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Sample records for alaskan red king

  1. Incorporating deep and shallow components of genetic structure into the management of Alaskan red king crab

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William Stewart; Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Observed patterns of genetic variability among marine populations are shaped not only by contemporary levels of gene flow, but also by divergences during historical isolations. We examined variability at 15 SNP loci and in mtDNA sequences (COI, 665 bp) in red king crab from 17 localities in the North Pacific. These markers define three geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (SNPs, FCT = 0.054; mtDNA ΦCT = 0.222): (i) Okhotsk Sea–Norton Sound–Aleutian Islands, (ii) southeastern Bering Sea–western Gulf of Alaska, and (iii) Southeast Alaska. Populations in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaska are genetically heterogeneous, but populations in the center of the range are homogeneous. Mitochondrial DNA diversity drops from h = 0.91 in the northwestern Pacific to h = 0.24 in the Southeast Alaska. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) indicate postglacial population expansions, presumably from ice-age refugia. BSPs of sequences simulated under a demographic model defined by late Pleistocene temperatures failed to detect demographic variability before the last glacial maximum. These results sound a note of caution for the interpretation of BSPs. Population fragmentation in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaskan waters requires population management on a small geographic scale, and deep evolutionary partitions between the three geographic groups mandate regional conservation measures. PMID:23346227

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of planktonic red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius 1815)) larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Pamela C.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Morado, J. Frank; Eckert, Ginny L.

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) fishery was once one of the most economically important single-species fisheries in the world, but is currently depressed. This fishery would benefit from improved stock assessment capabilities. Larval crab distribution is patchy temporally and spatially, requiring extensive sampling efforts to locate and track larval dispersal. Large-scale plankton surveys are generally cost prohibitive because of the effort required for collection and the time and taxonomic expertise required to sort samples to identify plankton individually via light microscopy. Here, we report the development of primers and a dual-labeled probe for use in a DNA-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the red king crab, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I for the detection of red king crab larvae DNA in plankton samples. The assay allows identification of plankton samples containing crab larvae DNA and provides an estimate of DNA copy number present in a sample without sorting the plankton sample visually. The assay was tested on DNA extracted from whole red king crab larvae and plankton samples seeded with whole larvae, and it detected DNA copies equivalent to 1/10,000th of a larva and 1 crab larva/5mL sieved plankton, respectively. The real-time polymerase chain reaction assay can be used to screen plankton samples for larvae in a fraction of the time required for traditional microscopial methods, which offers advantages for stock assessment methodologies for red king crab as well as a rapid and reliable method to assess abundance of red king crab larvae as needed to improve the understanding of life history and population processes, including larval population dynamics.

  4. The shift between the Red Queen and the Red King effects in mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-02-04

    Interspecific mutualisms consist of partners trading services that yield common benefits to both species. Until now, understanding how the payoffs from mutualistic cooperation are allocated among the participants has been problematic. Two hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this problem. The Red Queen effect argues that faster-evolving species are favoured in co-evolutionary processes because they are able to obtain a larger share of benefits. Conversely, the Red King effect argues that the slower-evolving species gains a larger share of benefits. The model we propose shows that the allocations for a common benefit vary when the effect of a reward mechanism is included in the model. The outcome is a shift from the Red Queen effect to the Red King effect and vice versa. In addition, our model shows that either an asymmetry in payoff or an asymmetry in the number of cooperative partners causes a shift between the Red Queen effect and the Red King effect. Even in situations where the evolutionary rates are equal between the two species, asymmetries in rewards and in participant number lead to an uneven allocation of benefits among the partners.

  5. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  10. Heavy metals and POPs in red king crab from the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Valdersnes, Stig; Duinker, Arne; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sundet, Jan H; Maage, Amund

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the food safety of the red king crab from Norwegian waters and obtain information on possible geographical and gender differences. Samples of claw and leg meat of 185 red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus), collected from 23 positions in the Barents Sea, were analysed for dioxins, furans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated alkyl substances and elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals were low compared to maximum levels laid down in European regulations. Hence, red king crab is a safe food. Significant differences in the concentrations of metals among different areas, and between male and female crabs, were found. Positive correlations were found between carapace length and mercury, methylmercury and cadmium concentrations, and between fat and arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  11. Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, G.; Vogel, A.H.; Fishman, P.A.; Armstrong, D.A.; Jewett, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    The goal of the present study is to provide sufficient information on larval and juvenile red king crab distributions and associated environmental variables to reasonably describe the potential effects of oil and gas development on the crab population and its fishery in Bristol Bay.

  12. Effects of ocean acidification on the embryos and larvae of red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.

    PubMed

    Christopher Long, W; Swiney, Katherine M; Foy, Robert J

    2013-04-15

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, known as ocean acidification, on marine species are not well understood. To test the effects on embryos and larvae of red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, ovigerous crab and their larvae were held in CO2-acidified (pH 7.7) and control (ambient; pH 8.0) seawater during development. Morphometrics, hatch duration, fecundity, survival, mineral content, and condition were measured. Acidified embryos had 4% larger eyes and 5% smaller yolks, while mean hatch duration was 33% longer and female fecundity was unaffected. Acidified embryos also resulted in 4% longer larvae while acidified larvae had lower survival. Calcium content of both larvae and female carapaces after molting increased by 5% and 19%, respectively. Although ocean acidification may increase larval size and calcium content, the implications of this are unclear and decreased survival is likely to harm red king crab populations.

  13. MAIN CAR FERRY TERMINALS AT ALASKAN WAY AND MARION STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN CAR FERRY TERMINALS AT ALASKAN WAY AND MARION STREET. NOTE PIONEER SQUARE PARK ADJACENT TO ONE OF SEATTLE'S EARLY SKYSCRAPERS. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  14. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, Jennifer; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  15. Inter-annual dynamics of the Barents Sea red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) stock indices in relation to environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Alexander G.; Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and biological processes can greatly improve fisheries assessment and management in commercially important species. We analyzed the effects of environmental factors (climatic indices and water temperature) on the stock characteristics (total population number, number of pre-recruits and number of legal males) of the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), an introduced species in the Barents Sea. Stock trends in red king crab appear to be related to decadal climate shifts. Abundances were negatively related to the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in August and positively related to water temperature in late winter-early summer. Total and commercial stock abundance were negatively correlated with the lag-1 Arctic Oscillation index (AO) in August and the lag-2 winter NAO index. The total number of P. camtschaticus was most strongly associated with water temperature in spring and summer and NAO/AO indices in April and May. Lagged NAO indices in February and August (9 or 10 yr) had a positive relationship to the commercial stock of P. camtschaticus. These findings suggest that temperature conditions of current and previous year affect natural mortality of larvae and juvenile red king crabs. Warmer temperature conditions lead to increased biomass of red king crab food items. Negative correlations between climatic indices and the red king crab stocks may be associated with predator pressure on juvenile red king crabs or higher mortality because of predator or parasite pressure and diseases. The associations between stock indices and environmental variables could help better predict recruitment patterns of P. camtschaticus.

  16. Macrobenthic biomass and production in a heterogenic subarctic fjord after invasion by the red king crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Mona M.; Pedersen, Torstein; Ramasco, Virginie; Nilssen, Einar M.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the macrobenthic fauna and their production potential in Porsangerfjord, Northern Norway, in relation to environmental gradients and the recent invasion by the predatory red king crab into the outer fjord. The study area is characterized by a distinct along-fjord temperature gradient, with the influence of warmer Atlantic water in the outer fjord and year-round bottom temperatures around zero in the inner fjord. Benthic organisms can play a crucial role in ecosystem energy flow. Despite this, our knowledge of factors regulating benthic secondary production in high latitude ecosystems is limited. Macrobenthic abundance, biomass (B), production (P) and production-to-biomass ratio (P/B) were estimated from grab samples collected in 2010. Annual P/B ratios were calculated using a multi-parameter artificial neural network (ANN) model by Brey (2012). The mean abundance, biomass, production and P/B were 4611 ind. m- 2 (95% CI = 3994, 5316), 65 g ww m- 2 (95% CI = 51, 82), 174 kJ m- 2 y- 1 (95% CI = 151, 201) and 1.02 y- 1, respectively. Benthic biomass and production in the fjord were dominated by polychaetes. Spatial variability in P/B and production was mainly driven by community structure and differences in environmental habitat conditions. The inner basins of the fjord were characterized by high total production (439 kJ m- 2 y- 1), attributable to high standing stock biomass and community structure, despite cold bottom temperatures. In the middle and outer fjord, smaller taxa with low individual body masses increased the P/B ratios, but they did not compensate for the low biomass, thereby resulting in lower total production in these areas. The low biomass and the sparseness of large taxa in the outer and middle fjord may already be a result of predation by the invasive red king crab resulting in an overall lower macrobenthic production regime.

  17. The impact of the hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic areas on the red king crab fouling communities of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, A. G.; Dvoretsky, V. G.

    2014-03-01

    A comparative analysis of the species composition and indices of associated organisms for the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus has been carried out at two aquatic areas of the Barents Sea that differ based on the intensity of their water exchange with the open sea areas. In Dolgaya Bay, a typical fjord of the Barents Sea with low water circulation, such common fouling organisms as the barnacles Balanus crenatus dominated on the crabs, while, in Dalnezelenetskaya Bay, a semiopen coastal area, the most common mobile symbionts on the red king crab were the amphipods Ischyrocerus commensalis and I. anguipes. In Dolgaya Bay, the hydrodynamic conditions promote the settlement of larval foulers, whose colonization leads to a decrease of the crab infestation with the mobile symbionts and changes in their distribution along the host body if compared to the more open coastal areas of Eastern Murman.

  18. [Phosphatases and phosphodiesterases isolated from the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica) hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Menzorova, N I; Ivleva, A D; Sibirtsev, Iu T; Rasskazov, V A

    2008-01-01

    Five enzymes have been isolated from the hepatopancreas of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschatica by means of ion exchange and gel chromatography: two acid (AcP) and one alkaline (AlkP) phosphmonoesterases, one alkaline phosphodiesterase (AlkPD), and one acid phosphodiesterase (AcPD). The pH optimum values of these enzymes are: AlkPs and AlkPD, 7.5; AcP, 5.5; and AcPD, 5.0. The activity of AlkP and AlkPD demands Mg2+ ions. The molecular weights of the enzymes (kDa) are the following: AlkP, 80: AcPs, 80 and 82; AlkPD, 51; and AcPD, 57. The enzymes are relatively thermostable (ID50 from 47 to 62 degrees C). AlkP is inhibited by NaCl (IC50 at 0.4 M). The AcP, AcPD, and AlkPD activities are tolerant of high ionic strength.

  19. Sexual Reproduction and Seasonality of the Alaskan Red Tree Coral, Primnoa pacifica

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rhian G.; Stone, Robert P.; Johnstone, Julia; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The red tree coral Primnoa pacifica is an important habitat forming octocoral in North Pacific waters. Given the prominence of this species in shelf and upper slope areas of the Gulf of Alaska where fishing disturbance can be high, it may be able to sustain healthy populations through adaptive reproductive processes. This study was designed to test this hypothesis, examining reproductive mode, seasonality and fecundity in both undamaged and simulated damaged colonies over the course of 16 months using a deepwater-emerged population in Tracy Arm Fjord. Females within the population developed asynchronously, though males showed trends of synchronicity, with production of immature spermatocysts heightened in December/January and maturation of gametes in the fall months. Periodicity of individuals varied from a single year reproductive event to some individuals taking more than the 16 months sampled to produce viable gametes. Multiple stages of gametes occurred in polyps of the same colony during most sampling periods. Mean oocyte size ranged from 50 to 200 µm in any season, and maximum oocyte size (802 µm) suggests a lecithotrophic larva. No brooding larvae were found during this study, though unfertilized oocytes were found adhered to the outside of polyps, where they are presumably fertilized. This species demonstrated size-dependent reproduction, with gametes first forming in colonies over 42-cm length, and steady oocyte sizes being achieved after reaching 80-cm in length. The average fecundity was 86 (±12) total oocytes per polyp, and 17 (±12) potential per polyp fecundity. Sub-lethal injury by removing 21–40% of colony tissue had no significant reproductive response in males or females over the course of this study, except for a corresponding loss in overall colony fecundity. The reproductive patterns and long gamete generation times observed in this study indicate that recruitment events are likely to be highly sporadic in this species increasing its

  20. AERIAL VIEW OF ALASKAN WAY VIADUCT, WHICH STARTS AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF ALASKAN WAY VIADUCT, WHICH STARTS AT LEFT OF RAIL YARDS, BECOMES DOUBLE-DECK VIADUCT CLOSE TO COAST GUARD YARD JUST ABOVE RAIL YARDS, AND PROCEEDS ALONG SHORELINE UP INTO MIDDLE OF PICTURE. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  1. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  2. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on juvenile red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) growth, condition, calcification, and survival.

    PubMed

    Long, William Christopher; Swiney, Katherine M; Harris, Caitlin; Page, Heather N; Foy, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a decrease in the pH in marine waters associated with rising atmospheric CO2 levels, is a serious threat to marine ecosystems. In this paper, we determine the effects of long-term exposure to near-future levels of ocean acidification on the growth, condition, calcification, and survival of juvenile red king crabs, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi. Juveniles were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing control (pH 8.0), pH 7.8, and pH 7.5 seawater at ambient temperatures (range 4.4-11.9 °C). In both species, survival decreased with pH, with 100% mortality of red king crabs occurring after 95 days in pH 7.5 water. Though the morphology of neither species was affected by acidification, both species grew slower in acidified water. At the end of the experiment, calcium concentration was measured in each crab and the dry mass and condition index of each crab were determined. Ocean acidification did not affect the calcium content of red king crab but did decrease the condition index, while it had the opposite effect on Tanner crabs, decreasing calcium content but leaving the condition index unchanged. This suggests that red king crab may be able to maintain calcification rates, but at a high energetic cost. The decrease in survival and growth of each species is likely to have a serious negative effect on their populations in the absence of evolutionary adaptation or acclimatization over the coming decades.

  4. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Juvenile Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) Growth, Condition, Calcification, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Long, William Christopher; Swiney, Katherine M.; Harris, Caitlin; Page, Heather N.; Foy, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a decrease in the pH in marine waters associated with rising atmospheric CO2 levels, is a serious threat to marine ecosystems. In this paper, we determine the effects of long-term exposure to near-future levels of ocean acidification on the growth, condition, calcification, and survival of juvenile red king crabs, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi. Juveniles were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing control (pH 8.0), pH 7.8, and pH 7.5 seawater at ambient temperatures (range 4.4–11.9 °C). In both species, survival decreased with pH, with 100% mortality of red king crabs occurring after 95 days in pH 7.5 water. Though the morphology of neither species was affected by acidification, both species grew slower in acidified water. At the end of the experiment, calcium concentration was measured in each crab and the dry mass and condition index of each crab were determined. Ocean acidification did not affect the calcium content of red king crab but did decrease the condition index, while it had the opposite effect on Tanner crabs, decreasing calcium content but leaving the condition index unchanged. This suggests that red king crab may be able to maintain calcification rates, but at a high energetic cost. The decrease in survival and growth of each species is likely to have a serious negative effect on their populations in the absence of evolutionary adaptation or acclimatization over the coming decades. PMID:23593357

  5. Making Kings.

    PubMed

    Ayoup, Colleen; Podmore, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Due to a general lack of representation of female masculinities within the North American media, most urban drag king cultures have evolved in isolation from each other. As a result, drag kings tend to develop locally specific codes of dress, performance styles and forms of masculinity. This chapter describes the case of a group of Montreal drag king performers, The Mambo Drag Kings (MDKs). It is based on interviews that were conducted for Colleen Ayoup's film Kings (2001), a short documentary that explores kinging by examining the development of this specific group of performers. We present excerpts from our discussions regarding the relationships between everyday gender identities, lesbian sexuality, and performing as a king in a society that is fundamentally based on an asymmetrical sex-gender system. While the chapter does highlight these theoretical concerns, the focus is on how the participants of the group interpret and experience kinging and its impact on their own gendered and sexual identities.

  6. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  7. Use of the Beaufort Sea by king eiders breeding on the North Slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.; Taylor, E.J.; Rexstad, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    We estimated areas used by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, how distributions of used areas varied, and characteristics that explained variation in the number of days spent at sea, to provide regulatory agencies with baseline data needed to minimize impacts of potential offshore oil development. We implanted sixty king eiders with satellite transmitters at nesting areas on the North Slope of Alaska, USA, in 2002-2004. More than 80% of marked eiders spent >2 weeks staging offshore prior to beginning a postbreeding molt migration. During postbreeding staging and migration, male king eiders had much broader distributions in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea than female eiders, which were concentrated in Harrison and Smith Bays. Distribution did not vary by sex during spring migration in the year after marking. Shorter residence times of eiders and deeper water at locations used during spring migration suggest the Alaskan Beaufort Sea might not be as critical a staging area for king eiders during prebreeding as it is postbreeding. Residence time in the Beaufort Sea varied by sex, with female king eiders spending more days at sea than males in spring and during postbreeding. We conclude the Alaskan Beaufort Sea is an important staging area for king eiders during postbreeding, and eider distribution should be considered by managers when mitigating for future offshore development. We recommend future studies examine the importance of spring staging areas outside the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  8. Ovicides paralithodis (Nemertea, Carcinonemertidae), a new species of symbiotic egg predator of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) (Decapoda, Anomura).

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi; Kuris, Armand M

    2013-01-01

    Ovicides paralithodis sp. n. is described from the egg mass of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) from the Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan, and Alaska, USA. Among four congeners, Ovicides paralithodis can be distinguished from Ovicides julieae Shields, 2001 and Ovicides davidi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by having no eyes; from Ovicides jonesi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the presence of basophilic, vacuolated glandular lobes in the precerebral region; and from Ovicides jasoni Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the arrangement of the acidophilic submuscular glands, which are not arranged in a row. Ovicides paralithodis represents the third described species of egg-predatory nemertean from Paralithodes camtschaticus, the second described carcinonemertid species from Japan, and the 21st described species in the family. The intensity of infestations may exceed 24,000 worms per a single egg-bearing pleopod of Paralithodes camtschaticus. A preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 28S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes among selected monostiliferous hoplonemertean species supported the monophyly of Carcinonemertidae, suggesting that within the lineage of the family, evolution of the unique vas deferens, Takakura's duct, preceded loss of accessory stylets and accessory-stylet pouches.

  9. King Day

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    1990 before the crowd approached this size again. On Jan. 20, Stevie Wonder announced he would not perform in Arizona in protest of the King holiday...holiday. Jan 20 -- Singer Stevie Wonder says he’ll never perform in Arizona again because of Mecham’s decision to rescind holiday. Jan 21 -- PHOENIX

  10. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  11. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  12. An Alaskan legend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, H.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Jack Lee is a prominent personality, an Alaskan individualist and a skeptic worthy of remembrance if for no other reason than being inextricably associated with the catastrophic Katmai eruption in 1912. Jack remains a provocative reminder of Alaska's pre-1958 drilling and was quite possibly the earliest observer (excepting natives and possibly Russians) of the oil seeps in the area now encompassed by the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge. His observation of the impressive live oil seeps in the Ugashik and Becharof Lakes area, and his subsequent involvement in the early drilling entirely consumed his future interests. He is a firm believer that individualism and suspicion are powerful tools when forced to reconsider alternatives to readily accepted interpretations of modern exploration results. His individualism and sometimes annoying, but thought-provoking skepticism remains useful in any field where clich??s provide safe guards from new concepts.

  13. The King and I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,…

  14. (Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklind, C.A.; Bennett, F.L. . Inst. of Northern Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology.

  15. Forty Four Years a King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

    This curriculum unit contains guidelines for Martin Luther King Jr. Day, January 15th. Items included in the guide are: a list of suggested activities, a short biography of Dr. King, excerpts from some of his speeches including the famous, "I Have A Dream" speech, a play, study questions, "A King's Journey", a game, and a story…

  16. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for…

  17. King cobra bite.

    PubMed

    Karnchanachetanee, C

    1994-12-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) bite is rare. The milestones of management should have specific antivenom, adequate assisting respirator and appropriate antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris infection. Tourniquet may play some role in delaying venom absorption and allow a greater chance of venom detoxification by the human body.

  18. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section... § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a) General. (1) This section contains regulations for providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds...

  19. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  20. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  1. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  2. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  3. Infrasound Studies of Alaskan Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Arnoult, K.; Szuberla, C.; Olson, J. V.; Wilson, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Infrasound has been used to study a number of Alaskan volcanic eruptions over the last 15 years. Arrays include the I53US array of 8 sensors in Fairbanks installed in 2002 under the CTBT umbrella; an array of 4 sensors installed at Okmok Volcano in summer 2010 by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO); and a 6-sensor array installed in Dillingham in September 2010 by the UAF Infrasound Group. Individual sensors have been installed by AVO at Pavlof (1996), Shishaldin (1997), Augustine (2006), Fourpeaked (2006), and Redoubt (2009) volcanoes. These have been especially valuable because they provide precise source timing and signal strength that allow the correct identification of atmospheric paths. Small volcanic explosions have been recorded at local stations only for Pavlof, Shishaldin and Fourpeaked volcanoes. The more interesting large explosive eruptions have been recorded on both local stations and arrays from eruptions at Augustine in 2006 (13 events), Fourpeaked in 2006 (2 events), Cleveland in 2007 (1 event), Okmok in 2008 (1 sustained event), Kasatochi in 2008 (5 events), and Redoubt in 2009 (over 30 events). Pressures up to 6 Pa have been recorded for the largest Redoubt event at a distance of 547 km from the array, and 1.2 Pa for the largest Kasatochi event at a distance of 2104 km. We determined reduced pressures (equivalent pressure at 1 km assuming 1/r decay) and find that Kasatochi exceeds 2500 Pa and Redoubt 1600 Pa. The smaller explosive eruptions at Augustine yield reduced pressures of 40 to 300 Pa. There is reasonable correlation between measured pressures and signal durations and the ash cloud heights and tephra volumes, hence the infrasound data are useful for hazard assessment. However, the long travel times (3 sec per km) suggest that infrasound array data arrive too late for primary detection but are good for estimating other attributes such as size. Infrasound data may also be combined with seismic data to determine the partitioning of energy

  4. Meet EPA researcher Dawn King

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research microbiologist Dawn King works in EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory where she identifies and assesses the health risk of microbial pathogens in water. This is her researchers at work profile.

  5. Celebrating Dr. King. Poetry Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Poetry that relates to the beliefs and actions of Martin Luther King, Jr. can be used to help students appreciate the civil rights leader's contributions, examine their own aspirations, and critically analyze poems. A reproducible poetry page is included. (IAH)

  6. Conversation with M King Hubbert

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The video presents Dr M King Hubbert, scholar and federal authority on fuel and energy, explaining the limits of the fossil fuel supply and the impact of coming energy problems on health care institutions.

  7. Lion King Surveys Homeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon.

    The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

  8. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  9. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    PubMed

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  10. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALASKAN GOLD PROJECT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, John C.; Cathrall, John; Tripp, Richard

    1984-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey has begun a state-wide study of Alaskan gold deposits. The immediate goals are to determine the relationship of gold in placer deposits to possible primary sources, to determine how nuggets form, to contribute to existing knowledge of principles for prospecting for placer deposits, and determine if minerals associated with placer deposits might suggest important deposits of other metals. The project started in 1982 with a study of placer mines in the Brooks Range.

  11. Nutritional Profile of Alaskan Red Salmon Head Parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Alaska fisheries industries bring in large amounts of fish each year and much of the fish mass is lost during processing as byproduct. The goal of our research is to understand the physical and chemical properties of these byproducts in order to better utilize this limited resource. Recent proj...

  12. Congratulations to Carey King

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles A. S.

    2012-03-01

    I first came across Carey King when, out of the blue, he invited me to a special session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest and most prestigious US scientific meeting) where he was developing a special session on energy return on investment (EROI). At that meeting and since, I have found Carey to be a refreshing new colleague, extremely intelligent, very knowledgeable about many diverse aspects of energy and other things, able to take criticism and to dish it out, and very ambitious, which is mostly a good thing. He is becoming a leader in thinking about EROI and its implications, and I am delighted to see him honored by Environmental Research Letters. This is important because in the US, there is little insight about energy or, especially, its potential physical limitations except when gas prices increase. There is also little awareness of the very strong historical connection in both the US and the world between increased affluence and increased use of energy, especially petroleum. It is not understood by all that many of the economic problems we have now (such as the budgetary problems faced by most of our State governments, pension plans and universities) have substantial origin in the fact that oil and other energy production no longer increase reliably year after year, as they once did (Murphy and Hall 2011). Many economists have argued in the past that energy is not important because it constituted only 5 per cent or so of GDP, or because they believe that market forces and innovations will substitute for any shortage (e.g. Barnett and Morse 1963, Passell et al 1972, Solow 1974, Denison 1989). One problem with that view is that if you remove that five per cent the economy comes to a dead stop, as Cuba found out in 1989 when Russia removed its oil subsidy. Additionally if that five per cent goes up to 10 or 15 per cent, as it did in the early 1980s, and again in 2008, recession steps in (Murphy and

  13. Alaskan Native Early School Leavers: A Study with Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumb, Jeanmarie

    In response to a request by the Anchorage Native Caucus and the Anchorage Native Education Coalition, this study by the Anchorage School District Community Relations Department focuses on the Alaskan Native dropout problem. The study indicates that between September 1976 and March 1981, Native Alaskans, who compose approximately 4% of the total…

  14. A Statistical Profile: Women in the Alaskan Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seppanen, Loretta J.

    Women's status as students and employees in Alaska's community colleges is greatly influenced by the unique Alaskan environment, where women make up only 47.6% of the population and where the population is on the whole very young. Women comprised 58% of all enrolled students in Alaskan community colleges in fall 1982 and received 56% of the…

  15. Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives Since 1867.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Thomas Robert

    The study compiles and records the history of the administration of education for Alaskan natives since the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1876. Chapter 1, An Overview of the Development of the Alaskan Native, covers the development of missionary and government schools, the growth and development of Native education from 1906…

  16. The “King's Man”

    PubMed Central

    Markesteyn, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    The modern coroner is the heir of a long and honoured tradition with its roots in Anglo-Saxon England. The primary duty of the ancient “crowner” or “King's man” was to support the interests of the King of England by investigating violent deaths. The modern counterpart of this royal officer has a much broader range of duties in the interests of justice and the state. Not only do today's coroners act as “ombudsmen for the dead”, but they also are becoming increasingly involved in medico-legal investigations of service to the living. PMID:21263903

  17. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, January 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul G.; And Others

    The document presents biographical material, bibliographies, and learning activities relating to Martin Luther King, Jr. The objective is to provide teachers with guidance in commemorating King's birthday. The document is presented in six sections. Section I consists of a copy of the Nebraska state law requiring celebration of King's birthday.…

  18. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  19. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for the Alaskan Arctic from four recent model intercomparison projects - NACP (North American Carbon Program) site and regional syntheses, TRENDY (Trends in net land atmosphere carbon exchanges), and WETCHIMP (Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project) - we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) for each quantity that follows. Mean annual absolute uncertainty was largest for soil carbon (14.0 ± 9.2 kg C m-2), then gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01 ± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), and CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). There were no consistent spatial patterns in the larger Alaskan Arctic and boreal regional carbon stocks and fluxes, with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic and larger boreal region.

  20. "Shiva Natavaja, King of Dancers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhu, Vas

    1987-01-01

    Offers an art lesson designed to introduce junior high school students to a Shiva sculpture and to Hindu symbolism. The lesson is based on a full-color photograph of a 500 year-old bronze sculpture entitled Shiva Nataraja, King of Dancers. (BR)

  1. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  2. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  3. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Oechel, W. C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Melton, J. R.; Koven, C. D.; Ahlström, A.; Arain, A. M.; Baker, I.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Davidson, C.; Dietze, M.; El-Masri, B.; Hayes, D.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M. R.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Tian, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Verbeeck, H.; Viovy, N.; Wania, R.; Zeng, N.; Miller, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ) against the mean (x\\bar) for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x\\bar) was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) (-0.01± 0.19 kg C m-2 yr-1), then net primary production (NPP) (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m-2 yr-1), autotrophic respiration (Ra) (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), gross primary production (GPP) (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration (Re) (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m-2 yr-1), CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m-2 yr-1), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m-2 yr-1), and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m-2). The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity) analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β) and climate (γ), which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  4. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  6. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from speeches by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., are reprinted. Topics discussed include discrimination, the South, education, nonviolent resistance, poverty, economic opportunity, and world peace. (LH)

  7. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as…

  8. 9. KING STREET (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 59 (see 'Kongensgade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. KING STREET (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 59 (see 'Kongensgade 59,' HABS No. VI-118) AND TOLDBODEN OLD CUSTOM HOUSE (SCALEHOUSE) - King Street Area Study, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  9. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR)

    This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters.

    This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

    This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  10. 75 FR 34307 - King Kamehameha Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8534 of June 10, 2010 King Kamehameha Day, 2010 By the President of the... King Kamehameha Day, we celebrate the history and heritage of the Aloha State, which has immeasurably... as we carry our Nation toward a brighter day. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of...

  11. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  12. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170 Section 408.170 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170 Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  2. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 3: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    The third book in a series of natural science handbooks for Alaskan students focuses on Alaskan plantlife. The first chapter, on trees, gives general information about trees and explains how to identify and locate trees in the three main Alaskan tree families: pine, willow, and birch. The second chapter, on plants, describes 14 kinds of edible…

  11. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160 Section 408.160 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160 Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. Eocene paleosols of King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island

  1. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  2. Emergency Response to Gold King Mine Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Description of August 5, 2015 release of contaminated waters from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek and the Animas River, and the resulting emergency response remediation efforts, including monitoring of affected waterways.

  3. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David

    2016-07-12

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  4. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  5. Cross-Cultural Issues in Alaskan Education. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray, Ed.

    A collection of 15 articles on cross-cultural issues in Alaskan education addresses educational policy issues, educational development issues, community/school issues, and teaching/learning issues. The one theme that permeates all of the articles is the value of participation by community members in all levels of the education of their children.…

  6. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  7. Profiles in Change: Names, Notes and Quotes for Alaskan Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brelsford, Ginna

    This publication tells the stories of contemporary Alaskan women who have contributed to the state's economic, social, and political development, and who may serve as role models for younger women in need of inspiration. It also attempts to illustrate the relationship between personal empowerment and societal change. The book contains 12 lengthy…

  8. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Mathematics. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Ned; Ostrom, Robert

    STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th graders on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been using…

  9. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  10. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  11. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  12. Native Alaskan Engagement with Social Constructions of Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherval, Meg

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that defining and measuring "rurality" is problematic. In states such as Alaska on the western Pacific coast of the United States, more than two-thirds of the State is classified as "remote rural". In 2000, despite only 10 per cent of the general Alaskan population living in these regions, for more than 41 per…

  13. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  14. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  17. Policy Statements on Collection Development. A Compendium from Alaskan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Carol, Ed.

    Developed as part of a statewide coordinated collection development effort, this document is a compendium of the narrative statements of collection development policies from 19 Alaskan university, public, school, and special libraries. Only the basic narrative plus any unique appendices are included for each policy, and some of the policies are…

  18. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken

  19. Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

  20. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  1. Kinging in the heartland; or, the power of marginality.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Theorizations of the drag king phenomenon and definitions of "the Drag King" thus far have relied almost exclusively on Judith Halberstam's description of the drag king scenes in New York, London, and San Francisco. In order to expand the scope of the investigation of drag king culture and as an example of the range of drag kings and drag king acts that have developed across the U.S. and across the world, this article focuses on H.I.S. Kings, a group of women, who have been performing in Columbus, Ohio since 1996. By infusing drag with a dose of theory, which is always tempered by their outrageous sense of humor, H.I.S. Kings have developed what arguably is one of the most interesting varieties of kinging, an approach to the genre of the drag show that Halberstam's model cannot account for. Unlike kings in New York, for example, H.I.S. Kings frequently utilize the supposedly gay male form of camp in their performance of multiple masculinities and femininities, and they create innovative ensemble numbers that engage the racial and gender politics of drag. The example of H.I.S. Kings calls into question any theorization of the drag king phenomenon that ignores cultural developments in the heartland by focusing exclusively on cities traditionally considered the centers of queer culture.

  2. NASA KingAir #801 during takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA KingAir N801NA during takeoff. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. Dryden assumed the mission and aircraft in September 1996. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  3. VIEW OF OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR IN 1957-58, LOOKING TOWARD THE REAR DOOR. THE DESK IS A PIECE OF THE ORIGINAL FURNITURE. - Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 454 Dexter Avenue, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  4. VIEW OF THE OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR, LOOKING TOWARDS MAIN DOOR INTO SECRETARY'S OFFICE. - Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 454 Dexter Avenue, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  5. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  6. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  7. The Martin Luther King Library and Archives at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron; Kelley-Palmer, Gloria

    1994-01-01

    Describes the collection of the Martin Luther King Library and Archives and examines recent problems that have developed. Topics discussed include a lack of adequate funding and personnel; the lawsuit concerning papers given to Boston University by Dr. King; and an interview with Coretta Scott King. (LRW)

  8. 75 FR 3839 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King... opportunity to make America a better Nation,'' Dr. King said on the eve of his death. ``I may not get there... we have made great strides since the turbulent era of Dr. King's movement, his work and our...

  9. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and…

  10. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  11. The King under the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In February 2013, the University of Leicester staged what The Guardian described as "The most extraordinary press conference ever held at any UK university." This was part of a media and communications campaign that brought worldwide attention to the discovery of King Richard III by the University's archaeologists. How do you manage a…

  12. Colorectal carcinoma that afflicted King Jehoram.

    PubMed

    Liubov Louba, Ben-Noun

    2004-12-01

    This research uses the tools of modern medical science to examine the ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King Jehoram who was affected by some disease. The Biblical texts were examined, and passages relating to the disease that afflicted King Jehoram, who ruled in Jerusalem 843-851 B.C., were closely studied. We have not included any commentaries, but referred only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. The Passages ''...the Lord smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease in the process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases'' indicate that the King suffered from some kind of disease which affected his bowels. Among the various diseases which may be associated with prolapse of the bowel, colorectal carcinoma is the most acceptable. It seems that the colorectal carcinoma was poorly differentiated, invaded perirectal adipose tissue, blood vessels, and/or lymphatic vessels, and/or perineural areas, was lymph node positive and reached the 4th stage with the spread of metastases to the distal organs. Viewed by a modern physician, the story of King Jehoram unfolds as possibly the earliest description of a patient afflicted by colorectal carcinoma.

  13. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue.

  14. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

  15. King County Division of Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the King County Division of Parks and Recreation (Seattle, Washington) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  16. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  17. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  18. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  19. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  20. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  2. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  3. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  4. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  6. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  7. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  8. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.40 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.40 Section 408.40 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.40 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.220 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.220 Section 408.220 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.220 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan mechanized bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 408.210 - Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.210 Section 408.210 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.210 Applicability; description of the non-Alaskan conventional bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions...

  15. "Red Shoe Diaries": Sexual Fantasy and the Construction of the (Hetero)sexual Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nina K.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Zalman King's 1990 film "Red Shoe Diaries." Argues that the conflicting interests of sexual desire in "Red Shoe Diaries" are indicative of the placement of female heterosexual desire within contemporary culture. Concludes that "Red Shoe Diaries" offers a narrative about the importance and construction of…

  16. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  17. An Authentic Voice in the Technocratic Wilderness: Alaskan Natives and the "Tundra Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick; James, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Examines a pair of critical challenges to the cultural integrity of Alaskan Natives around 1960 as pivotal episodes in the process of native resistance to U. S. dominance. Historically evaluates the fragility of native culture in terms of the political, scientific, and economic interests expressed in the mainstream Alaskan press, particularly the…

  18. Common Ground 1989: Suggested Literature for Alaskan Schools, Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Intended to assist Alaskan school districts in their own selection and promotion of reading and literature, this guide to literature for use in grades K-8 has five purposes: (1) to encourage reading and the use of literature throughout Alaskan schools; (2) to promote the inclusion of Alaska native literature, and minority literature, in addition…

  19. Common Ground 1989: Suggested Literature for Alaskan Schools, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Intended to assist Alaskan school districts in their own selection and promotion of reading and literature, this guide to literature for use in grades 7-12 has five purposes: (1) to encourage reading and the use of literature throughout Alaskan schools; (2) to promote the inclusion of Alaska Native literature, and minority literature, in addition…

  20. Alaskan Native High School Dropouts: A Report Prepared for Project ANNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Desa

    Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…

  1. Alaskan Native Education: An Historical Perspective. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 18-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Charles K.

    Designed to help Alaskan Native communities and organizations, State and Federal officials, citizens of Alaska, and professional educators in dealing with changing educational situations, the report provides a reliable and succinct history of Alaskan education from the time of the area's purchase from Russia in 1867. One of the major problems in…

  2. Sled Dogs, Musher Math, and More: Theme Teaching and the Alaskan Iditarod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park-Seldomridge, Anne

    1995-01-01

    A teacher of upper elementary deaf students describes a multidisciplinary study unit focused on the Alaskan dogsled race, the Iditarod. Activities included studying Alaskan geography and history, following specific racers (mushers) through daily updates faxed from Alaska, writing letters to mushers, calculating math facts related to the race,…

  3. Successful treatment of neurotoxic king cobra envenomation in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gold, B S; Pyle, P

    1998-12-01

    The growing trend toward the collection of exotic snakes by private collectors increases the likelihood that emergency physicians will face the challenge of treating an exotic envenomation. We report a case involving a professional reptile handler who sustained an extremity bite from a king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah ). Rapid, progressive neurotoxicity developed as manifested clinically by bulbar and respiratory paralysis requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical support. After infusion of Thai Red Cross Society monospecific king cobra antivenin, all neurologic sequelae rapidly resolved within 7 hours after the bite. In treating an exotic envenomation, the emergency physician should contact personnel at the regional poison control center or local zoo. Both are prepared to assist the physician by facilitating the timely acquisition of exotic antivenins and by arranging consultation with experts experienced in the management and treatment of exotic envenomations.

  4. Psychological aftermath of the King's Cross fire.

    PubMed

    Rosser, R; Dewar, S; Thompson, J

    1991-01-01

    The King's Cross fire occurred at the end of the evening rush hour, on 18 November 1987. King's Cross station is within the department's health district and we felt a responsibility to respond to the psychological aftermath. The unique features of our intervention were the degree of inter agency coordination, the use of a systematic outreach and screening programme, the collection of psychotherapy outcome measures and the development of an ongoing clinic. The work represents a sustained attempt to assess the nature and prevalence of post-traumatic reactions and the most medically and economically effective form of intervention. In this paper we describe the way our team responded to the high level of psychological distress that we found, we present some preliminary results, outline two therapeutic trials, and refer to the longterm consequences for the work of our department.

  5. Natural history of the King Rail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meanley, Brooke

    1969-01-01

    The King Rail (Rallus elegans Audubon), largest of North American rails, is indeed an elegant bird, as its Latin name implies. Its striking appearance (fig. I), secretive nature, and association with a variety of wetland habitats make it a favorite of bird students and rail hunters. The King Rail is found in most of the eastern half of North America, from the Atlantic coast to the Great Plains and from the Gulf of Mexico to southern Canada. It is most abundant in the fresh and brackish tidal marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, the domestic ricefields of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, and the marshes of southern Florida. It is fairly common in parts of the Midwest Prairie and Great Lakes region.I began my studies of this interesting bird in 1950 in the Arkansas ricefields, and have continued them until 1967, both in the field and in the laboratory.

  6. The Kings Cross fire: psychological reactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S W; Thompson, J; Rosser, R M

    1995-07-01

    The psychological reactions of 50 survivors of the King's Cross fire, which hit London's underground railway system on the 18th day of November 1987, are described. Results are presented for the Impact of Event scale, the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a King's Cross Event Schedule. These are investigated in relation to (a) validity measures, (b) relationships between exposure and personality, and (c) spontaneous de-briefing. Two thirds of the sample had significant levels of psychological distress (meeting the "caseness" criterion on the GHQ). Both personality (neuroticism and L-scale) and degree of trauma exposure were related to subsequent reaction. Spontaneous debriefing was associated with subjective benefit. Transportation disasters present particular problems in relation to research and service delivery.

  7. Drag kings in the new wave: gender performance and participation.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Kim

    2002-01-01

    In an examination of Midwestern drag king performers and communities that have emerged since the study by Volcano and Halberstam of king cultures in London, New York, and San Francisco, this article considers traditional and alternative ways of "doing drag," both performative and participatory, as a means of interrogating the proximity of a "new wave" of king culture to academic theory. Tracing the evolution of drag king performance in the Twin Cities from the 1996 workshop by Diane Torr to the formation of two distinct king troupes in the late 1990s demonstrates a particular trajectory in kinging that reflects a new consciousness and enactment of gender theory through artistic praxis. Participation plays a key role in breaking down the distance between spectator and performer in venues such as the First International Drag King Extravaganza in Columbus, Ohio, and Melinda Hubman's art installation "Performing Masculinities: Take a Chance on Gender" in Minneapolis. By engaging the "audience" in drag, the Extravaganza "Science Fair" successfully referenced drag kings' shared history with early American freak shows in a clever and critical way. Moving beyond the contest framework of early king shows, new drag king troupes like Minneapolis' Dykes Do Drag are "mixing it up" in an attempt to complicate notions of butch/femme gender roles, sexuality, and drag stereotypes.

  8. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance.

  9. A New Reading of Shakespeare's King John.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1995-12-01

    Shakespeare wrote King John c.1594, six years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and ~ 50 years after publication of the Copernican heliocentric hypothesis. It is said to be the most unhistorical of the History Plays, ``anomalous'', ``puzzling'', and ``odd'', and as such it has engendered far more than the customary range of interpretive opinion. I suggest that the play alerts Elizabethans not just to military and political threats, but to a changing cosmic world view, all especially threatening as they arise in Catholic countries. (a) Personification characterizes the play. John personifies the old order, while Arthur and the Dauphin's armies personify the new. I suggest that Shakespeare decenters King John just as Copernicus decentered the world. (b) Hubert menaces Arthur's eyes for a whole scene (4.1), but the need for such cruelty is not explained and is especially odd as Arthur is already under sentence of death (3.3.65-66). This hitherto unexplained anomaly suggests that the old order fears what the new might see. (c) Eleanor's confession is made only to Heaven and to her son the King (1.1.42-43), yet by echoing and word play the Messenger from France later reveals to John that he is privy to it (4.2.119-124). This circumstance has not been questioned heretofore. I suggest that the Messenger is like the wily Hermes (Mercury), chief communicator of the gods and patron of the sciences; by revealing that he moves in the highest circles, he tells John that he speaks with an authority that transcends even that of a king. The message from on high presages more than political change; it warns of a new cosmic and religious world order (d) Most agree that John is a weak king, so Shakespeare must have suspected flaws in the old ways. He would have known that Tycho Brahe's new star of 1572, the comet of 1577, and the 1576 model of his compatriot Thomas Digges, were shattering old ideas. (e) The tensions of the play are not resolved because in 1594 the new order was

  10. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the king pigeon (Columba livia breed king).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  11. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  12. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  13. Installation Restoration Program. Stage 1. King Salmon Airport , King Salmon, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-29

    Salmon Age Distribution 11-6 2-2 Surface Water Flow Data 11-12 2-3 Climatic Data for King Salmon Air Force Station 11-21 3-1 Number of Analyses by...stock of migratory and resident sport and commercial game fish. The Naknek River drainage supports one of the largest sockeye salmon runs in the world...Between 1977 and 1981, the Naknek River system received an average annual return of 1.4 million sockeye salmon . Drain- age from the King Salmon

  14. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  15. Goldie Brangman Remembers the Operation to Save Dr King.

    PubMed

    Koch, Evan; Brangman, Goldie

    2015-12-01

    In September 1958 the Rev Dr Martin Luther King Jr was stabbed and nearly assassinated. Surgeons at Harlem Hospital in New York City removed a 17.8-cm (7-in)-long letter opener from Dr King's chest. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Goldie Brangman remembers this event because she participated in Dr King's anesthetic. This article correlates Brangman's memories with published accounts of the event. It also places the event within the context of the modern civil rights movement that Dr King led.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1-0490 TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in Alaskan Natives 5b. GRANT NUMBER...to pol ychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hy pothesis is that increased exposure to t

  17. Oil production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: the technology and the Alaskan oil context

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.M.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of issues focusing on the oil-field technology being used to develop the Alaskan North Slope's oil resources and the likely configuration of that technology as it might be applied in the future to the coastal plain and the prospects for future North Slope oil production, especially the likelihood that the flow of oil through the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System will suffer a serious decline during the next decade.

  18. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  19. Airborne measurements of gases and particles from an Alaskan wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, J. D.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Ward, Darold E.

    1993-08-01

    Airborne measurements of several gaseous and particulate chemical species were obtained in the emissions from a wildfire that burned in an old black spruce forest in Alaska during the summer of 1990. The relative proportions of most of the measured plume constituents are consistent with ground-based and airborne measurements in the plumes of several other biomass fires, and with laboratory measurements. Possible exceptions include the mean fine-particle emission factor, which was about 3 times larger than predicted from a regression relation based on measurements of the smoke from several prescribed biomass fires, and the mean CH4/CO molar emission ratio which was at the low end of a range of values measured for other biomass fires. Measurements of water-soluble particulate ions in the smoke plume from the Alaskan wildfire indicate that acids formed from the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen were partially neutralized inside cloud droplets by NH3 absorbed from the plume.

  20. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  1. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  2. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  3. Biocorrosive thermophilic microbial communities in Alaskan North Slope oil facilities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Gieg, Lisa M; Parisi, Victoria A; Tanner, Ralph S; Tringe, Susannah Green; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M

    2009-10-15

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptide- and amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely reinjected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and can provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  4. The interaction of mental illness, criminal behavior and culture: native Alaskan mentally ill criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Inui, T S

    1986-06-01

    The rapid changes experienced by non-Western ethnic groups as they become "acculturated" to Western life-styles are frequently associated with disintegration of the traditional cultures and psychosocial dysfunction of the groups' members. How culture changes lead to maladaptation remains a mystery. As a first step in clarifying this relationship, this paper proposes a method for analyzing the interaction of cultural change and psychosocial maladjustment. It uses Native Alaskans as a paradigmatic example of a group that is undergoing rapid changes and describes in detail a maladjusted subgroup of Native Alaskans--mentally ill criminal offenders. It compares 567 Native Alaskan criminal offenders who were referred to mental health professionals (from 1977 thru 1981) to 939 White Alaskan offenders. We find that alcohol abuse, the dominant social problem for Native Alaskans, is not clearly associated with the degree of sociocultural change. Residence in larger communities and higher educational achievement are associated with greater psychosocial maladjustment. The region of residence (i.e., Native Corporation) has a stronger influence on the rate and type of maladjustment than the ethnic group (i.e., Eskimo, Indian, or Aleut) or the "ethnic density" of the community of residence (i.e., the proportion of Native Alaskans in the population). We emphasize the importance of using such quantitative findings to focus the questions that should be addressed by ethnographic research.

  5. Keeping the Dream Alive. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassells, Linda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities for teaching elementary students about Dr. Martin Luther King's life, the civil rights movement, and King's accomplishments. Suggestions include shoebox dioramas, acronym games, oral histories, multicultural awareness activities, pledge cards, community service projects, special commemorative ceremonies, and a book of dreams.…

  6. Martin Luther King's Birthday--A Teacher Resource Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Dr. Martin Luther King's birthday has been made a legal holiday in New Jersey. NJEA believes his work in fighting the injustice of racial discrimination and for the civil rights of all people merits a special day of public recognition. Teachers are encouraged to refer to this guide, developed from a background of information about Dr. King and the…

  7. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  8. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  9. 10. VIEW OF BRUSH ALONG KINGS CANYON ROAD WHICH WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BRUSH ALONG KINGS CANYON ROAD WHICH WILL BE REMOVED FOR 10 FEET ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROADWAY FOR A DISTANCE OF 50 FEET. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.45, FACING NORTH 100 EAST (10ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  10. Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He…

  11. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Dream of Peaceful Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Della

    This biography for younger readers depicts the life of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Nobel Peace Prize winner who dedicated himself to the struggle for equal rights for African Americans while embracing the principle of nonviolent resistance. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and chronicles King's role as national leader…

  12. Trace Elements in Sea Ducks of the Alaskan Arctic Coast: Patterns of Variation Among Species, Sexes, and Ages.

    PubMed

    Miller, Micah W C; Lovvorn, James R; Matz, Angela C; Taylor, Robert J; Latty, Christopher J; Safine, David E

    2016-10-01

    Climate change and increasing industrialization in the Arctic call for the collection of reference data for assessing changes in contaminant levels. For migratory birds, measuring and interpreting changes in trace element burdens on Arctic breeding areas require insights into factors such as sex, body size, or wintering area that may modify patterns independently of local exposure. In the Alaskan Arctic, we determined levels of trace elements in liver and kidney of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) from the Prudhoe Bay oil field and of king eiders (S. spectabilis) and threatened spectacled eiders (S. fischeri) and Steller's eiders (Polystica stelleri) from near the town of Barrow. Small-bodied Steller's eiders and long-tailed ducks from different locations had similarly low levels of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu), perhaps reflecting high mass-specific rates of metabolic depuration during long spring migrations through areas of low exposure. In larger species, Se, Cd, and Cu concentrations were higher in adults than juveniles suggesting that these elements were acquired in nonbreeding marine habitats. Adult male spectacled eiders had exceptionally high Se, Cd, and Cu compared with adult females, possibly because of depuration into eggs and longer female occupancy of nonmarine habitats. Adult female common eiders and juvenile long-tailed ducks at Prudhoe Bay had high and variable levels of Pb, potentially due to local exposure. Explanations for substantial variations in Hg levels were not apparent. Further research into reasons for differing element levels among species and sexes will help clarify the sources, pathways, and risks of exposure.

  13. From the microworld to King Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvivier, Damien; Wautelet, Michel

    2006-09-01

    The microworld inspires and fascinates many people. The behaviour of small animals in that miniature world differs from that of 'large' ones in the macroworld. For some people, the capacities of small animals are nearly miraculous. If we could imitate these small beings, our capabilities would increase many times over. Unfortunately, this is not reality. The behaviour of small animals is not miraculous. It is the aim of this paper to show why this is the case by taking into account so-called scaling laws, which allow us to deal with some science-fiction stories. These same scaling laws are used to study the morphology of the giant fictional animal King Kong.

  14. Cell scientist to watch - Megan King.

    PubMed

    2016-12-15

    Megan king received her BA in biochemistry from Brandeis University and then pursued a PhD degree in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at the University of Pennsylvania working in the group of Mark Lemmon. For her postdoctoral training, Megan chose the laboratory of Günter Blobel at the Rockefeller University in New York. Since starting her own group at the Cell Biology Department at Yale School of Medicine in 2009, Megan was named a Searle Scholar and her work has been recognised with the NIH Director's New Innovator Award in 2011. She is now an Associate professor for Cell Biology and her research focuses on chromatin dynamics, nuclear mechanics and live-cell assay development.

  15. Oil & War: Revisiting M. King Hubbert's predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Oil is, unlike almost any other natural resource on earth, not only finite but also irreversibly consumed. At the same time worldwide data shows that at least at present and for the foreseeable future oil consumption rate is directly proportional to the national standard of living. In 1956 and again in 1962, M. King Hubbert predicted, using a simple model based on the logistic equation, that oil production in the lower 48 United States will follow a bell shaped curve with a production peak around the year 1971 and a production level of ~ 3 billion barrels per year, followed by a rapid decline. While his model approach was ridiculed at the time production data to date reveals a remarkable agreement with this prediction: US oil production did peak in 1971 at a level of 3.2.10 barrels a day and has been declining ever since. M. King Hubbert similarly estimated also the future of oil production worldwide - predicting peak production sometime between 1995-2010 (now!) at a level of 25 to 35 billion barrels per year. Current worldwide production is ~ 27 billion barrels per year. Thus because about half of the oil in earth has already been discovered, the world is destined to face more and bigger conflicts over the control of global supplies. Although many economists and political scientists tend to dismiss the significance of Hubbert's thinking about the finiteness of recoverable oil as well as the consequent implications, it appears that without careful management these conflicts could turn into wars much bigger than in Kuwait in 1991 or in Iraq in 2003. It is therefore imperative for us as earth scientist to try to educate the public and our leaders about the basic geological reality of finite fossil energy resources, and the serious consequences of this fact.

  16. Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide

  17. Health evaluation of western arctic King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Cheryl A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    The western arctic population of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) has declined by >50% in recent years. A health assessment was conducted for adult King Eiders breeding on the north slope of Alaska, USA, to evaluate body condition (n=90, 2002–2006) and baseline biochemical and hematologic values (n=20–30, 2005–2006). Body condition for males and females was excellent. Total protein, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and globulin were significantly higher in females than in males, likely because of differences in reproductive physiology. These baseline health data can be used to promote conservation of King Eiders and other closely related species of concern.

  18. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a... Force, Headquarters 6th Weather Wing (MAC), Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 20331. (40...

  4. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  5. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most concentrated plumes. Ice features are most clearly seen on MSS 7 imagery; fracture patterns and the movement of specific floes can be used to map circulation in the winter when runoff is restricted, if appropriate allowance is made for wind influence. Current patterns interpreted from satellite data are only two-dimensional, but since most biological activity and pollution are concentrated near the surface, the information developed can be of direct utility. Details of Alaska inshore circulation of importance to coastal engineering, navigation, pollution studies, and fisheries development have been clarified with satellite data. ERTS has made possible the analysis of circulation in many parts of the Alaskan coast.

  6. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report for research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.W.; Mitchell, G.A.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1981-10-28

    Research on revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils and related topics was conducted at three mine locations in 1980 and 1981. One of the locations was at an active commercial mine, another at an abandoned mine, and the third at a test pit in a coal field that appears on the verge of development. The research included a number of plantings to test the adaptability of plant materials at various sites, time-of-planting and planting method trials, tests to determine fertilizer needs and plant responses to specific elements, numerous soil samplings to characterize minesoil materials and relate soil conditions to apparent performance of reclamation plantings that have been conducted at one mine over a period of nine years, base studies assessing faunal populations and their representation on replanted mine spoils, and studies of nutrient quality of native vegetation and reclamation plantings. This report will be presented in three sections. The first section will deal with the fertility and minesoil characterization studies, the second with the plant material studies, and the third with the faunal and plant quality studies.

  7. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  8. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  9. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  10. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  11. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2003-11-13

    About 70% of North American large mammal species were lost at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. The causes of this extinction--the role of humans versus that of climate--have been the focus of much controversy. Horses have figured centrally in that debate, because equid species dominated North American late Pleistocene faunas in terms of abundance, geographical distribution, and species variety, yet none survived into the Holocene epoch. The timing of these equid regional extinctions and accompanying evolutionary changes are poorly known. In an attempt to document better the decline and demise of two Alaskan Pleistocene equids, I selected a large number of fossils from the latest Pleistocene for radiocarbon dating. Here I show that horses underwent a rapid decline in body size before extinction, and I propose that the size decline and subsequent regional extinction at 12,500 radiocarbon years before present are best attributed to a coincident climatic/vegetational shift. The present data do not support human overkill and several other proposed extinction causes, and also show that large mammal species responded somewhat individualistically to climate changes at the end of the Pleistocene.

  12. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models (DEMs), we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Our ice elevation changes reveal that glacier dynamics (surges, phase of the tidewater cycle, etc...) have a profound effect on the wastage of Alaska glaciers. 3D satellite view of Columbia glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. (Copyright CNES 2007, Distribution Spot Image, processing E. Berthier CNRS)

  13. Stable lead isotope ratios in Alaskan arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturges, W. T.; Hopper, J. F.; Barrie, L. A.; Schnell, R. C.

    Aerosol samples collected at Barrow, Alaska, during February and March 1990 were found to have uniform stable lead isotope compositions. The mean 208Pb/ 207Pb ratio was 2.423±0.009 and the mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio was 1.161±0.014. The latter ratio is essentially the same as that obtained from an earlier study of aerosols at two Canadian stations in the High Arctic and is typical of, but not unique to, Eurasian sources of atmospheric lead. Further discriminating power was available in this study through the inclusion of 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios, which provided additional evidence that the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe are major contributors to atmospheric particulate lead in the Alaskan Arctic, accounting for around two-thirds of the particulate lead measured at Barrow. The remaining third of the lead is attributed to west European sources. There was no evidence for a substantial North American component, other than local contamination.

  14. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians , 1902, p. 260) OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST(SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Old U.S. Mint, Chestnut & Juniper Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Mental disorder that afflicted King David the Great.

    PubMed

    Ben-Noun, Liubov

    2004-12-01

    This research uses the tools of modern medical science to study ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King David. Biblical texts were examined, with a close study of verses relating to the mental disorder that afflicted King David, the second and greatest King of Israel, who ruled more than 3525 years ago. We include no commentaries, but refer only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. Evaluation of the passages referring to King David indicated that he was afflicted by some mental disorder, and among the many possibilities major depression, dysthymia and minor depression are the most likely. Of these diagnoses, major depression seems the most acceptable. This report suggests that the roots of contemporary psychiatry can be traced back to Biblical times.

  16. 78 FR 5247 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... equality. They braved billy clubs and bomb threats, dogs and fire hoses. For their courage and sacrifice... the full equality and opportunity guaranteed by our founding documents. Today, Dr. King's...

  17. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  18. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  19. EPA Releases Internal Report on Gold King Mine Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the findings of an internal review of the agency's response to the Gold King Mine incident. Led by five EPA personnel from multiple EPA regions and Headquarters, the reviewer

  20. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters - The role of the Alaskan Gyre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Scoy, Kim A.; Olson, Donald B.; Fine, Rana A.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrographic data, tritium data, and potential vorticity calculations suggest that although North Pacific Intermediate Water is formed in the northwest, the Alaskan Gyre might be an additional ventilation site. The proposed ventilation is quantified by a vertical column tritium inventory, which indicates an excess of 0.08 kg of tritium in the Alaskan Gyre. An evaluation of the energy stored in the water column and of wind and buoyancy forcing shows that during winter conditions enough energy can be pumped into the system to force 26.80 sigma(theta) to outcrop in the Alaskan Gyre. Model results suggest that relatively limited outcrops in time and space (tens of days and several hundred kilometers in diameter) can account for the excess tritium.

  1. Natural cholinesterase inhibitors from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Siti Mariam; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Liew, Sook Yee; Litaudon, Marc; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-08-01

    A new acylphenol, malabaricone E (1) together with the known malabaricones A-C (2-4), maingayones A and B (5 and 6) and maingayic acid B (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 3 (1.84±0.19 and 1.76±0.21μM, respectively) and 4 (1.94±0.27 and 2.80±0.49μM, respectively) were identified as dual inhibitors, with almost equal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibiting potentials. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 3 and 4 indicated that they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Based on the molecular docking studies, compounds 3 and 4 interacted with the peripheral anionic site (PAS), the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole of the AChE. As for the BChE, while compound 3 interacted with the PAS, the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole, compound 4 only interacted with the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole.

  2. Paleoecological implications of Alaskan terrestrial vertebrate fauna in latest Cretaceous time at high paleolatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, William A.; Gayle Nelms, L.

    1993-06-01

    The latest Cretaceous cool temperate environment of the Alaskan North Slope included dinosaurs (some species represented by both juveniles and adults) and mammals, all probably endothermic, and freshwater fish among its terrestrial vertebrate fauna. No traces have been found of amphibians or nondinosaurian reptiles, ectothermic vertebrates that are abundantly represented in approximately contemporaneous faunas of North American middle paleolatitudes. A geologically brief period of intense cold and darkness has been hypothesized as the primary cause of terminal Cretaceous extinctions. However, the extinction of the lineages of Alaskan dinosaurs and mammals, in contrast to the survival of most lineages of amphibians and nondinosaurian reptiles into the Tertiary, contradicts this hypothesis.

  3. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

  4. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  5. Rock-forming metals and Pb in modern Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, Todd K.

    1993-01-01

    Metal concentrations in annual and subannual increments of snowpack from the accumulation zone of a south central Alaska glacier indicate that the deposition of Pb with and upon snow is decoupled from that of rock dusts. Rock dusts accumulate, apparently as dry deposition, on the topmost, exposed surfaces of snowpacks in spring and summer, whereas Pb does not. Pb concentration is elevated throughout the latest one third of an annual snowpack, whereas that of rock dusts is not. For whole-year snowpacks, there is a generally sympathetic relationship among concentration of Pb, concentration of rock dust, degree of dominance of rock dusts over ocean solutes, and ferromagnesian character of the rock dusts; however, the fractional abundance of Pb in whole year samples may decrease when rock dust masses become large and/or when rock dusts dominate most strongly over salts. The metal suite chosen to characterize rock dusts and to distinguish them from ocean solutes gives detailed information about rock type of dust source areas and about the nature of the degraded rock products that are taken up, transported, and deposited by the atmosphere. Rock dusts are present at concentrations of only about 300 nanograms (ng) of dust per gram of snow in the Alaskan snowpacks. Concentrations of Pb in the Alaska snow samples are moderate, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng Pb/g snow. This contrasts with larger Pb concentrations of 0.4 to 0.9 ng Pb/g snow in whole-year snowpack samples from the Sierra Nevada, California; with similar to smaller concentrations from north and south Greenland of about 0.04 ng Pb/g snow or less, and about 0.2 ng Pb/g snow or less, respectively, and with much smaller concentrations from Antarctica, now believed to range from a minimum of about 0.001 to a maximum of 0.005 (or 0.01) ng Pb/g snow.

  6. Contaminants in arctic snow collected over northwest Alaskan sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Leiker, T.J.; Hoffman, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfall from the 1995-1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cations and anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds were determined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, and PCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70-80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow was highly enriched in sulfates (69- 394 mg L-1), with high proportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination through long-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum, frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of total mercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavy metals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported over land areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and the high content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

  7. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  8. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  9. Aerial monitoring of marine waterfowl in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephen R; Noel, Lynn E; Gazey, William J; Hawkes, Virgil C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a monitoring protocol for marine waterfowl in the central Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The study provides an important case-study of how a long-term monitoring program may be affected by unanticipated human disturbances. Because of its overwhelming and widespread abundance, relatively sedentary behavior, ease in counting, and the extensive historical database, the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) was selected as the focal species. Two null hypotheses were formulated concerning potential changes in the numbers and distribution of long-tailed ducks in relation to disturbance in an industrial study area, compared to a reference study area located about 50 km to the east. A 9-year historical database (1977-1984, 1989) of long-tailed duck densities and other important data recorded during systematic aerial surveys was analyzed retrospectively using multiple regression techniques. The retrospective analyses determined which of several predictor variables recorded were significantly related to long-tailed duck density. Separate analyses were conducted for two periods: (1) the overall period when long-tailed ducks were present in the lagoon study areas, and (2) the shorter adult male molt period. The results of the two analyses indicated that 57% and 68%, respectively, of the total variation in long-tailed duck density during the two periods could be explained by variables recorded during the surveys. Predictor variables representing habitat, day of the year, time of day, amount of ice, and wave height recorded on-transect during surveys were most closely associated with long-tailed duck density. Measurement error during the surveys, and influences outside the study area such as nesting success in tundra habitats and mortality during migration and in over-wintering areas likely also had strong influences on the results, but these factors were not measurable in our study. Based on results of the retrospective analyses, a long

  10. Water resources of King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  11. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  12. Tagliamento, the king of Alpine rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbriani, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    The Tagliamento river is usually described as the king of the Alpine rivers because it is an extraordinary example of braided gravel-bed river in Europe. It flows in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-eastern Italy. It has preserved its original ecosystem which has never been changed significantly by irresponsible human interference. Therefore, vegetated islands and braid bars, due to the typical network of channels the river creates, have always been an uncontaminated natural habitat for a wide variety of species of flora and fauna. The Pinzano Bridge, near San Daniele del Friuli, collapsed on 4th November 1966 because of an overflow of water from Tagliamento. From that time, lowlands territorial authorities would like to build retention basins to prevent the river from floodings. A study about the bio-geological survey carried out from a Manzini High School project, chiefly aims to study this ecosystem, which combines the dynamic nature of the Tagliamento with the biodiversity of the whole area where it flows. In the previous years, some classes were involved in this school project. After visiting the river area and taking several photographs of it, the students had the opportunity to reflect upon the devastating environmental impact which the construction of retention basins would cause. They illustrated and analyzed both the solutions offered by some local governors and the objections raised by the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). In the near future, other students will continue studying the Tagliamento river so as to be able to appreciate one of the local rarities nature offers, in the hope that the unique geomorphological features of this site of undoubted scientific interest could be kept intact for a very long time.

  13. CYCLING OF DISSOLVED ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN ARCTIC ALASKAN LAKES. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous production and water-air exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) are important features of the environmental cycling of Hg. We investigated Hg0 cycling in ten Arctic Alaskan lakes that spanned a wide range in physicochemical characteristics. Dissolved...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1228 - Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regional or village corporations. 416.1228 Section 416.1228 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations. (a) In determining the resources of... in a regional or village corporation during the period of 20 years in which such stock is...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1228 - Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regional or village corporations. 416.1228 Section 416.1228 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations. (a) In determining the resources of... in a regional or village corporation during the period of 20 years in which such stock is...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1228 - Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regional or village corporations. 416.1228 Section 416.1228 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations. (a) In determining the resources of... in a regional or village corporation during the period of 20 years in which such stock is...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1228 - Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regional or village corporations. 416.1228 Section 416.1228 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations. (a) In determining the resources of... in a regional or village corporation during the period of 20 years in which such stock is...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1228 - Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regional or village corporations. 416.1228 Section 416.1228 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Exclusion of Alaskan natives' stock in regional or village corporations. (a) In determining the resources of... in a regional or village corporation during the period of 20 years in which such stock is...

  19. Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D.

    The monograph on the North Alaskan dialect of Inupiaq, an Eskimo language, makes a phonological comparison of the two sub-dialects, Barrow and Kobuk. An introductory section outlines basic word structure and standard orthography, and gives an overview of the dialects' phonology. Subsequent sections give an extensive phonological analysis of these…

  20. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  1. Shaping the Landscape: A Journal of Writing by Alaskan Teachers 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenbaugh, Betsy, Ed.

    Intended to encourage Alaska teachers to write, to provide an honest sounding board for those submitting work, and to be a pleasure to read, this booklet presents a collection of 20 pieces of writing (short stories, poems, and life experiences) by Alaskan teachers. The pieces and their authors are as follows: "The First Haiku" (Dan…

  2. Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2004-06-17

    Island colonization and subsequent dwarfing of Pleistocene proboscideans is one of the more dramatic evolutionary and ecological occurrences, especially in situations where island populations survived end-Pleistocene extinctions whereas those on the nearby mainland did not. For example, Holocene mammoths have been dated from Wrangel Island in northern Russia. In most of these cases, few details are available about the dynamics of how island colonization and extinction occurred. As part of a large radiocarbon dating project of Alaskan mammoth fossils, I addressed this question by including mammoth specimens from Bering Sea islands known to have formed during the end-Pleistocene sea transgression. One date of 7,908 +/- 100 yr bp (radiocarbon years before present) established the presence of Holocene mammoths on St Paul Island, a first Holocene island record for the Americas. Four lines of evidence--265 accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates from Alaskan mainland mammoths, 13 new dates from Alaskan island mammoths, recent reconstructions of bathymetric plots and sea transgression rates from the Bering Sea--made it possible to reconstruct how mammoths became stranded in the Pribilofs and why this apparently did not happen on other Alaskan Bering Sea islands.

  3. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Alaska Is Our Home--Book 2: A Natural Science Handbook for Alaskan Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, John; Bury, Susan

    A natural science resource booklet for teachers and students contains detailed materials for teaching and learning about Alaskan wildlife. Each of nine chapters provides background subject information, suggested learning activities, tear-out pages of review questions for students to answer, and supplementary notes for teachers which include…

  5. Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools. 6th Edition. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    The Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools (Cost Model) is a tool for use by school districts and their consultants in estimating school construction costs in the planning phase of a project. This document sets out the sixth edition of the demand-cost model, a rewrite of the whole system. The model can be used to establish a complete budget…

  6. Intensive Evaluation of Satellite TV Impact on Four Alaskan Villages. Supplement to Basic ESCD Evaluation Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A supplement to the final report, "Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD)," this document is both: (1) a separable, sociologically oriented evaluation of the ESCD impact on Alaskan native villages; and (2) a direct extension of the work described in sections 4 and 5 in the…

  7. EXAMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY FOR DEMONSTRATION AND USE OF RADIOLUMINESCENT LIGHTS FOR ALASKAN REMOTE RUNWAY LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.; Perrigo, L.; Leonard, L.; Hegdal, L

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of radioluminescent light applications for rural Alaskan airports. The work presented in this report covers four tasks: State of the Art Evaluation of Radioluminescent Lights, Environmental, Radiological, and Regulatory Evaluations, Engineering Evaluations, and Demonstration Plan Development.

  8. Elderly Alaskan Natives in Anchorage: A Needs-Assessment for Social Services Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Charles; And Others

    Eighty-five elderly Alaskan Natives living in Anchorage were interviewed to determine if their needs were being met by programs designed for the elderly on a national level. Agencies serving the elderly were also questioned. Age, sex, and ethnic background of the respondents were compared with the variables of degree of education, marital status,…

  9. Using Technology To Educate Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children in Rural Alaskan General Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 79 teachers of Alaskan students with deafness found those who use instructional technology tended to be older, hold an advanced degree and secondary education certification, benefit from in-service training onsite, are connected to the Internet, and actively use the technology available at their schools. (Contains references.)…

  10. Petroleum systems of the Alaskan North Slope: a numerical journey from source to trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Lillis, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The complex petroleum province of the Alaskan North Slope contains six petroleum systems (Magoon and others, this session). Source rocks for four of these systems include the Hue-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ), pebble shale unit, Kingak Shale, and Shublik Formation. Geochemical data for these source rocks are investigated in greater detail and provide the basis for numerical petroleum migration models.

  11. It Happens When We Get There. Conversations With Teachers in Alaskan Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, C. David

    Developed through in-depth interviews with experienced "bush" teachers from interior Alaska, this booklet is the product of a five-day workshop in the design of vocational education curriculum materials for rural Alaskan secondary schools. The statements in this booklet represent the edited responses of experienced teachers to the…

  12. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  13. Organic Carbon Sources in Coastal Southeast Alaskan Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Lange, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is abundant in southeast Alaskan watersheds and plays an important role in the biological and physical processes in these aquatic systems. Nearly 30% of the land area in southeast Alaska is classified as wetlands, a large proportion of which are peatlands. Peatlands are thought to provide substantial DOM to surface waters. Another important source of carbon to streams is spawning anadromous salmon. This study examines how streamwater concentrations of DOC are influenced by 1) catchments soils and vegetation, particularly wetland extent and 2) the presence or absence of anadromous fish. Our goal is to characterize the quantity and quality of different DOM sources and to develop an understanding of how these sources influence seasonal trends in streamwater DOM in coastal freshwater systems in southeast Alaska. Surface water and well samples were collected on two contrasting streams near Juneau, Alaska: Peterson Creek, a brownwater, high-carbon stream in a wetland-dominated catchment and McGinnis Creek, a clearwater stream draining upland spruce forest and alpine tundra. Both streams have runs of pink, coho, and chum salmon from July-September. Streamwater DOC concentrations on Peterson Creek averaged 5-6 mg C L-1 during the early summer and increased to 8-12 mg C L-1 during late July and August. Streamwater DOC concentrations on McGinnis Creek were typically less than 1 mg C L-1 during the early summer but increased dramatically to 4-9 mg C L-1 during spates in August. Well samples collected upslope from the streamwater sampling sites on Peterson and McGinnis Creeks had a similar range in DOC concentrations (10-40 mg C L-1), however the wells on McGinnis Creek showed much higher seasonal variability. Our initial results suggest that the seasonal increase in DOC in both streams is primarily associated with the flushing of soluble organic carbon from catchment soils by late summer rains. However, leaching of DOC from salmon carcasses may

  14. Seasonal Variations of Biomass Burning Tracers in Alaskan Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, M. M.; Kawamura, K.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During the burning, several organic and inorganic gases and particles are emitted into the atmosphere. Here, we present seasonal variations of specific BB tracers such as levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, which are produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. We collected TSP aerosol samples (n= 32) from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. The result of levoglucosan showed clear seasonal trends with winter maximum (ave.145 ng m-3) and spring minimum (12.3 ng m-3). The analyses of air mass back trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that anhydrosugars may be associated from residential heating and cooking in local region and Siberia in winter time. Levoglucosan showed significant positive correlation with EC (r= 0.67, p= 0.001) and OC (r= 0.51, p= 0.002) but there was no correlation with nss-K+ (r= -0.16, p= 0.37). The emission of K+ from biomass burning depends on burning condition and types of material burned. There are two possible reasons, which can be explained for the lack of correlation between levoglucosan and K+. First, specific burning materials may be used for residential heating, which can't produce K+. Secondly, K+ could be deposit on the surface of chimney breast and it can't emit into the atmosphere. Anhydrosugars contributed 4.4% to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 2.4% to organic carbon (OC). Their highest values of WSOC (8.1%) and OC (4.9%) in wintertime indicate that contribution of BB to Alaskan aerosols is important in winter period. The current study presents for the first time one-year observation on BB tracers in the subarctic region, which provide useful information to better understand the effect of biomass burning on subarctic atmosphere. It will also be helpful for further long-term climate studies in this region.

  15. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  16. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  17. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status.

  18. Eosinophilic diseases in two Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Holden, D J; Hall, E J; Day, M J

    2002-12-01

    This report describes the clinical presentation of two Cavalier King Charles spaniels with different eosinophilic diseases. The first case presented with dyspnoea and a non-productive cough, and investigations demonstrated eosinophilic bronchopneumonopathy. The second dog was referred for the investigation of haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea and was eventually diagnosed with eosinophilic enteritis. Both dogs had concurrent eosinophilic stomatitis, and both responded completely to immunosuppressive glucocorticoid therapy. This report is the first to describe the concurrence of eosinophilic stomatitis and systemic eosinophilic disease in Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and suggest that this breed may be predisposed to eosinophilic syndromes.

  19. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon-king

  20. 76 FR 38452 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “King Amenemhet II”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``King Amenemhet II'' SUMMARY: Notice..., I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``King Amenemhet II,''...

  1. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    distibution is = im ited. _ Environmental Impact Analysis Process Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon...Backscatter Radar Program August 1986 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS DIVISION YU-~v930:2FROMI HO LIS~iFCER...Fish and Wildlife Service. (b) Proposed Action: Construction and operation of the Alaskan Radar System , an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B

  3. Distribution, Abundance, Behavior, and Bioacoustics of Endangered Whales in the Alaskan Beaufort and Eastern Chukchi Seas, 1979-86.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    hauled out on the ice (Appendix A, N780: Flight 43). Three walruses , all swimming, were seen in the western Alaskan Beaufort Sea in mid- September...develop relatively nearshore in the Chukchi Sea , but offshore and well north of oil exploration activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea (Braham et al., 1984...band of open water between the shorefast and heavy ice (>9596) west of Barrow in the northeastern Chukchi Sea . Ice

  4. 78 FR 38313 - Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On June 3, 2013, the Kings River... study the feasibility of the Gould Weir Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the Kings River,...

  5. Let Freedom Ring: The Life & Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, and read a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. After studying Dr. King's use of imagery and allusion, students create original poetic phrases about freedom and…

  6. The Inaccuracies in the Reprintings of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmajian, Haig

    1982-01-01

    Identifies the additions, deletions, and changes in the reprinted versions of King's classic speech. (Serves both as a warning that published speeches cannot be depended upon to preserve the original text and as a source of reference for teachers using Dr. King.s speech in classroom study.) (PD)

  7. Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. fundamentally altered the tradition of protest and reform. Compares and contrasts the role of each man in U.S. social and constitutional history. Concludes that while Thoreau lacked the broad influence of King, his writings influenced both King and Mohandas Gandhi. (CFR)

  8. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Atlantic) § 622.371 Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted. Existing...

  9. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Atlantic) § 622.371 Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted. Existing...

  10. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  11. Population dynamics of king eiders breeding in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    The North American population of king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) has declined by more than 50% since the late 1970s for unknown reasons. King eiders spend most of their lives in remote areas, forcing managers to make regulatory and conservation decisions based on very little information. We incorporated available published estimates of vital rates with new estimates to build a female, stage-based matrix population model for king eiders and examine the processes underlying population dynamics of king eiders breeding at 2 sites, Teshekpuk and Kuparuk, on the coastal plain of northern Alaska and wintering around the Bering Sea (2001–2010). We predicted a decreasing population (λ = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.978–0.985), and that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult female survival (sensitivity = 0.92). Low duckling survival may be a bottleneck to productivity (variation in ducking survival accounted for 66% of retrospective variation in λ). Adult survival was high (0.94) and invariant (σ = 0.0002, 95% CI: 0.0000–0.0007); however, catastrophic events could have a major impact and we need to consider how to mitigate and manage threats to adult survival. A hypothetical oil spill affecting breeding females in a primary spring staging area resulted in a severe population decline; although, transient population dynamics were relatively stable. However, if no catastrophic events occur, the more variable reproductive parameters (duckling and nest survival) may be more responsive to management actions.

  12. 40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) of the third truss from the east end. Note the numerals for assembling the truss members and the plaster marks from the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Gold King Mine Release New Mexico Response Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (August 8, 2015) EPA Region 6 deployed a federal on-scene coordinator from its emergency response team and scientific technicians under contract to EPA to assist the state in preparations for the potential impacts from the Gold King Mine re

  14. A Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Curriculum: Playing the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Sydney Gurewitz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses curriculum for young children centered around the beliefs and teachings of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His works are interpreted in a human rights context in which children find their voice in the peaceable resolution of everyday conflicts. Describes the Child of the Day program. (Author/RWB)

  15. Dr. Martin Luther King: A Unit for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Kelli

    1986-01-01

    Presents a unit consisting of 4 lessons which focus on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s childhood, his adult life and family, his civil rights work, and the national holiday which commemorates his birthday. Each lesson features specific objectives, learning activities, and instructional guidelines for the teacher. (TRS)

  16. Lest We Forget: Tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Rudy

    1983-01-01

    The civil rights accomplishments and precepts of Dr. King are reviewed and parallels are drawn to the present problems of public education. It is argued that a belief such as his, in people of good will, must be reawakened to force the schools to be passionate and compassionate institutions. (Author/CM)

  17. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  18. 76 FR 3819 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... seeds of hope for a day when all people might claim ``the riches of freedom and the security of justice... all backgrounds in a noble quest for freedom and basic civil rights. Inspired by Dr. King's legacy... true equal opportunity and equal rights. We must face the challenges of today with the same...

  19. EPA Statement on Colorado data from Gold King Mine Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DURANGO, CO - To assess the impacts of the release at the Gold King Mine near Silverton, Colorado, water quality samples were collected at numerous intervals beginning on Aug. 5, 2015. Samples were taken prior to the plume's arrival to establish a b

  20. Skull Size and Intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Barrow, Geoffrey W. S.; Reid, Louise M.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of someone's IQ is a potentially informative personal datum. This study examines the association between external skull measurements and IQ scores, and uses the resulting regression equation to provide an estimate of the IQ of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert Bruce, 1274-1329). Participants were 48 relatively healthy Caucasian men…

  1. Avermectin induced inflammation damage in king pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jie; Sun, Bao-Hong; Qu, Jian Ping; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of Avermectin (AVM) on inflammation damage in king pigeon brain, eighty two-month-old American king pigeons were randomly divided into four groups, and were fed with either commercial diet or AVM-supplemented diet containing 20 mg kg(-1)diet, 40 mg kg(-1)diet, and 60 mg kg(-1)diet AVM for 30, 60 and 90 d, respectively. Then, the expression level of inflammatory factors (iNOS, PTGEs, NF-κB), histological damage, and ultra-structural damage were examined. It showed that AVM caused higher expressions (P<0.05) of iNOS, PTGEs, NF-κB with disorganized histological and ultra-structural structures in cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. Meanwhile, inflammatory and histopathological damage were induced by AVM in king pigeon brains. In addition, the main targeted organelle in nervous system was mitochondria, which indicated that mitochondria may be relevant to the process of inflammation induced by AVM. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to study the toxic effect of AVM on inflammatory damage in king pigeon. Thus, the information presented in this study is believed to be helpful in supplementing data for further AVM toxicity study.

  2. Search for variables in the open cluster King 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Netopil, M.; Rode-Paunzen, M.; Bozic, H.

    2015-06-01

    We present the time series analysis of CCD photometry from the 1 m telescope at the Hvar Observatory (Croatia) for 54 stars in the area of the young open clusters King 12. We found no new variable but list upper detection limits.

  3. Predoctoral dental implant education at King Abdulaziz University

    PubMed Central

    Aljohani, Hind Ahmed; AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Objective In June 2008, a survey of freshly graduated dental students of King Abdulaziz University Jeddah was conducted to evaluate the extent of their exposure to oral implantology and their knowledge of some basic principles of dental implant treatment. Materials and methods Multiple-choice questionnaires were given to the fresh graduate dental students of King Abdulaziz University Jeddah to answer. Sixty-six students responded out of 86, yielding a response rate of 76.7%. Results Majority of the students (78.8%) thought that they did not have enough lectures about dental implants and all of them thought that they did not have enough training in dental implant. Most of the students were not familiar with different dental implant systems (61.1%), designs (60.6%) or sizes (74.2%). Majority of the students were lacking the knowledge about basic principles of dental implant treatment. At King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, implant dentistry is taught to the students in the form of implant-related lectures incorporated into their periodontic, oral surgery and prosthodontic courses with one or two lectures given on dental implant in each course. Conclusion There is an urgent need to develop a well-structured implant course that includes didactic, laboratory, preclinical and clinical components at the undergraduate curriculum of King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry. PMID:23960472

  4. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lifen; Wu, Haiying; Yu, Shan; Zhao, Hongbin; Xue, Lanjie; Xu, Ming; Shen, Zhiqiang; Hu, Min

    2015-07-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model

  5. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    PubMed

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  6. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet

    PubMed Central

    Willener, Astrid S. T.; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G.; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin’s walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins. PMID:26886216

  7. Repertoire and classification of non-song calls in Southeast Alaskan humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires.

  8. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of budding bacteria in the origin of Alaskan placer gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lacelike networks of micrometre-size filiform gold associated wtih Alaskan placer gold particles are interpreted as low-temperature pseudomorphs of a Pedomicrobium-like budding bacterium. Submicron reproductive structures (hyphae) and other morphological features similar to those of Pedomicrobium manganicum occur as detailed three-dimensional facsimiles in high purity gold in and on placer gold particles from Lillian Creek, Alaska. In a scanning electron microscope survey, the majority of gold particles at nine Alaskan placer deposits appear to include gold that has accumulated chemically at low temperatures in and on the cells of P. manganicum. Similar bacterioform gold from a Paleozoic deposit in China and from the Precambrian Witwatersrand deposit in South Africa may indicate that bacterioform gold is widespread. -Author

  9. Protein oxidation of a hair sample kept in Alaskan ice for 800-1000 years.

    PubMed

    Lubec, G; Zimmerman, M R; Teschler-Nicola, M; Stocchi, V; Aufderheide, A C

    1997-05-01

    Ancient finds of organic matter are not only of the highest value for palaeochemists and palaeobiologists but can be used to determine basic chemical reactions, such as protein oxidation, over long time periods. We studied oxidation of human hair protein about one thousand years old of an Alaskan child buried in ice, ten hair samples of copts of comparable age buried in graves of hot dry sand and compared the results to ten recent hair samples. Protein oxidation parameters o-tyrosine and cysteic acid of the Alaskan child were comparable to recent samples whereas they were higher in the coptic specimen. N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine, a parameter for glycoxidation, however, was as high in coptic specimen. We conclude that ice in contrast to soil prevented protein oxidation but failed to inhibit glycoxidation, a reaction initiated by autooxidation of glucose. This study therefore has implications for the interpretation of oxidation and glycoxidation as well as preservation mechanisms of proteins.

  10. REPETITIVE DIGITAL NOAA-AVHRR DATA FOR ALASKAN ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, William M.; Pawlowski, Robert J.; Fleming, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Selected digitally enhanced NOAA - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images taken by the NOAA 6, 7, 8 and 9 Polar Orbiting Satellites demonstrate the capability and application of repetitive low-resolution satellite data to Alaska's engineering and science community. Selected cloud-free visible and thermal infrared images are enhanced to depict distinct oceanographic and geologic processes along Alaska's west coast and adjacent seas. Included are the advance of the Bering Sea ice field, transport of Yukon River sediment into Norton Sound, and monitoring of plume trajectories from the Mount Augustine volcanic eruptions. Presented illustrations are representative of the 94 scenes in a cooperative USGS EROS/NOAA Alaskan AVHRR Digital Archive. This paper will discuss the cooperative efforts in establishing the first year data set and identifying Alaskan applications.

  11. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the nai??vete?? of both populations to other pathogens (e

  12. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

    PubMed

    Hanni, Krista D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Estes, James; Staedler, Michelle; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa; Jessup, David A

    2003-10-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  13. Characteristics and petrogenesis of Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Loney, R.A. ); Himmelberg, G.R. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO )

    1993-04-01

    Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions occur along a belt that extends from Duke Island to Klukwan in southeastern Alaska and fall into two age groups, 400 to 440 Ma and 100 to 110 Ma. Most of the smaller bodies are magnetite-bearing hornblende clinopyroxenite; the larger ones consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite, with some gabbro, in addition to hornblende clinopyroxenite and hornblendite. Textural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Alaskan-type ultramafic bodies indicate that they originated by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma and accumulation in a crustal magma chamber. The Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] content of clinopyroxene shows a marked enrichment with differentiation, suggesting crystallization from progressively more hydrous melts like those characteristics of arc magmas. REE abundance levels and patterns are markedly similar for given rock units in all the bodies studied suggesting that all the bodies were derived by differentiation of closely similar parent magmas under near identical conditions. The exact composition of the primary melt is uncertain but the authors' preferred interpretation is that the parental magma of most Alaskan-type bodies was a subalkaline hydrous basalt. The striking similarity between the REE abundance levels and patterns of the Alaskan-type clinopyroxenites and gabbros, and the clinopyroxenite xenoliths and plutonic gabbros associated with Aleutian Island Arc volcanism, further suggests that the primary magma was probably a hydrous olivine basalt similar to the primary magma proposed for the Aleutian arc lavas. The mineral chemistry and phase equilibria of the ultramafic bodies suggest that they crystallized in magma chambers at depths greater than about 9 km. Except for the Duke Island body, which has sedimentary structures and shows evidence of ubiquitous current activity, most of the other bodies appear to have accumulated under static conditions.

  14. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  15. Viability of the Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Kylee; Grand, James B.

    2016-10-11

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is tasked with setting objective and measurable criteria for delisting species or populations listed under the Endangered Species Act. Determining the acceptable threshold for extinction risk for any species or population is a challenging task, particularly when facing marked uncertainty. The Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1997 because of a perceived decline in abundance throughout their nesting range and geographic isolation from the Russian breeding population. Previous genetic studies and modeling efforts, however, suggest that there may be dispersal from the Russian breeding population. Additionally, evidence exists of population level nonbreeding events. Research was conducted to estimate population viability of the Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders, using both an open and closed model of population process for this threatened population. Projections under a closed population model suggest this population has a 100 percent probability of extinction within 42 years. Projections under an open population model suggest that with immigration there is no probability of permanent extinction. Because of random immigration process and nonbreeding behavior, however, it is likely that this population will continue to be present in low and highly variable numbers on the breeding grounds in Alaska. Monitoring the winter population, which includes both Russian and Alaskan breeding birds, may offer a more comprehensive indication of population viability.

  16. Trophic dynamics in marine nearshore systems of the Alaskan high arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dunton, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation describes two ecological studies in the arctic Alaskan nearshore zone: the productivity and growth strategies of arctic kelp and the use of natural carbon isotope abundances to examine food web structure and energy flow in the marine ecosystem. Linear growth of the kelp, Laminaria solidungula is greatest in winter and early spring when nutrients are available for new tissue growth. Since over 90% of this growth occurs in complete darkness beneath a turbid ice canopy, the plant draws on stored food reserves and is in a carbon deficit during the ice covered period. Annual productivity of L. solidungula under these conditions is about 6 g C m/sup -2/ compared to about 10 g c m/sup -2/ if light penetrates the ice canopy. Carbon isotope abundances were used to assess food web structure and energy flow in the Boulder Patch, an isolated kelp bed community, and in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea fauna. Isotopic analyses of the resident fauna of the Boulder Patch revealed that kelp carbon contributes significantly to the diet of many benthic animals, including suspension feeders. Across the shelf of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a distinct gradient in the isotopic composition of marine zooplankton and benthic fauna was related to the intrusion of the Bering Sea water and upwelling in the eastern Beaufort Sea near Barter Island. The /sup 13/C depletion in fauna of the eastern Beaufort Sea is presumed due to the cycling of /sup 13/C depleted inorganic carbon into the euphotic zone.

  17. Diffusive summer methane flux from lakes to the atmosphere in the Alaskan arctic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masafumi; Kim, Yong-Won; Uchida, Masao; Utsumi, Motoo

    2016-09-01

    Dissolved methane concentrations (DM) in thirty lakes along Dalton Highway were measured in the open water season in 2008 and in 2012 to estimate diffusive flux from lake surfaces and to verify the enhancive effect of thawing permafrost on flux in the Alaskan arctic zone. An inverse relationship between lake size and DM was obtained in lakes in the regions as was found for European boreal lakes. There was no evidence indicating an effect of thawing permafrost on DM in these lakes. DM in lakes in the taiga region, however, were higher than those in the tundra region. All lake images on a map larger than 0.001 km2 were analyzed, and the area and number distributions were obtained in order to calculate regional mass fluxes of diffusive methane. The total area of all lakes (339,733) in the Alaskan Arctic zone (northern region from 64.00°N) is 25.5 × 103 km2. Regional summer diffusive flux of methane from lakes in the Alaskan arctic zone was estimated to be 22 Gg CH4 yr-1. Average diffusive flux density (per lake area) was 0.86 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, which is similar to that in European boreal lakes.

  18. Human Progress Never Rolls in on Wheels of Inevitability: Biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr., in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents resources for teaching about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Outlines criteria for selecting biographies for children and young adults. Identifies problems in certain biographies of King, and recommends high quality biographies of King. Discusses exercises for integrating themes from King's life into the classroom. (RW)

  19. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Quakenbush, Lori; Frame, Elizabeth; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Sheffield, Gay; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Bryan, Anna; Kendrick, Preston; Ziel, Heather; Goldstein, Tracey; Snyder, Jonathan A; Gelatt, Tom; Gulland, Frances; Dickerson, Bobette; Gill, Verena

    2016-05-01

    Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast

  20. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  1. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  2. Restoring fire to wilderness: Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Jeffrey; Keifer, MaryBeth; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Kaage, William

    2001-01-01

    Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, established in 1890, consist of 863,741 acres (349,551 ha) of Sierra Nevada foothills, mid-elevation conifer forest, and high-elevation alpine environment. The parks contain 36 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves, including the largest known tree, the General Sherman. Ninety-four percent of the parklands is in designated or proposed wilderness (fig. 1), with conditions resembling roadless areas in national forests.

  3. Morphology of the caudal fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Olby, Natasha J; McCullough, Susan; Pease, Anthony P; Broadstone, Richard; Osborne, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    Chiari malformations and syringohydromyelia are an important disease complex in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Although abnormalities in caudal fossa morphology are considered major contributors to the development of this disease, limited information exists on the range of morphologies in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and on the relationship of these to clinically evident disease. Sixty-four Cavalier King Charles Spaniels were studied. Each underwent a neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and brain. T2-weighted sagittal images were used to determine both the morphologic characteristics and volume of the caudal fossa in each dog. This volume was also analyzed as a percentage of total cranial cavity volume. Each attribute was correlated with neurological grade and presence of syringohydromyelia. Fifteen dogs had neurologic signs, and 59 had morphologic abnormalities of the craniocervical junction. While 27 dogs had syringohydromyelia, 13 of these were clinically normal. Cerebellar herniation and occipital dysplasia were common findings but were not associated with syringohydromyelia. Dorsal compressive lesions were noted at the first and second cervical vertebral junction. Factors associated with the presence of neurologic signs included syringohydromyelia and the ratio of caudal fossa/total cranial cavity volume; dogs with signs had significantly larger syringohydromyelia than asymptomatic dogs. Caudal fossa size was not associated with syringohydromyelia. A positive association was identified between foramen magnum size and length of cerebellar herniation. The prevalence of craniocervical junction abnormalities is high in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. While several factors are associated with neurologic signs, occipital hypoplasia appears to be the most important factor.

  4. KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

  5. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  6. Use of morphometric measurements to differentiate between species and sex of king and clapper rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Travis, S.E.; Linscombe, J.

    2009-01-01

    King Rails (Rallus elegans) and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris) are large, secretive waterbirds whose ranges overlap in brackish marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. King and Clapper Rails are difficult to separate by physical appearance and there is currently no reliable method to distinguish between the two species. Here, the relative effectiveness of using discriminant analysis of morphometric measurements to identify and sex King and Clapper Rails was examined. Mean measurements of wing, tarsus, and weight were different between male King and Clapper Rails and between female King and Clapper Rails. However, for all measurements except culmen, male Clapper Rails and female King Rails were not different. Discriminate analysis of morphometric measurements revealed that wing, tarsus, and culmen measurements differentiated between King and Clapper Rails, but cross-validation results for male Clapper Rails were only 73%. Male King Rails were larger than female King Rails for all morphometric measurements and male Clapper Rails were larger than female Clapper Rails for all morphometric measurements except for the tail. Wing and tarsus measurements differentiated between male and female King Rails and wing, tarsus, and culmen measurements differentiated between male and female Clapper Rails.

  7. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak

    PubMed Central

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak. PMID:17148195

  8. STS-57 Earth observation of King Sound in northwest Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is of King Sound in northwest Australia. Roebuck Bay with the city of Broom on its northern shore is south of King Sound. Sediment in the sound is deposited by the Fitzroy River, which is the major body draining the Kimberley Plateau about 200 miles to the west. The extent of the tidal flats around the Sound is indicated by the large white areas covered with a salty residue. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-57 Earth photos, northwest wind gusts are ruffling areas of the water's surface at the mouth of King Sound and in neighboring Collier Bay. Therefore the water is less reflective and dark. The higher reflectance on the brightest areas is caused by biological oils floating on the surface and reducing the capillary wave action. The scientists point out that the oils take the forms of the currents and eddies in the picture. These eddies indicate that the water offshore is moving at a different speed

  9. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  15. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  16. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  17. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  19. American Red Cross

    MedlinePlus

    ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Toggle Navigation Menu ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store ...

  20. Sources, fates, and effects of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Alaskan marine environment with recommendations for monitoring strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.; Boehm, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    Information about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Alaskan marine environment is relatively sparse. About 300 references were reviewed to create an assessment of the current state of knowledge on sources, fates and effects of oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold marine waters. The objective of the report is to critically review what is known about the sources, fates and effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Alaskan marine environment. The specific areas reviewed are (1) the natural and anthropogenic sources of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Alaskan marine environment, (2) the physical, chemical and biochemical fates of these compounds in marine ecosystems, and (3) the bioaccumulation and biological effects of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine organisms.

  1. Novel picornavirus associated with avian keratin disorder in Alaskan birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Dumbacher, John P.; Handel, Colleen M.; Tihan, Tarik; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Avian keratin disorder (AKD), characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100%) AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22%) control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus) and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD.

  2. Novel Picornavirus Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Alaskan Birds

    PubMed Central

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Dumbacher, John P.; Handel, Colleen M.; Tihan, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian keratin disorder (AKD), characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100%) AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22%) control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus) and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD. PMID:27460795

  3. Programme for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Jeddah II Conference, 12-18 January 1976. Provisional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This publication presents the report of Jeddah II Conference of the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA) hosted by King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah in January 1976. The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) initiated the conference to study the issues of scientific research on,…

  4. 76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Kings, Queens, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Early Renaissance France'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from...

  5. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  6. NifH-Harboring Bacterial Community Composition across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient.

    PubMed

    Penton, C Ryan; Yang, Caiyun; Wu, Liyou; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feifei; Qin, Yujia; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L; Zheng, Tianling; Schuur, Edward A G; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes with those most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta Proteobacteria more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites.

  7. Earthquake triggering at alaskan volcanoes following the 3 November 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; Sanchez, J.J.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake provided an excellent opportunity to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 247-2159 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ???1 hr after the Mw 7.9 arrival time at each network and for significant increases in located earthquakes in the hours after the mainshock. We found compelling evidence for triggering only at the Katmai volcanic cluster (KVC, 720-755 km southwest of the epicenter), where small earthquakes with distinct P and 5 arrivals appeared within the mainshock coda at one station and a small increase in located earthquakes occurred for several hours after the mainshock. Peak dynamic stresses of ???0.1 MPa at Augustine Volcano (560 km southwest of the epicenter) are significantly lower than those recorded in Yellowstone and Utah (>3000 km southeast of the epicenter), suggesting that strong directivity effects were at least partly responsible for the lack of triggering at Alaskan volcanoes. We describe other incidents of earthquake-induced triggering in the KVC, and outline a qualitative magnitude/distance-dependent triggering threshold. We argue that triggering results from the perturbation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the KVC and suggest that the comparative lack of triggering at other Alaskan volcanoes could be a result of differences in the nature of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  8. The Apparent Periodicity of Felt Reports in the Alaskan Earthquake Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, L. A.; McNutt, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Felt reports for Alaskan earthquakes were found to be non-uniformly distributed throughout the year. With a predominantly tourist economy, the Alaskan population nearly triples in the summer months, possibly affecting the reporting of earthquakes in the historical record. Using published felt reports from the National Earthquake Information Center and the Alaska Earthquake Information Center, the percentage of events felt each month in central mainland Alaska were tabulated and compared between the summer and winter seasons. Earthquakes were selected from January 1, 1990 to October 31, 2002, from latitudes 58 to 70 degrees N and longitudes 140 to 160 degrees W, and depths 0 to 200 km. 408 events were felt out of a total of 695 that occurred. A number of parameters, including time of day, latitude, longitude, and magnitude, were additionally compared to specify possible limiting factors within each season. While a strong seasonal effect was not found in magnitude 4.0 ML events and greater, the months of May and June were consistently found to have the highest percentage of felt events with a steep drop occurring in the month of July. We ascribe this effect to the summer melting of the top layer of frozen ground to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Additionally, smaller events from magnitude 1.0 to 4.0 ML were also examined. 396 events were felt out of a total of 7,451 that occurred. We found that small earthquakes were felt, with a significant difference, more readily during summer months than in winter. This is likely an effect of the higher summer population of tourists and greater distribution of open businesses. Together these observations suggest that the historical Alaskan earthquake record is likely biased in favor of more frequent reporting of events occurring in summer months as opposed to winter.

  9. NifH-Harboring Bacterial Community Composition across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Penton, C. Ryan; Yang, Caiyun; Wu, Liyou; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feifei; Qin, Yujia; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Zheng, Tianling; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes with those most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta Proteobacteria more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites. PMID:27933054

  10. Alaskan marine mammal tissue archival project: a project description including collection protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1988-03-01

    The Alaskan Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project was initiated in 1987. Although the emphasis is on the collection of tissues for analysis of contaminants that may be associated with the petroleum industry, the development of an archive of marine mammal tissues collected and stored using carefully controlled procedures provides an important resource addressing questions concerning the transport of elements and compounds (contaminants and non-contaminants) throughout the polar ecosystem. The document provides the basic information on Project objectives and management, justification for the species, tissues, and contaminants of interest, and specific instructions for collecting, handling, and storing samples.

  11. Paleoclimatic forcing of magnetic susceptibility variations in Alaskan loess during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.; Stone, D.B.; Hawkins, D.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Visual matches and statistical tests suggest correlations between marine isotope curves, retrodictive solar insolation at lat 65{degree}N, and magnetic susceptibility profiles through late Quaternary age Alaskan loess sections. The susceptibility changes largely appear to reflect variability in magnetite content due to climatically controlled changes in wind intensity and competence. Magnetic susceptibility profiles through massive loess can provide stratigraphic context for intercalated paleosols and tephras. A prominent paleosol correlated with marine isotope stage 5 occurs several metres above the Old Crow ash in loess sections, indicating that this important tephra is older than suggested by thermoluminescence dates, and may have been deposited ca. 215 {plus minus}25 ka.

  12. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.; Elashvili, I.; Valdes, J.J.; Kamely, D.; Chakrabarty, A.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30{degree}C and above.

  13. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Elashvili, I; Valdes, J J; Kamely, D; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above.

  14. The Changing Alaskan Experience—Health Care Services and Cultural Identity

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mim; Myers, Wayne W.; Book, Patricia A.; Nice, Philip O.

    1983-01-01

    Before Western contact, Alaskan Native populations were self-sufficient in their health practices. Slowly, the Native health care system was replaced by a Western one which was highly effective in treating infectious diseases. As infectious diseases were brought under control by the Indian Health Service, the emergent leading health problems were related to violence, attributed in part to cultural disintegration. New types of Native health providers and new Native-controlled institutions evolved to provide culturally appropriate health and mental health services and to promote a stronger cultural identity. PMID:6666110

  15. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions.

  16. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming

    PubMed Central

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C.; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26°C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  17. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  18. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and, Community Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, M. Moss

    1973-01-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients. PMID:4725343

  19. STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA. King

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasamy, K.; Latha, K.V.; kumar, N.H. Sathish

    2004-01-01

    The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla with various acids, iodine and ferric chloride solution and UV and Visible light. PMID:22557161

  20. Dermatophilus chelonae in a king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Turenne, Christine; Heard, Darryl J; Detrisac, Carol J; O'Kelley, Jeffrey J

    2004-12-01

    A mass was removed from the left flank of a 10-yr-old male king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and histologic examination revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional gram-positive cocci and filamentous bacteria. Fourteen months later, a histologically similar subcutaneous mass was removed from a different site. One year later, a large subcutaneous mass at the first surgical site was removed, and histopathologic examination revealed multiloculated granulomas with intralesional gram-positive cocci. An organism was cultured and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Dermatophilus chelonae. After a course of antibiotic therapy, no further lesions were seen for 5 mo.

  1. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and community involvement.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, M M

    1973-07-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients.

  2. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight.

  3. A potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Loo, Kong Yong; Leong, Kok Hoong; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-02-01

    A dimeric acylphenol and a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, giganteone D (IC50 5.05μM), was isolated and characterized from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. The bark also yielded an acylphenol with an unprecedented skeleton for which the name cinnamomeone A (IC50 358.80μM) was proposed. Their structures were established by means of NMR and MS spectrometric analyses. The Lineweaver-Burk plot of giganteone D indicated that it was a mixed-type inhibitor. This is the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibiting potential of acylphenols.

  4. Long-term climate patterns in Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation and their biological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Fleming, Michael D.; Berg, Jared S.; Ashton, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Mean monthly climate maps of Alaskan surface temperature and precipitation produced by the parameter-elevation regression on independent slopes model (PRISM) were analyzed. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones with consistent but different climatic variability separated by a transition region; it has maximum interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)- and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-type events influence Alaska surface temperatures weakly (1-2/spl deg/C) statewide. PDO has a stronger influence than ENSO on precipitation but its influence is largely localized to coastal central Alaska. The strongest influence of Arctic oscillation (AO) occurs in northern and interior Alaskan precipitation. Four major ecosystems are defined. A major eco-transition zone occurs between the interior boreal forest and the coastal rainforest. Variability in insolation, surface temperature, precipitation, continentality, and seasonal changes in storm track direction explain the mapped ecosystems. Lack of westward expansion of the interior boreal forest into the western shrub tundra is influenced by the coastal marine boundary layer (enhanced cloud cover, reduced insolation, cooler surface and soil temperatures).

  5. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE TO MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin Chukwu

    2004-01-01

    The Alaskan North Slope (ANS) is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the United States where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Because the domestic gas market in the continental United States is located thousands of miles from the ANS, transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS to the market is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundant resource. The focus of this project is to study the operational challenges involved in transporting the gas in converted liquid (GTL) form through the existing Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). A three-year, comprehensive research program was undertaken by the Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks, under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40016 to study the feasibility of transporting GTL products through TAPS. Cold restart of TAPS following an extended winter shutdown and solids deposition in the pipeline were identified as the main transportation issues in moving GTL products through the pipeline. The scope of work in the current project (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41248) included preparation of fluid samples for the experiments to be conducted to augment the comprehensive research program.

  6. Emissions, transport, and chemistry downwind of oil extraction facilities in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J. W.; Nowak, J. B.; Holloway, J.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Neuman, J.; Trainer, M.; Brock, C. A.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Tans, P. P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Novelli, P. C.; Montzka, S. A.; Pierce, R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Vay, S. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.; Huey, L. G.; Wennberg, P. O.; Stohl, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of recent trace gas and aerosol data taken downwind of oil extraction facilities on the Alaskan North Slope, including Prudhoe Bay, provides new insights into the chemistry and fate of anthropogenic industrial emissions at high latitudes, and can better constrain the anticipated impact of new emissions on air quality and climate in the Arctic. Three different analyses have been carried out using airborne data from the NOAA WP-3D and the NASA DC-8 instrumented aircraft during April 2008, the long-term data set from the NOAA GMD observatory at Barrow, and the FLEXPART transport model. These analyses include: 1. a determination of NOx oxidation rates and OH sources downwind of the Prudhoe Bay, AK oil extraction facilities, and a comparison to observations in well-mixed continental plumes at lower latitudes. 2. a new signature of halogen atom chemistry in the alkane-rich Prudhoe Bay plume. Coupled with transport model age spectra, this analysis provides a new and unique constraint on the time scales of halogen-catalyzed ozone depletion in the Arctic. 3. a direct quantification of greenhouse gas source strengths from oil extraction facilities at Prudhoe Bay in the Alaskan Arctic, and a comparison to existing global inventories.

  7. Effect of endurance training on cardiac morphology in Alaskan sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Stepien, R L; Hinchcliff, K W; Constable, P D; Olson, J

    1998-10-01

    The cardiac morphology of 77 conscious Alaskan sled dogs before and after 5 mo of endurance training (20 km/day team pulling a sled and musher) was studied using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Subgroups included dogs with at least one season of previous training ("veterans") and dogs undergoing their first season of training ("rookies"). Training resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in resting heart rate (-15%) and significant increases in interventricular septal thickness (systole, 15%; diastole, 13%), left ventricular (LV) internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd, 4%), LV free wall thickness in systole (9%) and diastole (LVWd, 9%), and left atrial diameter (5%) in all dogs, but the increase in LVWd was greater in rookies (16%) than in veterans (7%). Training increased end-diastolic volume index (8%), LV mass index (24%), and heart weight index (24%) and decreased the LVIDd-to-LVWd ratio (-6%) but did not alter cardiac index. We conclude that increased LV mass attributable to LV dilation and hypertrophy is associated with endurance training in Alaskan sled dogs. Disproportionate LV wall thickening accompanying LV dilation suggests that cardiac morphological changes are due to volume and pressure loading. These training-induced changes are similar to those documented in human athletes undergoing combined isometric and isotonic training and differ from studies of dogs trained on treadmills.

  8. Atmospheric methane sources - Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Grice, S. S.; Bartlett, K. B.; Sebacher, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux measurements from Alaska tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh were obtained at field sites ranging from Prudhoe Bay on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Alaskan Range south of Fairbanks during August 1984. In the tundra, average CH4 emission rates varied from 4.9 mg CH4 per sq m per day (moist tundra) to 119 mg CH4 per sq m per day (waterlogged tundra). Fluxes averaged 40 mg CH4 per sq m per day from wet tussock meadows in the Brooks Range and 289 mg Ch4 per sq m per day from an alpine fen in the Alaskan Range. The boreal marsh had an average CH4 emission rate of 106 mg CH4 per sq m per day. Significant emissions were detected in tundra areas where peat temperatures were as low as 4 C, and permafrost was only 25 cm below the ground surface. Emission rates from the 17 sites sampled were found to be logarithmically related to water levels at the sites. Extrapolation of the data to an estimate of the total annual CH4 emission from all arctic and boreal wetlands suggests that these ecosystems are a major source of atmospheric CH4 and could account for up to 23 percent of global CH4 emissions from wetlands.

  9. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  10. Spatial variability and landscape controls of near-surface permafrost within the Alaskan Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rose, Joshua R.; Rigge, Matthew; Walvoord, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of permafrost is important to understand because of permafrost's influence on high-latitude ecosystem structure and functions. Moreover, near-surface (defined here as within 1 m of the Earth's surface) permafrost is particularly susceptible to a warming climate and is generally poorly mapped at regional scales. Subsequently, our objectives were to (1) develop the first-known binary and probabilistic maps of near-surface permafrost distributions at a 30 m resolution in the Alaskan Yukon River Basin by employing decision tree models, field measurements, and remotely sensed and mapped biophysical data; (2) evaluate the relative contribution of 39 biophysical variables used in the models; and (3) assess the landscape-scale factors controlling spatial variations in permafrost extent. Areas estimated to be present and absent of near-surface permafrost occupy approximately 46% and 45% of the Alaskan Yukon River Basin, respectively; masked areas (e.g., water and developed) account for the remaining 9% of the landscape. Strong predictors of near-surface permafrost include climatic indices, land cover, topography, and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus spectral information. Our quantitative modeling approach enabled us to generate regional near-surface permafrost maps and provide essential information for resource managers and modelers to better understand near-surface permafrost distribution and how it relates to environmental factors and conditions.

  11. Fine-scale population genetic structure in Alaskan Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Pacific halibut collected in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska were used to test the hypothesis of genetic panmixia for this species in Alaskan marine waters. Nine microsatellite loci and sequence data from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region were analyzed. Eighteen unique mtDNA haplotypes were found with no evidence of geographic population structure. Using nine microsatellite loci, significant heterogeneity was detected between Aleutian Island Pacific halibut and fish from the other two regions (FST range = 0.007–0.008). Significant FST values represent the first genetic evidence of divergent groups of halibut in the central and western Aleutian Archipelago. No significant genetic differences were found between Pacific halibut in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea leading to questions about factors contributing to separation of Aleutian halibut. Previous studies have reported Aleutian oceanographic conditions at deep inter-island passes leading to ecological discontinuity and unique community structure east and west of Aleutian passes. Aleutian Pacific halibut genetic structure may result from oceanographic transport mechanisms acting as partial barriers to gene flow with fish from other Alaskan waters.

  12. Using smooth sheets to describe groundfish habitat in Alaskan waters, with specific application to two flatfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Reid, Jane A.; Golden, Nadine

    2016-10-01

    In this analysis we demonstrate how preferred fish habitat can be predicted and mapped for juveniles of two Alaskan groundfish species - Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) - at five sites (Kiliuda Bay, Izhut Bay, Port Dick, Aialik Bay, and the Barren Islands) in the central Gulf of Alaska. The method involves using geographic information system (GIS) software to extract appropriate information from National Ocean Service (NOS) smooth sheets that are available from NGDC (the National Geophysical Data Center). These smooth sheets are highly detailed charts that include more soundings, substrates, shoreline and feature information than the more commonly-known navigational charts. By bringing the information from smooth sheets into a GIS, a variety of surfaces, such as depth, slope, rugosity and mean grain size were interpolated into raster surfaces. Other measurements such as site openness, shoreline length, proportion of bay that is near shore, areas of rocky reefs and kelp beds, water volumes, surface areas and vertical cross-sections were also made in order to quantify differences between the study sites. Proper GIS processing also allows linking the smooth sheets to other data sets, such as orthographic satellite photographs, topographic maps and precipitation estimates from which watersheds and runoff can be derived. This same methodology can be applied to larger areas, taking advantage of these free data sets to describe predicted groundfish essential fish habitat (EFH) in Alaskan waters.

  13. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

  14. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Social Disruption and Psychological Stress in an Alaskan Fishing Community: The Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; And Others

    Technological accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 create man-made disaster situations that threaten community survival and the well-being and quality of life of community residents. This paper focuses on the social and psychological impact of the 1989 oil spill on Cordova, an isolated Alaskan community with high economic…

  16. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...

  17. Long-Term Effects of Otitis Media a Ten-Year Cohort Study of Alaskan Eskimo Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Gary J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Histories of ear disease, otoscopic examinations, and audiologic, intelligence, and achievement tests were obtained from a cohort of 489 Alaskan Eskimo children, followed through the first 10 years of life, to determine whether otitis media (middle ear inflammation) deleteriously affected intellectual functioning and achievement in school.…

  18. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing 0-25% (wt%) of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along wi...

  19. Urban American Indian/Alaskan Natives Compared to Non-Indians in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Vernon B.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children have been disproportionately represented in the foster care system. In this study, nationally representative child welfare data from October 1999 was used to compare urban AI/AN children to non-Indian children placed into out-of-home care. Compared to non-Indian children, urban AI/AN…

  20. American Indian/Alaskan Native Undergraduate Retention at Predominantly White Institutions: An Elaboration of Tinto's Theory of College Student Departure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William; Brown, Eddie F.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a major public university sponsored study undertaken with the intention of (a) improving university understanding of factors affecting American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) undergraduates' persistence at this institution, and (b) identifying in what areas, and in what manner, this institution could improve…

  1. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  2. Range-wide wetland associations of the King Rail: A multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glisson, Wesley J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Borgmann, Kathi L.; Laxson, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    King Rail populations have declined and identifying wetland features that influence King Rail occupancy can help prevent further population declines. We integrated continent-wide marsh bird survey data with spatial wetland data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) to examine wetland features that influenced King Rail occupancy throughout the species’ range. We analyzed wetland data at 7 spatial scales to examine the scale(s) at which 68 wetland features were most strongly related to King Rail occupancy. Occupancy was most strongly associated with estuarine features and brackish and tidal saltwater regimes. King Rail occupancy was positively associated with emergent and scrub-shrub wetlands and negatively associated with forested wetlands. The best spatial scale for assessing King Rail occupancy differed among wetland features; we could not identify one spatial scale (among all wetland features) that best explained variation in occupancy. Future research on King Rail habitat that includes multiple spatial scales is more likely to identify the suite of features that influence occupancy. Our results indicate that NWI data may be useful for predicting occupancy based on broad habitat features across the King Rail’s range, which may help inform management decisions for this and other wetland-dependent birds.

  3. 75 FR 57478 - Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13,...

  4. 75 FR 3245 - Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13,...

  5. Connect the Book. Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, this month's featured book is "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." The book was written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Bryan Collier (Jump at the Sun, 2001. 40p. ISBN 0786807148). This pictorial biography of the world-renowned civil rights leader has one of the most striking…

  6. 3 CFR 8473 - Proclamation 8473 of January 15, 2010. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the United States of America A Proclamation The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., challenged... America a better Nation,” Dr. King said on the eve of his death. “I may not get there with you. But I want... strides since the turbulent era of Dr. King’s movement, his work and our journey remain unfinished....

  7. Rufus King: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Throughout a lengthy public career, Rufus King employed his considerable diplomatic and oratorical skills to promote the twin causes of nationalism and civil liberty, fighting in the last decade of his life to extend those liberties to the nation's enslaved black minority. This booklet on King is one in a series on veterans of the Revolutionary…

  8. From Typology to Topography in Clarence King's "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekzema, Loren

    The book "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada" by Clarence King, a late-ninteenth-century American geologist, writer, art critic, and romantic, is discussed in this paper. In the writing and revision of this book, King was attempting a metamorphosis of landscape description into popular reading as he moved from being a symbolic writer to…

  9. Difficulties in Academic Writing: From the Perspective of King Saud University Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Fadda, Hind

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what difficulties King Saud University students encounter when learning to write academic English and to differentiate between students' learning needs and objectives. The sample consisted of 50 postgraduate students enrolled in King Saud University during the academic year 2009-2010. Analysis of the data…

  10. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Power of Nonviolence. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan introduces students in grades 6-8 to Martin Luther King Jr.'s philosophy of nonviolence and the teachings of Mohandas K. Gandhi that influenced King's views. After considering the political impact of this philosophy, students explore its relevance to personal life. In these 6 lessons students will: (1) examine the philosophy of…

  11. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read.…

  12. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon... Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for Wilderness Stewardship Plan, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. SUMMARY: In accordance with Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental...

  13. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in…

  14. 50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mackerel gillnet fishery. 622.378 Section 622.378 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Atlantic) § 622.378 Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery. (a) The gillnet fishery for Gulf group king mackerel in or from the Gulf EEZ is closed each fishing year from July 1...

  15. 50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mackerel gillnet fishery. 622.378 Section 622.378 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Atlantic) § 622.378 Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery. (a) The gillnet fishery for Gulf group king mackerel in or from the Gulf EEZ is closed each fishing year from July 1...

  16. 77 FR 34798 - Safety Zone; USMMA Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Kings Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; USMMA Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Kings... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Kings... from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the fireworks event....

  17. Martin Luther King Family Center, Chicago, Illinois: Model Programs. Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Prepared for the White House Conference on Children (December 1970), this booklet reports on the Martin Luther King Family Center, one of 34 promising programs on childhood education. The Martin Luther King Family Center is now a privately funded, community-controlled demonstration service center with an all black staff. All of its programs are…

  18. 78 FR 78507 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ..., Kings, Tulare, and Kern Counties, CA By petition filed on September 26, 2013, California High-Speed Rail... Board consider providing notice to all impacted landowners in Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

  19. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  20. Antihemorrhagin in the blood serum of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, Lawan; Khow, Orawan; Omori-Satoh, Tamotsu; Sitprija, Visith

    2003-06-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) serum was found to possess antihemorrhagic activity against king cobra hemorrhagin. The activity was stronger than that in commercial king cobra antivenom. An antihemorrhagin has been purified by ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and gel filtration with a 22-fold purification and an overall yield of 12% of the total antihemorrhagic activity contained in crude serum. The purified antihemorrhagin was homogeneous in disc-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Its apparent molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE was 120 kDa. The antihemorrhagin was also active against other hemorrhagic snake venoms obtained in Thailand and Japan such as Calloselasma rhodostoma, Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus macrops and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Japanese Habu). It inhibited the proteolytic activity of king cobra venom. It is an acid- and thermolabile protein and does not form precipitin lines against king cobra venom.

  1. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  2. 78 FR 38796 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Increased Transit Service to King of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Service to King of Prussia, PA AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Section 4(f) Evaluation for increased transit service to King of... the Radisson Hotel at the Valley Forge Casino Resort, South Ballroom, 1160 First Avenue, King...

  3. 76 FR 10938 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement: King County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Statement: King County, WA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice to rescind a... Impact Statement (EIS) for improvements that were proposed for Forest Road 56 in King County, Washington... United States Forest Service and King County, is rescinding the NOI to prepare an EIS for a project...

  4. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the... future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics fishery..., the Council recommended a new control date of September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel....

  5. Gov. King's stance against utilities upsets both camps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    Massachusetts utilities and utility detractors all object to Governor King's position stated at a March press conference and urging regulators to deny rate increases that he claimed would be paying for utility mistakes. Boston Edison's request for a $291 million rate increase would recover the money lost when the utility abandoned its Pilgrim II nuclear plant. Boston Gas is seeking $46 million to recover money lost during last winter's shortage of natural gas. The governor's timing and mode of intervention prompted most of the criticism because of their political ramifications during an election year. Most of his statements drew upon materials from a consumer group called Fair Share, but were stated in a way that the governor's re-election is necessary to secure the desired effects. (DCK)

  6. Glucose regulates lipid metabolism in fasting king penguins.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Servane F; Orvoine, Jord; Groscolas, René

    2003-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether glucose intervenes in the regulation of lipid metabolism in long-term fasting birds, using the king penguin as an animal model. Changes in the plasma concentration of various metabolites and hormones, and in lipolytic fluxes as determined by continuous infusion of [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitate, were examined in vivo before, during, and after a 2-h glucose infusion under field conditions. All the birds were in the phase II fasting status (large fat stores, protein sparing) but differed by their metabolic and hormonal statuses, being either nonstressed (NSB; n = 5) or stressed (SB; n = 5). In both groups, glucose infusion at 5 mg.kg-1.min-1 induced a twofold increase in glycemia. In NSB, glucose had no effect on lipolysis (maintenance of plasma concentrations and rates of appearance of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids) and no effect on the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAG), glucagon, insulin, or corticosterone. However, it limited fatty acid (FA) oxidation, as indicated by a 25% decrease in the plasma level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB). In SB, glucose infusion induced an approximately 2.5-fold decrease in lipolytic fluxes and a large decrease in FA oxidation, as reflected by a 64% decrease in the plasma concentration of beta-OHB. There were also a 35% decrease in plasma TAG, a 6.5- and 2.8-fold decrease in plasma glucagon and corticosterone, respectively, and a threefold increase in insulinemia. These data show that in fasting king penguins, glucose regulates lipid metabolism (inhibition of lipolysis and/or of FA oxidation) and affects hormonal status differently in stressed vs. nonstressed individuals. The results also suggest that in birds, as in humans, the availability of glucose, not of FA, is an important determinant of the substrate mix (glucose vs. FA) that is oxidized for energy production.

  7. Large-scale movements and habitat characteristics of king eiders throughout the nonbreeding period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.; Rexstad, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) breeding in western Canada and Alaska molt wing feathers and spend the winter in remote areas of the Bering Sea, precluding direct observation. To characterize timing of migration and habitat used by King Eiders during the nonbreeding period, we collected location data for 60 individuals (27 females and 33 males) over three years from satellite telemetry and utilized oceanographic information obtained by remote sensing. Male King Eiders dispersed from breeding areas, arrived at wing molt sites, and dispersed from wing molt sites earlier than females in all years. Males arriving earlier at wing molt sites molted flight feathers at higher latitudes. Distributions of molt and winter locations did not differ by sex or among years. Of the variables considered for analysis, distance to shore, water depth, and salinity appeared to best describe King Eider habitat throughout the nonbreeding period. King Eiders were located closer to shore, in shallower water with lower salinity than random locations. During the winter, lower ice concentrations were also associated with King Eider locations. This study provides some of the first large-scale descriptions of King Eider migration and habitat outside the breeding season. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  8. Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R; Kondzela, Christine M; Martin, Patrick C; Finney, Bruce; Guyon, Jeffrey; Templin, William D; DeCovich, Nick; Gilk-Baumer, Sara; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Low genetic divergence at neutral loci among populations is often the result of high levels of contemporary gene flow. Western Alaskan summer-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations demonstrate weak genetic structure, but invoking contemporary gene flow as the basis for the low divergence is problematic because salmon home to their natal streams and some of the populations are thousands of kilometers apart. We used genotypes from microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism loci to investigate alternative explanations for the current genetic structure of chum salmon populations from western Alaska. We also estimated current levels of gene flow among Kuskokwim River populations. Our results suggest that weak genetic structure is best explained by physical connections that occurred after the Holocene Thermal Maximum among the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak drainages that allowed gene flow to occur among now distant populations. PMID:23919176

  9. Fisheries portfolio diversification and turnover buffer Alaskan fishing communities from abrupt resource and market changes

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Timothy J.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures. PMID:28091534

  10. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    PubMed

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  11. Rural and Urban Fatal Pedestrian Crashes Among United States American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    PubMed Central

    LaValley, Jonathon; Crandall, Cameron S.; Banks, Laura; Sklar, David P.; Boodlal, Leverson

    2003-01-01

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were used to compare fatal pedestrian crashes in American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) between urban and rural locations for 2000–2001. There were significant differences between urban and rural crashes for driver, pedestrian, environmental, and engineering factors. Rural pedestrian crashes more often occurred on highways (p<0.0001) lacking traffic control devices (p<0.0001) and artificial lighting (p<0.0001). Alcohol was a significant cofactor in both environments (40% urban vs. 55% rural; p=0.0239). Prevention of AI/AN deaths should include engineering countermeasures specific to the needs of rural (lighting) and urban (medians with barriers) environments and address drinking behavior in both populations. PMID:12941222

  12. Rural and urban fatal pedestrian crashes among United States American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    LaValley, Jonathon; Crandall, Cameron S; Banks, Laura; Sklar, David P; Boodlal, Leverson

    2003-01-01

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were used to compare fatal pedestrian crashes in American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) between urban and rural locations for 2000-2001. There were significant differences between urban and rural crashes for driver, pedestrian, environmental, and engineering factors. Rural pedestrian crashes more often occurred on highways (p<0.0001) lacking traffic control devices (p<0.0001) and artificial lighting (p<0.0001). Alcohol was a significant cofactor in both environments (40% urban vs. 55% rural; p=0.0239). Prevention of AI/AN deaths should include engineering countermeasures specific to the needs of rural (lighting) and urban (medians with barriers) environments and address drinking behavior in both populations.

  13. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  14. Bowhead whale behavior in relation to seismic exploration, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, Autumn 1981. Study report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Fraker, M.A.; Ljungblad, D.K.; Richardson, W.J.; Van Schoik, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    Behavior of bowhead whales (Balsena mysticetus) in the eastern part of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea or near the Alaska/Yukon border was observed from a circling turbine-powered Goose aircraft on 10 dates from 12 September to 5 October 1981. On three of these dates, the whales were exposed t, noise impulses from seismic vessels 13 km or more away. Some behavioral data were acquired. In both the presence and the absence of seismic impulses, most bowheads appeared to be feeding in the water column, although slow travel and active socializing were sometimes detected. Sonobuoys detected bowhead calls both in the presence and the absence of seismic impulses. There was no clear evidence of unusual behavior in the presence of seismic impulses.

  15. Fisheries portfolio diversification and turnover buffer Alaskan fishing communities from abrupt resource and market changes.

    PubMed

    Cline, Timothy J; Schindler, Daniel E; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-16

    Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures.

  16. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  17. Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Michael R; Kondzela, Christine M; Martin, Patrick C; Finney, Bruce; Guyon, Jeffrey; Templin, William D; Decovich, Nick; Gilk-Baumer, Sara; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2013-07-01

    Low genetic divergence at neutral loci among populations is often the result of high levels of contemporary gene flow. Western Alaskan summer-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations demonstrate weak genetic structure, but invoking contemporary gene flow as the basis for the low divergence is problematic because salmon home to their natal streams and some of the populations are thousands of kilometers apart. We used genotypes from microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism loci to investigate alternative explanations for the current genetic structure of chum salmon populations from western Alaska. We also estimated current levels of gene flow among Kuskokwim River populations. Our results suggest that weak genetic structure is best explained by physical connections that occurred after the Holocene Thermal Maximum among the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak drainages that allowed gene flow to occur among now distant populations.

  18. All-weather ice information system for Alaskan arctic coastal shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.; Jirberg, R. J.; Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Chase, T. L.; Kramarchuk, I.; Nagy, L. A.; Hanlon, R. A.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A near real-time ice information system designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope is described. The system utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures showing the type, areal distribution and concentration of ice cover were developed. In order to guide vessel operational movements, near real-time SLAR image data were transmitted directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images developed in Cleveland were subsequently facsimile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in ice forecasting and also as a demonstration back to Barrow via the Communications Technology Satellite.

  19. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-01

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25-70 Pg C in peatland and 13-22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36-63 Pg C at present, including 27-48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9-15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5-3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3-0.6 Pg C in peatlands and 2.2-3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr-1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr-1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr-1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.

  20. Pleiotropic effects on subclasses of HDL, adiposity and glucose metabolism in adult Alaskan Eskimos

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, ME; Voruganti, VS; Cai, G; Cole, SA; Laston, S; Wenger, CR; MacCluer, JW; Dyke, B; Devereux, R; Ebbesson, SO; Fabsitz, RR; Howard, BV; Comuzzie, AG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the heritability and the presence of pleiotropic effects on subfractions of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), parameters for adiposity and glucose metabolism in adult Alaskan Eskimos. The present family study included 1214 adult Alaskan Eskimos (537 male/677 female). Body weight, height, circumferences, selected skinfolds and blood pressure were measured in all participants. Blood samples were collected under fasting conditions for isolation of plasma. Glucose, insulin, subclasses and size of lipoproteins, triglycerides, total and HDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) were measured in plasma. HbA1c was measured in total blood. Univariate and bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted between HDL subclasses and size and the anthropometric and biochemical measures using the variance decomposition approach. Variation in all the analyzed traits exhibits a significant genetic component. Heritabilities ranged between 0.18 ± 0.11 for LDL2 (intermediate) to 0.89 ± 0.07 for small HDL. No common genetic effects were found on the HDL subclasses (small, intermediate and large). Small HDL particles were genetically correlated with LDL particles and HbA1c. Negative genetic correlations were observed between intermediate and large HDL subfractions and HDL size and measures of adiposity, LDL and parameters for glucose metabolism (HbA1, insulin). These observations confirm the presence of possible pleiotropic effects on HDL, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors and provide novel insight on the relationship between HDL subclasses, adiposity and glucose regulation. PMID:19950191

  1. Probable excursions in Alaskan loess deposits and potential for detailed correlations and chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Evans, M. E.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Froese, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    As part of a larger study to refine the chronology of paleoenvironmental records in Alaskan loess deposits, the type section for the Gold Hill loess was sampled at 5 cm intervals for detailed paleomagnetic investigations. We sampled from the level of the Jaramillo Subchron (~21 m from the base of the exposure) through the Holocene (~51 m). Initial results indicate the presence of several pronounced directional perturbations that may record excursions of the geomagnetic field. A perturbation found in association with an organic-rich unit at 48 m is likely of late Pleistocene age and a candidate for the Laschamp excursion. An additional perturbation is present above the VT tephra (106±10 ka; ~44 m). This event is also present at the nearby Halfway House site in a similar stratigraphic context. This interval is a good candidate for the post-Blake event that has recently been dated at 106±14 ka and 104±2 ka by Singer et al. (2011). A tephra bed below this level indicates the presence of a significant unconformity and the excursion recorded below this at ~41 m is unidentified, but is likely between MIS 9 and late MIS 8 in age. From the GI tephra (560±80 ka; ~35 m) to the Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary (~25.5 m), we observe variations in the field, but these are relatively small. Lastly, between the Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary and the Jaramillo Subchron we have identified the Kamikatsura event (900.3±4.7 ka). These findings suggest that Alaskan loess may turn out to be an excellent recorder of geomagnetic field behaviour, the details of which offer significant potential for high-resolution correlations and chronology.

  2. Brood rearing ecology of king eiders on the north slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    We examined King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) brood survival in the Kuparak oil field in northern Alaska in 2002 and 2003 by monitoring hens with broods using radiotelemetry. We observed complete brood loss in eight of 10 broods. Broods survived less than 2 weeks on average, and most mortality occurred within 10 days of hatch. Distance hens traveled overland did not affect brood survival. Apparent King Eider brood survival in our study area was lower than reported for eider species in other areas. We recommend future studies examine if higher densities of predators in oil fields reduces King Eider duckling survival.

  3. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, P; Balasubramaniam, P; Ratnavelu, K

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  4. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumar, P. Balasubramaniam, P.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  5. Placer and lode platinum-group minerals in south Kalimantan, Indonesia: evidence for derivation from Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Platinum-group minerals occur in significant proportions in placer deposits in several localities in South Kalimantan. They consist of Pt-Fe alloy that may be intergrown with or contain inclusions of Ir-Os-Ru alloy, laurite and chromite. Alluvial PGM found along Sungai Tambanio are in part derived from chromatite schlieren in dunitic bodies intruded into clinopyroxene cumulates that may be part of an Alaskan-type ultramafic complex. A chromitite schlieren in serpentinite from one of these dunitic bodies is anomalous in PGE. The chondrite-normalized PGE pattern for this rock, pan concentrates from this area, and PGM concentrates from diamond-Au-PGM placer deposits have an "M'-shaped pattern enriched in Ir and Pt that is typical of PGE-mineralization associated with Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes. -Authors

  6. EPA Update on Gold King Mine Response: Additional Data Results and Public Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an update on water quality and sediment data for the Animas and San Juan Rivers, as well as additional public records on the Gold King Mine response.

  7. EPA Update on Gold King Mine Response: Navajo Nation, Additional Data, Public Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an update on water quality and sediment data for the Navajo Nation, as well as new data sets and additional public records on the Gold King Mine response.

  8. NO EPA MEDIA CALL ON GOLD KING MINE RELEASE, AUGUST 16, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ***Please note there is no EPA media call on the Gold King Mine Response scheduled for today. EPA media calls will be scheduled if needed moving forward. Additional information will be released shortly in the daily statement.

  9. Microsoft Corporation and King County-Cities Climate Collaboration Recognized for Climate Action Leadership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 10, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy and Regional Administrator Dennis McLerran recognized Microsoft Corporation and King County-Cities Climate Collaboration, among other organizations, with

  10. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry

    PubMed Central

    Syron, Laura N.; Lucas, Devin L.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.; Kincl, Laurel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk

  11. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Syron, Laura N; Lucas, Devin L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Kincl, Laurel D

    2016-01-01

    Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers' lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk estimates

  12. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  13. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  14. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  15. Tidal-flow, circulation, and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced

  16. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... barge within a radius of 100 feet during the loading, transit, and arrival of the fireworks barge to the... fireworks barge within a radius 1,000 feet at position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W (NAD 83) for the Kings... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July...

  17. Distribution and habitat use of king rails in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Krementz, David G.

    2009-01-01

    The migratory population of the king rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 40 years, emphasizing the need to identify habitat requirements of this species to help guide conservation efforts. To assess distribution and habitat use of king rails along the Illinois and Upper Mississippi valleys, USA, we conducted repeated call-broadcast surveys at 83 locations in 2006 and 114 locations in 2007 distributed among 21 study sites. We detected king rails at 12 survey locations in 2006 and 14 locations in 2007, illustrating the limited distribution of king rails in this region. We found king rails concentrated at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, an adjacent private Wetlands Reserve program site, and B. K. Leach Conservation Area, which were located in the Mississippi River floodplain in northeast Missouri. Using Program PRESENCE, we estimated detection probabilities and built models to identify habitat covariates that were important in king rail site occupancy. Habitat covariates included percentage of cover by tall (> 1 m) and short (<= 1 m) emergent vegetation, percentage of cover of woody vegetation, and interspersion of water and vegetation ( 2007 only) within 50 m of the survey location. Detection probability was 0.43 (SE = 0.12) in 2006 and 0.35 (SE = 0.03) in 2007 and was influenced by observer identity and percentage of cover by tall herbaceous vegetation. Site occupancy was 0.11 (SE = 0.04) in 2006 and 0.14 (SE = 0.04) in 2007 and was negatively influenced most by percentage of cover by woody vegetation. In addition, we found that interspersion of vegetation and water was positively related to occupancy in 2007. Thus, nesting king rails used wetlands that were characterized by high water-vegetation interspersion and little or no cover by woody vegetation. Our results suggest that biologists can improve king rail habitat by implementing management techniques that reduce woody cover and increase vegetation-water interspersion in

  18. Community control of health services. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center's community management system.

    PubMed

    Tichy, N M; Taylor, J I

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the case of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Health Center's unique community management system in which neighborhood workers have been developed to assume managerial responsibilities and are directing the Center. The Martin Luther King Center experience is instructive because the Center was able to achieve significant community control by focusing primarily on the internal dimension of control, namely, management, without experiencing destructive conflicts and the deterioration of health services.

  19. Holocene Changes in Climate and Ecological Gradients across the Alaskan Arctic Assessed with Multiple Organic Geochemical and Paleoecological Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a strong climate gradient across the Alaskan Arctic, with important implications for ecology, carbon and nutrient cycling, terrestrial hydrology and permafrost. Hydrogen isotopes of precipitation are important tool for measuring this climate gradient, as it summarizes variability in precipitation, temperature, and other parameters of the ocean-atmosphere system-all important for understanding the rapidly changing climate of the Arctic. We reconstructed D/H ratios of precipitation along with other hydrological and ecological parameters in a series of peatlands throughout the Alaskan Arctic. We reconstruct climate parameters using the hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes and paleoecology using distributions of lipid biomarkers and macrofossil identification. By reconstructing D/H ratios at all sites, we are able to compare disparate environments to robustly establish changing precipitation isotope gradients over the Holocene and in the Late Glacial. We investigated four sites in a southeast-northwest transect of the Alaskan arctic, each with stratigraphies covering the Holocene, and two extending into the Late Glacial. We used data from this transect to identify temporal changes in the gradient of precipitation D/H ratios. We also assessed the impact of these changes in the context of Arctic peatland and permafrost carbon accumulation, as these impacts are key to our understanding of the interactions and feedbacks of the terrestrial carbon cycle on recent and future Arctic warming.

  20. Transport and reaction of heavy metals in Alaskan fjord estuaries. Annual report, July 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, D.C.

    1981-05-01

    The program investigates the potential effects of energy-related chemical pollution in Alaskan fjords. The long-term objective is to understand the chemical, physical, and biological processes responsible for the transport and reaction of heavy metals in these sub-arctic estuaries. The physical circulation and mixing processes, the nature and reactions of terrigenous organics and particulate sediment within the mixing zone, and aspects of the basin sediment oxygen, carbon and nutrient budgets in addition to study of individual metals are investigated. Mainly copper, iron and manganese are being studied since these provide information on physical-chemical processes common to, or greatly affecting, a much wider range of metals. The bulk of the Work completed section of this report refers to Resurrection Bay, a southcentral Alaskan fjord. The Work in progress reported here outlines recent investigations in Boca de Quadra, a southeast Alaskan fjord-estuary. We are here investigating deep and surface water circulation; oxygen, carbon and nutrient budgets; the compositions, reaction and flux of particulate sediment; and organic-heavy metal associations in the freshwater and in the mixing zone.

  1. Seeing double, thinking twice: the Toronto drag kings and (re-) articulations of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Noble, Jean Bobby

    2002-01-01

    Through a close reading of the performances of masculinity by the Toronto drag kings, this chapter argues that drag king shows parody the hyper-masculine star at his most contradictory and dialogic. Given that drag king performances parody both the contradictions of masculinity on stage, and the productive technologies of the star, king performances are essentially both meta-theatrical (performances about performing where lights, music, body language, dance all make the man) and meta-performative (performances which are at once conditioned by the performative reiterations which enable a fiction of identity in the first place). Finally, I explore the rather abstracted question of what cultural work the category of "drag king" does. I argue that it is a term which articulates a series of productive but necessary slippages in and through the contradictory and dialogic practices of identification. The bottom line is this: drag kings are situated in and play with the ironic no man's land between "lesbian," "butch," "transman" and "bio-boy" where the sell evident is neither.

  2. A preliminary appraisal of sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Radtke, D.B.; Hale, T.W.; Buell, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current-velocity data were collected during November 1981 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the sources and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound , the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest that the area in the vicinity of lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal marsh drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hour ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  3. Did King Herod suffer from a rheumatic disease?

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Cianna; Panush, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Herod the Great was appointed "king of Jews," to govern Judea, by the Roman Emperor and Senate. He lived from 73/74 BCE to 4 CE. He died with an illness and symptoms that have been the source of considerable speculation. Richard Strauss depicted Herod in his classic opera, "Salome." That opera was derived from a play of the same name by Oscar Wilde, which was based on an 1876 painting, "Salome Dancing Before Herod," by Gustave Moreau. The operatic Herod was afflicted with an illness characterized by dementia, hallucinations, paranoia, alcoholism (from drinking the Emperor's wine), violence, twitches, and sterility; different interpretations showed him also with falls, chills, shaking, thirst, forgetfulness, and sleepiness, for which we suggest the novel diagnosis of chronic lead intoxication (which can manifest to rheumatologists as saturnine gout). He had compatible symptoms (encephalopathy and neuromuscular abnormalities) and consumed excessive quantities of imperial wine, known to be highly contaminated with lead and likely associated with similar symptoms among Roman aristocracy. Herod's demented cruelties-an oppressive reign which including the beheading of John the Baptist-exacerbated the political climate and may have contributed to the subsequent violent 7-year revolt culminating in the destruction of the second temple. How different might history have been if Herod the Great had been abstemious?

  4. Evaluation of a drowning prevention campaign in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, E.; Cummings, P.; Quan, L.; Lewis, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—A three year drowning prevention campaign focused on increasing the use of life vests among children 1–14 years old. An evaluation was conducted to determine campaign awareness, change in ownership and use of life vests by children, and predictors of life vest use. Setting—King County, Washington. Methods—Four telephone surveys were conducted with parents before, during, and after the campaign. Results—The campaign was recalled by 50% of families surveyed. From before to after the campaign, reported life vest use by children on docks, beaches, or at pools increased from 20% to 29% (p<0.01) and life vest ownership for children increased from 69% to 75% (p=0.06). Among parents aware of the campaign, reported child life vest use increased from 20% to 34% (p<0.001) and ownership increased from 69% to 80% (p<0.01). Among families unaware of the campaign, neither life vest use nor ownership changed significantly. Children were more often reported to wear life vests if a parent knew of the campaign, was confident fitting the vest, was younger than 40 years, felt the child could not swim well, and owned a life vest for the child. Conclusions—A community-wide drowning prevention campaign resulted in a significant, although modest, increase in reported life vest use and ownership among children. PMID:10385829

  5. Truncated ambition: Thomas King Chambers, MD (1817-1889).

    PubMed

    Drain, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Thomas King Chambers clearly intended to be a physician of note and at times indeed he was mentioned in the same breath as Sir James Paget (1814-1899), Sir Henry Acland (1815-1900) and Francis Anstie (1833-1874). At the time of his death his career was pronounced 'less than brilliant though far from inglorious'. He had made all the right political moves-networking through the medical societies, marrying well and even accompanying the Prince of Wales on his first foreign tour. He wanted to be more than a society doctor, however: he published his clinical lectures and original research, proposed a new paradigm for medicine that he dubbed 'the renewal of life' and found his ideas taken up enthusiastically in the United States. Alas, his career foundered when he suffered an aneurysm and underwent amputation through the thigh. Nevertheless, he made significant contributions to the profession through his service on the General Medical Council and to medical education, in particular to medical education for women, through his strong support of the London School of Medicine for Women. To examine his life is to revisit what makes a life meaningful and worthwhile, for Chambers' life, unlike his body, is remarkably whole.

  6. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  7. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  8. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance.

  9. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  10. Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, T.; Jouventin, P.

    1998-01-01

    The king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeds without a nest in colonies of several thousands of birds. To be fed, the chick must recognize the parents in a particularly noisy environment using only vocal cues. The call an adult makes when seeking the chick is emitted at a high amplitude level. Nevertheless, it is transmitted in a colonial context involving the noise generated by the colony and the screening effect of the bodies, both factors reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the adult call is masked by a background noise with similar amplitude and spectral and temporal characteristics, enhancing the difficulty for the chick in finding its parents. We calculate that the maximum distance from the caller at which its signal can be differentiated from the background noise (signal-to-noise ratio equal to 1) should not exceed 8 to 9 m in a feeding area. But our tests show that, in fact, chicks can discriminate between the parental call and calls from other adults at a greater distance, even when call intensity is well below that of the noise of simultaneous calls produced by other adults. This capacity to perceive and extract the call of the parent from the ambient noise and particularly from the calls of other adults, termed the 'cocktail-party effect' in speech intelligibility tests, enhances the chick's ability to find its parents.

  11. Late Pleistocene vegetation of Kings Canyon, Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Seven packrat midden samples make possible a comparison between the modern and late Pleistocene vegetation in Kings Canyon on the western side of the southern Sierra Nevada. One modern sample contains macrofossils and pollen derived from the present-day oak-chaparral vegetation. Macrofossils from the six late Pleistocene samples record a mixed coniferous forest dominated by the xerophytic conifers Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus cf. ponderosa, and P. monophylla. The pollen spectra of these Pleistocene middens are dominated by Pinus sp., Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae-Taxaceae (TCT), and Artemisia sp. Mesophytic conifers are represented by low macrofossil concentrations. Sequoiadendron giganteum is represented by a few pollen grains in the full glacial. Edaphic control and snow dispersal are the most likely causes of these mixed assemblages. The dominant macrofossils record a more xeric plant community than those that now occur on similar substrates at higher elevations or latitudes in the Sierra Nevada. These assemblages suggest that late Wisconsin climates were cold with mean annual precipitation not necessarily greater than modern values. This conclusion supports a model of low summer ablation allowing for the persistence of the glaciers at higher elevations during the late Wisconsin. The records in these middens also suggest that S. giganteum grew at lower elevations along the western side of the range and that P. monophylla was more widely distributed in cismontane California during the Pleistocene.

  12. Inter-annual variability in Alaskan net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; Lindaas, Jakob; Commane, Roisin; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella; Chang, Rachel; Kelly, Richard; Miller, Charles; Wofsy, Steven; Lin, John

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude biospheric carbon cycle's responses to climate change are predicted to have an important role in determining future atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In response to warming soil and air temperatures, Arctic wetlands have been observed to increase rates of both soil C efflux and vegetation C uptake through photosynthesis. However, insights into the regional-scale consequences of these processes for net C uptake have been limited by the large uncertainties existing in process-based model estimates of Arctic net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). The Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM) instead provides data-driven, satellite-based estimates of high-latitude NEE, using a framework which specifically accounts for polar influences on NEE. PolarVPRM calculates NEE as the sum of respiration (R) and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE), where GEE refers to the light-dependent portion of NEE: NEE= -GEE + R. Meteorological inputs for PolarVPRM are provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and land surface inputs are acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Growing season R is calculated from air temperature, and subnivean R is calculated according to soil temperature. GEE is calculated according to shortwave radiation, air temperature, and MODIS-derived estimates of soil moisture and vegetation biomass. Previously, model validation has indicated that PolarVPRM showed reasonably good agreement with eddy covariance observations at nine North American Arctic sites, of which three were used for calibration purposes. For this project, PolarVPRM NEE was calculated year-round across Alaska at a three-hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1 6°×1 4° (latitude × longitude). The objective of this work was to gain insight into inter-annual variability in Alaskan NEE, R and GEE, and an understanding of which meteorological and land surface drivers account for these observed patterns

  13. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red ...

  14. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  15. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  16. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified

  17. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes.Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001.This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times

  18. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-25

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25–70 Pg C in peatland and 13–22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36–63 Pg C at present, including 27–48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9–15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5–3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3–0.6 Pg C in peatlandsmore » and 2.2–3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr−1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr−1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr−1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.« less

  19. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, John B.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Commane, Roisin; Dinardo, Steven; Henderson, John M.; Lindaas, Jacob; Lin, John C.; Luus, Kristina A.; Newberger, Tim; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C.; Wolter, Sonja; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-04-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ˜ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM-WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear to persist during some wintertime

  20. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  1. Impact of the Alaskan Stream flow on surface water dynamics, temperature, ice extent, plankton biomass, and walleye pollock stocks in the eastern Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Andreev, A. G.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Year-to-year changes of the Alaskan Stream surface flow, forming the northern boundary of the western subarctic cyclonic gyre in the Pacific, impact the dynamics of water in the eastern Okhotsk Sea. It is shown by Lagrangian simulation of transport of the Alaskan Stream waters in 20 year-long AVISO velocity field and direct computation of the corresponding fluxes that an intensification/weakening of the Alaskan Stream current leads to increased/decreased northward fluxes in the areas of the Krusenstern and Fourth Kuril straits connected the Okhotsk Sea with the Pacific Ocean. Enhancement of the Alaskan Stream flux is accompanied by an increase in water temperature and decreasing ice area in the Okhotsk Sea in winter. The Alaskan Stream surface flux is shown to be negatively correlated with satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration in May from r = - 0.68 to - 0.73 in 1998-2013 and with winter-spring biomass of large-sized zooplankton with r = - 0.70 in 1995-2012. It is positively correlated with winter-spring biomass of small- and medium-sized zooplankton in the eastern Okhotsk Sea with r = 0.74 in 1995-2012.

  2. Structure-function relationship of king cobra cathelicidin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Guo-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Ji-Hong; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-08-01

    King cobra cathelicidin (OH-CATH) is composed of 34 amino acid residues having strong antibacterial and very weak hemolytic activities as reported by us recently. OH-CATH can be served as a valuable template to develop novel therapeutic drugs. In this study, OH-CATH and six of its analogs were synthesized to explore their structure-function relationships based on their bactericidal and hemolytic activities. Experimental results of OH-CATH(3-34) and OH-CATH(5-34) indicated that the N-terminal 4 amino acid residues of OH-CATH played an important role on its hemolytic activity but had weak effects on its bactericidal activity. Among OH-CATH and its analogs, OH-CATH(5-34) had the lowest hemolytic activity while maintained strong antimicrobial activity. To evaluate its potential usage, the biological activities of OH-CATH(5-34) were compared with those of pexiganan. The bactericidal activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against 5 different species (11 laboratory strains) was 2-4 times stronger than that of pexiganan (4-16 microg/ml vs 8-32 microg/ml). Hemolytic activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against human erythrocytes was 0.69% while that of pexiganan was 16.5% at the dosage of 200 microg/ml. OH-CATH(5-34) showed very weak cytotoxic activities against primary rabbit ventricular endothelial cells and four human cancer cell lines whereas pexiganan showed strong cytotoxic activity against these five cell lines (IC(50)=20-90 microg/ml). The intravenous LD(50) value of OH-CATH(5-34) on mice was 7-fold higher than that of pexiganan (175 mg/kg vs 25mg/kg). Taken together, our results suggested that OH-CATH(5-34) should be considered as an excellent candidate for developing therapeutic drugs.

  3. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-08-01

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  4. No evidence of metabolic depression in Western Alaskan juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Lisa A; Rea, Lorrie D; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A J

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d(-1) and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied.

  5. No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Lisa A.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d−1 and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

  6. Brief communication: Transportation and trauma: Dog-sledding and vertebral compression in Alaskan Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Legge, Scott S

    2010-04-01

    Vertebral compression, as evidenced by compression of the centrum, was observed within two Native Alaskan skeletal samples. Information was collected from 1,071 and 656 vertebrae from Golovin Bay and Nunivak Island, Alaska, respectively. In addition, patterns of compression related vertebral change in each collection were characterized by sex and location within the vertebral column. The overall frequencies of vertebral compression were 3.6% (n = 721) at Golovin Bay and 1.7% (n = 403) at Nunivak Island for all observable thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (T1-L5). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of compression among adults between these two collections. When examining the thoracic and lumbar vertebral segments by sex, females at Golovin Bay (4.5%; n = 442) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of vertebral compression than females at Nunivak (1.0%; n = 203). However, this difference in occurrence of compression could be accounted for by the age distributions of the two samples. No difference was noted between the males of the two collections. Compression frequencies in both samples are discussed in relation to the modes of transportation historically utilized by each community.

  7. Transport of fecal bacteria by boots and vehicle tires in a rural Alaskan community.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Molly K; Ford, Malcolm R; White, Daniel M; Barnes, David L; Schiewer, Silke

    2009-02-01

    People living without piped water and sewer can be at increased risk for diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. One rural Alaskan community that relies on hauling water into homes and sewage from homes was studied to determine the pathways of fecal contamination of drinking water and the human environment so that barriers can be established to protect health. Samples were tested for the fecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and the less specific indicator group, total coliforms. Shoes transported fecal contamination from outside to floor material inside buildings. Contamination in puddles on the road, in conjunction with contamination found on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) tires, supports vehicle traffic as a mechanism for transporting contamination from the dumpsite or other source areas to the rest of the community. The abundance of fecal bacteria transported around the community on shoes and ATV tires suggests that centralized measures for waste disposal as well as shoe removal in buildings could improve sanitation and health in the community.

  8. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  9. Measuring melt and velocity of Alaskan mountain glaciers using phase-sensitive radar and differential GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, S.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Alaskan glaciers show some of the highest rates of retreat worldwide, contributing to sea level rise. This retreat is due to both increased velocity and increased melt. We seek to understand the role of glacial meltwater on velocity. Matanuska glacier, a land terminating glacier in Alaska, has been well-studied using traditional glaciological techniques, but new technology has emerged that allows us to measure melt and velocity more accurately. We employed high-resolution differential GPS to create surface velocity profiles across flow in the ablation zone during the summer of 2015. We also measured surface ablation using stakes and measured basal melt using phase-sensitive radar designed by the British Antarctic Survey. The positions acquired by differential GPS are obtained to a resolution of less than 0.5m, while feature tracking using time-lapse photography for the same time period yields positions with greater and more variable uncertainty. The phase-sensitive radar provides ice thinning rates. Phase-sensitive radar together with ground penetrating radar provides us with an understanding of the internal structure of the glacier. This suite of data allows us to determine the relative importance of surface melt, basal melt, and internal deformation on ice velocity in warm mountain glaciers.

  10. Alaskan Wild Berry Resources and Human Health Under the Cloud of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    KELLOGG, JOSHUA; WANG, JINZHI; FLINT, COURTNEY; RIBNICKY, DAVID; KUHN, PETER; DE MEJIA, ELVIRA GONZÁLEZ; RASKIN, ILYA; LILA, MARY ANN

    2009-01-01

    Wild berries are integral dietary components for Alaska Native tribes and a rich source of polyphenolic metabolites that can ameliorate metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, five species of wild Alaskan berries (Vaccinium ovalifolium, V. uliginosum, Rubus chamaemorus, R. spectabilis, and Empetrum nigrum) were screened for bioactivity through a community-participatory research method involving three geographically-distinct tribal communities. Compositional analysis by HPLC and LC-MS2 revealed substantial site-specific variation in anthocyanins (0.01-4.39 mg/g-FW) and proanthocyanidins (0.74-6.25 mg/g-FW), and identified A-type proanthocyanidin polymers. R. spectabilis increased expression levels of preadipocyte-factor-1 (182%), and proanthocyanidin-enriched fractions from other species reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Selected extracts reduced serum glucose levels in C57bl/6j mice by up to 45%. Local observations provided robust insights into effects of climatic fluctuations on berry abundance and quality, and preliminary site-specific compositional and bioactivity differences were noted, suggesting the need to monitor this Alaska Native resource as climate shifts impact the region. PMID:20025229

  11. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R. ); Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A. )

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the [delta][sup +13]C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average [minus]29.3 0.1%. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average [delta][sup 13]C value of [minus]23.8 [+-]0.1%. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggestes a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt ([delta][sup +13]C = [minus]23.6%) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil-like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Extent of endocrine disruption in fish of western and Alaskan National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 2009, 998 fish were collected from 43 water bodies across 11 western Alaskan national parks and analyzed for reproductive abnormalities. Exposure to estrogenic substances such as pesticides can induce abnormalities like intersex. Results suggest there is a greater propensity for male intersex fish collected from parks located in the Rocky Mountains, and specifically in Rocky Mountain NP. Individual male intersex fish were also identified at Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, and WrangellSt. Elias NPs. The preliminary finding of female intersex was determined to be a false positive. The overall goal of this project was to assess the general health of fish from eleven western national parks to infer whether health impacts may be linked to contaminant health thresholds for animal andor human health. This was accomplished by evaluating the presence of intersex fish with eggs developing in male gonads or sperm developing in female gonads using histology. In addition, endocrine disrupting compounds and other contaminants were quantified in select specimens. General histologic appearance of the gonadal tissue and spleen were observed to assess health.

  13. Title: Climate-glacier Relationship of Retreating Alaskan Glaciers Author: Elliott Mazur and Umesh K. Haritashya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Portage, Whittier, Eklutna, as well as many other well-known "tourism glaciers" in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska are known to have retreated in the past 20 years. This begs the question, "what of the other lesser-known glaciers? Do they follow the same patterns and minimal glacier models?" Glaciers such as Byron, Leonard, Matanuska, Raven and Spencer may fit a minimal model. Information on Byron and Leonard is sparse, as both have become hanging glaciers. Other glaciers, such as Raven, are small enough to be deemed insignificant, yet may have information to give. Consequently our objective is to study five Alaskan glaciers and determine wide-ranging variability to changing regional climate. To do this we obtained field geo-location data and characterized glaciers based on the satellite imagery and climate reevaluation. Our result shows that glaciers are retreating and thinning irrespective of their aspects, location and altitudinal variability. Moreover, our presentation establishes the strong climate-glacier relationship and defines retreating snowline patterns over the last few decades.

  14. Effects of simultaneous climate change and geomorphic evolution on thermal characteristics of a shallow Alaskan lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, J.R.; Schindler, D.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.; Ruggerone, G.T.

    2011-01-01

    We used a hydrodynamics model to assess the consequences of climate warming and contemporary geomorphic evolution for thermal conditions in a large, shallow Alaskan lake. We evaluated the effects of both known climate and landscape change, including rapid outlet erosion and migration of the principal inlet stream, over the past 50 yr as well as future scenarios of geomorphic restoration. Compared to effects of air temperature during the past 50 yr, lake thermal properties showed little sensitivity to substantial (, 60%) loss of lake volume, as the lake maximum depth declined from 6 m to 4 m driven by outlet erosion. The direction and magnitude of future lake thermal responses will be driven largely by the extent of inlet stream migration when it occurs simultaneously with outlet erosion. Maintaining connectivity with inlet streams had substantial effects on buffering lake thermal responses to warming climate. Failing to account for changing rates and types of geomorphic processes under continuing climate change may misidentify the primary drivers of lake thermal responses and reduce our ability to understand the consequences for aquatic organisms. ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  15. Estimation of carbon emissions from wildfires in Alaskan boreal forests using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L )

    1993-06-01

    The objectives of this research study were to evaluate the utility of using AVHRR data for locating and measuring the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska and to estimate the amount of carbon being released during these fires. Techniques were developed to using the normalized difference vegetation signature derived from AVHRR data to detect and measure the area of fires in Alaska. A model was developed to estimate the amount of biomass/carbon being stored in Alaskan boreal forests, and the amount of carbon released during fires. The AVHRR analysis resulted in detection of > 83% of all forest fires greater than 2,000 ha in size in the years 1990 and 1991. The areal estimate derived from AVHRR data were 75% of the area mapped by the Alaska Fire Service for these years. Using fire areas and locations for 1954 through 1992, it was determined that on average, 13.0 gm-C-m-2 of boreal forest area is released during fires every year. This estimate is two to six times greater than previous reported estimates. Our conclusions are that the analysis of AVHRR data represents a viable means for detecting and mapping fires in boreal regions on a global basis.

  16. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    This study compared effects of increased temperature and litter from different Alaskan tundra plant species on cycling of carbon and nitrogen through litter and soil in microcosms. Warming between 4{degrees} and 10{degrees}C significantly increased rates of soil and litter respiration, litter decomposition, litter nitrogen release, and soil net nitrogen mineralization. Thus, future warming will directly increase rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling through litter and soil in tundra. In addition, differences among species` litter in rates of decomposition, N release, and effects on soil net nitrogen mineralization were sometimes larger than differences between the two temperature treatments within a species. Thus, changes in plant community structure and composition associated with future warming will have important consequences for how elements cycle through litter and soil in tundra. In general, species within a growth form (graminoids, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs, and mosses) were more similar in their effects on decomposition than were species belonging to different growth forms, with gramminoid litter having the fastest rate and litter of deciduous shrubs and mosses having the slowest rates. Differences in rates of litter decomposition were more related to carbon quality than to nitrogen concentration. Increased abundance of deciduous shrubs with future climate warming will promote carbon storage, because of their relatively large allocation to woody stems that decompose slowly. Changes in moss abundance will also have important consequences for future carbon and nitrogen cycling, since moss litter is extremely recalcitrant and has a low potential to immobilize nitrogen. 82 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Methane transport mechanisms and isotopic fractionation in emergent macrophytes of an Alaskan tundra lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Martens, Christopher S.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Crill, Patrick M.; Showers, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of methane associated with and emitted by the two dominant emergent macrophytes abundant in the many Alaskan tundra lakes, Carex rostrata and Arctophila fulva, is determined. The carbon isotopic composition of the methane was -58.6 +/- 0.5 (n=2) for Arctophila and -66.6 +/- 2.5 (n=6) for Carex. The methane emitted by these species is depleted in C-13 by 12 per mil for Arctophila and 18 per mil for Carex relative to methane withdrawn from plant stems 1-2 cm below the waterline. The results suggest more rapid transport of (C-12)H4 relative to (C-13)H4 through plants to the atmosphere. Plant stem methane concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 percent in Arctophila, with an isotopic composition of -46.1 +/- 4.3 percent (n=8). Carex stem methane concentrations ranged from 150 to 1200 ppm, with an isotopic composition of -48.3 +/- 1.4 per mil (n=3).

  18. Recent acceleration of biomass burning and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.; Harden, J.W.; Ottmar, R.D.; Manies, K.L.; Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change has increased the area affected by forest fires each year in boreal North America. Increases in burned area and fire frequency are expected to stimulate boreal carbon losses. However, the impact of wildfires on carbon emissions is also affected by the severity of burning. How climate change influences the severity of biomass burning has proved difficult to assess. Here, we examined the depth of ground-layer combustion in 178 sites dominated by black spruce in Alaska, using data collected from 31 fire events between 1983 and 2005. We show that the depth of burning increased as the fire season progressed when the annual area burned was small. However, deep burning occurred throughout the fire season when the annual area burned was large. Depth of burning increased late in the fire season in upland forests, but not in peatland and permafrost sites. Simulations of wildfire-induced carbon losses from Alaskan black spruce stands over the past 60 years suggest that ground-layer combustion has accelerated regional carbon losses over the past decade, owing to increases in burn area and late-season burning. As a result, soils in these black spruce stands have become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with carbon emissions far exceeding decadal uptake.

  19. Geographic patterns and dynamics of Alaskan climate interpolated from a sparse station record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Michael D.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Cramer, W.; Hufford, Gary L.; Serreze, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Data from a sparse network of climate stations in Alaska were interpolated to provide 1-km resolution maps of mean monthly temperature and precipitation-variables that are required at high spatial resolution for input into regional models of ecological processes and resource management. The interpolation model is based on thin-plate smoothing splines, which uses the spatial data along with a digital elevation model to incorporate local topography. The model provides maps that are consistent with regional climatology and with patterns recognized by experienced weather forecasters. The broad patterns of Alaskan climate are well represented and include latitudinal and altitudinal trends in temperature and precipitation and gradients in continentality. Variations within these broad patterns reflect both the weakening and reduction in frequency of low-pressure centres in their eastward movement across southern Alaska during the summer, and the shift of the storm tracks into central and northern Alaska in late summer. Not surprisingly, apparent artifacts of the interpolated climate occur primarily in regions with few or no stations. The interpolation model did not accurately represent low-level winter temperature inversions that occur within large valleys and basins. Along with well-recognized climate patterns, the model captures local topographic effects that would not be depicted using standard interpolation techniques. This suggests that similar procedures could be used to generate high-resolution maps for other high-latitude regions with a sparse density of data.

  20. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Carlson, Paul R.; Threlkeld, Charles N.; Warden, Augusta

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the δ13C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average -29.3 ±0.1‰. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average δ13C value of -23.8 ±0.1‰. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggests a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt (δ13C = -23.6‰) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil- like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound.

  1. Variations in Vegetation & Hydrology: Linkages to Evapotranspiration in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Mumm, J. P.; Farnham, N. E.; Kane, D. L.; Prakash, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Alaskan Arctic foothills, hydrology can be quantified at multiple scales from water movement at the soil pore level, flow between tussocks and hummocks, to basin level measurements ranging from a few square kilometers to hundreds. Regardless of scale, evapotranspiration is the largest unknown component of the hydrological cycle, the most difficult to accurately measure and highly spatially and temporally variable. Understanding the local, regional and global linkages of climate change in terms of hydrology depends on developing a better understanding of evapotranspiration since it significantly alters future scenario predictions. This study was based on transects which bisected drainage networks of water tracks in the Imnavait, Toolik and Upper Kuparuk basins in the Toolik Lake long-term ecological research area. Each 200 m transect had between five and seven 2 m2 plots where vegetation percent cover, soil morphology and depth to the active layer was documented. Each plot was also quantified using visible, near IR and thermal imagery. This data was used to generate a value of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). According to previous research, field measurements can be used to generate an estimate of leaf area index (LAI). This was compared to the thermal data collected, since the relationship between LAI and temperature is the main input to the two-source energy balance model which can estimate evapotranspiration rates. Confounding factors, such as the potential effect of moss its associated moisture content, will be explored over all the different spectrums of the collected imagery.

  2. Evolution of age and length at maturation of Alaskan salmon under size-selective harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Neala W; Dieckmann, Ulf; Heino, Mikko; Punt, André E; Quinn, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends and variation in life-history traits, including age and length at maturation, can be influenced by environmental and anthropogenic processes, including size-selective exploitation. Spawning adults in many wild Alaskan sockeye salmon populations have become shorter at a given age over the past half-century, but their age composition has not changed. These fish have been exploited by a gillnet fishery since the late 1800s that has tended to remove the larger fish. Using a rare, long-term dataset, we estimated probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs) for males and females in nine populations in two basins and correlated these changes with fishery size selection and intensity to determine whether such selection contributed to microevolutionary changes in maturation length. PMRN midpoints decreased in six of nine populations for both sexes, consistent with the harvest. These results support the hypothesis that environmental changes in the ocean (likely from competition) combined with adaptive microevolution (decreased PMRNs) have produced the observed life-history patterns. PMRNs did not decrease in all populations, and we documented differences in magnitude and consistency of size selection and exploitation rates among populations. Incorporating evolutionary considerations and tracking further changes in life-history traits can support continued sustainable exploitation and productivity in these and other exploited natural resources. PMID:24567750

  3. Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan Arctic in response to decadal climate warming

    PubMed

    Oechel; Vourlitis; Hastings; Zulueta; Hinzman; Kane

    2000-08-31

    Long-term sequestration of carbon in Alaskan Arctic tundra ecosystems was reversed by warming and drying of the climate in the early 1980s, resulting in substantial losses of terrestrial carbon. But recent measurements suggest that continued warming and drying has resulted in diminished CO2 efflux, and in some cases, summer CO2 sink activity. Here we compile summer CO2 flux data for two Arctic ecosystems from 1960 to the end of 1998. The results show that a return to summer sink activity has come during the warmest and driest period observed over the past four decades, and indicates a previously undemonstrated capacity for ecosystems to metabolically adjust to long-term (decadal or longer) changes in climate. The mechanisms involved are likely to include changes in nutrient cycling, physiological acclimation, and population and community reorganization. Nevertheless, despite the observed acclimation, the Arctic ecosystems studied are still annual net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere of at least 40 g C m(-2) yr(-1), due to winter release of CO2, implying that further climate change may still exacerbate CO2 emissions from Arctic ecosystems.

  4. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers derived from satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Etienne; Schiefer, Erik; Clarke, Garry; Menounos, Brian; Rémy, Frédérique

    2010-05-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models, we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Estimates of mass loss from GIC in other mountain regions could be subject to similar revisions.

  5. Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea-level rise derived from satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K. C.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.

    2010-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps contributed 0.5mmyr-1 to sea-level rise, and one third of this contribution is believed to come from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice loss in Alaska are based on measurements of a limited number of glaciers that are extrapolated to constrain ice wastage in the many thousands of others. Uncertainties in these estimates arise, for example, from the complex pattern of decadal elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges. Here we combine a comprehensive glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models. We find that between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9+/-8.6km3yr-1 of water, and contributed 0.12+/-0.02mm yr-1 to sea-level rise, 34% less than estimated earlier. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of our glacier inventory as well as the reduction of ice thinning underneath debris and at the glacier margins, which were not resolved in earlier work. We suggest that estimates of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in other mountain regions could be subject to similar revisions.

  6. Constraining the 2012-2014 growing season Alaskan methane budget using CARVE aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartery, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Commane, R.; Lindaas, J.; Miller, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Watts, J. D.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Henderson, J.; Mountain, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil in northen latitudes contains rich carbon stores which have been historically preserved via permafrost within the soil bed; however, recent surface warming in these regions is allowing deeper soil layers to thaw, influencing the net carbon exchange from these areas. Due to the extreme nature of its climate, these eco-regions remain poorly understood by most global models. In this study we analyze methane fluxes from Alaska using in situ aircraft observations from the 2012-2014 Carbon in Arctic Reservoir Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). These observations are coupled with an atmospheric particle transport model which quantitatively links surface emissions to atmospheric observations to make regional methane emission estimates. The results of this study are two-fold. First, the inter-annual variability of the methane emissions was found to be <1 Tg over the area of interest and is largely influenced by the length of time the deep soil remains unfrozen. Second, the resulting methane flux estimates and mean soil parameters were used to develop an empirical emissions model to help spatially and temporally constrain the methane exchange at the Alaskan soil surface. The empirical emissions model will provide a basis for exploring the sensitivity of methane emissions to subsurface soil temperature, soil moisture, organic carbon content, and other parameters commonly used in process-based models.

  7. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rykhus, Russell P.; Lu, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas.

  8. Chemical and biological assessment of two offshore drilling sites in the Alaskan Arctic.

    PubMed

    Trefry, John H; Dunton, Kenneth H; Trocine, Robert P; Schonberg, Susan V; McTigue, Nathan D; Hersh, Eric S; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective chemical and biological study was carried out in Camden Bay, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, where single exploratory oil wells were drilled at two sites more than two decades ago. Barium from discharged drilling mud was present in sediments at concentrations as high as 14%, ~200 times above background, with significantly higher concentrations of Ba, but not other metals, within 250 m of the drilling site versus reference stations. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were found only at two stations within 25 m of one drilling site. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; however, TPAH were elevated in Ba-rich layers from naturally occurring perylene in ancient formation cuttings. Infaunal biomass and species abundance were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; infauna were less diverse at drilling-site stations. Our assessment showed that discharges from single wells within large areas caused minimal long-term, adverse impacts to the benthic ecosystem.

  9. Re-analysis of Alaskan benchmark glacier mass-balance data using the index method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Beusekom, Ashely E.; O'Nell, Shad R.; March, Rod S.; Sass, Louis C.; Cox, Leif H.

    2010-01-01

    At Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers, designated the Alaskan benchmark glaciers, we re-analyzed and re-computed the mass balance time series from 1966 to 2009 to accomplish our goal of making more robust time series. Each glacier's data record was analyzed with the same methods. For surface processes, we estimated missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernized the traditional degree-day model and derived new degree-day factors in an effort to match the balance time series more closely. We estimated missing yearly-site data with a new balance gradient method. These efforts showed that an additional step needed to be taken at Wolverine Glacier to adjust for non-representative index sites. As with the previously calculated mass balances, the re-analyzed balances showed a continuing trend of mass loss. We noted that the time series, and thus our estimate of the cumulative mass loss over the period of record, was very sensitive to the data input, and suggest the need to add data-collection sites and modernize our weather stations.

  10. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F. |

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils.

  11. Arctic observers: Richard King, monogenism and the historicisation of Inuit through travel narratives.

    PubMed

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    In 1848 the ethnologist, surgeon and Arctic explorer Richard King (1810-1876) published a three-part series on Inuit in the Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. This series provided a detailed history of Inuit from the eleventh century to the early nineteenth century. It incorporated a mixture of King's personal observations from his experience travelling to the Arctic as a member of George Back's expedition (1833-1835), and the testimonies of other contemporary and historical actors who had written on the subject. The aim was to historicise Inuit through the use of travel reports and show persistent features among the race. King was a monogenist and his sensitive recasting of Inuit was influenced by his participation in a research community actively engaged in humanitarian and abolitionist causes. The physician and ethnologist Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) argued that King's research on Inuit was one of the best ethnological approaches to emulate and that it set the standard for the nascent discipline. If we are to take seriously Hodgkin's claim, we should look at how King constructed his depiction of Inuit. There is much to be gained by investigating the practices of nineteenth-century ethnologists because it strengthens our knowledge of the discipline's past and shows how modern understandings of races were formed.

  12. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  13. Population status and habitat associations of the King Rail in the midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolenbaugh, Jason R.; Cooper, Tom; Brady, Ryan S.; Willard, Karen L.; Krementz, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The migratory population of the King Rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 50 years, emphasizing the need to document the distribution and status of this species to help guide conservation efforts. In an effort to guide King Rail breeding habitat protection and restoration, a landscape suitability index (LSI) model was developed for the Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Region Joint Venture (JV). To validate this model, 264 sites were surveyed across the JV region in 2008 and 2009 using the National Marshbird Monitoring protocol. Two other similarly collected data sets from Wisconsin (250 sites) and Ohio (259 sites) as well as data from the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology's eBird database were added to our data set. Sampling effort was not uniform across the study area. King Rails were detected at 29 sites with the greatest concentration in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. Too few detections were made to validate the LSI model. King Rail detection sites tended to have microtopographic heterogeneity, more emergent herbaceous wetland vegetation and less woody vegetation. The migrant population of the King Rail is rare and warrants additional conservation efforts to achieve stated conservation population targets.

  14. International importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea as a staging area for migrating king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Dickson, D.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of habitats used by arctic birds on migration is crucial for their conservation. We explored the importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea (ECS) as a staging area for king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) migrating between breeding areas in Siberia and western North America and wintering areas in the Bering Sea. We tracked 190 king eiders with satellite transmitters between 1997 and 2007. In late summer, 74% of satellite-tracked king eiders migrating south staged in the ECS for 13 ?? 13 (SD) days between late June and early November. During spring migration, king eiders staged in the ECS between mid-April and early June for 21 ?? 10 days. All instrumented birds migrating to breeding grounds in western North America (n = 62), and 6 of 11 males migrating to breeding grounds in Siberia, used this area for at least 1 week during spring migration. The importance of this staging area renders it possible that industrial development could adversely affect king eider populations in both Siberia and North America. ?? 2009 US Government.

  15. Evidence for wing molt and breeding site fidelity in King Eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Fidelity of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) to breeding and wing molt sites was examined using satellite telemetry data obtained opportunistically when battery life of transmitters provided locations in a second year. Consecutive breeding locations were obtained for eleven female and 23 male King Eiders. All females exhibited breeding site fidelity by returning to sites within 15 km of first year breeding areas on the North Slope of Alaska. Breeding locations of males in a subsequent year were located on average >1000 km from their prior breeding sites and were primarily outside Alaska, on the coasts of Russia and Canada. Second-year wing molt locations were obtained for two female and six male King Eiders. Wing molt sites of males were located 6.2 ?? 3.1 km apart on average in successive years, while female wing molt locations averaged almost 50 km apart. Our results demonstrate site fidelity of female King Eiders to a breeding area on the North Slope of Alaska, document the dispersal of male King Eiders between breeding seasons, and present the first evidence for wing molt site fidelity in males.

  16. Repeat Photography of Alaskan Glaciers and Landscapes as Both Art and as a Means of Communicating Climat Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    For nearly 15 years, I have used repeat photography of Alaskan glaciers and landscapes to communicate to fellow scientists, policymakers, the media, and society that Alaskan glaciers and landscapes have been experiencing significant change in response to post-Little Ice Age climate change. I began this pursuit after being contacted by a U.S. Department of the Interior senior official who requested unequivocal and unambiguous documentation that climate change was real and underway. After considering several options as to how best respond to this challenge, I decided that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a pair of photographs, both with the same field of view, spanning a century or more, and showing dramatic differences, would speak volumes to documenting that dynamic climate change is occurring over a very broad region of Alaska. To me, understating the obvious with photographic pairs was the best mechanism to present irrefutable, unambiguous, nonjudgmental, as well as unequivocal visual documentation that climate change was both underway and real. To date, more than 150 pairs that meet these criteria have been produced. What has surprised me most is that the many of the photographs contained in the pairs present beautiful images of stark, remote landscapes that convey the majestic nature of this dynamic region with its unique topography and landscapes. Typically, over periods of just several decades, the photographed landscapes change from black and white to blue and green. White ice becomes blue water and dark rock becomes lush vegetation. Repeat photography is a technique in which a historical photograph and a modern photograph, both having the same field of view, are compared and contrasted to quantitatively and qualitatively determine their similarities and differences. I have used this technique from both ground-based photo stations and airborne platforms at Alaskan locations in Kenai Fjords National Park, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

  17. Modern sedimentation patterns in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Wittenberg, Nina; Betzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    IMCOAST among a number of other initiatives investigates the modern and the late Holocene environmental development of south King George Island with a strong emphasis on Maxwell Bay and its tributary fjord Potter Cove (maximum water depth: about 200 m). In this part of the project we aim at reconstructing the modern sediment distribution in the inner part of Potter Cove using an acoustic ground discrimination system (RoxAnn) and more than136 ground-truth samples. Over the past 20 years the air temperatures in the immediate working area increased by more than 0.6 K (Schloss et al. 2012) which is less than in other parts of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) but it is still in the range of the recovery of temperatures from the Little Ice Age maximum to the beginning of the 20th century. Potter Cove is a small fjord characterized by a series of moraine ridges produced by a tidewater glacier (Fourcade Glacier). Presumably, the farthest moraine is not much older than about 500 years (LIA maximum), hence the sediment cover is rather thin as evidenced by high resolution seismic data. Since a few years at least the better part of the tidewater glacier retreated onto the island's mainland. It is suggested that such a fundamental change in the fjord's physiography has also changed sedimentation patterns in the area. Potter Cove is characterized by silty-clayey sediments in the deeper inner parts of the cove. Sediments are coarser (fine to coarse sands and boulders) in the shallower areas; they also coarsen from the innermost basin to the mouth of the fjord. Textural structures follow the seabed morphology, i.e. small v-shaped passages through the moraine ridges. The glacier still produces large amounts of turbid melt waters that enter the cove at various places. We presume that very fine-grained sediments fall out from the meltwater plumes and are distributed by mid-depth or even bottom currents, thus suggesting an anti-estuarine circulation pattern. Older sediments that are

  18. Climate Controlled Sedimentation in Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H.; Kuhn, G.; Wittenberg, N.; Woelfl, A.; Betzler, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climatic change in Antarctica is strongest over the Antarctic Peninsula where in places the annual mean temperatures increased by 0.5 K per decade through the past 60 years. The impact of this warming trend is clearly visible in the form of retreating glaciers and melting ice sheets, loss of sea ice and strong meltwater discharge into the coastal zone. While it is generally accepted that the rapidity of the present climate change bears a significant anthropogenic aspect, it is not clear whether the effects caused by the warming trend are exceptional and unprecedented or whether the reaction of the environment is similar to that of earlier climate phases such as the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) about 1,000 years ago. One of the major goals of the joint international research project IMCOAST is to investigate the strength of the recent warming trend and its impact on the marine environment of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The study we present here reveals the Upper Holocene climatic history based on high-resolution sediment cores from Maxwell Bay (King George Island, WAP) and information on the actual processes triggered or altered by the recent warming trend based on sedimentologic and hydroacoustic investigations in Potter Cove, a tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. Long sediment cores from Maxwell Bay reveal grain-size changes that can be linked to cold and warm phases such as the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the MWP. Generally, warm phases are finer grained than cold phases as a result of longer and stronger melting processes during the warm phases. It is suggested that meltwater plumes carry fine-grained sediment out of the surrounding fjords into Maxwell Bay where it settles in suitable areas to produce sediments that have a modal value around 16 μm. This mode is largely absent in sediments deposited during e.g. the LIA. However, post LIA sediments are depleted in the 16 μm-mode sediment suggesting slightly different conditions during the last century. One reason

  19. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and its applications to study volcanoes, part 2: InSAR imaging of Alaskan Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel; Wicks, Charles W.; Power, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique which can measure ground surface deformation with sub-centimeter precision and spatial resolution in tens-of-meters over a large region. This paper summarizes our recent InSAR studies of Alaskan volcanoes, associated with both eruptive and non-eruptive activity. It shows that InSAR can improve our understanding of how the Alaskan volcanoes work and enhance our capability to predict future eruptions and the associated hazards. 

  20. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times

    PubMed Central

    Heupink, Tim H.; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction. PMID:22357937

  1. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  2. Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).

  3. Extension of the Johnson-King turbulence model to the 3-D flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abid, Ridha

    1988-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the eddy viscosity model of Johnson and King extended to the three-dimensional case has been performed for three-dimensional boundary layer flows. The turbulence model is evaluated by a detailed comparison with available experimental data for incompressible flows over an infinite swept wing and near an idealized wing-body junction. The isotropic model of Johnson and King is found to work much better than the Cebeci-Smith model, especially in regions of strong cross flow. The significant decrease in the shear stress magnitude is almost reproduced. This means that this effect is as important as the nonisotropic eddy viscosity. The introduction of Rotta's modification to account for nonisotropic eddy viscosity in the Johnson-King formulation is found to have little effect on the predictions. The cross-flow properties are the most strongly affected.

  4. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention as Standard Practice: Working with the American Indian/Native Alaskan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Duran, Bonnie; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Manning, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community. PMID:25580074

  5. Importance of the eastern Alaskan Beaufort Sea to feeding bowhead whales, 1985. Final report, June 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    The two-year project is designed to quantify what proportion of the energy requirements of Western Arctic bowheads is provided by food acquired in the Eastern part of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The report describes results from Year 1 fieldwork in September and early October 1985. Water masses were studied by boat-based sampling and by airborne and satellite remote sensing. Zooplankton composition, biomass, distribution, patchiness, and energy content were documented by boat-based sampling. The distribution, numbers and activities of bowheads were determined by aerial surveys and behavioral observations. Bowheads probably consume several times more food there in some other years.

  6. A Study to Assess the Impact of Alaskan Petroleum Development on the Coast Guard through the Year 2000.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    ADJAOBO 389 COAST GUARD WASHINGTON DC F/9 11/8 JAN 80A STUDY TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF ALASKAN PETROLEUM DEVIELOP14ErT O-ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED.EEEEEEEE...mEE IIMonIsIIuuuuu mIIIuIIIIuIIIIIuuuIuuuu -EIEEIIIIIIIl IIIIIIIIII 1 A Study To Ageess A Impact O 4askaA Petroleum Development 0n2’he Coast Guard...Guard capabilities in the area, it was necessary to project the extent of this activity and its impact on the Coast Guard. This information would allow

  7. Martian and Ionian Analogs of Permafrost-Volcano Interactions in Alaskan Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Beget, J. E.; Skinner, J. A.; Wessels, R.

    2005-12-01

    Volcanic landforms in Alaskan lowland permafrost exhibit several unique morphological attributes, as described in a companion AGU abstract (Beget et al.). These features include (1) giant maar sizes (in Bering Land Bridge National Preserve) an order of magnitude larger than common in non-permafrost terrains, (2) composite volcanic forms produced by repeated maar-forming explosions (the novel Ingakslugwat-type volcano in Yukon Delta), and (3) super-inflated lava flows with marginal thermokarst pits (Lost Jim flow, Imuruk Lake Volcanic Field, Bering Land Bridge area). We have identified on Mars, in areas not indicating glaciation, several landforms and on Io an active volcanic process that might be analogs of these in Alaska. On Mars, within and near Elysium (Galaxias Fossae and Hrad Vallis region) multiple crater-like depressions occur with other volcanic features. Their characteristics suggest that the depressions are maars. The composite structures suggest similarities to Ingakslugwat volcanoes. Possible analogs of giant oversize maars also have been identified on Mars. In addition to surface gravitational differences between Earth and Mars, it seems likely that volatile composition is a key aspect controlling the explosivity and sizes of maars on both planets. In Alaska, we suspect that volcanic interactions with methane clathrate hydrate-rich permafrost tends to yield larger maar sizes than with ice-rich permafrost or ground water. This working hypothesis fits well with observations that the giant maars formed during the climatically coldest periods (Beget et al., 2005, this conference). During those periods, permafrost was thick, strong, and unpunctured by lakes and rivers, and so it could have trapped clathrate-forming gases. During interglacials, thinner permafrost and the widespread occurrence of thaw lakes and surface streams may cause the permafrost to be ineffective in confining ascending gases, and so clathrates were absent or not abundant, and volcanic

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Alaskan volcanoes quantified using an ultraviolet SO_{2} camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter; Brewer, Ian; Ketner, Dane; Paskievitch, John; Power, John

    2016-04-01

    Alaskan volcanoes are difficult targets for direct gas measurements as they are extremely remote and their peaks are mostly covered in ice and snow throughout the year. This makes access extremely difficult. In 2015, we were able to make use of an ultraviolet SO2 camera to quantify the SO2 emissions from Augustine Volcano, Redoubt Volcano, Mount Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcano in the Aleutian Arc. An airborne gas survey performed at Augustine Volcano in April 2015 found that the SO2 emission rate from the summit area was below 10 tonnes per day (t/d). SO2 camera measurements were performed two months later (June 2015) from a snow-free area just 100 meters from the fumarole on the south side of Augustine's summit dome to maximize camera sensitivity. Though the visible appearance of the plume emanating from the fumarole was opaque, the SO2 emissions were only slightly above the 40 ppmṡm detection limit of the SO2 camera. Still, SO2 could be detected and compared to coincident MultiGAS measurements of SO2, CO2 and H2S. At Redoubt Volcano, SO2 camera measurements were conducted on 13 June 2015 from a location 2 km to the north of the final 72x106 m3 dome extruded during the 2009 eruption. Imagery was collected of the plume visibly emanating from the top of the dome. Preliminary evaluation of the imagery and comparison with a coincident, helicopter-based DOAS survey showed that SO2 emission rates had dropped below 100 t/d (down from 180 t/d measured in April 2014). Mount Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcano were visited in August 2015 as part of an NSF-funded ship-based research expedition in the Central Aleutian Arc. At Mount Cleveland, inclement weather prohibited the collection of a lengthy time-series of SO2 camera imagery, but the limited data that was collected shows an emission rate of several hundred t/d. At Shishaldin, several hours of continuous imagery was acquired from a location 5 km east of the summit vent. The time series shows an SO2 emission rate of

  9. Two pack king size chocolate bars. Can we manage our consumption?

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Bruins, B; Steenhuis, I H M

    2010-04-01

    This questionnaire study assessed people's consumption intentions regarding two pack king size chocolate bars. Results showed that 92.9% of the respondents (n=143) intended to finish the chocolate bar within 1 day. The most important purchase considerations were hunger and not having considered the size. Furthermore, dietary restraint reduced the odds of a respondent intending to finish the two pack king size chocolate bar within 1 day. Based on the results, the availability and visibility of regular chocolate bars and healthier snacks should be increased, and consumers should be educated about the impact of portion sizes of high caloric snacks.

  10. Modelling the Sea King Helicopter in the Integrated Performance Modelling Environment (IPME)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    scientifique (AS), des experts de Humansystems en matikre d’IPME et de facteurs humains ainsi que des experts en la mati ~ re (EM) de TopAces ayant une certaine...nmoddle de performance humaine pour les activit&s des pilotes li~es A l’hdlicopt& re Sea King. Plus particulikrement, RDDC Toronto voulait que le moddle de...moddle servirait A contr6ler un h6licopt& re Sea King simul6. L’application de mod6lisation de la performance humaine utilis6e pour ce projet 6tait

  11. Remotely Triggered Seismicity at Alaskan Volcanoes Following the Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, S. C.; Sanchez, J. J.; Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.; McNutt, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    The November 3, 2002, Mw 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake provided the largest source yet to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 280 - 2100 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. The magnitude detection thresholds for these networks range from M 0.1 to M 1.5. Previous instances of triggered seismicity in Alaska have been recorded in the Katmai Volcanic Cluster, where a number of triggered events occurred following two large earthquakes on December 6, 1999 (60 km distant, Mw 7.0), and January 10, 2001 (35 km distant, Mw 6.8). We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ~1 hour following the Mw 7.9 arrival. We looked for events within the mainshock coda with discrete P and S arrivals and/or arrivals on multiple stations. We also looked at filtered waveforms for time periods of several hours before and after the mainshock. We only found compelling evidence for triggering at the Katmai Volcanic Cluster (720-755 km SW of the mainshock), where two small earthquakes with distinct P and S arrivals appeared in the mainshock coda at one station. There was also a small increase in located earthquakes at Katmai over a period of several hours following the mainshock. Although it is certainly possible that triggered earthquakes occurred at other volcanoes while networks were clipped, our analysis indicates that any triggering was minimal. This is in striking contrast to triggered seismicity recorded at Yellowstone, Mammoth Mountain, The Geysers, Coso and possibly Mount Rainier following the Denali earthquake. The comparative lack of triggering could be a result of differences in size and/or activity of geothermal systems, directivity of the mainshock, the dominant frequency at each system, and/or local site conditions.

  12. Seasonal variation of upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Impact of sea ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Lena M.; Pickart, Robert S.

    2012-06-01

    Data from a mooring array deployed from August 2002 to September 2004 are used to characterize differences in upwelling near the shelf break in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea due to varying sea ice conditions. The record is divided into three ice seasons: open water, partial ice, and full ice. The basic response is the same in each of the seasons. Roughly 8 h after the onset of easterly winds the shelf break jet reverses, followed approximately 10 h later by upwelling of saltier water which is cold near the shelf break (Pacific Winter Water) and warm at depth (Atlantic Water). The secondary circulation at the outer shelf is, to first order, consistent with a two-dimensional Ekman balance of offshore flow in the upper layer and onshore flow at depth. There are, however, important seasonal differences in the upwelling. Overall the response is strongest in the partial ice season and weakest in the full ice season. It is believed that these differences are dictated by the degree to which wind stress is transmitted through the pack-ice, as the strength of the wind-forcing was comparable over the three seasons. An EOF-based upwelling index is constructed using information about the primary flow, secondary flow, and hydrography. The ability to predict upwelling using the wind record alone is explored, which demonstrates that 90% of easterly wind events exceeding 9.5 m s-1 drive significant upwelling. During certain periods the ice cover on the shelf became landfast, which altered the upwelling and circulation patterns near the shelf break.

  13. Payoffs and Pitfalls of a Minority Outreach Program: An Alaskan Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a summer bridging program for college-bound high school students from remote Alaskan communities. In the 20+ years since its initiation, more than 50% of RAHI graduates eventually obtained post-secondary degrees. The success of the RAHI program provides insights into how an outreach program can achieve its goals and avoid potential pitfalls. Instrumental to the success of the RAHI program are: longevity; small size (40-45 students per summer); support from the Alaska Native community; academic rigor; aggressive recruiting; establishment of a sense of community amongst participants; and individual mentoring and support. Potential pitfalls include: overextending the program to include too many students; failure to maintain academic rigor in all courses; recruitment of students and staff who do not embrace the program's methods and goals; and attempts to evaluate the program on the basis of short-term results. Alaska Natives in Geosciences introduces college-bound Alaska Native students to the geosciences by teaching a college-level introductory geoscience class as a RAHI elective. By collaborating with RAHI, Alaska Natives in Geosciences takes advantage of RAHI's effective recruitment efforts and proven mentoring program. However, maintaining scientific rigor has been difficult due to large differences in the students' scientific backgrounds, the demands of other courses in the RAHI program and the brevity of the summer session. Immediate post-course survey responses suggest that many RAHI students thought the geoscience class was interesting but too difficult and much too time-consuming. However, surveys of RAHI geoscience students a year later suggest that many found the course a very positive experience. An unanticipated result was that RAHI students who did not take the class also gained some insight into the geosciences.

  14. Biomarkers as Indicators of Respiration During Laboratory Incubations of Alaskan Arctic Tundra Permafrost Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, J.; Schuur, E.; Bianchi, T. S.; Bracho, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude permafrost soils are estimated to store 1,330 - 1,580 Pg C, which account for ca. 40% of global soil C and nearly twice that of atmospheric C. Disproportionate heating of high latitude regions during climate warming potentially results in permafrost thaw and degradation of surficial and previously-frozen soil C. Understanding how newly-thawed soils respond to microbial degradation is essential to predicting C emissions from this region. Laboratory incubations have been a key tool in understanding potential respiration rates from high latitude soils. A recent study found that among the common soil measurements, C:N was the best predictor of C losses. Here, we analyzed Alaskan Arctic tundra soils from before and after a nearly 3-year laboratory incubation. Bulk geochemical values as well as the following biomarkers were measured: lignin, amino acids, n-alkanes, and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT). We found that initial C:N did not predict C losses and no significant change in C:N between initial and final samples. The lignin acid to aldehyde (Ad:Al) degradation index showed the same results with a lack of C loss prediction and no significant change during the experiment. However, we did find that C:N and Ad:Al had a significant negative correlation suggesting behavior consistent with expectations. The failure to predict C losses was likely influenced by a number of factors, including the possibility that biomarkers were tracking a smaller fraction of slower cycling components of soil C. To better interpret these results, we also used a hydroxyproline-based amino acid degradation index and n-alkanes to estimate the contribution Sphagnum mosses to soil samples - known to have slower turnover times than vascular plants. Finally, we applied a GDGT soil temperature proxy to estimate the growing season soil temperatures before each incubation, as well as investigating the effects of incubation temperature on the index's temperature estimate.

  15. Alaskan transect links Holocene carbon shifts to peatland paleoecology and paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.; Andreev, A.; McGeachy, A.; Perez, M.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic and subarctic peatlands are highly sensitive to climate shifts, and greenhouse warming is greatest at high latitudes. As high latitudes warm and peatlands provide positive and negative feedbacks in carbon sequestration, the paleo-perspective becomes critical in assessing future peatland stocks. We target a north-south (temperature) and east-west (moisture) transect of Alaskan peatlands using pollen and spores, plant macrofossils, charcoal, stable isotopes, and C/N coupled with carbon to explore the relationship of climate and vegetation shifts to carbon storage through time. Since deglaciation, peatlands have developed in a variety of maritime and continental subarctic and arctic environments with vegetation ranging from fens to bogs. Factors affecting the net carbon storage (productivity and decomposition) include the vegetation type, precipitation, temperature, bryophyte component, seasonality, snow history, fire history, and permafrost. New paleoecological records from three Holocene peatlands, each spanning at least 9000 years, include a continental boreal forest site, Goldmine Bog, Fairbanks, (65°N, 147°W), and maritime sites including Phalarope Bog, Kodiak (57°N, 154°W), and Bear Bog, Cordova (60°N, 145°W). Major shifts in moisture and temperature are evident throughout the Holocene from our multiproxy investigations of each site. Our data address several questions about subarctic/arctic carbon storage and climate, such as whether bogs or fens sequester more carbon, as this topic is intensely debated in the current literature. We also compare shifts in inferred moisture and temperature with carbon storage at each site, and with other coastal and interior sites for a fuller understanding of changes in the climate of this important region.

  16. Interferometric detection of freeze-thaw displacements of Alaskan permafrost using ERS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Charles L.; Gabriel, Andrew K.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of making large scale (50 km) measurements of motions of the earth's surface with high resolution (10 m) and very high accuracy (1 cm) from multipass SAR interferometry was established in 1989. Other experiments have confirmed the viability and usefulness of the method. Work is underway in various groups to measure displacements from volcanic activity, seismic events, glacier motion, and in the present study, freeze-thaw cycles in Alaskan permafrost. The ground is known to move significantly in these cycles, and provided that freezing does not cause image decorrelation, it should be possible to measure both ground swelling and subsidence. The authors have obtained data from multiple passes of ERS-1 over the Toolik Lake region of northern Alaska of suitable quality for interferometry. The data are processed into images, and single interferograms are formed in the usual manner. Phase unwrapping is performed, and the multipass baselines are estimated from the images using both orbit ephemerides and scene tie points. The phases are scaled by the baseline ratio, and a double-difference interferogram (DDI) is formed. It is found that there is a residual 'saddle-shape' phase error across the image, which is postulated to be caused by a small divergence (10(exp -2) deg.) in the orbits. A simulation of a DDI from divergent orbits confirms the shape and magnitude of the error. A two-dimensional least squares fit to the error is performed, which is used to correct the DDI. The final, corrected DDI shows significant phase (altitude) changes over the period of the observation.

  17. Mercury Methylation in Alaskan Peatlands Spanning a Large Range of Trophic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Zhang, L.; Hines, M. E.; Barkay, T.; Schaefer, J.; Aiken, G.

    2015-12-01

    The process of mercury (Hg) methylation has long been recognized as a key area of research in order to understand spatial and temporal variability of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) on the landscape. Numerous factors affect MeHg production, the most important generally falling into those that affect inorganic Hg(II) bioavailability (e.g., Hg(II) concentration and ligand composition), and those that affect microbial community composition and activity. The principal goal of this project is to decipher the details of MeHg production in Alaskan peatlands exhibiting a range of trophic status, including those lacking in electron acceptors that support the traditional respiratory pathway of MeHg production (e.g., sulfate reduction). MeHg production is carried out by a diverse group of microorganisms that possess the gene cluster (hgcAB), including the well-studied sulfate and iron- reducing bacteria (SRB and FeRB). However, less well known bacteria also possess the hgcAB genes, including: syntrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and fermenters. Methylation and demethylation activities were determined by injecting trace levels of the stable isotope (198Hg and Me204Hg) into intact peat cores. In addition, the short-lived radioisotope 197Hg was used in laboratory incubations. Laboratory studies also included assays for changes in diagnostic gas concentrations (CH4, CO2, H2) and LMW organic acids (formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate) to infer specific microbial processes, and the use of genomics to confirm microbial assemblages and the presence/absence of hgcAB genes. Overall, we observed Hg methylation rates were greatest at minerotrophic sites with active syntrophy and methanogenesis. Methylation and demethylation rates corresponded significantly across sites. There was no evidence of SO4- reduction in these samples, and addition of SO4- did not stimulate methylation suggesting that methylation was conducted by SRB that were metabolizing syntrophically and/or by fermentation.

  18. Temperature calibration and phylogenetically distinct distributions for freshwater alkenones: Evidence from northern Alaskan lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, William M.; Theroux, Susanna; Giblin, Anne E.; Zheng, Yinsui; Dillon, James T.; Huang, Yongsong

    2016-05-01

    Alkenones are a class of unsaturated long-chain ketone biomarkers that have been used to reconstruct sea surface temperature and, more recently, continental temperature, by way of alkenone unsaturation indices (e.g. U37K and U37K‧). Alkenones are frequently found in brackish and saline lakes, however species effects confound temperature reconstructions when multiple alkenone-producing species with different temperature responses are present. Interestingly, available genetic data indicate that numerous freshwater lakes host a distinct phylotype of alkenone-producing haptophyte algae (the Group I or Greenland phylotype), providing evidence that species effects may be diminished in freshwater lakes. These findings encourage further investigation of alkenone paleotemperature proxies in freshwater systems. Here, we investigated lakes from northern Alaska (n = 35) and show that alkenones commonly occurred in freshwater lakes, where they featured distinct distributions, characterized by dominant C37:4 alkenones and a series of tri-unsaturated alkenone isomers. The distributions were characteristic of Group I-type alkenone distributions previously identified in Greenland and North America. Our analysis of suspended particulate matter from Toolik Lake (68° 38‧N, 149° 36‧W) yielded the first in situ freshwater U37K calibration (U37K = 0.021 * T - 0.68; r2 = 0.85; n = 52; RMSE = ±1.37 °C). We explored the environmental significance of the tri-unsaturated isomers using our northern Alaskan lakes dataset in conjunction with new data from haptophyte cultures and Canadian surface sediments. Our results show that these temperature-sensitive isomers are biomarkers for the Group I phylotype and indicators of multiple-species effects. Together, these findings highlight freshwater lakes as valuable targets for continental alkenone-based paleotemperature reconstructions and demonstrate the significance of the recently discovered tri-unsaturated isomers.

  19. Microbial Communities in Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments from the Alaskan North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, A.; Briggs, B.; Colwell, F.

    2008-12-01

    High latitude soils and sediments often contain large quantities of methane as well as microbial communities capable of producing and consuming the methane. We studied the microbial communities collected from hydrate-bearing sediments on the Alaskan North Slope to determine how abiotic variables (e.g., grain size, hydrate presence, original depositional environment) may control the type and distribution of microbes in the sediments. The cores were acquired from sub-permafrost, Eocene (35-36 million years ago [MYA]) sediments laid down as a marine transgressive series within which hydrates are believed to have formed 1.5 MYA. Forty samples, eight of which originally contained hydrates, were acquired from depths of ca. 606-666 meters below land surface. Five samples from drilling fluids acquired from the same depth range were included in the analysis as a control for contamination during the drilling and handling of cores. DNA was extracted from the samples (typically <1 ng DNA/g sediment was recovered) and then amplified using polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA. Only bacterial DNA amplicons were detected. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to measure bacterial diversity in the respective samples. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was then used to determine the abiotic variables that may have influenced bacterial diversity. NMDS analysis revealed that sediment samples were distinct from those obtained from drilling fluids suggesting that the samples were not contaminated by the drilling fluids. All samples had evidence of microbial communities and sample depth, temperature, and hydrate presence appeared to have some influence on community diversity. Samples sharing these environmental parameters often shared common t-RFLP profiles. Further examination of selected samples using clone libraries should help to identify the key taxa present in these unique sediments and yield a

  20. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat