisticated computer program which solves a system of partial differential equations describing multiphase fluid flow (oil, water, and gas) in a porous reservoir rock. This document describes the use of a reservoir simulator version of BOAST which was developed by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research in July, 1991.

  8. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  9. STORM: Integrated 3D stochastic reservoir modeling tool for geologists and reservoir engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, R.B. [ODIN Reservoir Software and Services A Holden, L.; Svanes, T.; Tyler, K.

    1995-06-01

    The petroleum industry is focusing on improved reservoir characterization. Decision concerning development and depletion of hydrocarbon reservoirs must be made while giving consideration to the uncertainties of the formation involved. This requires combining geological and engineering data to develop a detailed reservoir model. Geostatistics and stochastic modeling techniques have emerged as promising approaches for integrating all relevant information and describing heterogeneous reservoirs. By use of stochastic techniques to generate a range of equiprobable reservoir descriptions, the uncertainty in the important reservoir parameters can be quantified. This quantification, together with the enhanced understanding of the reservoir characteristics given by stochastic reservoir modeling and visualization, provides an essential basis for making informed field-development decisions. This paper presents an integrated approach for stochastic reservoir evaluation. The presented approach has been implemented in the software system STORM.

  10. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 3: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    The third book in a series of natural science handbooks for Alaskan students focuses on Alaskan plantlife. The first chapter, on trees, gives general information about trees and explains how to identify and locate trees in the three main Alaskan tree families: pine, willow, and birch. The second chapter, on plants, describes 14 kinds of edible…

  11. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  13. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  14. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  16. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  18. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  2. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  4. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  7. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.310 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.310 Section 408.310 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.310 Applicability; description of the Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.320 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. 408.320 Section 408.320 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.320 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan herring fillet processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. A Course in Fundamentals of Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dullien, F. A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course designed to introduce the average chemical engineer, who has only a minimum familiarity with the concepts of capillarity and flow through porous media (and none at all with reservoir engineering concepts) to petroleum production engineering. Includes course outline indicating technical content of the course. (Author/JN)

  13. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  14. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  15. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  16. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  17. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  18. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  19. Reservoir limnology

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, K.W.; Kimmel, B.L.; Payne, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book addresses reservoirs as unique ecological systems and presents research indicating that reservoirs fall into two or three highly concatenated, interactive ecological systems ranging from riverine to lacustrine or hybrid systems. Includes some controversial concepts about the limnology of reservoirs.

  20. Strength and deformation characteristics of Alaskan offshore silts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive series of undrained shear tests were performed on representative samples of Alaskan silts in both the normally consolidated and overconsolidated state. The type of tests performed were triaxial compression and extension, torvane and miniature laboratory vane tests. It was found that the Alaskan silt exhibited dilative behavior during undrained shear. Also, the silt is highly anisotropic with respect to the stress-strain characteristics and the undrained shear strength. Sample disturbance reduced the measured strength in the unconsolidated undrained tests. The normalized strength parameter was shown to vary from one silt to another. The importance of evaluating the properties of each new silt deposit are described.

  1. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2000-12-31

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the modeling results are being interpreted for report writing (Table 1). Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern part of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis has been initiated. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - The report on basin flow will be completed. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock data will be reviewed in light of the basin flow model results. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis.

  2. LBL/Industry fractured reservoir performance definition project

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    One of the problems facing the petroleum industry is the recovery of oil from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs and from reservoirs that have been partially depleted. In response to this need, several companies, notably British Petroleum USA, (BP) and Continental Oil Company (CONOCO), have established integrated reservoir description programs. Concurrently, LBL is actively involved in developing characterization technology for heterogeneous, fractured rock, mainly for DOE`s Civilian Nuclear Waste Program as well as Geothermal Energy programs. The technology developed for these programs was noticed by the petroleum industry and resulted in cooperative research centered on the petroleum companies test facilities. The emphasis of this work is a tightly integrated interdisciplinary approach to the problem of characterizing complex, heterogeneous earth materials. In this approach we explicitly combine the geologic, geomechanical, geophysical and hydrologic information in a unified model for predicting fluid flow. The overall objective is to derive improved integrated approaches to characterizing naturally fractured gas reservoirs.

  3. Application of artifical intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1993--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-07-01

    This basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs.

  4. Policy Statements on Collection Development. A Compendium from Alaskan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Carol, Ed.

    Developed as part of a statewide coordinated collection development effort, this document is a compendium of the narrative statements of collection development policies from 19 Alaskan university, public, school, and special libraries. Only the basic narrative plus any unique appendices are included for each policy, and some of the policies are…

  5. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  6. Definition of Alaskan Aviation Training Requirements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, M. K.; And Others

    Because of high accident rates and the unique conditions faced in Arctic flying, a project was conducted to develop a training program for airline pilots flying over Alaska. Data were gathered, through the critical incident method in conjunction with traditional job-analysis procedures, about how experienced Alaskan pilots learned to cope with the…

  7. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  8. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  9. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  10. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  11. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Science. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Gary; Costello, Bill

    STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th graders on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been using…

  12. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  13. Fundamentals of petroleum. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gerding, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following nine chapters: Petroleum Geology; Petroleum Exploration; Aspects of Leasing; Drilling Operations; Production; Transportation; Refining and Processing; Petroleum Marketing; and Economics of the Industry.

  14. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  15. Cooperative Learning in Reservoir Simulation Classes: Overcoming Disparate Entry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Mariyamni

    2006-01-01

    Reservoir simulation is one of the core courses in the petroleum engineering curriculum and it requires knowledge and skills in three major disciplines, namely programming, numerical methods and reservoir engineering. However, there were often gaps in the students' readiness to undertake the course, even after completing the necessary…

  16. Depth and temperature of permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Slope; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, Arthur H.; Sass, J.H.; Lawver, L.A.; Brewer, M.C.; Moses, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    As permafrost is defined by its temperature, the only way to determine its depth is to monitor the return to equilibrium of temperatures in boreholes that penetrate permafrost. Such measurements are under way in 25 wells on the Alaskan Arctic Slope; 21 are in Naval Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), and 4 are in the foothills to the east. Near-equilibrium results indicate that permafrost thickness in NPRA generally ranges between 200 and 400 m (compared to 600+ m at Prudhoe Bay); there are large local variations and no conspicuous regional trends. By contrast the long-term mean temperature of the ground surface (one factor determining permafrost depth) varies systematically from north to south in a pattern modified by the regional topography. The observed variation in permafrost temperature and depth cannot result primarily from effects of surface bodies of water or regional variations in heat flow; they are consistent, however, with expectable variations in the thermal conductivity of the sediments. It remains to be determined (with conductivity measurements) whether certain sites with anomalously high local gradients have anomalously high heat flow; if they do, they might indicate upwelling of interstitial fluids in the underlying basin sediments.

  17. Multi-Year Estimates of Regional Alaskan Net CO2 Exchange: Constraining a Remote-Sensing Based Model with Aircraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindaas, J.; Commane, R.; Luus, K. A.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Henderson, J.; Mountain, M. E.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Lin, J. C.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaskan region has historically been a sink of atmospheric CO2, but permafrost currently stores large amounts of carbon that are vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as northern high-latitudes continue to warm faster than the global average. We use aircraft CO2 data with a remote-sensing based model driven by MODIS satellite products and validated by CO2 flux tower data to calculate average daily CO2 fluxes for the region of Alaska during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. Atmospheric trace gases were measured during CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) aboard the NASA Sherpa C-23 aircraft. For profiles along the flight track, we couple the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, and convolve these footprints of surface influence with our remote-sensing based model, the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (PolarVPRM). We are able to calculate average regional fluxes for each month by minimizing the difference between the data and model column integrals. Our results provide a snapshot of the current state of regional Alaskan growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE). We are able to begin characterizing the interannual variation in Alaskan NEE and to inform future refinements in process-based modeling that will produce better estimates of past, present, and future pan-Arctic NEE. Understanding if/when/how the Alaskan region transitions from a sink to a source of CO2 is crucial to predicting the trajectory of future climate change.

  18. Origin of lithological zoning in Alaskan-type complexes: Studies from the Duke Island and Annette Island Complexes in southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurta, J.; Ripley, E.; Li, C.; Stifter, E.

    2011-12-01

    Alaskan-type complexes are small, cone-shaped, ultramafic to mafic, alkaline igneous intrusive bodies which commonly occur in linear groups along the trends of major orogenic belts and subduction zones as in southeastern Alaska and the Ural Mountains in Russia. Many of these complexes are characterized by nearly concentric lithological zoning from dunite in the core followed by successive zones of wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite and more silicic rocks towards the rim. The Duke Island and Annette Island Complexes are two Alaskan-type complexes located in the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle. The former is characterized by multiple lithological zones with a distorted concentric arrangement, but the latter is a single intrusion of dunite, without any noticeable development of concentric zonal structures. Both complexes have been modeled to be the products of crystal accumulation from a differentiating parental magma with the composition of picrite or ankaramite. The compositions of the residual liquids are andesitic and this is consistent with the view that the Alaskan-type complexes represent magma reservoirs for andesitic eruptions of subduction zone volcanoes. Structural and petrological relationships between the lithological units at the Duke Island Complex indicate multiple magmatic inputs from an underlying staging magma chamber in a dynamic flow through system. Evidence of magmatic differentiation is observed at the level of the intrusion and also at the level of the staging magma chamber. Conversely, the dunite unit at Annette Island is a product of rapid magmatic uplift and relatively insignificant magmatic differentiation. The spectacular development of grain-size layering and magmatic flow structures at Duke Island and on a limited scale at Annette Island clearly indicate crystallization in a dynamic magma chamber environment.

  19. Hereditary encephalomyelopathy and polyneuropathy in an Alaskan husky.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, J J; de Lahunta, A

    2009-12-01

    An Alaskan husky puppy was examined for a neurologic disease which began at six weeks of age with generalised paresis that progressed resulting in recumbency by 18 weeks. Thoracic limbs primarily exhibited lower motor neuron signs that included distal muscle atrophy and persistent elbow and carpal flexion that resisted manual extension. Pelvic limb signs primarily exhibited upper motor neuron and general proprioceptive deficits, but also included lower motor neuron signs. Abnormal vocalisation suggested a laryngeal paresis. Histopathologic lesions included a diffuse axonopathy and secondary demyelination in the nerves of the limbs and larynx and a similar bilaterally symmetrical degeneration in the spinal cord white matter suggestive of a dying back axonopathy. In addition, a degenerative process was present in nuclei in the brain stem and cerebellum. Recognition of this disease through clinical and pathologic examination in other related Alaskan Huskies suggested an autosomal recessive inherited disorder.

  20. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  2. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  3. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-09-01

    Objective is to apply artificial intelligence and expert systems to capturing, integrating, and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. Goal is to develop a single expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs.

  4. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is

  5. An analytical pressure-transient model for complex reservoir scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Edmond; Ambastha, Anil K.

    1994-10-01

    Reservoir deposition occurs through long periods of time, thus most reservoirs are heterogeneous in nature. The presence of various zones and layers of different rock and fluid properties is the usual circumstance in petroleum reservoirs. A secondary recovery operation, such as steam-flooding, results in a composite reservoir situation because of the presence of zones of different fluid properties. Because of reservoir heterogeneity and gravity override effects, fluid boundaries separating two zones may have complicated or irregular shapes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new analytical pressure-transient model which can accommodate complex reservoir scenarios resulting from reservoir heterogeneity and from thermal recovery or other fluid-injection operations. Mathematically, our analytical model considers such complex situations as a generalized eigenvalue system resulting in a system of linear equations. Computational difficulties faced, validation approach of the new model, and an application for complex reservoir scenarios are discussed.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  7. Constraining the 2012-2014 growing season Alaskan methane budget using CARVE aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartery, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Commane, R.; Lindaas, J.; Miller, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Watts, J. D.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Henderson, J.; Mountain, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil in northen latitudes contains rich carbon stores which have been historically preserved via permafrost within the soil bed; however, recent surface warming in these regions is allowing deeper soil layers to thaw, influencing the net carbon exchange from these areas. Due to the extreme nature of its climate, these eco-regions remain poorly understood by most global models. In this study we analyze methane fluxes from Alaska using in situ aircraft observations from the 2012-2014 Carbon in Arctic Reservoir Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). These observations are coupled with an atmospheric particle transport model which quantitatively links surface emissions to atmospheric observations to make regional methane emission estimates. The results of this study are two-fold. First, the inter-annual variability of the methane emissions was found to be <1 Tg over the area of interest and is largely influenced by the length of time the deep soil remains unfrozen. Second, the resulting methane flux estimates and mean soil parameters were used to develop an empirical emissions model to help spatially and temporally constrain the methane exchange at the Alaskan soil surface. The empirical emissions model will provide a basis for exploring the sensitivity of methane emissions to subsurface soil temperature, soil moisture, organic carbon content, and other parameters commonly used in process-based models.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  17. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  20. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  1. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  3. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  4. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  5. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  6. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  7. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  8. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  9. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  10. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  11. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  15. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  16. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  17. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  18. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  19. 25 CFR 243.11 - Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before... INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.11 Are transfers of Alaskan reindeer that occurred before issuance of this part valid? All transfers of live Alaskan reindeer or reindeer products that...

  20. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  1. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2004-11-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the

  2. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the

  3. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  4. National Petroleum Technology Office`s publication list for January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This report lists 20 publications and 19 computer software and supporting documentation that are available from the National Petroleum Technology Office. Publications relate to environmental management, field demonstrations, general research, reservoir characterization, and supporting research for the petroleum industry. Many of the computer codes are for the simulation of enhanced recovery techniques.

  5. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-22

    Research programs from the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) are briefly described. Topics include enhanced recovery, studies on reservoir rock, microbial EOR, development of analytical techniques for petroleum analysis, and imaging techniques applied to fluids study in porous media. (CBS)

  6. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  7. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  8. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  9. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  10. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  11. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  12. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  13. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  14. 25 CFR 243.4 - Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? 243.4 Section 243.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.4 Who can own or possess Alaskan reindeer? (a) Only Alaska Natives, organizations of...

  15. An Authentic Voice in the Technocratic Wilderness: Alaskan Natives and the "Tundra Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick; James, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Examines a pair of critical challenges to the cultural integrity of Alaskan Natives around 1960 as pivotal episodes in the process of native resistance to U. S. dominance. Historically evaluates the fragility of native culture in terms of the political, scientific, and economic interests expressed in the mainstream Alaskan press, particularly the…

  16. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... live Alaskan reindeer may pass to the deceased owner's Native heirs by descent or devise. (b) In...

  17. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  18. Solids production and control in petroleum recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, B.F.; Adamache, I.; Leopold, G.

    1996-12-31

    Reservoir solids may be produced during exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Solids management practices depend on the nature of the reservoir and the produced fluids. For conventional oil and gas reservoirs, operators normally have focused on prevention or control of solids influx into production wells. In Canada, exploitation of heavy oil reservoirs has been found to be more effective when solids are produced. Solids production from conventional oil and gas reservoirs can have detrimental effects on well productivity and equipment. Therefore, the practice has been to attempt to prevent or control solids influx into the wells by using screens, gravel packs, or other means to restrict solids flow. If, when, where, and how to install solids control systems are governed by both cost and risk factors. From a solids management point of view, production of heavy oil from unconsolidated formations poses different challenges than conventional oil and gas production. Production of large quantities of solids is critical for maintaining the productivity of wells in heavy oil reservoirs. This has necessitated the development of special pumping systems to transport fluids with high solids content. Many reservoirs are now being exploited by horizontal wells, which have long horizontal contact with the reservoir. Solids control methods for horizontal wells have been adapted from those used in vertical wells. Special techniques and equipment have been developed to remove deposited solids from horizontal wells. Specially designed equipment and techniques are required for the surface handling of high solids cut fluids. Separation, cleaning, and disposal of produced solids can be costly, especially if the solids must be oil-free to satisfy environmental regulations. 138 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The Paleozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    McGillivray, J.G.; Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent exploratory drilling in central Saudi Arabia indicates that all the geological elements of a major petroleum basin are present in this province. Several Paleozoic siliciclastic sequences which were deposited along the stable Arabian margin of Gondwanaland constitute excellent reservoirs. The identified reservoir targets include the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation, Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian glaciogenic clastics of the Sarah and Zarqa formations, and both fluvial and shallow marine sandstones of the Permian-Carboniferous Unayzah Formation. The source rock is a widespread organic-rich shale which was deposited during the regional deglaciation in the earliest Silurian. Migration occurred vertically along faults and/or updip from the regional Qusaiba shale subcrop through the reservoirs. Interbedded upper Permian shales and evaporites form the basal sequence of a major carbonate transgression and provide a capping seal. The traps are broad, low-relief, fault-generated structures which developed primarily during the Triassic.

  20. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, John B.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Commane, Roisin; Dinardo, Steven; Henderson, John M.; Lindaas, Jacob; Lin, John C.; Luus, Kristina A.; Newberger, Tim; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C.; Wolter, Sonja; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-04-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ˜ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM-WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear to persist during some wintertime

  1. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Dinardo, S.; Henderson, J. M.; Lindaas, J.; Lin, J. C.; Luus, K. A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wolter, S.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM/WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. CO2 signals at the tower are larger than predicted, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by PolarVPRM. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find emissions persist during some wintertime periods, augmenting those

  2. Supplemental information concerning a survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The EXXON Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. The spreading of spilled oil raised concerns of native Alaskans that their subsistence seafoods (fish, marine mammals, and invertebrate organisms) were contaminated by the spilled petroleum. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs).

  3. Molecular Characterization of Organic Indicators of Petroleum Biosouring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J.; Weber, R.; Loutey, D.; Coates, J. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    The production of sulfide in a petroleum reservoir by anaerobic sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) is environmentally, industrially, and epidemiologically hazardous. More knowledge is needed about the anaerobic respiration pathway of SRM in petroleum, and whether the activity of SRM could be effectively inhibited using nitrate or perchlorate treatments. In order to understand the molecular transformations and metabolic fingerprints of SRM in petroleum reservoirs, and how they are altered by nitrate or perchlorate treatments, the Coates and Goldstein Laboratories at UC-Berkeley have run controlled column incubation studies of petroleum from an oil reservoir. By using two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), detailed chemical characterizations of hydrocarbons from approximately C9-C30 have been completed, separating the complete oil sample by number of carbon atoms and chemical classes (including normal alkanes, branched alkanes, number of alkyl rings, and number of aromatic rings) corresponding to petroleum transformations in sulfate, nitrate, and perchlorate reducing environments. Results demonstrate that the anaerobic pathway of SRM preferentially involves the transformation of heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and that a large number of products are created that contain either two or four oxygen atoms, suggesting fumarate additions initialize the anaerobic process.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  8. (Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklind, C.A.; Bennett, F.L. . Inst. of Northern Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology.

  9. Inter-annual variability in Alaskan net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; Lindaas, Jakob; Commane, Roisin; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella; Chang, Rachel; Kelly, Richard; Miller, Charles; Wofsy, Steven; Lin, John

    2015-04-01

    . This was accomplished by first examining regional-scale PolarVPRM output in conjunction with airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). These regional-scale findings were then examined carefully in relation to eddy covariance observations from sites along Alaska's North Slope. This was completed in order to validate PolarVPRM estimates of NEE, as well as to examine the extent to which the model structure and inputs were capable of capturing inter-annual variability in NEE observed at Alaskan eddy covariance sites. Statistical analyses were then applied to elucidate regional-scale inter-annual variability in PolarVPRM NEE, R and GEE, as well as their associations with NARR meteorological drivers and MODIS land surface inputs. These analyses were conducted with a specific focus on inter-annual variability across wetland regions of Alaska's North Slope. Analyses indicated that inter-annual variability in growing season length, soil moisture, vegetation biomass, air/soil temperatures, and shortwave radiation induced inter-annual variability in observed and modeled Alaskan net ecosystem CO2 exchange.

  10. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  11. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25532346

  12. Method for recovering petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Coenen, H.; Kriegel, E.

    1985-08-06

    A process for recovering petroleum from deposits which have already been worked by primary extraction or are not suited for primary extraction. A gas in its supercritical state is introduced into the deposit. The supercritical gas charges itself with the petroleum while flowing through the deposit. The charged supercritical gas leaves the deposit and the petroleum is separated in a plurality of fractions from the charged supercritical gas.

  13. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-18

    This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

  14. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  15. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  16. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  17. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  18. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  19. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  20. Phlorotannins from Alaskan seaweed inhibit carbolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-10-22

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  1. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  2. Seasonal and interannual variations in boreal Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using atmospheric measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Dinardo, S. J.; Miller, J. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; Luus, K. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Tans, P. P.; Henderson, J.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Lin, J. C.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are expected to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate in the coming decades. Because the daytime lower atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of CO2 and CH4 mole fractions is a promising method for the detection of change throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use greenhouse gas measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability over several years. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PVPRM), to infer fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated mole fractions agree remarkably well with tower observations, indicating that the model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are largely correct. CO2 flux signals at the tower are larger than predicted by the model, however, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by the model. Using the same WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are lower than those estimated by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska, with emissions persisting during some wintertime periods, augmenting those observed during the summer and fall. The presence of significant fall and winter CO2 and CH4 fluxes underscores the need for year-round in situ

  3. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  5. The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) data archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The area currently known as the National Petroleum ReserveAlaska was originally designated in 1923 as Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 (NPR4). It was one of four U.S. regions thought to contain significant amounts of oil that were to be reserved for national crises. Geographic and geologic knowledge of the NPR4 was only superficial in 1923. Earlier exploration, however, had shown that the region contained the ingredients necessary for oil accumulations to exist: source rocks, reservoir rocks, and geologic structures that could trap petroleum. Oil seeps on the coast and the size of the area (some 37,000 square miles, about the size of Indiana) reinforced the notion that significant quantities of petroleum were present.

  6. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  7. Analysis of production decline in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zais, Elliot J.; Bodvarsson, Gunnar

    1980-09-01

    The major objectives of the Decline Curve project were to: (1) test the decline analysis methods used in the petroleum industry on geothermal production data; (2) examine and/or develop new analysis methods; and (3) develop a standard operating procedure for analyzing geothermal production data. Various analysis methods have long been available but they have not been tested on geothermal data because of the lack of publicly available data. The recent release to publication of substantial data sets from Wairakei, New Zealand, Cerro Prieto, Mexico and The Geysers, USA has made this study possible. Geothermal reservoirs are quite different from petroleum reservoirs in many ways so the analysis methods must be tested using geothermal data.

  8. USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

  9. Material-balance assessment of the New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Henry, M.E.; Higley, D.K.; Pitman, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    The New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin is a well-constrained system from which petroleum charges and losses were quantified through a material-balance assessment. This petroleum system has nearly 90,000 wells penetrating the Chesterian section, a single New Albany Shale source rock accounting for more than 99% of the produced oil, well-established stratigraphic and structural frameworks, and accessible source rock samples at various maturity levels. A hydrogen index (HI) map based on Rock-Eval analyses of source rock samples of New Albany Shale defines the pod of active source rock and extent of oil generation. Based on a buoyancy-drive model, the system was divided into seven secondary-migration catchments. Each catchment contains a part of the active pod of source rock from which it derives a petroleum charge, and this charge is confined to carrier beds and reservoirs within these catchments as accountable petroleum, petroleum losses, or undiscovered petroleum. A well-constrained catchment with no apparent erosional or leakage losses is used to determine an actual petroleum charge from accountable petroleum and residual migration losses. This actual petroleum charge is used to calibrate the other catchments in which erosional petroleum losses have occurred. Petroleum charges determined by laboratory pyrolysis are exaggerated relative to the actual petroleum charge. Rock-Eval charges are exaggerated by a factor of 4-14, and hydrouspyrolysis charges are exaggerated by a factor of 1.7. The actual petroleum charge provides a more meaningful material balance and more realistic estimates of petroleum losses and remaining undiscovered petroleum. The total petroleum charge determined for the New Albany-Chesterian system is 78 billion bbl, of which 11.4 billion bbl occur as a accountable in place petroleum, 9 billion bbl occur as residual migration losses, and 57.6 billion bbl occur as erosional losses. Of the erosional losses, 40 billion bbl

  10. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  11. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  12. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  13. Mapping Petroleum Migration Pathways Using Magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, R.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Fraser, A.; Sephton, M. A.; Watson, J. S.; Southern, P.; Paterson, G. A.; Heslop, D.

    2014-12-01

    We report the formation of magnetic minerals in petroleum reservoirs. Eleven wells from Wessex Basin in Dorset, southern England, were sampled from the British Geological Core Store, across the main reservoir unit; Bridport Sandstone and the overlying Inferior Oolite, which forms the caprock. Sampling was carried out based on physical evidence of oil stain and a high magnetic susceptibility reading. The samples were chemically extracted to determine which were naturally stained with hydrocarbon and which were not. Magnetic analysis was carried out on all the samples: this including hysteresis analysis at low temperatures (5-15K) and room temperature, and low-temperature thermogmagentic analysis. The results indicated a marked increase both in abundance and strength of magnetic materials in samples found to be stained by hydrocarbon.

  14. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  15. Linkage among Vegetation, Microbes and Methanogenic Pathways in Alaskan Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sidelinger, W.; Shu, H.; Varner, R. K.; Hines, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands are thought to account for one third of the naturally emitted CH4. However, methane production pathways in northern peatlands are poorly understood, yet are predicted to change in response to vegetation shifts due to warming. Previous studies noted that acetate conversion to methane (acetoclastic methanogenesis, AM) in northern wetlands is largely impeded and acetate accumulates, however AM tends to increase with minerotrophy. To understand methanogenic pathways and to provide linkage among pathways, we studied Alaskan wetlands in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, laboratory incubations were conducted in three peatlands representing trophic gradients from bogs to fens. During 2014, 37 different sites in Fairbanks and Anchorage were studied that represented wetlands with pH values from 3.5 to 5.5 and vegetation from primarily Sphagnum to sedges. Measurements in 2014 included vegetation composition, gases (CH4, CO2, H2, and CO), 13CH4 and 13CO2, volatile fatty acids, DOC, other electron acceptors. Further incubation studies are being conducted to decipher controls on decomposition pathways. Gene sequencing was used to characterize microbial community composition, and metagenomic and transcriptomics were conducted to describe community activity. Results showed that methanogenesis was higher in fens than bogs, but hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (HM) was dominant at all sites. End product ratios showed that AM was occurring in fens, albeit slowly. Fermentation was an important end-point in decomposition and microbial syntrophy was weak. These data, regardless of trophic status, differed greatly from data obtained from temperate wetlands in which terminal respiratory processes were strong and C flow through syntrophy was important. Trophic status influenced C flow in the Alaskan sites, but terminal processes were weak and end product formation tended to end at primary fermentation, which dominated as the terminal step in decomposition.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Integrated reservoir characterization of a complex carbonate field

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, K.C.; Arestad, J.F.; Al-Bastaki, A.

    1995-12-31

    Multidisciplinary teams of geologists, geophysicists, and petroleum engineers create unique working environments as each member brings his own different perspective to the team. These different viewpoints make integrated teams effective in solving reservoir management problems. A full understanding of the spatial distribution and interdependency of reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation, permeability, formation volume factors, and rock properties is essential for reservoir management plans to be effective. The integrated team working on Joffre field, Alberta has successfully brought together the available data from the three disciplines to form a comprehensive understanding of the reservoir. The Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) at the Colorado School of Mines conducts research into the application of 3-D, 3-C (multicomponent) reflection seismology for improved reservoir description and exploitation. The current research is oriented towards using shear waves to characterize reservoirs where compressional seismic data have not been effective. In the Joffre field the compressional seismic data has been ineffective in discerning porous and non-porous reservoir development. A 3-D multicomponent (3-D, 3-C) seismic survey was collected over the northeastern limit of Joffre field, Alberta by RCP. Application of this new technology towards reservoir description is a key element of this multidisciplinary study. The focus of this research and survey is lithology and porosity discrimination within the upper Devonian, Nisku dolomite reservoir. Detailed geologic studies of cores from this reservoir revealed depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities, which influence production.

  20. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  1. Effect of petroleum-related pollutants on Aurelia growth and development. Final progress report, September 12, 1977-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberg, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum-related hydrocarbons were tested using the Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System. In addition, extensive studies were made of the effects of Alaskan crude petroleum oil, cadmium, and sodium azide on Aurelia metamorphosis. The Aurelia Budding Test System was applied to phenol, aniline, and naphthalene and the Aurelia Genetic Modification Test System was developed to determine whether chemically-treated organisms had genetic damage which could be revealed in progeny over a long period of time. The Aurelia Genetic Modification Test System was applied to aniline, phenol, Alaskan crude petroleum oil, and sodium azide-treated organisms. It is concluded that the Aurelia can be used effectively to ferret out subtle effects of marine pollutants as well as far-reaching effects passed on through progeny over a long period of time. Pollutant effects are most rapidly revealed, however, in organisms undergoing metamorphosis especially with regard to effects related to iodine metabolism, calcium metabolism, and behavioral and morphological teratology. The premise is that specific effects of environmental pollutants must be known in order that these effects may be neutralized or prevented. Through an understanding of mechanisms of action of various pollutant components in simple indicator organisms such as Aurelia, it may ultimately be possible to maintain high standards of energy production and to have a safe and productive marine environment at the same time.

  2. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  3. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  4. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  5. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  6. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  7. Applications of Petroleum Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry to Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkle, R. J.; Jones, V. T.

    2006-12-01

    Evidence of reservoir leakage documented by Gulf Research and Development Company scientists in the 1970s and 1980s over many domestic and foreign petroleum basins has resulted in the establishment of geochemical methods that can accurately and cost-effectively find and characterize reservoir related seepage conduits. The determination of sequestered CO2 leakage from a subsurface reservoir requires measurements to be made within these natural seepage conduits. Measurements conducted over reservoirs studied for carbon sequestration potential have had limited success to date because flux chambers must be placed within active seepage pathways controlled by the geologic system. Seepage pathways are very discrete and localized, and are driven principally by pressure gradients, with secondary influences related to lithology, soil moisture and barometric pumping. Successfully measuring active seepage flux requires not only geologic knowledge, but must be guided by geochemical methods that can determine natural seepage patterns. Soil gas methodology provides the most accurate and cost-effective method for identifying flux chimneys in near surface sediments. Petroleum reservoir leakage characterization studies, coupled with observations from environmental monitoring, are directly applicable to studies of potential reservoir leakage which may result from carbon sequestration. We will use this large database of near surface exploration and environmental studies generated at Gulf Research and subsequent studies to address the following questions: Do reservoirs leak? If reservoirs leak, how can the leaks be detected at the surface? What are the conduits of vertical migration? How long do migrating gases take to reach the surface and what is the nature of their distribution in the near surface soils? Will tracers be necessary to identify sequestration related leakage? What is the range of concentrations and distribution of CO2 typically present in near surface soils prior to

  8. Recycled fatty acid crude petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, G. L.; Herter, C.

    1984-11-06

    A method of recovering crude oil for subsequent processing. The method contemplates the step of exposing the source of crude oil such as a subterranean petroleum reservoir or a vessel or container of tar sands, kerogen or the like to aliphatic or carboxylic acid, preferably oleic acid, to produce a solvated crude oil mixture of reduced viscosity. This mixture is saponifyed by reacting it with a nucleophilic base, preferably a hydroxide of potassium or sodium, under pressure whereby to separate the solvated mixture into petroleum crude and an acid soap which migrates to an aqueous phase. The petroleum crude is separated from the aqueous soap through conventional techniques. Afterwards, a desaponification step contemplates recovery of the aliphatic or carboxylic acid for subsequent recycling in the previously mentioned exposing step. Reuse is facilitated by desaponifying aqueous soap within a high pressure containment vessel reacted with an acid suitable for donating a hydrated proton to the aqueous phase of the soap. This reconstituted acid is recycled for injection into the inputting step. Preferably carbonic acid is generated for the desaponifying step by injecting high pressure carbon dioxide within the containment vessel. By-products of the chemical reaction are separated and/or filtered as necessary to effectuate necessary purification sub-steps.

  9. Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide

  10. Kansas geological survey's Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Adkins-Heljeson, D.; Gerlach, P.M.; Gerhard, L.C.; Guy, W.J.; Kruger, J.M.; Watney, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Kansas Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) is a new approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies. Atlas products are available anywhere in the world using a standard point-and-click World-Wide-Web interface. All information and technology in the DPA can be accessed, manipulated and downloaded in order to provide efficient transfer of the technology for client-defined solutions. The DPA design provides a dynamic product that is constantly evolving through new information structures, the latest research results, and incorporation of additional data. Through complete and flexible user access to both interpretative products and underlying reservoir and well data, the DPA significantly alters the relationship between research results, data access, and the transfer of technology.

  11. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas - near term -- Class 2. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, T.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate incremental reserves from Osagian and Meramecian dolomite reservoirs in western Kansas through application of reservoir characterization to identify areas of unrecovered mobile petroleum. Specific reservoirs targeted are the Schaben Field in Ness County and the Bindley Field in Hodgeman County.

  12. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. Objectives We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. Methods We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Results Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. Conclusions We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. PMID:24828535

  13. Predicting petroleum phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie

    2003-03-01

    Phototoxicity to Daphnia magna was studied on 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 petroleum products (ranging from diesel to crude oil). The phototoxicity ranking of pure PAHs was about the same as found in another study on fish gill cells in vitro (Toxicology 127 (1998) 143), suggesting that the relative acute phototoxicity does not differ significantly between different species. Most petroleum products were found to be phototoxic, although the results differ somewhat between test methods (preparation of water-accommodated fractions or petroleum ether dissolved oil slurries). The degree of phototoxicity of a sample is related to both the source and the refining process of the crude oil. The best chemical predictors found were the concentrations of eight phototoxic parent PAHs. An even simpler analytical technique suggested for initial screening would be direct measurements of "total PAH," where samples having more than 3% PAH should be studied further.

  14. Petroleum engineering: Horizontal drilling. (Latest citations from the Georef database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning horizontal drilling technology for oil well production. Articles discuss techniques and problems associated with geologic formations such as chalk deposits, fractured rock systems, clastic rocks, sandstones, and karst areas. Citations address applications of horizontal drilling to petroleum exploration, extension of existing fields, enhanced oil recovery, targeted zone drilling, and geologically restrained petroleum reservoirs. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Proposal for Reservoir Engineering Studies in the State of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Economides, Michael J.; Ehlig-Economides, Christine; Wescott, Eugene

    1980-12-18

    Alaska has a significant geothermal potential. While other sources of energy such as petroleum and coal are in abundance, there has been a definite move towards geothermal exploitation. The State has recognized the opportunity cost of petroleum as a source of materials and has expressed interest in the development of geothermal energy as a desirable and alternative resource. More than 11 million acres have been identified as potential geothermal reservoirs capable of producing electric power as well as direct heating. Reservoirs of the latter type are found in the interior of the state. Considering the winter temperatures of these regions (at times dipping to -60{degree}F) direct utilization is attractive. A comprehensive reservoir engineering proposal is presented to better assess the extent and potential of the geothermal areas in Alaska. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the participants of the Stanford Geothermal Workshop with the enormous potential, as yet untapped, of the State of Alaska.

  16. Gelled polymer systems for permeability modification in petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; Thiele, J.L.; McCool, C.S.; Mertes, K.B.

    1991-09-01

    The research program described in this report was conducted to improve the performance and predictability of in situ gelation processes designed to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes. A principal objective of this research was to develop procedures for design and evaluation of permeability modification processes. Research was conducted in three broad areas: (1) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Gelling Systems (2) In situ Gelation and (3) Mathematical Modeling of In Site Gelation. Gelling systems used chromium as the crosslinking agent. Polyacrylamide and polysaccharides gelling systems were studied. Research was conducted on the chemical structure of polymer/metal ion complexes, kinetics of the reduction of Cr(6) to Cr(3) by thiourea, kinetics of oligomerization and uptake of chromium by polyacrylamide and rheology of chromium/polysaccharide gelling systems. Studies of polymer/metal ion complexes were conducted using solutions of pure monomer, dimer and trimer forms of chromium. A mathematical model was developed to examine the kinetics of Cr(3) oligomerization and uptake of chromium by polyacrylamide. Rheological studies were completed on chromium/polysaccharide gels. In situ gelation experiments were conducted using a bis-ethylenediamine chromium complex and chromium(3) polyacrylamide gelling systems in sandpacks. A numerical model of in situ gelation of chromium/polyacrylamide systems was developed for linear displacement in a sandpack. The numerical model is based on filtration mechanisms and is consistent with experimental data and models developed in this research program. 103 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. Boundary element simulation of petroleum reservoirs with hydraulically fractured wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecher, Radek

    The boundary element method is applied to solve the linear pressure-diffusion equation of fluid-flow in porous media. The governing parabolic partial differential equation is transformed into the Laplace space to obtain the elliptic modified-Helmholtz equation including the homogeneous initial condition. The free- space Green's functions, satisfying this equation for anisotropic media in two and three dimensions, are combined with the generalized form of the Green's second identity. The resulting boundary integral equation is solved by following the collocation technique and applying the given time-dependent boundary conditions of the Dirichlet or Neumann type. The boundary integrals are approximated by the Gaussian quadrature along each element of the discretized domain boundary. Heterogeneous regions are represented by the sectionally-homogeneous zones of different rock and fluid properties. The final values of the interior pressure and velocity fields and of their time-derivatives are found by numerically inverting the solutions from the Laplace space by using the Stehfest's algorithm. The main extension of the mostly standard BEM-procedure is achieved in the modelling of the production and injection wells represented by internal sources and sinks. They are treated as part of the boundary by means of special single-node and both-sided elements, corresponding to the line and plane sources respectively. The wellbore skin and storage effects are considered for the line and cylindrical sources. Hydraulically fractured wells of infinite conductivity are handled directly according to the specified constraint type, out of the four alternatives. Fractures of finite conductivity are simulated by coupling the finite element model of their 1D-interior with the boundary element model of their 2D- exterior. Variable fracture width, fractures crossing zone boundaries, ``networking'' of fractures, fracture-tip singularity handling, or the 3D-description are additional advanced formulations of the proposed model of the hydraulically fractured wells. Another strong emphasis is put on the realization of the numerical model on a computer using the object-oriented programming. In addition to the graphical editor of input data, a higher-level language is designed to facilitate a universal data interface to the numerical simulator. The final version of the simulator is supplied on a CD-ROM together with the 35 solved example problems.

  18. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2003-11-13

    About 70% of North American large mammal species were lost at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. The causes of this extinction--the role of humans versus that of climate--have been the focus of much controversy. Horses have figured centrally in that debate, because equid species dominated North American late Pleistocene faunas in terms of abundance, geographical distribution, and species variety, yet none survived into the Holocene epoch. The timing of these equid regional extinctions and accompanying evolutionary changes are poorly known. In an attempt to document better the decline and demise of two Alaskan Pleistocene equids, I selected a large number of fossils from the latest Pleistocene for radiocarbon dating. Here I show that horses underwent a rapid decline in body size before extinction, and I propose that the size decline and subsequent regional extinction at 12,500 radiocarbon years before present are best attributed to a coincident climatic/vegetational shift. The present data do not support human overkill and several other proposed extinction causes, and also show that large mammal species responded somewhat individualistically to climate changes at the end of the Pleistocene.

  4. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models (DEMs), we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Our ice elevation changes reveal that glacier dynamics (surges, phase of the tidewater cycle, etc...) have a profound effect on the wastage of Alaska glaciers. 3D satellite view of Columbia glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. (Copyright CNES 2007, Distribution Spot Image, processing E. Berthier CNRS)

  5. Quantifying seismic survey reverberation off the Alaskan North Slope.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Melania; Thode, Aaron M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Michael Macrander, A

    2011-11-01

    Shallow-water airgun survey activities off the North Slope of Alaska generate impulsive sounds that are the focus of much regulatory attention. Reverberation from repetitive airgun shots, however, can also increase background noise levels, which can decrease the detection range of nearby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems. Typical acoustic metrics for impulsive signals provide no quantitative information about reverberation or its relative effect on the ambient acoustic environment. Here, two conservative metrics are defined for quantifying reverberation: a minimum level metric measures reverberation levels that exist between airgun pulse arrivals, while a reverberation metric estimates the relative magnitude of reverberation vs expected ambient levels in the hypothetical absence of airgun activity, using satellite-measured wind data. The metrics are applied to acoustic data measured by autonomous recorders in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in 2008 and demonstrate how seismic surveys can increase the background noise over natural ambient levels by 30-45 dB within 1 km of the activity, by 10-25 dB within 15 km of the activity, and by a few dB at 128 km range. These results suggest that shallow-water reverberation would reduce the performance of nearby PAM systems when monitoring for marine mammals within a few kilometers of shallow-water seismic surveys.

  6. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most concentrated plumes. Ice features are most clearly seen on MSS 7 imagery; fracture patterns and the movement of specific floes can be used to map circulation in the winter when runoff is restricted, if appropriate allowance is made for wind influence. Current patterns interpreted from satellite data are only two-dimensional, but since most biological activity and pollution are concentrated near the surface, the information developed can be of direct utility. Details of Alaska inshore circulation of importance to coastal engineering, navigation, pollution studies, and fisheries development have been clarified with satellite data. ERTS has made possible the analysis of circulation in many parts of the Alaskan coast.

  7. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  8. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  9. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  10. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  11. Quantifying seismic survey reverberation off the Alaskan North Slope.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Melania; Thode, Aaron M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Michael Macrander, A

    2011-11-01

    Shallow-water airgun survey activities off the North Slope of Alaska generate impulsive sounds that are the focus of much regulatory attention. Reverberation from repetitive airgun shots, however, can also increase background noise levels, which can decrease the detection range of nearby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems. Typical acoustic metrics for impulsive signals provide no quantitative information about reverberation or its relative effect on the ambient acoustic environment. Here, two conservative metrics are defined for quantifying reverberation: a minimum level metric measures reverberation levels that exist between airgun pulse arrivals, while a reverberation metric estimates the relative magnitude of reverberation vs expected ambient levels in the hypothetical absence of airgun activity, using satellite-measured wind data. The metrics are applied to acoustic data measured by autonomous recorders in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in 2008 and demonstrate how seismic surveys can increase the background noise over natural ambient levels by 30-45 dB within 1 km of the activity, by 10-25 dB within 15 km of the activity, and by a few dB at 128 km range. These results suggest that shallow-water reverberation would reduce the performance of nearby PAM systems when monitoring for marine mammals within a few kilometers of shallow-water seismic surveys. PMID:22087932

  12. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  13. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  14. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  15. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  16. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  17. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  18. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  19. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  20. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  1. 25 CFR 243.6 - Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not... AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.6 Which sales or transfers of Alaskan reindeer do not require a... reindeer or reindeer products; and (b) Sale of transfer of live reindeer between Alaska Natives or...

  2. Summary of reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1945-1954, and an appraisal of Alaskan uranium possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth

    1956-01-01

    In the period 1945-1954 over 100 investigations for radioactive source materials were made in Alaska. The nature of these investigations ranged from field examinations of individual prospects or the laboratory analysis of significantly radioactive samples submitted by prospectors to reconnaissance studies of large districts. In this period no deposits of uranium or thorium that would warrant commercial exploitation were discovered. The investigations, however, disclosed that radioactive materials occur in widely scattered areas of Alaska and in widely diverse environments. Many igneous rocks throughout Alaska are weakly radioactive because of uranium- and thorium-bearing accessory minerals, such as allanite, apatite, monazite, sphene, xenotime, and zircon; more rarely the radioactivity of these rocks is due to thorianite or thorite and their uranoan varieties. The felsic rocks, for example, granites and syenites, are generally more radioactive than the mafic igneous rocks. Pegmatites, locally, have also proved to be radioactive, but they have little commercial significance. No primary uranium oxide minerals have been found yet in Alaskan vein deposits, except, perhaps, for a mineral tentatively identified as pitchblende in the Hyder district of southeastern Alaska. However, certain occurrences of secondary uranium minerals, chiefly those of the uranite group, on the Seward Peninsula, in the Russian Mountains, and in the vicinity of Kodiak suggest that pitchblende-type ores may occur at depth beneath zones of alteration. Thorite-bearing veins have been discovered on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Although no deposits or carnotite-type minerals have been found in Alaska, several samples containing such minerals have been submitted by Alaskan prospectors. Efforts to locate the deposits from which these minerals were obtained have been unsuccessful, but review of available geologic data suggests that several Alaskan areas are potentially favorable for

  3. Petroleum systems of the Brazilian South Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Koutsoukos, E.A.M.; Mohriak, W.U.; Bacoccoli, G.

    1996-08-01

    The characterization of a major petroleum system in the Sergipe Basin, NE Brazil, was undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach. The Lura-Muriboca (!) petroleum system, taken as a representative example for the proto-marine evaporitic stage in the South Atlantic margin, comprises the Carmopolis oil field, which is the largest onshore oil field in Brazil, with about 1.2 MM bbl of oil in place. The hydrocarbons sourced by the proto-marine Aptian marls and calcareous black shales, started migration during the Paleocene, reaching the maximum at the late Oligocene continuing up to now in some parts of the basin. The hydrocarbons were mainly accumulated in Lower Cretaceous alluvial fans/fan deltas coarse clastics reservoirs, and fractured Precambrian basement. The reservoirs trapping were structured during the Cretaceous. Seals are the evaporates and marine shales deposited during the Aptian and Albian times. Mapping the geographic extent of the petroleum system emphasizes the association of the Carmopolis oil field with the proposed offshore pod of active Aptian source rocks. The integration of these data with a geochemical modelling allowed the prediction and characterization, in time and space, of the petroleum pathways from source to trap in the basin.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva, Joseph P.

    1983-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum in Indonesia at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 5, 35, and 16; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 13, 94, and 42. In Indonesia, petroleum occurs in five types of basins: forearc, back-arc (foreland), median, inner-arc, and downwarp into-small-ocean basins. The back-arc, median, and downwarp basins have significantly greater petroleum potential than do the fore-arc and inner-are basins. The latter two types are expected to yield only small discoveries; also, significant portions of such basins lie in water depths in excess of 1,000 m. The back-arc basins have been the most petroleum productive, but they also have been the most extensively explored. The greatest undiscovered petroleum potential is estimated to lie in the downwarp and median basins. In Indonesia, six general types of geological settings or plays have been identified as being favorable for petroleum accumulation. They are transgressive clastic sequences, regressive clastic sequences, deltas, carbonate platforms, pinnacle reefs, and fractured igneous and volcanic rocks. The multiple-pay transgressive clastic reservoirs in the back-arc basins have produced most of Indonesia's crude oil. In several basins, carbonate platform porosity has become a primary exploration target, but each reservoir (reef, bank, or bioclastic zone) tends to be restricted in size. Typically, Indonesian oil is of medium gravity with a paraffin base and has a moderate to high pour point, a low sulfur content, and a relatively low gas to oil ratio.

  5. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum exploration in the Amadeus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, L. E.

    Although the spectacular outcrops in the Amadeus Basin have attracted researcher for many years, commercial exploration for oil started only in 1958. Up until 1973, 16 petroleum exploration wells were drilled and the major Mereenie Oil and Gas Field and the Palm Valley Gas Field were discovered. In both cases, the principal reservoir is the latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone; the reservoirs were sourced from the Early Ordovician Horn Valley Siltstone. Due to a combination of adverse circumstances, there was no exploration in the basin between 1973 and 1980. Since activity resumed, 14 further exploratory wells have been drilled and both the Mereenie and Palm Valley Fields have commenced production. The Dingo Gas Field, with flows form the basal part of the latest Proterozoic Arumbera Sandstone, was discovered in 1981. The Dingo Field is currently under study because of low flow rates from the reservoir. Exploration during the 1980's has brought out new concepts regarding the prospectiveness of parts of the basin, many of which have yet to be tested.

  8. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters - The role of the Alaskan Gyre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Scoy, Kim A.; Olson, Donald B.; Fine, Rana A.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrographic data, tritium data, and potential vorticity calculations suggest that although North Pacific Intermediate Water is formed in the northwest, the Alaskan Gyre might be an additional ventilation site. The proposed ventilation is quantified by a vertical column tritium inventory, which indicates an excess of 0.08 kg of tritium in the Alaskan Gyre. An evaluation of the energy stored in the water column and of wind and buoyancy forcing shows that during winter conditions enough energy can be pumped into the system to force 26.80 sigma(theta) to outcrop in the Alaskan Gyre. Model results suggest that relatively limited outcrops in time and space (tens of days and several hundred kilometers in diameter) can account for the excess tritium.

  9. Petroleum geochemistry of oil and gas from Barbados: Implications for distribution of Cretaceous source rocks and regional petroleum prospectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, R.J.; Schenk, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum produced from the Barbados accretionary prism (at Woodbourne Field on Barbados) is interpreted as generated from Cretaceous marine shale deposited under normal salinity and dysoxic conditions rather than from a Tertiary source rock as previously proposed. Barbados oils correlate with some oils from eastern Venezuela and Trinidad that are positively correlated to extracts from Upper Cretaceous La Luna-like source rocks. Three distinct groups of Barbados oils are recognized based on thermal maturity, suggesting petroleum generation occurred at multiple levels within the Barbados accretionary prism. Biodegradation is the most significant process affecting Barbados oils resulting in increased sulfur content and decreased API gravity. Barbados gases are interpreted as thermogenic, having been co-generated with oil, and show mixing with biogenic gas is limited. Gas biodegradation occurred in two samples collected from shallow reservoirs at the Woodbourne Field. The presence of Cretaceous source rocks within the Barbados accretionary prism suggests that greater petroleum potential exists regionally, and perhaps further southeast along the passive margin of South America. Likewise, confirmation of a Cretaceous source rock indicates petroleum potential exists within the Barbados accretionary prism in reservoirs that are deeper than those from Woodbourne Field.

  10. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  11. Fundamentals of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents basic information about the petroleum industry. Nine fully illustrated chapters cover geology, exploration, leasing, drilling, production, transportation, refining and processing, marketing, and economics of the industry, with the extensive use of high tech in every phase of the industry described. A detailed index facilitates the book's use as a reference.

  12. Petroleum systems of the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, C.; Cordoba, F.; Luna, O.; Sarmiento, L.F.; Rangel, A.

    1996-08-01

    The petroleum systems of the Middle Magdalena Valley include 29 oil fields and numerous oil seeps with recoverable reserves of 3 billion barrels of oil. Based on API gravity, sulfur content, pristane/phytane index, carbon isotopic ratios of the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, and biomarkers, at least two oil families occur within this province. Each oil family covers a different area. Based on stratigraphic occurrence, one oil family originated from the Tablazo Formation of Aptian age while the other oil family originated from the La Luna Formation of Cenomanian to Santonian age. Both of these rock units have high organic carbon contents and hydrogen indices indicative of petroleum source rocks. The primary reservoir rocks are the Tertiary sandstones of the La Paz, Esmeraldas, Mugrosa, and Colorado Formations. The La Cira Shale, a regional seal rock, is the uppermost part the Colorado Formation. Secondary reservoirs are limestones of the Tablazo, Rosablanca, and La Luna formations, and sandstones of the Lisama and Umir Formations. An Eocene unconformity separates the primary reservoir rocks above from the secondary reservoir rocks and active source rocks below. This unconformity places the primary reservoir rocks in angular discordance with the underlying active source rock intervals, forming the main plumbing system for migrating petroleum. Traps are related to pre-Andean and Andean folding and faulting. Overburden rocks are Cretaceous marine, Paleocene transitional, and Eocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks. Thermal data and modeling indicates that the thermal history of the source rock intervals was sufficient to generate hydrocarbons during late Tertiary time.

  13. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  14. Alaskan malamute chondrodysplasia IV. Concentrations of zinc, copper and iron in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Brown, R G; Hoag, G N; Smart, M E; Boechner, G; Subden, R E

    1977-09-01

    Trace mineral concentrations in various tissues of the chondrodysplastic (dwarf) Alaskan Malamute are remarkably different as compared to normal. The zinc level in heart tissue was depressed in dwarf animals (26 weeks). Copper concentration in the liver is elevated two to four fold in 26 week old dwarf animals and iron levels are significantly elevated in kidney, liver and pancreas of these animals. These observations suggest that the dwarf Alaskan Malamutes suffer from a genetic defect in trace mineral metabolism. If this is the case, then many of the skeletal lesions reported for these animals may be attributed to disorders in either zinc or copper metabolism.

  15. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.

    1998-01-01

    A case study approach using Terry Sandstone production from the Hambert-Aristocrat Field, Weld County, Colorado was used to document the process of integration. One specific project goal is to demonstrate how a multidisciplinary approach can be used to detect reservoir compartmentalization and improve reserve estimates. The final project goal is to derive a general strategy for integration for independent operators. Teamwork is the norm for the petroleum industry where teams of geologists, geophysicists, and petroleum engineers work together to improve profits through a better understanding of reservoir size, compartmentalization, and orientation as well as reservoir flow characteristics. In this manner, integration of data narrows the uncertainty in reserve estimates and enhances reservoir management decisions. The process of integration has proven to be iterative. Integration has helped identify reservoir compartmentalization and reduce the uncertainty in the reserve estimates. This research report documents specific examples of integration and the economic benefits of integration.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Contaminants in arctic snow collected over northwest Alaskan sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Leiker, T.J.; Hoffman, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfall from the 1995-1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cations and anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds were determined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, and PCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70-80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow was highly enriched in sulfates (69- 394 mg L-1), with high proportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination through long-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum, frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of total mercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavy metals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported over land areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and the high content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

  7. Quantifying and comparing size selectivity among Alaskan sockeye salmon fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Neala W; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-04-01

    Quantifying long-term size-selective harvest patterns is necessary for understanding the potential evolutionary effects on exploited species. The comparison of fishery selection patterns on the same species subject to different gear types, in different areas, and over multi-decadal periods can reveal the factors influencing selection. In this study we quantified and compared size-selective harvest by nine Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fisheries to understand overall patterns. We calculated length-specific linear selection differentials (the difference in average length of fish before vs. after fishing), which are produced by different combinations of exploitation rates and length-selectivity values, and nonlinear standardized differentials, describing disruptive selection, across all years for each fishery. Selection differentials varied among years, but larger fish were caught in 73% of years for males and 84% of years for females, leaving smaller fish to spawn. Disruptive selection was observed on female and male fish in 84% and 92% of years, respectively. Linear selection was stronger on females than males in 77% of years examined, and disruptive selection was stronger on males in 71% of years. Selection pressure was influenced by a combination of factors under and beyond management control; analyses using mixed-effects models indicated that fisheries were less size selective in years when fish were larger than average and had lower exploitation rates. The observed harvest of larger than average sockeye salmon is consistent with the hypothesis that size-selective fishing contributes to decreasing age and length at maturation trends over time, but temporal variability in selection and strong disruptive selection suggests that the overall directional pressure is weaker than is often assumed in evolutionary models.

  8. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  9. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  10. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  11. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  12. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  13. Petroleum geology of Ouachita uplift region of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Suneson, N.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Two major petroleum plays are found in the Ouachita uplift region. Folded and thrusted strata constitute the shallower, and possibly the more extensive, of the two. Developed reservoirs include Bigfork Chert (Ordovician), Arkansas Novaculite (Devonian-Mississippian), sandstones within Stanley (Mississippian) and Jackfork (Morrowan) Groups, and Wapanucka Limestone-Spiro Sandstone (Morrowan-Atokan). The deeper play is characterized by underlying basement fault blocks. Development in the Arkoma basin indicates that major reservoirs will include Arbuckle group carbonates. This play is limited to the south by increasing depth and by seismic resolution of the fault blocks. Other potential reservoirs in both plays include Crystal Mountain and Blakely Sandstones (Ordovician), and Blaylock Sandstone (Silurian), with progressively older strata involved in thrusting southward across the uplift. The eastward extent of the Arbuckle facies of lower Paleozoic strata remains a major question.

  14. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research 1989 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Research programs on reservoir rocks petroleum, and enhanced recovery are briefly presented. Topics include: Geotechnology; reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS Research Support; three phase relative permeability; static pore structure analysis of reservoir rocks; effects of pore structure on oil/contaminants ganglia distribution; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved surfactant flooding systems; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved mobility-control methods; gas miscible displacement; development of improved immiscible gas displacement methodology; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; an application of natural isotopes in groundwater for solving environmental problems; processing and thermodynamics research; thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds; in situ hydrogenation; and fuel chemistry.

  15. Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  17. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  18. Applications of soft computing in petroleum engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Andrew H.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes several applications of neural networks and fuzzy logic in petroleum engineering that have been, or are being, developed recently at New Mexico Tech. These real-world applications include a fuzzy controller for drilling operation; a neural network model to predict the cement bonding quality in oil well completion; using neural networks and fuzzy logic to rank the importance of input parameters; and using fuzzy reasoning to interpret log curves. We also briefly describe two ongoing, large-scale projects on the development of a fuzzy expert system for prospect risk assessment in oil exploration; and on combining neural networks and fuzzy logic to tackle the large-scale simulation problem of history matching, a long- standing difficult problem in reservoir modeling.

  19. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments. Quarterly technical progress report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.W.; Thompson, R.S.

    1995-07-21

    This United States Department of Energy (DOE) research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field. Brief summaries are presented for reservoir characterization; documentation of the BVW-BVZ pay discrimination technique; reservoir simulation; and outcrop analog.

  20. Projected future duration of the sea-ice-free season in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.

    2015-08-01

    Global warming and continued reduction in sea ice cover will result in longer open water duration in the Arctic, which is important for the shipping industry, marine mammals, and other components of the regional ecosystem. In this study we assess the length of open water duration in the Alaskan Arctic over the next few decades using the set of latest coupled climate models (CMIP5). The Alaskan Arctic, including the Chukchi and the Beaufort Sea, has been a major region of summer sea ice retreat since 2007. Thirty five climate models from CMIP5 are evaluated and twelve are selected for composite projections based on their historical simulation performance. In the regions north of the Bering Strait (north of 70° N), future open-water duration shifts from a current 3-4 months to a projected near 5 months by 2040 based on the mean of the twelve selected climate models. There is considerable north-south gradient in projected durations. Open water duration is about 1 month shorter along the same latitudes in the Beaufort Sea compared with that in the Chukchi Sea. Uncertainty is generally ±1 month estimated from the range of model results. Open-water duration in the Alaskan Arctic expands quickly in these models over the next decades which will impact regional economic access and potentially alter ecosystems. Yet the northern Alaskan Arctic from January through May will remain sea ice covered into the second half of the century due to normal lack of sunlight.

  1. CYCLING OF DISSOLVED ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN ARCTIC ALASKAN LAKES. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous production and water-air exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) are important features of the environmental cycling of Hg. We investigated Hg0 cycling in ten Arctic Alaskan lakes that spanned a wide range in physicochemical characteristics. Dissolved...

  2. AlaskaAdvantage[R] Programs Annual Report to Alaskans, Year Ending June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Through its AlaskAdvantage[R] Programs, the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education promotes, supports, and provides access to postsecondary education for Alaskans and in Alaska. This publication reports on another year of success for the state's higher education assistance agency. Among the accomplishments this year to make higher…

  3. Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2004-06-17

    Island colonization and subsequent dwarfing of Pleistocene proboscideans is one of the more dramatic evolutionary and ecological occurrences, especially in situations where island populations survived end-Pleistocene extinctions whereas those on the nearby mainland did not. For example, Holocene mammoths have been dated from Wrangel Island in northern Russia. In most of these cases, few details are available about the dynamics of how island colonization and extinction occurred. As part of a large radiocarbon dating project of Alaskan mammoth fossils, I addressed this question by including mammoth specimens from Bering Sea islands known to have formed during the end-Pleistocene sea transgression. One date of 7,908 +/- 100 yr bp (radiocarbon years before present) established the presence of Holocene mammoths on St Paul Island, a first Holocene island record for the Americas. Four lines of evidence--265 accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates from Alaskan mainland mammoths, 13 new dates from Alaskan island mammoths, recent reconstructions of bathymetric plots and sea transgression rates from the Bering Sea--made it possible to reconstruct how mammoths became stranded in the Pribilofs and why this apparently did not happen on other Alaskan Bering Sea islands.

  4. American Indian/Alaskan Native Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Findings from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2005-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence and national profile of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, based on data from the American Community Survey/Census 2000 Supplementary Survey. In 2000 there were estimated to be nearly 53,000 AI/AN grandparent caregivers age 45 and older in the United…

  5. 36 CFR 223.10 - Free use to Alaskan settlers, miners, residents, and prospectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... may take free of charge green or dried timber from the National Forests in Alaska for personal use but... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Free use to Alaskan...

  6. 36 CFR 223.10 - Free use to Alaskan settlers, miners, residents, and prospectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... may take free of charge green or dried timber from the National Forests in Alaska for personal use but... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Free use to Alaskan...

  7. 36 CFR 223.10 - Free use to Alaskan settlers, miners, residents, and prospectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... may take free of charge green or dried timber from the National Forests in Alaska for personal use but... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Free use to Alaskan...

  8. Alaskan Native Social Adjustment and the Role of Eskimo and Indian Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that research into the social and psychological implications of Alaskan Eskimo and Indian musical behavior will continue to provide useful clues to solving current inter-cultural and intra-cultural problems in changing Alaska, particularly within the real of Eskimo and Indian preschool and primary education. (Author/AM)

  9. College Orientation Program for Alaskan Natives (COPAN Program - Education for Survival). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lee H.

    Of the original number of Alaskan natives entering the University of Alaska from rural and urban areas, 50% drop out at the end of their freshman year, and less than 2% are likely to receive a degree at the end of 4 years. This high attrition rate is caused by poor elementary and secondary school preparation, and strong personal feelings of…

  10. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Biosynthesis from Crude Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six strains of Pseudomonas were tested for their abilities to synthesize poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) polymers from crude Pollock oil, a large volume byproduct of the Alaskan fishing industry. All six strains were found to produce PHA polymers from hydrolyzed Pollock oil with productivities (P; the...

  11. Alaskan Fish Gelatin Films: Thermal, Tensile, and Barrier Properties and Effects of Cross-linking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from the skins of Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). These skins were by-products generated from the Alaskan fishing industry. Films were then cast from the fish gelatin and their thermal, tensile, water vapor permeability, o...

  12. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  13. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 2: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    A natural science resource booklet for teachers and students contains detailed materials for teaching and learning about Alaskan wildlife. Each of nine chapters provides background subject information, suggested learning activities, tear-out pages of review questions for students to answer, and supplementary notes for teachers which include…

  14. Intensive Evaluation of Satellite TV Impact on Four Alaskan Villages. Supplement to Basic ESCD Evaluation Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A supplement to the final report, "Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD)," this document is both: (1) a separable, sociologically oriented evaluation of the ESCD impact on Alaskan native villages; and (2) a direct extension of the work described in sections 4 and 5 in the Practical…

  15. It Happens When We Get There. Conversations With Teachers in Alaskan Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, C. David

    Developed through in-depth interviews with experienced "bush" teachers from interior Alaska, this booklet is the product of a five-day workshop in the design of vocational education curriculum materials for rural Alaskan secondary schools. The statements in this booklet represent the edited responses of experienced teachers to the following…

  16. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  17. EXAMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY FOR DEMONSTRATION AND USE OF RADIOLUMINESCENT LIGHTS FOR ALASKAN REMOTE RUNWAY LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.; Perrigo, L.; Leonard, L.; Hegdal, L

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of radioluminescent light applications for rural Alaskan airports. The work presented in this report covers four tasks: State of the Art Evaluation of Radioluminescent Lights, Environmental, Radiological, and Regulatory Evaluations, Engineering Evaluations, and Demonstration Plan Development.

  18. Alaskan glaciers: Recent observations in respect to the earthquake-advance theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, A.S.

    1965-01-01

    Preliminary aerial photographic studies indicate that the Alaskan earthquake produced some rockfalls but no significant snow and ice avalanches on glaciers. No rapid, short-lived glacier advances (surges) are conclusively associated with this earthquake. Recent evidence fails to support the earthquake-advance theory of Tarr and Martin.

  19. Shaping the Landscape: A Journal of Writing by Alaskan Teachers 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenbaugh, Betsy, Ed.

    Intended to encourage Alaska teachers to write, to provide an honest sounding board for those submitting work, and to be a pleasure to read, this booklet presents a collection of 20 pieces of writing (short stories, poems, and life experiences) by Alaskan teachers. The pieces and their authors are as follows: "The First Haiku" (Dan Walker);…

  20. 77 FR 45921 - Alaskan Fuel Hauling as a Restricted Category Special Purpose Flight Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... the Federal Register (74 FR 39242) in which the FAA proposed to specify Alaskan fuel hauling as a... Purpose Flight Operation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), (DOT). ACTION: Notice of policy... submitted was, ``The transport of the fuel could be made safer by limiting the payload on each flight to...

  1. Alaskan Native Games--A Cross-Cultural Addition to the Physical Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Richard D.; Allen, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Importing traditional, yet unknown, physical activities from different cultures is an exciting way to add creativity and imagination to the physical education curriculum. Explanations, accompanied by teaching hints, are given of several traditional Alaskan native games which have been successfully used with K-Six students in the Anchorage School…

  2. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  3. Origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum in Gulf Coast Cenozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Explanations of the origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum in the Gulf Coast upper Cenozoic must accommodate the following facts. (1) No specific source of the petroleum has ever been identified. (2) The most probable source section is 10,000-20,000 ft of low TOC (0.4-1.0 wt %) shale that underlies the reservoirs. (3) Tremendous volumes of dry gas have been generated in the middle and basal part of the source section. (4) More gas than oil is in the reservoirs. (5) The distribution of oil and gas accumulations in the Cenozoic is not primarily controlled by the distribution of terrestrial gas-prone organic facies and marine oil-prone organic facies, but by the relative ease of migration of the two hydrocarbon phases. For example, gas preferentially accumulates in the simpler structures, oil in the intrusive salt domes. (6) High pressure and high porosity in the source rock indicates that neither water movement nor continuous phase oil movement out of the source rock are likely to be significant factors in primary migration. (7) The situation is very dynamic, with generation, migration, and accumulation occurring today. (8) Faults are very important as controls on migration and accumulation of the petroleum. The interaction of these (and other) factors suggests that most oil reservoirs in the Gulf Coast upper Cenozoic sediments probably initially became mobile after being dissolved in gas in the source rock. The gas-oil mixture moved toward lower pressure areas adjacent to and in faults, and moved upward into reservoirs and traps along faults.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Controls on Ecosystem and Root Respiration in an Alaskan Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, N. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal ecosystems cover 14% of the vegetated surface on earth and account for 25-30% of the world’s soil carbon (C), mainly due to large carbon stocks in deep peat and frozen soil layers. While peatlands have served as historical sinks of carbon, global climate change may trigger re-release of C to the atmosphere and may turn these ecosystems into net C sources. Rates of C release from a peatland are determined by regional climate and local biotic and abiotic factors such as vegetation cover, thaw depth, and peat thickness. Soil CO2 fluxes are driven by both autotrophic (plant) respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration. Thus, changes in plant and microbial activity in the soil will impact CO2 emissions from peatlands. In this study, we explored environmental and vegetation controls on ecosystem respiration and root respiration in a variety of wetland sites. The study was conducted at the Alaskan Peatland Experiment (APEX; www.uoguelph.ca/APEX) sites in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest located 35 km southwest of Fairbanks Alaska. We measured ecosystem respiration, root respiration, and monitored a suite of environmental variables along a vegetation and soil moisture gradient including a black spruce stand with permafrost, a shrubby site with permafrost, a tussock grass site, and a herbaceous open rich fen. Within the rich fen, we have been conducting water table manipulations including a control, lowered, and raised water table treatment. In each of our sites, we measured total ecosystem respiration using static chambers and root respiration by harvesting roots from the uppermost 20 cm and placing them in a root cuvette to obtain a root flux. Ecosystem respiration (ER) on a μmol/m2/sec basis varied across sites. Water table was a significant predictor of ER at the lowered manipulation site and temperature was a strong predictor at the control site in the rich fen. Water table and temperature were both significant predictors of ER at the raised

  7. Seasonal Variations of Biomass Burning Tracers in Alaskan Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, M. M.; Kawamura, K.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During the burning, several organic and inorganic gases and particles are emitted into the atmosphere. Here, we present seasonal variations of specific BB tracers such as levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, which are produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. We collected TSP aerosol samples (n= 32) from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. The result of levoglucosan showed clear seasonal trends with winter maximum (ave.145 ng m-3) and spring minimum (12.3 ng m-3). The analyses of air mass back trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that anhydrosugars may be associated from residential heating and cooking in local region and Siberia in winter time. Levoglucosan showed significant positive correlation with EC (r= 0.67, p= 0.001) and OC (r= 0.51, p= 0.002) but there was no correlation with nss-K+ (r= -0.16, p= 0.37). The emission of K+ from biomass burning depends on burning condition and types of material burned. There are two possible reasons, which can be explained for the lack of correlation between levoglucosan and K+. First, specific burning materials may be used for residential heating, which can't produce K+. Secondly, K+ could be deposit on the surface of chimney breast and it can't emit into the atmosphere. Anhydrosugars contributed 4.4% to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 2.4% to organic carbon (OC). Their highest values of WSOC (8.1%) and OC (4.9%) in wintertime indicate that contribution of BB to Alaskan aerosols is important in winter period. The current study presents for the first time one-year observation on BB tracers in the subarctic region, which provide useful information to better understand the effect of biomass burning on subarctic atmosphere. It will also be helpful for further long-term climate studies in this region.

  8. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  12. Chapter 32: Geology and petroleum potential of the Arctic Alaska petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska petroleum province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald Arch orogenic belt and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Beaufort Rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of c. 28 BBOE. The province constitutes a significant part of a displaced continental fragment, the Arctic Alaska microplate, that was probably rifted from the Canadian Arctic margin during formation of the Canada Basin. Petroleum prospective rocks in the province, mostly Mississippian and younger, record a sequential geological evolution through passive margin, rift and foreland basin tectonic stages. Significant petroleum source and reservoir rocks were formed during each tectonic stage but it was the foreland basin stage that provided the necessary burial heating to generate petroleum from the source rocks. The lion's share of known petroleum resources in the province occur in combination structural-stratigraphic traps formed as a consequence of rifting and located along the rift shoulder. Since the discovery of the super-giant Prudhoe Bay accumulation in one of these traps in the late 1960s, exploration activity preferentially focused on these types of traps. More recent activity, however, has emphasized the potential for stratigraphic traps and the prospect of a natural gas pipeline in this region has spurred renewed interest in structural traps. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a Platform assessment unit (AU), comprising the Beaufort Rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a Fold-and-Thrust Belt AU, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald Arch tectonic belt. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 122 trillion

  13. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  15. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  16. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  17. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  18. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  20. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  1. Geologic Controls on the Growth of Petroleum Reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Turner, Christine E.; Peterson, Fred; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    The geologic characteristics of selected siliciclastic (largely sandstone) and carbonate (limestone and dolomite) reservoirs in North America (largely the continental United States) were investigated to improve our understanding of the role of geology in the growth of petroleum reserves. Reservoirs studied were deposited in (1) eolian environments (Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Gulf Coast and Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation of the Powder River Basin), (2) interconnected fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine environments (Oligocene Frio Formation of the Gulf Coast and the Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation of the Anadarko and Denver Basins), (3) deeper marine environments (Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin and Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin), (4) marine carbonate environments (Ordovician Ellenburger Group of the Permian Basin and Jurassic Smackover Formation of the Gulf of Mexico Basin), (5) a submarine fan environment (Permian Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin), and (6) a fluvial environment (Paleocene-Eocene Wasatch Formation of the Uinta-Piceance Basin). The connection between an oil reservoir's production history and geology was also evaluated by studying production histories of wells in disparate reservoir categories and wells in a single formation containing two reservoir categories. This effort was undertaken to determine, in general, if different reservoir production heterogeneities could be quantified on the basis of gross geologic differences. It appears that reserve growth in existing fields is most predictable for those in which reservoir heterogeneity is low and thus production differs little between wells, probably owing to relatively homogeneous fluid flow. In fields in which reservoirs are highly heterogeneous, prediction of future growth from infill drilling is notably more difficult. In any case, success at linking heterogeneity to reserve growth depends on factors in addition to

  2. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  3. Seismic modeling of complex stratified reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hung-Liang

    Turbidite reservoirs in deep-water depositional systems, such as the oil fields in the offshore Gulf of Mexico and North Sea, are becoming an important exploration target in the petroleum industry. Accurate seismic reservoir characterization, however, is complicated by the heterogeneous of the sand and shale distribution and also by the lack of resolution when imaging thin channel deposits. Amplitude variation with offset (AVO) is a very important technique that is widely applied to locate hydrocarbons. Inaccurate estimates of seismic reflection amplitudes may result in misleading interpretations because of these problems in application to turbidite reservoirs. Therefore, an efficient, accurate, and robust method of modeling seismic responses for such complex reservoirs is crucial and necessary to reduce exploration risk. A fast and accurate approach generating synthetic seismograms for such reservoir models combines wavefront construction ray tracing with composite reflection coefficients in a hybrid modeling algorithm. The wavefront construction approach is a modern, fast implementation of ray tracing that I have extended to model quasi-shear wave propagation in anisotropic media. Composite reflection coefficients, which are computed using propagator matrix methods, provide the exact seismic reflection amplitude for a stratified reservoir model. This is a distinct improvement over conventional AVO analysis based on a model with only two homogeneous half spaces. I combine the two methods to compute synthetic seismograms for test models of turbidite reservoirs in the Ursa field, Gulf of Mexico, validating the new results against exact calculations using the discrete wavenumber method. The new method, however, can also be used to generate synthetic seismograms for the laterally heterogeneous, complex stratified reservoir models. The results show important frequency dependence that may be useful for exploration. Because turbidite channel systems often display complex

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  5. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  6. Oil plays in Smackover reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Tew, B.H.; Kopaskamerkel, D.C.; Mann, S.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Five Smackover (Upper Jurassic, Oxfordian) oil plays can be delineated in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. These include the basement ridge play, the regional peripheral fault trend play, the Mississippi interior salt basin play, the Mobile graben fault system play, and the Wiggins arch complex play. Plays are recognized by basinal position, relationships to regional structural features, and characteristic petroleum traps. Within two plays, subplays can be distinguished based on oil gravities and reservoir characteristics. Reservoirs are distinguished primarily by depositional setting and diagenetic overprint. The geology and petroleum characteristics of these plays are discussed.

  7. Petroleum geology and resources of Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.; Clarke, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    Afghanistan consists largely of a series of continental fragments that, moving northward, docked and accreted to the southern proto-Asia continent. The tectonization of the accreted terranes is generally severe and prospects are limited essentially to the 48, 000 mi{sup 2} (124,000 km{sup 2}) North Afghanistan basin. This basin represents the Afghan portion of the Turanian platform, plus the orogenic belt around its southern and eastern perimeter. Exploration to date is judged to be preliminary in character, with some 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas and 80 million barrels of oil being discovered by 1980. There are two types of traps: Mesozoic low-amplitude drapes or tilted fault blocks, and Neogene high-amplitude folds. Appreciable reservoirs are limited to three horizons - Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene - of which the lower Cretaceous is considered to be the best. Source rock is confined largely to the Lower and Middle Jurassic shales. Upper Jurassic evaporites form a barrier between the Jurassic source shales and the Lower Cretaceous reservoirs and Neogene folds. There appear to be five principal plays, and estimated total recoverable petroleum in them is 300 million barrels of oil, 9.6 TCF of gas, and 145 million barrels of condensate. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  10. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  11. Mesozoic non-marine petroleum source rocks determined by palynomorphs in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, D.-X.; Wang, Y.-D.; Robbins, E.I.; Wei, J.; Tian, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in Northwest China hosts petroleum reservoirs of Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. The sedimentary thickness in the basin reaches about 15 km and with an area of 560000 km2, the basin is expected to contain giant oil and gas fields. It is therefore important to determine the ages and depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. For prospective evaluation and exploration of petroleum, palynological investigations were carried out on 38 crude oil samples collected from 22 petroleum reservoirs in the Tarim Basin and on additionally 56 potential source rock samples from the same basin. In total, 173 species of spores and pollen referred to 80 genera, and 27 species of algae and fungi referred to 16 genera were identified from the non-marine Mesozoic sources. By correlating the palynormorph assemblages in the crude oil samples with those in the potential source rocks, the Triassic and Jurassic petroleum source rocks were identified. Furthermore, the palynofloras in the petroleum provide evidence for interpretation of the depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. The affinity of the miospores indicates that the petroleum source rocks were formed in swamps in brackish to lacustrine depositional environments under warm and humid climatic conditions. The palynomorphs in the crude oils provide further information about passage and route of petroleum migration, which is significant for interpreting petroleum migration mechanisms. Additionally, the thermal alternation index (TAI) based on miospores indicates that the Triassic and Jurassic deposits in the Tarim Basin are mature petroleum source rocks. ?? Cambridge University Press 2008.

  12. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  15. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. Fractionation process for petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

  18. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  19. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  20. Evidence for Cambrian petroleum source rocks in the Rome trough of West Virginia and Kentucky, Appalachian basin: Chapter G.8 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, David C.; Gerome, Paul; Hainsworth, Timothy J.; Burruss, Robert A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Jarvie, Daniel M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen extract from the Rogersville Shale compares very closely with oils or condensates from Cambrian reservoirs in the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well, Homer gas field, Elliott County, Ky.; the Inland No. 529 White well, Boyd County, Ky.; and the Miller No. 1 well, Wolfe County, Ky. These favorable oil-source rock correlations suggest a new petroleum system in the Appalachian basin that is characterized by a Conasauga Group source rock and Rome Formation and Conasauga Group reservoirs. This petroleum system probably extends along the Rome trough from eastern Kentucky to at least central West Virginia.

  1. Rheological conditions for emplacement of Ural-Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Burov, Evgueni; Augé, Thierry; Gloaguen, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Ural-Alaskan- (or Alaskan-) type complexes correspond to a particular class of ultramafic intrusions that attract particular attention due to their deep mantle origin and their platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. When defined as massifs of dunite-clinopyroxenite, only forty-six complexes are reported in the literature. These large-scale dunite pipe-like structures are rarely isolated and they even can appear in clusters. To better understand genesis of these relatively young (< 460 Ma) complexes, a worldwide compilation has been built, and three categories have been defined: single circular or elliptical bodies, twin bodies with similar shapes, and dismembered dunite bodies. PGE enrichment in Alaskan-type complexes is highest for the second category, where twin bodies are interpreted as horizontal sections of Y-shaped dunite pipes. To constrain mechanical properties of the lithosphere allowing emplacement of the Alaskan-type complexes, the forceful diapiric ascent hypothesis is investigated through numerical thermo-mechanical models. One hundred high resolution experiments accounting for realistic phase changes and softening mechanisms have been performed. The experiments show that with no rheological softening of the host rock and in case of a relatively weak ductile lower crust, the uprising magma tends to spread laterally without reaching the surface. To account for the forceful ascent of deep magmas, it is hence necessary to assume a strong lower crust rheology and strong local softening mechanisms. Besides reproducing the clustered distribution of the weakness zones representing magma pathways, these latter experiments reproduce large-scale pipe-like (cylindrical) structures, Y-shaped and funnel-shaped bodies, and laterally-shifted structures. Interestingly, zones of highest strain rates are located at the bottom parts of the inclined edges of Y-shaped and funnel-shaped bodies. The restricted age range of Alaskan-type complexes (< 460 Ma) would mean

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  4. Geothermal reservoir technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    A status report on Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Reservoir Technology projects under DOE's Hydrothermal Research Subprogram is presented. During FY 1985 significant accomplishments were made in developing and evaluating methods for (1) describing geothermal systems and processes; (2) predicting reservoir changes; (3) mapping faults and fractures; and (4) field data analysis. In addition, LBL assisted DOE in establishing the research needs of the geothermal industry in the area of Reservoir Technology. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  5. The North Sakhalin Neogene total petroleum system of eastern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The North Sakhalin Basin Province of eastern Russia contains one Total Petroleum System (TPS) ? North Sakhalin Neogene ? with more than 6 BBOE known, ultimately recoverable petroleum (61% gas, 36% oil, 3% condensate). Tertiary rocks in the basin were deposited by the prograding paleo-Amur River system. Marine to continental, Middle to Upper Miocene shale to coaly shale source rocks charged marine to continental Middle Miocene to Pliocene sandstone reservoir rocks in Late Miocene to Pliocene time. Fractured, self-sourced, Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene siliceous shales also produce hydrocarbons. Geologic history is that of a Mesozoic Asian passive continental margin that was transformed into an active accretionary Tertiary margin and Cenozoic fold belt by the collision of India with Eurasia and by the subduction of Pacific Ocean crustal plates under the Asian continent. The area is characterized by extensional, compressional and wrench structural features that comprise most known traps.

  6. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.W.

    1994-10-28

    This DOE research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field.

  7. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production from restricted shelf carbonates of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger group is commonly considered to have been a result of a pervasive, relatively homogeneous tectonic fracture system within the reservoir rock. However, regional facies and diagenetic (paleokarst) studies of Ellenburger strata, based on cores and wireline logs, have demonstrated that significant reservoir compartmentalization was caused by karst modification in the upper part of the unit. 19 figures.

  8. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations.

  9. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations. PMID:21858492

  10. New insight on petroleum system modeling of Ghadames basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Deepender; Dubey, Siddharth

    2015-12-01

    Underdown and Redfern (2008) performed a detailed petroleum system modeling of the Ghadames basin along an E-W section. However, hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation changes significantly across the basin due to complex geological history. Therefore, a single section can't be considered representative for the whole basin. This study aims at bridging this gap by performing petroleum system modeling along a N-S section and provides new insights on source rock maturation, generation and migration of the hydrocarbons using 2D basin modeling. This study in conjunction with earlier work provides a 3D context of petroleum system modeling in the Ghadames basin. Hydrocarbon generation from the lower Silurian Tanezzuft formation and the Upper Devonian Aouinet Ouenine started during the late Carboniferous. However, high subsidence rate during middle to late Cretaceous and elevated heat flow in Cenozoic had maximum impact on source rock transformation and hydrocarbon generation whereas large-scale uplift and erosion during Alpine orogeny has significant impact on migration and accumulation. Visible migration observed along faults, which reactivated during Austrian unconformity. Peak hydrocarbon expulsion reached during Oligocene for both the Tanezzuft and the Aouinet Ouenine source rocks. Based on modeling results, capillary entry pressure driven downward expulsion of hydrocarbons from the lower Silurian Tanezzuft formation to the underlying Bir Tlacsin formation observed during middle Cretaceous. Kinetic modeling has helped to model hydrocarbon composition and distribution of generated hydrocarbons from both the source rocks. Application of source to reservoir tracking technology suggest some accumulations at shallow stratigraphic level has received hydrocarbons from both the Tanezzuft and Aouinet Ouenine source rocks, implying charge mixing. Five petroleum systems identified based on source to reservoir correlation technology in Petromod*. This Study builds

  11. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  12. Petroleum system modeling capabilities for use in oil and gas resource assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.; Lewan, Michael; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Petroleum resource assessments are among the most highly visible and frequently cited scientific products of the U.S. Geological Survey. The assessments integrate diverse and extensive information on the geologic, geochemical, and petroleum production histories of provinces and regions of the United States and the World. Petroleum systems modeling incorporates these geoscience data in ways that strengthen the assessment process and results are presented visually and numerically. The purpose of this report is to outline the requirements, advantages, and limitations of one-dimensional (1-D), two-dimensional (2-D), and three-dimensional (3-D) petroleum systems modeling that can be applied to the assessment of oil and gas resources. Primary focus is on the application of the Integrated Exploration Systems (IES) PetroMod? software because of familiarity with that program as well as the emphasis by the USGS Energy Program on standardizing to one modeling application. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is used to demonstrate the use of the PetroMod? software. Petroleum systems modeling quantitatively extends the 'total petroleum systems' (TPS) concept (Magoon and Dow, 1994; Magoon and Schmoker, 2000) that is employed in USGS resource assessments. Modeling allows integration of state-of-the-art analysis techniques, and provides the means to test and refine understanding of oil and gas generation, migration, and accumulation. Results of modeling are presented visually, numerically, and statistically, which enhances interpretation of the processes that affect TPSs through time. Modeling also provides a framework for the input and processing of many kinds of data essential in resource assessment, including (1) petroleum system elements such as reservoir, seal, and source rock intervals; (2) timing of depositional, hiatus, and erosional events and their influences on petroleum systems; (3) incorporation of vertical and lateral distribution and lithologies of

  13. Exploration of the lower permeability reservoir in Sanzhao area of Songliao Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Guiming; Wang Yuxin )

    1996-01-01

    Sanzhao area is an independent petroleum generation-migration-accumulation unit that concentrates in the Sanzhao sag, a large sag in the central depression of Songliao basin. The oil generated from the Lower Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation migrated into Fuyu and Yangdachengzi reservoirs in Members 3 and 4 of the Quantou Formation, with the overpressure of the source bed driving fluids through dense fault pathways. Fuyu and Yangdachengzi reserviors are formed by areally-extensive, fluviodeltaic thin interbedded sandstones. Most of the oil pools in Sanzhao area are in low-permeability lithologies. In order to prospect for these lower permeability reservoirs, first we set evaluation and oil/gas reservoir evaluation. On the basis of the composite study of petroleum geology, the low-permeability feature of Fuyu and Yangdachengzi reservoirs has been further understood. Secondly, we have developed a series of exploration methods and techniques, including high-resolution seismic exploration, oil testing and fracturing, and techniques for protecting oil reservoirs. Due to breakthrough in understanding of petroleum geology and the development of composite exploration techniques, the low-permeability reservoirs of Sanzhao area have liberated abundant reservers. A large, low-permeability oil province with reserves of more than 10x10[sup 8] has been proven.

  14. REPETITIVE DIGITAL NOAA-AVHRR DATA FOR ALASKAN ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, William M.; Pawlowski, Robert J.; Fleming, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Selected digitally enhanced NOAA - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images taken by the NOAA 6, 7, 8 and 9 Polar Orbiting Satellites demonstrate the capability and application of repetitive low-resolution satellite data to Alaska's engineering and science community. Selected cloud-free visible and thermal infrared images are enhanced to depict distinct oceanographic and geologic processes along Alaska's west coast and adjacent seas. Included are the advance of the Bering Sea ice field, transport of Yukon River sediment into Norton Sound, and monitoring of plume trajectories from the Mount Augustine volcanic eruptions. Presented illustrations are representative of the 94 scenes in a cooperative USGS EROS/NOAA Alaskan AVHRR Digital Archive. This paper will discuss the cooperative efforts in establishing the first year data set and identifying Alaskan applications.

  15. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of budding bacteria in the origin of Alaskan placer gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lacelike networks of micrometre-size filiform gold associated wtih Alaskan placer gold particles are interpreted as low-temperature pseudomorphs of a Pedomicrobium-like budding bacterium. Submicron reproductive structures (hyphae) and other morphological features similar to those of Pedomicrobium manganicum occur as detailed three-dimensional facsimiles in high purity gold in and on placer gold particles from Lillian Creek, Alaska. In a scanning electron microscope survey, the majority of gold particles at nine Alaskan placer deposits appear to include gold that has accumulated chemically at low temperatures in and on the cells of P. manganicum. Similar bacterioform gold from a Paleozoic deposit in China and from the Precambrian Witwatersrand deposit in South Africa may indicate that bacterioform gold is widespread. -Author

  16. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Upper Almond and Lewis reservoir geometries, southwestern Wyoming and northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    Upper Almond marine sandstones are major petroleum reservoirs in southwestern Wyoming. These sandstones were deposited as part of a transgressive systems tract which capped fluvial and coastal plain sediments of the upper Ericson and lower Almond formations. Marine sandstone reservoirs were deposited in shoreface and tidal channel environments. Shoreface environments in the Echo Springs-Standard Draw trend are extensive and constitute major gas reserves in Carbon County. Shoreface and tidal channel deposits are major oil and gas reservoirs at Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County. Major gas resources in upper Almond marine sandstones are yet to be exploited in the deeper portions of the Great Divide, Washakie, and Sand Wash basins. Tapping this basin centered gas resource will require careful reservoir modeling and fracture treatments that significantly increase permeability and reservoir flow. Lewis sandstones are also petroleum reservoirs in the Great Divide, Washakie, and Sand Wash basins. The sandstones are part of the final Cretaceous regressive systems tract in southwestern Wyoming and northwestern Colorado. Well developed clinoforms accompany Lewis and Fox Hills progradation and basin fill. Associated with these progradational systems are correlative density flow and turbidite deposits that locally form reservoirs. These reservoirs commonly occur near the toe of prograding clinoforms and are trapped by rapid facies changes to impermeable siltstones and basinal shales.

  18. Total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province, Tunisia, Libya, Italy, and Malta; the Bou Dabbous, Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous composite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province (2048) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Pelagian Province is located mainly in eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya. Small portions of the province extend into Malta and offshore Italy. Although several petroleum systems may exist, only two ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. These total petroleum systems are called the Bou Dabbous?Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite, named after the source-rock intervals and reservoir-rock ages. The main source rocks include mudstone of the Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation; Cretaceous Bahloul, Lower Fahdene, and M?Cherga Formations; and Jurassic Nara Formation. Known reservoirs are in carbonate rocks and sandstone intervals throughout the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sections. Traps for known accumulations include fault blocks, low-amplitude anticlines, high-amplitude anticlines associated with reverse faults, wrench fault structures, and stratigraphic traps. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Bou Dabbous?Tertiary 667 2,746 64 Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite 403 2,280 27

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  20. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

    PubMed

    Hanni, Krista D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Estes, James; Staedler, Michelle; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa; Jessup, David A

    2003-10-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus