Science.gov

Sample records for alaskan rural communities

  1. Transport of fecal bacteria by boots and vehicle tires in a rural Alaskan community.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Molly K; Ford, Malcolm R; White, Daniel M; Barnes, David L; Schiewer, Silke

    2009-02-01

    People living without piped water and sewer can be at increased risk for diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. One rural Alaskan community that relies on hauling water into homes and sewage from homes was studied to determine the pathways of fecal contamination of drinking water and the human environment so that barriers can be established to protect health. Samples were tested for the fecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and the less specific indicator group, total coliforms. Shoes transported fecal contamination from outside to floor material inside buildings. Contamination in puddles on the road, in conjunction with contamination found on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) tires, supports vehicle traffic as a mechanism for transporting contamination from the dumpsite or other source areas to the rest of the community. The abundance of fecal bacteria transported around the community on shoes and ATV tires suggests that centralized measures for waste disposal as well as shoe removal in buildings could improve sanitation and health in the community.

  2. Communicating Risk and Cultivating Resilience in Rural Alaskan Communities: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Flood Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing extent and vulnerability of technologically advanced society together with aspects of global climate change intensifies the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Every year, communities around the world face the devastating consequences of hazardous events, including loss of life, property and infrastructure damage, and environmental decline. Environmentally sound strategies have to be developed to minimize these consequences. However, hazard-prone areas differ geographically, climatically, and culturally. There is no a one-size-fits-all solution. Thus, it is crucial that future decision-makers not only know the conditions that make some natural Earth processes hazardous to people, but also understand how people perceive and adjust to potential natural hazards in their regions. In May 2013, an ice jam caused major flooding in Galena, a remote village in interior Alaska. Within two days, flooding destroyed nearly the entire region's infrastructure, and displaced over 400 residents. Almost a year later, a significant part of Galena's population was still evacuated in Fairbanks and other neighboring towns. The rebuilding holdup reflected the federal government's reluctance to spend millions of dollars an the area that may be destroyed again by the next flood. Massive floods inundated towns along the Yukon River before (e.g., Eagle in 2009 and Holycross in 1975), but people return to refurbish and again inhabit the same territories. Rivers have a significant importance to Alaskan rural communities. Not only do rivers provide food, drink, transportation, and in some cases arable land and irrigation, but they also carry cultural significance for the Native Alaskan people. The Galena case study provides a revealing example of challenges of communicating with and educating the public and policy makers about natural hazards.

  3. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section... § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a) General. (1) This section contains regulations for providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds...

  4. Inside Perspectives: An Analysis of a Public School Program in a Rural Alaskan Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiebaux, Raananna L.

    This paper examines the perceptions of educators, parents, and students in a rural Alaska town concerning educational quality and issues in their schools. A literature review provides background on the history of education in the region, the value of culturally congruent education for Native students, the importance of teacher background in…

  5. Digital storytelling: a tool for health promotion and cancer awareness in rural Alaskan communities

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Dignan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to learn community members’ perspectives about digital storytelling after viewing a digital story created by a Community Health Aide/Practitioner (CHA/P). Methods Using a qualitative research design, we explored digital storytelling likeability as a health-messaging tool, health information viewers reported learning and, if viewing, cancer-related digital stories facilitated increased comfort in talking about cancer. In addition, we enquired if the digital stories affected how viewers felt about cancer, as well as if viewing the digital stories resulted in health behaviour change or intent to change health behaviour. Findings A total of 15 adult community members participated in a 30–45 minute interview, 1–5 months post-viewing of a CHA/P digital story. The majority (13) of viewers interviewed were female, all were Alaska Native and they ranged in age from 25 to 54 years with the average age being 40 years. Due to the small size of communities, which ranged in population from 160 to 2,639 people, all viewers knew the story creator or knew of the story creator. Viewers reported digital stories as an acceptable, emotionally engaging way to increase their cancer awareness and begin conversations. These conversations often served as a springboard for reflection, insight, and cancer-prevention and risk-reduction activities. PMID:26343881

  6. Native Alaskan Engagement with Social Constructions of Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherval, Meg

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that defining and measuring "rurality" is problematic. In states such as Alaska on the western Pacific coast of the United States, more than two-thirds of the State is classified as "remote rural". In 2000, despite only 10 per cent of the general Alaskan population living in these regions, for more than 41 per…

  7. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  8. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  9. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  10. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the latest decennial Census of the United States. (c) Eligibility. (1) The applicant must be a rural... to residents of rural or Native Alaskan villages. (f) Construction. (1) If the State of Alaska is..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application...

  11. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  12. Village Science: A Resource Handbook for Rural Alaskan Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Alan

    A resource handbook for rural Alaskan teachers covers village science, to make basic science concepts relevant to the physical environment in villages. Material is intended for use as filler for weeks that come up short on science materials, to provide stimulation for students who cannot see the relevance of science in their lives, and to help…

  13. STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students): Mathematics. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Ned; Ostrom, Robert

    STARS (Secondary Training for Alaskan Rural Students) materials resulted from extensive rewriting of the Vocational Adult Secondary Training (VAST) materials produced by the British Columbia Department of Education, after those materials had been used with the 9th and 10th graders on Kodiak Island. Revision was done by teachers who had been using…

  14. Rural Alaskan Schools: Educational Specifications. Reprinted September, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    The educational specifications of facilities for rural Alaskan schools are given in this 1964 report. Alaska's 6 recognized geographic regions are briefly described with consideration to topography, climate, permafrost conditions, latitude position, and transportation difficulties which present problems in planning schools. Since the school design…

  15. A Statistical Profile: Women in the Alaskan Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seppanen, Loretta J.

    Women's status as students and employees in Alaska's community colleges is greatly influenced by the unique Alaskan environment, where women make up only 47.6% of the population and where the population is on the whole very young. Women comprised 58% of all enrolled students in Alaskan community colleges in fall 1982 and received 56% of the…

  16. Alaskan Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achatz, Mary, Ed.; Caldera, Debra, Ed.; Saylor, Brian; DeGross, Denny

    This paper examines the attitudes of adults and teenagers in 10 predominantly rural Alaskan communities toward their own health and well-being and that of children and families in their community. The communities were located across the state and ranged in size from populations of under 900 to over 50,000. The proportion of Alaska Natives in the…

  17. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities summarizes the findings of a work group of EPA, HUD, DOT, and USDA and creates a framework for the Partnership for Sustainable Communities’ future work with rural communities.

  18. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation about creating sustainable rural communities discussing principles, energy efficiency, water quality, waste, business, building improvements and restoration, transportation, and green building.transportation, and green building.

  19. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  20. Biocorrosive thermophilic microbial communities in Alaskan North Slope oil facilities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Gieg, Lisa M; Parisi, Victoria A; Tanner, Ralph S; Tringe, Susannah Green; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M

    2009-10-15

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptide- and amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely reinjected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and can provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  1. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  2. Rural and Urban Fatal Pedestrian Crashes Among United States American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    PubMed Central

    LaValley, Jonathon; Crandall, Cameron S.; Banks, Laura; Sklar, David P.; Boodlal, Leverson

    2003-01-01

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were used to compare fatal pedestrian crashes in American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) between urban and rural locations for 2000–2001. There were significant differences between urban and rural crashes for driver, pedestrian, environmental, and engineering factors. Rural pedestrian crashes more often occurred on highways (p<0.0001) lacking traffic control devices (p<0.0001) and artificial lighting (p<0.0001). Alcohol was a significant cofactor in both environments (40% urban vs. 55% rural; p=0.0239). Prevention of AI/AN deaths should include engineering countermeasures specific to the needs of rural (lighting) and urban (medians with barriers) environments and address drinking behavior in both populations. PMID:12941222

  3. Rural and urban fatal pedestrian crashes among United States American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    LaValley, Jonathon; Crandall, Cameron S; Banks, Laura; Sklar, David P; Boodlal, Leverson

    2003-01-01

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were used to compare fatal pedestrian crashes in American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) between urban and rural locations for 2000-2001. There were significant differences between urban and rural crashes for driver, pedestrian, environmental, and engineering factors. Rural pedestrian crashes more often occurred on highways (p<0.0001) lacking traffic control devices (p<0.0001) and artificial lighting (p<0.0001). Alcohol was a significant cofactor in both environments (40% urban vs. 55% rural; p=0.0239). Prevention of AI/AN deaths should include engineering countermeasures specific to the needs of rural (lighting) and urban (medians with barriers) environments and address drinking behavior in both populations.

  4. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural…

  5. Family Medicine in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Michael; Wootton, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Recruitment of physicians for rural communities is a continuing problem in Canada. Medical schools can be involved through preferential admission policies. Departments of family medicine across the country are including on-site training in rural communities and are seeking to improve their rural program curriculum. The McGill rural program is described from its origins to its present state. A rural coordinator oversees 12 sites at which both residents and students are trained. One site at Shawville, Que, is described from a rural physician's point of view. Imagesp2011-ap2012-ap2014-a PMID:21233945

  6. Preparing Rural Community College Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mitchell R.; Pennington, Kevin L.; Couch, Gene; Dougherty, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of universities offer graduate programs that focus specifically on preparing rural community college leaders. At the same time, community colleges are facing projections of unprecedented turnover in both administrative and instructional leadership. The rural community college is a unique educational institution which faces…

  7. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  8. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  9. Federal Resources for Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal Resources for Sustainable Rural Communities (2012) highlights federal resources rural communities can use to promote economic competitiveness, protect healthy environments, and enhance quality of life.

  10. Social Disruption and Psychological Stress in an Alaskan Fishing Community: The Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; And Others

    Technological accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 create man-made disaster situations that threaten community survival and the well-being and quality of life of community residents. This paper focuses on the social and psychological impact of the 1989 oil spill on Cordova, an isolated Alaskan community with high economic…

  11. School-Community Partnerships in Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates complexities involved in establishing school-community partnership in a cross-cultural setting--an Alaskan village of 500 inhabitants. Analyzes outcomes of a three-week multidisciplinary program developed jointly by high school students and teachers which utilized Native community members and resources to study kayak and boat building,…

  12. Fisheries portfolio diversification and turnover buffer Alaskan fishing communities from abrupt resource and market changes

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Timothy J.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures. PMID:28091534

  13. Fisheries portfolio diversification and turnover buffer Alaskan fishing communities from abrupt resource and market changes.

    PubMed

    Cline, Timothy J; Schindler, Daniel E; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-16

    Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures.

  14. NifH-Harboring Bacterial Community Composition across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient.

    PubMed

    Penton, C Ryan; Yang, Caiyun; Wu, Liyou; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feifei; Qin, Yujia; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L; Zheng, Tianling; Schuur, Edward A G; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes with those most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta Proteobacteria more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites.

  15. NifH-Harboring Bacterial Community Composition across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Penton, C. Ryan; Yang, Caiyun; Wu, Liyou; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feifei; Qin, Yujia; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Zheng, Tianling; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes with those most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta Proteobacteria more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites. PMID:27933054

  16. A Rural Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Rubye Wilkerson

    1991-01-01

    Describes one researcher's experiences as she interviewed rural families during a comprehensive survey of Johnson County, Tennessee. Discusses health care problems and needs, family support systems for the sick and elderly, fears about cancer risks, and the real picture of underemployment versus the official unemployment rate. (SV)

  17. Learning about Social Work in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Emilia

    1978-01-01

    A cooperative experiment among Pennsylvania rural communities and the University of Delaware and La Salle College, this course ("Re-Emerging Issues in Social Welfare: The Rural and Small Community") was developed to expose urban students to a rural environment and to utilize rural educational resources. (JC)

  18. Using Technology To Educate Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children in Rural Alaskan General Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 79 teachers of Alaskan students with deafness found those who use instructional technology tended to be older, hold an advanced degree and secondary education certification, benefit from in-service training onsite, are connected to the Internet, and actively use the technology available at their schools. (Contains references.)…

  19. The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.

    The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

  20. Delivering Community Services in Rural Communities: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Allan

    This paper examines specific problems facing community service delivery in rural Australia and efforts to overcome these deficiencies. The generic term "rural" is advantageous in that it delineates particular problems facing rural communities, aids in resource allocation, raises public awareness of rural disadvantage, and provides an…

  1. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  2. Empowering Rural Communities for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, Sue

    The school/community improvement process adapted by the Rural, Small Schools Program at the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) serves to revitalize and improve rural schools, incorporating commitment of both school and community leaders to rural school improvement. This paper describes implementation of the process in four school districts,…

  3. Rural School Leadership for Collaborative Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobarat L.; Schafft, Kai

    2009-01-01

    In this article we address the role of rural schools in community development. We first discuss the largely historical linkages between rural schools and the communities they serve, and what this means for both school and community well-being. We then consider the newly revised standards for preparing school administrators, developed by the…

  4. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  5. Microbial Communities in Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments from the Alaskan North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, A.; Briggs, B.; Colwell, F.

    2008-12-01

    High latitude soils and sediments often contain large quantities of methane as well as microbial communities capable of producing and consuming the methane. We studied the microbial communities collected from hydrate-bearing sediments on the Alaskan North Slope to determine how abiotic variables (e.g., grain size, hydrate presence, original depositional environment) may control the type and distribution of microbes in the sediments. The cores were acquired from sub-permafrost, Eocene (35-36 million years ago [MYA]) sediments laid down as a marine transgressive series within which hydrates are believed to have formed 1.5 MYA. Forty samples, eight of which originally contained hydrates, were acquired from depths of ca. 606-666 meters below land surface. Five samples from drilling fluids acquired from the same depth range were included in the analysis as a control for contamination during the drilling and handling of cores. DNA was extracted from the samples (typically <1 ng DNA/g sediment was recovered) and then amplified using polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA. Only bacterial DNA amplicons were detected. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to measure bacterial diversity in the respective samples. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was then used to determine the abiotic variables that may have influenced bacterial diversity. NMDS analysis revealed that sediment samples were distinct from those obtained from drilling fluids suggesting that the samples were not contaminated by the drilling fluids. All samples had evidence of microbial communities and sample depth, temperature, and hydrate presence appeared to have some influence on community diversity. Samples sharing these environmental parameters often shared common t-RFLP profiles. Further examination of selected samples using clone libraries should help to identify the key taxa present in these unique sediments and yield a

  6. Rural Schools and Communities: How Globalization Influences Rural School and Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how a rural school district and the communities in which the district belonged collaborated on a community development initiative. This dissertation examined the opportunities and constraints rural communities are facing and the role that a rural school system could play in increasing social and economic sustainability of rural…

  7. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  8. Recruiting and Retaining Rural Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Much is being written about a potential shortage of qualified community college faculty. Rural community colleges may be at the greatest disadvantage in attracting and retaining new faculty because they cannot offer the financial, cultural, and social advantages that more urban institutions can. This chapter describes the factors rural community…

  9. Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia

    This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

  10. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  11. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates ... for information about oral health programs in my area? The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors ( ...

  12. Rural Community Service Coordinator Program Interim Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, William D.; Heffernan, Judith Bortner

    This is an early assessment of the Rural Community Service Coordinator Program (RCSCP), organized by the University of Missouri Extension Service using funds from the federal Food Security Act of 1985. Five full-time coordinators were named by area mental health officials to help rural people cope with despair and emotional disturbances caused by…

  13. Trade Books with a Rural Community Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Lists books with rural or small community themes available for children, grades K-eight, to serve as motivational reading texts or resources in units on farming or rural life in social studies or science. Categorizes selections as informational, poetry, traditional, contemporary realistic fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, or concept books.…

  14. Community outreach: rural mobile health unit.

    PubMed

    Alexy, B B; Elnitsky, C A

    1996-12-01

    With the increased emphasis on cost containment, hospital administrators are investigating community outreach projects to remain economically viable. The authors describe the planning and implementation of a mobile health unit for rural elderly residents. This project represents an alternative model of healthcare delivery in a rural area with limited resources and healthcare providers.

  15. Microbial community response to permafrost thaw after wildfire in an Alaskan upland boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Wang, S.; Berhe, A. A.; Wickland, K. P.; Waldrop, M. P.; Jansson, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is a major factor controlling the long-term dynamics of soil carbon in Alaskan boreal forests. Wildfire not only contributes to a significant global emission of greenhouse gasses but also can indirectly result in the deepening of the active layer and thawing of near-surface permafrost due to reductions in organic layer depth and increases in heat flux through soil. Although boreal ecosystems are fire-adapted, increased fire frequency and rising global temperatures may result in warmer soils and therefore increase the metabolic rates of decomposer microbes and result in accelerated permafrost decomposition and greenhouse gas fluxes. In addition to fire-mediated changes in soil and vegetation structure, changes in the soil microbial community structure are likely to have consequences for rates of soil carbon cycling. In this study we aimed to define the impact of fire on soil microbial communities in an upland black spruce forest and to assess microbial metabolic potential for soil respiration, methanogenesis, and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Soil samples from two fire impacted and three control (unburned) locations were collected near Nome Creek, AK, an upland moderately drained black spruce forest. This location was within the Boundary fire that burned between mid-June and the end of August 2004. Soil temperature measurements from before and after the fire showed that soils were warmer after the fire event and the permafrost thawed below 1m. At each sampling location, soil and permafrost samples were collected every 10 cm to a depth of 1 m. Besides biochemical characterization, CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes and potential activities of enzymes involved in extracellular decomposition of complex organic molecules (hemicellulose, chitin and lignin) were measured. The microbial community composition in the samples was determined by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microbial metabolic potential was assessed via sequencing of total genomic DNA (metagenomics) in selected active

  16. Rural Community Library in 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jan

    This paper explores what the rural library will look like in 2001, and envisions rural information needs and the roles the library will assume to meet those needs. Demographically, the year 2001 will see an aging population, low population growth, and a rising percentage of racial minorities. Key areas of public concern will be the environment and…

  17. Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaunches, Alison, Ed.; Loveland, Elaina, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the six issues of "Rural Roots" published bimonthly in 2002. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in rural schools and communities across…

  18. Community Leaders' Perceptions of the Importance of Rural Community Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, J. David

    1989-01-01

    Reports on interviews with community leaders associated with four rural Ohio high schools. Finds that these schools are the nuclei of their communities, are highly valued, and provide a community facility for recreational and cultural activities and for adult meetings. (SV)

  19. Service Learning in the Rural Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Nicholas

    Service learning is a pedagogical model that connects community service experiences with academic course learning. Large urban centers are often the leaders in developing service learning programs, due to the central locations of both institutions of higher education and community needs. This paper argues that rural areas have the same problems…

  20. Sustaining Opportunity in Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Viterito, Arthur; Heeter, Aimee; Hernandez, Ebelia; Santiague, Lilia; Johnson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This assessment considers the sustainability of initiatives begun as a result of participation in the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI). Case studies were conducted at eight community colleges, and quantitative data was gathered from the U.S. Census, the Department of Labor, and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).…

  1. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  2. Community Leaders' Perspectives of a Rural Community College's Impact on Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Reine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the role a rural community college plays in the development of its community, using a holistic, community-based lens that considered college and community context, interactions and results to answer the question: "How does the rural community college impact the development of the…

  3. The Role of the Rural Community College in Rural Community Development. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Jonathan D.

    Rural community colleges have an important role to play in the economic development of their communities and in preparing community members for technological, economic, and societal changes. Community-based programming (CBP) is one tool utilized by colleges to become aware of local problems by collaborating with citizens, leaders, and…

  4. Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

  5. Hogwash: The Community College in the Rural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Dan

    1975-01-01

    The extent of economic and social decay in rural America has yet to be recognized by the community college. Instead of emphasizing rural survival, community college programs often weaken rural institutions and encourage the migration of rural students to the cities. Recommendations to alleviate the problem are suggested. (AH)

  6. The Carter Administration: Small Community and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jimmy

    The Carter Administration is adopting a Small Community and Rural Development Policy because: (1) rural America's human and natural resources are a mainstay of the nation's economy and way of life; (2) many rural areas are in the midst of significant economic and demographic change; (3) rural people and communities have greater unmet basic human…

  7. Learning To Find the "Niches"; Rural Education and Vitalizing Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl

    During the past two decades, rural America has undergone substantial restructuring that affects both rural education and prospects for rural economic development. Rural restructuring has made rural America more economically dependent and more economically and socially diverse, has replaced relatively autonomous communities with regional units of…

  8. Serving Inland Rural Communities through University Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julaine; Pope, Rod; O'Meara, Peter; Higgs, Joy; Kent, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To effectively provide clinical placements for students and increase healthcare options for rural communities, an investigation of university clinics was conducted. Method: This project adopted a consultative inquiry strategy and involved two processes: (1) a review of literature; and (2) interviews with existing health sciences clinic staff.…

  9. The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

  10. Rural Schools and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Largy, Paul

    1981-01-01

    A community education project in Brooks County, Georgia, began in 1977 with five people, developed county-wide support, and now includes a community education county council, federal funding, volunteer programs, after-school programs, agricultural education (especially swine production), and a day-care center. (AN)

  11. Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    Community gardening projects can enhance community food security and improve the nutrition of project participants. However, limited information exists on the most effective models and methods for establishing community gardens in rural areas. A survey of 12 rural community gardening projects found a variety of program models: community gardens…

  12. Plant growth form more important than temperature in controlling CH{sub 4} flux in Alaskan tundra communities

    SciTech Connect

    Verville, J.H.; Chapin, F.S. III.; Hobbie, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    We conducted species removals, vegetation and soil transplants, and air temperature manipulations in Alaskan wet meadow and upland tussock tundra communities to determine the relative importance of vegetation type and environmental variables in controlling CH{sub 4} flux. Removal of sedges in the wet meadow community significantly decreased CH{sub 4} flux, while moss removal had no significant effects on emissions. At 15 cm depth, pore water CH{sub 4} concentrations were higher in sedge removals, relative to control plots, suggesting that sedges contribute to CH{sub 4} emissions by transporting CH{sub 4} from anaerobic soil to the atmosphere, rather than by promoting methanogenesis. In reciprocal ecosystem transplants between the wet meadow and upland tussock tundra communities, CH{sub 4} flux was higher in the wet meadow site, but was unrelated to transplant origin. Soil temperature, thaw depth, and water table depth were correlated with CH{sub 4} flux, but their relative importance on a local level varied throughout the season. Plastic greenhouses placed over the wet meadow species removal plots increased soil moisture and air and soil temperatures, but did not affect CH{sub 4} flux. These results suggest that future changes in CH{sub 4} flux in response to climatic change will be more strongly mediated by large-scale changes in soil moisture and vegetation than by direct temperature effects on CH{sub 4} emissions.

  13. The concept of rural community practice (RCP).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N Ole; Evans, Brian; King, Lonnie J

    2006-01-01

    The need to devote more human resources to veterinary public practice to cope with escalating threats to biological security, public health, and economic prosperity, while also addressing societal value changes, has been widely recognized and supported. Most envisage increasing the numbers of veterinarians in government employment. Why not at least combine this initiative, wherever possible, with far greater involvement of rural practitioners to deliver contractual public-practice services and provide an enhanced community interface? This could make the difference between having a local practice in a community or none at all, as well as promising to be more cost effective. The concept of rural community practice (RCP) envisages combining traditional services provided in a "mixed-animal" veterinary practice with an expanded portfolio of public-practice and communication services that meet the emerging animal, public, and ecosystem health needs of the collective community, not just those of animal owners. These services could include those involving active sentinel surveillance programs for both domestic animal and wildlife diseases; on-farm food safety; bio-security; traceability and export certification and audit programs; disease investigation, including foreign animal diseases; surge capacity emergency response; managing for ecosystem health; and client and community education. An expanded practice team of animal-health professionals and technologists, led by veterinarians, would deliver these services. This RCP approach should have the potential to make rural practice more attractive from economic, lifestyle, and job-satisfaction perspectives; to enhance the visibility and recognition of the profession; and to respond to changing and new societal needs. It also promises to maintain a stable network of veterinary practices in rural communities. In addition, the recognition of veterinary medicine as a public good should provide for consideration of increased

  14. Rural Community Colleges Developing Perceptions of Self-Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.

    2006-01-01

    Rural America, in direct competition with growing suburban and urban America, has struggled to maintain a high quality of life. Rural out-migration levels are high, as are poverty and illiteracy rates. Rural community colleges have worked to defend and expand opportunities in rural settings, yet face their own challenges tied to resources,…

  15. From Hometown to Nontown: Rural Community Effects of Suburbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Sonya

    2003-01-01

    Regional suburbanization processes are transforming rural America socially and physically, threatening the uniqueness of small towns whose diversity is a national resource. This article reviews existing holistic descriptions of American rural communities since post-World War II by rural sociologists and anthropologists. Three new community case…

  16. External Culture: Its Impact on Rural Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article is concerned with external culture and its impact on a rural community college president. Interviews with 15 senior leaders explored the typical mindsets and values existing in a rural setting. Findings indicate that to improve the…

  17. Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of…

  18. Rural Policy Matters: A Newsletter of Rural School & Community Action, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Policy Matters, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the 10 issues of the newsletter Rural Policy Matters published in 1999. The newsletter seeks to promote understanding of the complex issues affecting rural schools and communities, to inform the public debate over rural education policy, and to report what rural people are doing to shape education policy in their state.…

  19. Rural Social Welfare: Preparing Students To Work Effectively in Rural Communities. An Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rosemary

    The complexity of rural practice in rural and remote communities means that higher order skills are required by rural social workers. In 1991, the University of Ballarat in Victoria (Australia) began teaching a course to prepare students for work in rural social welfare. The course was developed partly to meet industry needs, as local agencies…

  20. Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westra, Kathryn E., Ed.; Yaunches, H. Alison, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the first eight issues of "Rural Roots"--two published in 2000 and six published bimonthly in 2001. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in…

  1. The Role of Rural Schools in Rural Community Development. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce A.

    Rural schools traditionally have played a central role in their communities. Now, as rural communities face declining quality of life and threats to their viability, collaborative partnerships between communities and schools offer a promising approach to community revitalization and survival. Researchers have identified three distinct, yet related…

  2. Living and Learning in Rural Schools and Communities. A Report to the Annenberg Rural Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Miles; Canniff, Julie; Casey, Mary; Christian, Scott; Cochrane, Candace; Fontaine, Carla; Landry, Richard; Leiter, Bob; Shirley, Dennis; Sosniak, Lauren; Stafanakis, Evangeline; Titone, Connie; Ulichny, Polly; Williams, Ben; Wood, Doug

    The Annenberg Rural Challenge represents a large national effort to transform rural schools and communities. Among its dominant themes are that students should come to know their local communities well, that communities should see schools and students as critical assets, and that communities and schools need to become more integrated. As part of a…

  3. Economic Development Practices among Small/Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbeck, Tim, Comp.; Falcone, Lisa, Ed.

    In developing this compendium of exemplary economic development practices among small and/or rural two-year colleges, the American Association of Community Colleges Commission on Small/Rural Community Colleges (CSMCC) sent out a call for program descriptions to all community colleges with less than 3,000 full-time employees or that were…

  4. Evidence of a Housing Decision Chain in Rural Community Vitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Christine C.; Crull, Sue R.; Bruin, Marilyn J.; Yust, Becky L.; Shelley, Mack C.; Laux, Sharon; Memken, Jean; Niemeyer, Shirley; White, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and explain the role housing plays in rural community vitality. Community vitality refers to economic strength and social well-being. In spring 2002 we collected primary interview data from informants in 134 small rural communities in nine north-central states and identified related secondary data from…

  5. Leadership for Change: Working for Community Change in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) is a national program that supports the efforts of community colleges in distressed rural areas to move their people and communities toward prosperity. RCCI's goals are increasing access to education and developing regional economies. RCCI demonstration sites have produced a wealth of information about…

  6. Quality of Community Life among Rural Residents: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auh, Seongyeon; Cook, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships among housing satisfaction, community attachment and community satisfaction and the complex mechanisms involved in predicting community satisfaction among residents in rural communities. The role of housing satisfaction and community attachment in predicting community satisfaction was…

  7. Effects of migratory geese on plant communities of an Alaskan salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Hupp, J.W.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2001-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on two salt marsh plant communities in Cook Inlet, Alaska, a stopover area used during spring migration. From 1995 to 1997 we compared plant species composition and biomass on plots where geese were excluded from feeding with paired plots where foraging could occur. 2. Foraging intensity was low (650-1930 goose-days km-2) compared to other goose-grazing systems. 3. Canada geese fed mainly on above-ground shoots of Triglochin maritimum, Puccinellia spp. and Carex ramenskii, whereas the majority of the snow goose diet consisted of below-ground tissues of Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritimum. 4. Plant communities responded differently to goose herbivory. In the sedge meadow community, where feeding was primarily on above-ground shoots, there was no effect of grazing on the dominant species Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum. In the herb meadow community, where snow geese fed on Plantago maritima roots and other below-ground tissues, there was a difference in the relative abundance of plant species between treatments. Biomass of Plantago maritima and Potentilla egedii was lower on grazed plots compared with exclosed, whereas biomass of Carex ramenskii was greater on grazed plots. There was no effect of herbivory on total standing crop biomass in either community. The variable effect of herbivory on Carex ramenskii between communities suggests that plant neighbours and competitive interactions are important factors in a species' response to herbivory. In addition, the type of herbivory (above- or below-ground) was important in determining plant community response to herbivory. 5. Litter accumulation was reduced in grazed areas compared with exclosed in both communities. Trampling of the previous year's litter into the soil surface by geese incorporated more litter into soils in grazed areas. 6. This study illustrates that even light herbivore

  8. Food cost disparities in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    Promotion of healthy eating is an effective public health strategy to prevent chronic disease incidence and progression. However, food prices can impede healthy eating, especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether food costs are associated with nutritional quality, geographic location, and month of year. The Overall Nutritional Quality Index and cost of 92 foods were assessed four times over a 10-month period in the primary grocery stores in four Kentucky counties, two rural and two urban. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in food costs by nutritional quality, county, and month. Among more nutritious food items, costs were lower in urban areas. This was particularly true among foods in the highest quartile of nutritional quality. Across all counties, there was a pattern of highest per-serving costs in the second quartile of nutritional quality, whereas more nutritious foods were less expensive. Strategies that help individuals improve the ability to identify and prepare less costly foods with high nutritional value may be effective in improving dietary habits, particularly in rural, impoverished food deserts.

  9. Food Cost Disparities in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    Promotion of healthy eating is an effective public health strategy to prevent chronic disease incidence and progression. However, food prices can impede healthy eating, especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether food costs are associated with nutritional quality, geographic location, and month of year. The Overall Nutritional Quality Index and cost of 92 foods were assessed four times over a 10-month period in the primary grocery stores in four Kentucky counties, two rural and two urban. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in food costs by nutritional quality, county, and month. Among more nutritious food items, costs were lower in urban areas. This was particularly true among foods in the highest quartile of nutritional quality. Across all counties, there was a pattern of highest per-serving costs in the second quartile of nutritional quality, whereas more nutritious foods were less expensive. Strategies that help individuals improve the ability to identify and prepare less costly foods with high nutritional value may be effective in improving dietary habits, particularly in rural, impoverished food deserts. PMID:25305093

  10. Social Work in Rural Communities. A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Leon H., Ed.

    Designed to serve as a resource tool for educators and social work practitioners, this collection of articles on social work in rural communities presents: (1) "An Overview of Social Work Education for Rural Areas"; (2) "Social Work Education for Rural Program Development" (the "generalist" and the principles, dynamics, and educational content and…

  11. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This third special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents 9 articles on: "Rural Adolescent Views of HIV Prevention: Focus Groups at Two Indiana Rural 4-H Clubs" (William L. Yarber and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Implementing HIV Education: Beyond Curriculum" (Susan…

  12. The Rural Low-Income Student and the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Don A., Ed.

    Topics discussed at this conference concerned with education for the rural poor were: (1) "The Community College and the Rural Poor," (2) "The Rural Low Income Student--What a Small College Can Do to Get Them Into School and Keep Them There," (3) "The New Iron Ore Industry Worker Needs New Schools and New Programs to Keep Marketable," (4) "The…

  13. Rural Schools, Rural Communities: An Alternative View of the Future. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    The urbanization and industrialization of a society based on commercial competitiveness has resulted in the marginalization of rural communities and the disempowerment of rural people. An alternative view of the future is needed, and rural schools have a part to play in creating it. Four sets of forces are driving society toward a different…

  14. Building Communities: How Rural Community Colleges Develop Their Communities and the People Who Live in Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.

    2007-01-01

    Community colleges in rural environments provide a variety of services. There is a great deal of documentation supporting those services that are academic and economic. The noneconomic and nonacademic results of community college activities, however, have an undocumented yet significant impact on local communities. The current study focused on how…

  15. Community and Competence: A Study of an Indigenous Primary Prevention Organization in an Alaskan Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDiarmid, G. Williamson

    1983-01-01

    An indigenous, village-controlled, largely village-funded youth organization in a remote Western Alaska village serves educational, social, recreational, service, and economic functions; provides activities vital to community social/recreational life, relief from stress, and alternatives to substance abuse; and increases competency and sense of…

  16. Five Steps to Community Assessment for American Indian/Alaskan Native Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Community Assessment (CA) is the collection and analysis of information on the characteristics and needs of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) Head Start/Early Head Start (HS/EHS) eligible children and families in the grantee service area and the resources available to meet those needs. The primary purpose of conducting a Community…

  17. 75 FR 55578 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  18. Part-Time Farming and the Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, William D.; Green, Gary

    In order to assess the impact of the growing number of part-time farm families on the nature of social relations in rural communities, part-time and full-time farmers from five counties in South-Central Missouri were compared on three aspects: (1) community integration; (2) perceived benefits from rural living; and (3) goals and priorities they…

  19. The Attraction of Adjunct Faculty to Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Hara Dracon

    2010-01-01

    As rural community colleges face mounting fiscal pressure, the ability to attract adjunct faculty members to support the institutional mission becomes increasingly important. Although the professional literature documents differences between rural, suburban, and urban community colleges, the effect of this institutional diversity on the role and…

  20. Equity and Adequacy Challenges in Rural Schools and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, William J.

    A meeting of education finance scholars discussed finance issues relevant to rural schools and communities. This paper summarizes major themes that emerged during the meeting. Notions of efficiency and economies of scale have contributed to widespread consolidation of rural schools and school districts. The value of community is not easily…

  1. The Dollar Game Curriculum: Inspiring Wealth Creation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braak, Willem J.; Lewin, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Rural wealth creation and local entrepreneurship are emerging economic development approaches that bring back a sense of self-determination to rural communities. However, their potential is often greatly diminished by preconceived and opposing notions within the community on what drives economic growth. The Dollar Game is an innovative curriculum…

  2. Rural Community Colleges: Creating Institutional Hybrids for the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    2001-01-01

    The rural community college has evolved into a multipurpose institution that meets lifelong learning needs and the economy's demand for information and skills. The best institutions merge an applied higher education with extension-like services for local industry. New challenges facing rural community colleges include competition from other…

  3. Temporal variability of benthic communities in an Alaskan glacial fjord, 1971-2007.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Hoberg, Max K

    2010-03-01

    Temporal trends of deep-subtidal macrofauna in Port Valdez, Alaska, were assessed with respect to multiple environmental stressors. Effects from a magnitude 9.2 earthquake in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1964, were reflected in recolonization of the basin of the fjord, increased abundance and number of taxa over time, and moderately increased variability in abundance through 1990, stabilizing 26years after the earthquake. Long-term climatic variability and local physical processes were important sources of spatial and temporal variability. Correlative evidence suggests that indirect effects of juvenile salmon from a shoreline salmon hatchery and deposition of adult salmon carcasses moderately enhanced deep-basin benthic communities. Effects on the deep benthos from a marine oil terminal were negligible. Overall, faunal trends deviated from the stability expected for benthic communities in other fjords. Physical characteristics of the fjord were important in mediating the effects of stressors and in delaying the readjustment process.

  4. Changes in Alaskan soft-bottom prey communities along a gradient in sea otter predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvitek, R.G.; Oliver, J.S.; DeGange, A.R.; Anderson, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris), well documented as "keystone" predators in rocky marine communities, were found to exert a strong influence on infaunal prey communities in soft-sediment habitats. Direct and indirect effects of sea otter predation on subtidal soft-bottom prey communities were evaluated along a temporal gradient of sea otter occupancy around the Kodiak Archipelago. The results indicate that Kodiak otters forage primarily on bivalve prey and dramatically reduce infaunal bivalve and green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) prey populations. Bivalve prey abundance, biomass, and size were inversely related to duration of sea otter occupancy. The relative conditions of shells discarded by otters in shallow (<10 m) vs. deep (> 20 m) water at the same sites indicate that otters first exploited Saxidomus in shallow-water feeding areas, and later switched to Macoma spp. in deeper water. Otter-cracked shells of the deep-burrowing clam Tresus capax were rarely found, even at otter foraging sites where the clam accounted for the majority of available prey biomass, suggesting that it has a partial depth refuge from otter predation. The indirect effects of otter predation included substratum disturbance and the facilitation of sea star predation on infaunal prey. Sea stars, Pycnopodia helianthoides, were attracted to experimentally dug excavations as well as natural sea otter foraging pits, where the sea stars foraged on smaller size classes of infaunal bivalves than those eaten by otters. Otters also discard clam shells on the sediment surface and expose old, buried shells during excavation. Surface shells were found to provide attachment sites for large anemones and kelp. Our study shows that sea otters can affect soft-sediment communities, not only through predation, as in rocky habitats, but also through disturbance, and thus retain a high degree of influence in two very different habitat types.

  5. Developing New Strategies for Coping with Weather: Work in Alaskan and Canadian Coastal Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate is manifested at ground level through the day to day weather. For all Northern residents - community, industrial, operational and response - the need to think about the weather is ever present. Northern residents, and in particular, indigenous community residents, fully understand implications of the weather, however, a comment that has been heard more often is that old ways of knowing are not as reliable as they once were. Weather patterns seem less consistent and subject to more rapid fluctuations. Compromised traditional ways of knowing puts those who need to travel or hunt at greater risk. One response to adapt to this emerging reality is to make greater use of western sources of information, such as weather data and charts provided by NOAA's National Weather Service or Environment Canada. The federal weather agencies have very large and complex forecasting regions to cover, and so one problem is that it can be difficult to provide perfectly tailored forecasts, that cover all possible problems, right down to the very local scale in the communities. Only those affected have a complete feel for their own concerns. Thus, key to a strategy to improve the utility of available weather information is a linking of local-scale manifestations of problematic weather to the larger-scale weather patterns. This is done in two ways: by direct consultation with Northern residents, and by installation of equipment to measure parameters of interest to residents, which are not already being measured. This talk will overview projects in coastal Alaska and Canada targeting this objective. The challenge of designing and conducting interviews, and then of harvesting relevant information, will be visited using examples from the three major contexts: coastal community, industrial, and operational. Examples of how local comments can be married to weather products will be presented.

  6. Permafrost Thaw, Soil Moisture and Plant Community Change Alter Organic Matter Decomposition in Alaskan Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, S.; Mauritz, M.; Pegoraro, E.; Schuur, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming in arctic tundra has been associated with increased plant productivity and a shift in plant community composition, specifically an increase in shrub cover, which can impact soil organic matter through changes in the size and composition of the leaf litter pool. Shifts in litter quantity and quality will in turn interact with changes in the soil environment as the climate continues to warm. We examined the effects of permafrost thaw, soil moisture changes, and plant community composition on leaf litter decomposition in an upland tundra ecosystem in Interior Alaska. We present warming and drying effects on decomposition rates of graminoid-dominated and shrub-dominated leaf litter mixtures over three years (2 cm depth), and annual decomposition of a common cellulose substrate (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) over five years at a permafrost thaw and soil drying experiment. We expected that warming and drying would increase decomposition, and that decomposition would be greater in the shrub litter than in the graminoid litter mix. Decomposition of Betula nana, the dominant shrub, was 50% greater in the shrub-dominated litter mix compared to the graminoid-dominated litter. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in total litter mass loss between graminoid and shrub litter mixtures, despite significant differences in decomposition rates of the dominant plant species when decomposed alone and in community mixtures. Drying decreased decomposition of B. nana and of the shrub community litter overall, but after two years there was no detected warming effect on shrub-community decomposition. In contrast to leaf litter decomposition, both warming and drying increased decomposition of the common substrate. Warming caused an almost twofold increase in cellulose decomposition in surface soil (0-10cm), and drying caused a twofold increase in cellulose decomposition from deeper organic layer soils (10-20cm). These results demonstrate the importance of interactions

  7. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  8. Rural Community as Context and Teacher for Health Professions Education

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Kedar; Allison, Jill; Upadhyay, Shambu; Bhandary, Shital; Shrestha, Shrijana

    2016-01-01

    Nepal is a low-income, landlocked country located on the Indian subcontinent between China and India. The challenge of finding human resources for rural community health care settings is not unique to Nepal. In spite of the challenges, the health sector has made significant improvement in national health indices over the past half century. However, in terms of access to and quality of health services and impact, there remains a gross urban-rural disparity. The Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has adopted a community-based education model, termed “community based learning and education" (CBLE), as one of the principal strategies and pedagogic methods. This method is linked to the PAHS mission of improving rural health in Nepal by training medical students through real-life experience in rural areas and developing a positive attitude among its graduates towards working in rural areas. This article outlines the PAHS approach of ruralizing the academy, which aligns with the concept of community engagement in health professional education. We describe how PAHS has embedded medical education in rural community settings, encouraging the learning context to be rural, fostering opportunities for community and peripheral health workers to participate in teaching-learning as well as evaluation of medical students, and involving community people in curriculum design and implementation. PMID:27980887

  9. Rural Community as Context and Teacher for Health Professions Education.

    PubMed

    Baral, Kedar; Allison, Jill; Upadhyay, Shambu; Bhandary, Shital; Shrestha, Shrijana; Renouf, Tia

    2016-11-07

    Nepal is a low-income, landlocked country located on the Indian subcontinent between China and India. The challenge of finding human resources for rural community health care settings is not unique to Nepal. In spite of the challenges, the health sector has made significant improvement in national health indices over the past half century. However, in terms of access to and quality of health services and impact, there remains a gross urban-rural disparity. The Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has adopted a community-based education model, termed "community based learning and education" (CBLE), as one of the principal strategies and pedagogic methods. This method is linked to the PAHS mission of improving rural health in Nepal by training medical students through real-life experience in rural areas and developing a positive attitude among its graduates towards working in rural areas. This article outlines the PAHS approach of ruralizing the academy, which aligns with the concept of community engagement in health professional education. We describe how PAHS has embedded medical education in rural community settings, encouraging the learning context to be rural, fostering opportunities for community and peripheral health workers to participate in teaching-learning as well as evaluation of medical students, and involving community people in curriculum design and implementation.

  10. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Rural Community Development and Research. Community Development Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    As part of a series prepared to acquaint small community officials with information on the latest community related research findings at the University of California at Davis, this monograph explicates the way in which tax structure, rural development assumptions, and even rural development policies and subsidies contribute to the inequities found…

  11. Field degradation of aminopyralid and clopyralid and microbial community response to application in Alaskan soils.

    PubMed

    Tomco, Patrick L; Duddleston, Khrystyne N; Schultz, Emily Jo; Hagedorn, Birgit; Stevenson, Timothy J; Seefeldt, Steven S

    2016-02-01

    High-latitude regions experience unique conditions that affect the degradation rate of agrochemicals in the environment. In the present study, data collected from 2 field sites in Alaska, USA (Palmer and Delta) were used to generate a kinetic model for aminopyralid and clopyralid degradation and to describe the microbial community response to herbicide exposure. Field plots were sprayed with herbicides and sampled over the summer of 2013. Quantification was performed via liquid chromatrography/tandem mass spectrometry, and microbial diversity was assessed via next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes. Both compounds degraded rapidly via pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics between 0 d and 28 d (t1/2  = 9.1-23.0 d), and then degradation slowed thereafter through 90 d. Aminopyralid concentration was 0.048 μg/g to 0.120 μg/g at 90 d post application, whereas clopyralid degraded rapidly at the Palmer site but was recovered in Delta soil at a concentraction of 0.046 μg/g. Microbial community diversity was moderately impacted by herbicide treatment, with the effect more pronounced at Delta. These data predict reductions in crop yield when sensitive plants (potatoes, tomatoes, marigolds, etc.) are rotated onto treated fields. Agricultural operations in high-latitude regions, both commercial and residential, rely heavily on cultivation of such crops and care must be taken when rotating.

  12. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Marco J L; Orsi, William D

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw.

  13. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Orsi, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw. PMID:25852660

  14. [Lipid values in a rural community].

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, H P; Soldan, J; Drexel, H

    1989-12-08

    In 1987 the population of a rural community in Tyrol aged 20 to 74 years was screened for plasma lipids (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides). The mean cholesterol value was 205.8 mg/dl (5.31 mml/l) in men and 207.9 mg/dl (5.37 mmol/l) in women. These values seem to be the lowest so far recorded for population-based cholesterol values in Austria. This might be partly explained by an intensive risk factor intervention programme which has been implemented in this community throughout the past ten years. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in women (63.7 mg/dl or 1.64 mmol/l) than in men (51.1 mg/dl or 1.32 mmol/l). The opposite was true for non-fasting triglycerides, with mean values of 186.3 mg/dl (2.1 mmol/l) in men, and 122.1 mg/dl (1.4 mmol/l) in women.

  15. Building Sense of Community in Rural North Dakota Towns: Opportunities for Community Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flage, Lynette Jo

    2010-01-01

    Many rural North Dakota communities struggle with the loss of services, schools, and population due to a changing landscape, but does a strong sense of community help anchor residents to their town? The purpose of this study was to describe sense of community and its relationship to actions promoting social capital in rural North Dakota towns.…

  16. The rural community care gerontologic nurse entrepreneur: role development strategies.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Rosalie A

    2005-10-01

    Rural elderly individuals are an underserved population with limited access to health care. There is an increasing need for independent community care nurses to provide assistance to home-based elderly individuals with chronic illnesses to prevent unnecessary medical and placement decisions and, thus, allow them to maintain independence and quality of life. This article describes the rural setting and why community care nurses are needed, and explores strategies for implementing the role of the independent nurse entrepreneur in caring for community-based elderly individuals in rural settings.

  17. Creating Vibrant Communities & Economies in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.

    Although the economic expansion of the 1990s was felt even in small towns and rural areas, events in recent months point out that the economic health of rural America remains fragile. Rural manufacturing has suffered sizable employment declines in recent months and only modest expansion has occurred in the service sector--the lifeblood of rural…

  18. Barriers to Quality Care for Dying Patients in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…

  19. Virtual Rural Community Development: Human Links That Sustain Web Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Evans, Wayne H.; Marmet, Kathy

    Outmigration in the rural Upper Midwest prompted a group of citizens and University of South Dakota faculty to form the Center for the Advancement of Rural Communities (ARC). ARC considers how to stimulate traditionally competitive and isolated South Dakota peoples to collaborate for economic, social, educational, political, and cultural gains. As…

  20. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm…

  1. Organizing for Our Lives: New Voices from Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard Steven; Orozco, Samuel

    Since the late 1970s, California's rural poor (frequently immigrants and refugees) have been engaged in grassroots efforts to change the cultural and political landscapes of their communities. Told in the words of rural people, this book presents six stories of struggle and empowerment. In Yuba City, Latino and East Indian farmworkers felt that…

  2. Career and Technical Education Works for Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Tania

    2004-01-01

    In Oklahoma, the state's CareerTech system is helping to provide resources and expertise to preserve the quality of life in rural communities. Just as many metropolitan areas feel the choke of urban sprawl, rural Oklahoma has, to a great extent, become the carbon copy of small towns across this country that are losing jobs, people and wealth.…

  3. School Bonding and Substance Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Jeffrey; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent substance use in U.S. rural communities is now equal to or greater than urban use for many substances. Yet much research focuses on urban and suburban populations, raising doubt as to the generalizability of etiological models of substance use to rural populations.This study examines whether the relationship between school bonding and…

  4. Accessing the Food Systems in Urban and Rural Minnesotan Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chery; Miller, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Explore how urban and rural Minnesotans access the food system and to investigate whether community infrastructure supports a healthful food system. Design: Eight (4 urban and 4 rural) focus groups were conducted. Setting and Participants: Eight counties with urban influence codes of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10. Fifty-nine (urban, n = 27;…

  5. Promoting Academic, Business, and Community Partnerships in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelli, Peg

    Rural community colleges are faced with issues similar to their urban counterparts, but many challenges for rural schools are further exacerbated by limited resources, geographic isolation, and a static economy. This paper argues that the difference between success and failure can be the ability to create strong partnerships. Of the 15 colleges in…

  6. Rurality to Virtuality: Creating a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tracy A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, enrollment and overall student performance in rural schools have declined. Research shows that principals are critical to the success of a school system and that implementing a virtual community of practice (CoP) at the principal level has solved some of the issues associated with rurality in some organizations. Such…

  7. Papers of the Rural Community Development Seminar: Focus on Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.

    A seminar was conducted which provides a foundation upon which research, education, and action programs might be based as a state university brings its programs to focus more fully on the economic and social problems of rural areas. Papers presented covered the following subjects: objectives of community development, trends related to rural areas,…

  8. On-Campus Housing at Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeck, Pat G.; Hardy, David E.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Leech, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    A certain "mythology" appears to exists within higher education that residence halls do not exist at community colleges. The reality is that residence halls do exist at community colleges, and they play an integral role in the fabric of the institutions that have them. This article identifies the number of rural-serving community colleges, and it…

  9. Creating "Community"? Preparing for Bushfire in Rural Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Peter; Tyler, Meagan; Hart, Alison; Mees, Bernard; Phillips, Richard; Stratford, Julie; Toh, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The term "community" has a long and contested lineage in social analysis and debate. This lineage, however, is not generally recognized in policy and public debates on community and bushfire in Australia. "Community" is thought to be central to bushfire preparedness in Australia, especially in rural areas, but what…

  10. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  11. Deteriorating Farm Finances Affect Rural Banks and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkove, Daniel L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Problem farm debts may translate into slow growth for rural communities, with local banks unable to offer credit even to credit worthy borrowers. Communities served by branches of large banking organizations are probably better off than communities served only by small independent banks. (Author)

  12. Smart Growth Self-Assessment for Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tool to help small towns and rural communities assess their existing policies, plans, codes, and zoning regulations to determine how well they work to create healthy, environmentally resilient, and economically robust places.

  13. 77 FR 41185 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  14. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  15. Community perceptions of rural hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Muus, K J; Ludtke, R L; Gibbens, B

    1995-02-01

    Hospital closure, a devastating event in the life of small communities, can have long-lasting medical, economic, and psychological consequences. This study focuses on a 1991 closure that occurred in the rural North Dakota town of Beach that left local residents 40 and 61 miles away from the nearest hospitals. Two hundred residents of the hospital's former service area were selected via systematic random sampling to share their perceptions on the causes and effects of closing their local hospital. According to respondents, this hospital closure was caused by a number of influences, with the most commonly cited being under-utilization of services by local residents, exacting government rules and regulations, doleful economic climate, dwindling population, poor and unstable local physician care, and poor management of hospital matters. Findings further indicated that Beach area residents were most concerned with poor access to emergency medical care as a result of the closing. Area dwellers perceived that the hospital closure's aftermath would include the loss of local jobs, further declines in the local economy, the suffering of elderly and children, transportation problems, and out-migration of some area residents. These concerns, coupled with the notable decrease in hospital care access, motivated many area residents to think of solutions to these problems rather than to place blame on others for the closure.

  16. Community engagement: a key to successful rural clinical education.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger P

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of rural clinical attachments has demonstrated that the rural setting provides a high-quality clinical learning environment that is of potential value to all medical students. Specifically, rural clinical education provides more 'hands on' experience for students in which they are exposed to a wide range of common health problems and develop a high level of clinical competence. Northern Ontario in Canada is a large rural region that has a chronic shortage of healthcare providers. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) was established with a social accountability mandate to contribute to improving the health of the people and communities of Northern Ontario, and is a joint initiative of Laurentian University, Sudbury, and Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, which are over 1000 km apart. The NOSM has developed a distinctive model of medical education known as distributed community engaged learning (DCEL), which weaves together various recent trends in medical education including case-based learning, community-based medical education, electronic distance education and rural-based medical education (including the preceptor model). The NOSM curriculum is grounded in Northern Ontario and relies heavily on electronic communications to support DCEL. In the classroom and in clinical settings, students explore cases from the perspective of doctors in Northern Ontario. In addition, DCEL involves community engagement through which communities actively participate in hosting students and contribute to their learning.This paper explores the conceptual and practical issues of community engagement, with specific focus on successful rural clinical education. Community engagement takes the notion of 'community' in health sciences education beyond being simply community based in that the community actively contributes to hosting the students and enhancing their learning experiences. This is consistent with the focus on social accountability in medical education

  17. Rural community leaders' perceptions of environmental health risks: improving community health.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia; Christopher, Suzanne; Hill, Wade

    2006-03-01

    Qualitative description was used to explore how rural community leaders frame, interpret, and give meaning to environmental health issues affecting their constituents and communities. Six rural community leaders discussed growth, vulnerable families, and the action avoidance strategies they use or see used in lieu of adopting health-promoting behaviors. Findings suggest intervention strategies should be economical, use common sense, be sensitive to regional identity, and use local case studies and "inside leadership." Occupational health nurses addressing the disparate environmental health risks in rural communities are encouraged to use agenda-neutral, scientifically based risk communication efforts and foster collaborative relationships among nurses, planners, industry, and other community leaders.

  18. Mutually Dependent Relationships between Rural Community Colleges and Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The population of rural America has faced changes as the manufacturing industries that once assured jobs for those living in rural areas have moved or closed. Small towns have become smaller as younger residents move away for employment or educational opportunities. As these changes take place rural citizens face increased challenges in the wake…

  19. Active living for rural youth: addressing physical inactivity in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Yousefian, Anush; Ziller, Erika; Swartz, Jon; Hartley, David

    2009-01-01

    Rural youth are at greater risk than urban youth for obesity and physical inactivity. Active living research incorporates an ecological approach to promoting physical activity (PA) by recognizing that individual behavior, social environments, physical environments, and policies contribute to behavior change. Active living research and interventions have been limited primarily to urban settings. Because rural communities have unique environmental features and sociocultural characteristics, this project combines insights from current active living models with more focused consideration of the physical and social realities of rural areas. In this study, we report on our efforts to develop, test, and refine a conceptual model describing the interaction between the individual and the environment as it enhances or thwarts active living in rural communities. Our findings revealed a host of relevant "predisposing" and "enabling" factors, including sociodemographic, environmental, policy, and programmatic elements, that extend across the four domains of active living--transportation, recreation, occupation, and household. A one-size approach to PA promotion will not fit the needs of rural youth. Given the unique challenges that rural communities face, efforts to combat childhood obesity must consider rural residents a priority population. More research, interventions, and evaluations on ways to promote rural PA are needed.

  20. Summer Programming in Rural Communities: Unique Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan

    2007-01-01

    During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional…

  1. Police Management Guidelines for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapke, Robert A.

    The importance of the rural police function is likely to mount due to increasing urban to rural migration and a climbing crime rate (up as much as 30 percent in some parts of the midwest). Although 92 percent of police departments in the U.S. are comprised of less than 10 officers, there is little information available on the organization and…

  2. Community resiliency as a measure of collective health status: perspectives from rural communities.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Judith C; Edge, Dana; Joyce, Brenda

    2008-12-01

    Community resiliency is a theoretical framework useful for describing the process used by communities to address adversity. A mixed-method 2-year case study was conducted to gather information about community resiliency in 2 rural communities. This article focuses on the themes generated from qualitative interviews with 55 members of these communities. The participants viewed community as a place of interdependence and interaction. The majority saw community resiliency as the ability to address challenges. Characteristics included physical and social infrastructure, population characteristics, conceptual characteristics, and problem-solving processes. Barriers included negative individual attitudes and lack of infrastructure in rural communities. Nurses could play a key role in enhancing the resiliency of rural communities by developing and implementing programs based on the Community Resiliency Model, which was supported in this study.

  3. Community Health Centers and the Rural Economy: The Struggle for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Health Association, Kansas City, MO.

    The intent of this project was to determine the financial impact of the rural economic crisis on rural community health centers. A 1986-87 survey reported changes in accounts receivable, bad debt, and sliding fee use, and the effect such changes may have on the cash position of rural community health centers. Of 284 rural community and migrant…

  4. Reaching Rural Communities: Videoconferencing in K-12 Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Mila

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study exploring the effects of using videoconferencing (VC) to deliver dance instruction to rural communities. The context of the study is a university community partnership run through blended live and VC instruction with elementary and middle school students in Eloy, Arizona. This research is part of a…

  5. The Wellness Mobile: Bringing Preventative Health Services to Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilson, Ralph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Wellness Mobile transports medical supplies, equipment, informational materials, and staff to rural Saskatchewan communities to assist them in developing wellness programs that stress disease prevention. Staff from the Wellness Mobile offer health-risk screening and appraisal to community members and work with local practitioners and schools…

  6. After-School Child Care: Dilemma in a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    A rural community established an after-school child care program by forming a community coalition, acquiring funding, obtaining space, and arranging for children's transportation. The program enriched the quality of life for children, parents, and staff. Children's grades improved and the number of mothers satisfied with child care services…

  7. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  8. Education for Rehabilitation of Rural Communities in Distress in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israeli, Eitan

    This paper summarizes the history of rural communities (moshavim and kibbutzim) in Israel and attempts to rehabilitate those that have experienced difficulties. The first section of the paper outlines the context of these communities, most of which are cooperatives. Before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, most of the communities…

  9. Sustainable Small Schools: A Handbook for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B., Ed.; Eckman, John M., Ed.

    This book aims to help parents, community members, and educators find resources, design school options, and take action together to improve small rural schools in ways that meet community and student needs. Chapter 1 discusses the virtues of smallness, outlines basic assumptions about the role and nature of good education, examines the…

  10. Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…

  11. Providing Leadership in Rural America: A Model for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgraff, Donna L.

    This article describes the formation of an educational partnership developed in a rural, Appalachian, coal-mining community. Williamson Main Street, Inc., a downtown revitalization program, and Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Southern) combined their efforts to create the Tug Valley Economic Development Institute (TVEDI).…

  12. Trust, the Democratic Process, and Involvement in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.; Petrzelka, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    A number of dimensions of the democratic political process are important for understanding civic communities and civic engagement. While many of these aspects have been examined at the federal level, less is known about how these dynamics operate at the local level, especially in rural communities, and that, moreover, involve a specific issue. In…

  13. Alaskan Native Early School Leavers: A Study with Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumb, Jeanmarie

    In response to a request by the Anchorage Native Caucus and the Anchorage Native Education Coalition, this study by the Anchorage School District Community Relations Department focuses on the Alaskan Native dropout problem. The study indicates that between September 1976 and March 1981, Native Alaskans, who compose approximately 4% of the total…

  14. Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores how community participation can be used in designing rural primary healthcare services by describing a study of Scottish communities. Community participation is extolled in healthcare policy as useful in planning services and is understood as particularly relevant in rural settings, partly due to high social capital. Literature describes many community participation methods, but lacks discussion of outcomes relevant to health system reconfiguration. There is a spectrum of ideas in the literature on how to design services, from top-down standard models to contextual plans arising from population health planning that incorporates community participation. This paper addresses an evidence gap about the outcomes of using community participation in (re)designing rural community health services. Methods Community-based participatory action research was applied in four Scottish case study communities in 2008–10. Data were collected from four workshops held in each community (total 16) and attended by community members. Workshops were intended to produce hypothetical designs for future service provision. Themes, rankings and selections from workshops are presented. Results Community members identified consistent health priorities, including local practitioners, emergency triage, anticipatory care, wellbeing improvement and health volunteering. Communities designed different service models to address health priorities. One community did not design a service model and another replicated the current model despite initial enthusiasm for innovation. Conclusions Communities differ in their receptiveness to engaging in innovative service design, but some will create new models that fit in a given budget. Design diversity indicates that context influences local healthcare planning, suggesting community participation impacts on design outcomes, but standard service models maybe useful as part of the evidence in community participation discussions

  15. Rural Energy Communities Development Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pomeroy, Earl [D-ND-At Large

    2010-09-29

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Against All Odds: Rural Community in the Information Age. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John C.; Dillman, Don A.

    This book explores how community functions in "Bremer," a small rural town in eastern Washington. Human interactions in a variety of contexts are analyzed within a framework that posits three distinct eras of social and economic organization: community-control, mass-society, and information eras. Contexts examined are farming (the…

  17. Sport safety policies and practices in two rural Victorian communities.

    PubMed

    Casey, M; Finch, C F; Mahoney, M; Townsend, M

    2004-06-01

    Australian football and netball are the predominant sports played in rural Victoria, Australia. This exploratory study is the first to report the sport safety policies and practices adopted by junior Australian football and netball clubs in small rural communities. Eleven informants from four clubs completed a semi-structured interview and survey. Whilst the clubs performed a range of injury prevention activities, they did not have formal sports safety policies. Generally, netball informants reported fewer safety practices than football informants. Crucial factors influencing safety policies and practices were the reliance on volunteers and a lack of senior players. Barriers towards the adoption of safety policies and practices appeared to be related to rural population declines, a lack of qualified people and attitudes to injury in rural areas. Future research needs to identify how widespread this lack of sport safety policies and practices is across rural Australia and to identify strategies to overcome barriers to implementing them.

  18. "Everybody Knows Everybody Else's Business"-Privacy in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janni; Smith, Annetta; Atherton, Iain; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-12-01

    Patients have a right to privacy in a health care setting. This involves conversational discretion, security of medical records and physical privacy of remaining unnoticed or unidentified when using health care services other than by those who need to know or whom the patient wishes to know. However, the privacy of cancer patients who live in rural areas is more difficult to protect due to the characteristics of rural communities. The purpose of this article is to reflect on concerns relating to the lack of privacy experienced by cancer patients and health care professionals in the rural health care setting. In addition, this article suggests future research directions to provide much needed evidence for educating health care providers and guiding health care policies that can lead to better protection of privacy among cancer patients living in rural communities.

  19. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  20. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    PubMed

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  1. Pie Suppers and Cake Walks: A Historical Perspective of a Closed Rural Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ruby; Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rural community schools and their educational mission have always provided a sort of connectivity for the rural community. This research takes a closer look at the closing of a small rural community school located in a southern Appalachian region and determines its effects upon the teachers, students, and community culture. Although these students…

  2. The development role of community banks in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onugu, C U

    2000-02-01

    This paper examined the development role of community banks in rural Nigeria by using the deposit mobilization capability and funding capacity in key sectors of the rural economy as yardsticks. By using a cluster sampling technique, it looks at the achievements of the community banking scheme initiative in terms of economic development. The scheme, established in 1991, has sustained itself and promoted rural development in the country. It is noted that communities have, for the first time, realized that they can advance their own economic fortunes. However, the scheme's performance as supporter of the agricultural sector has not been as well as expected, despite the fact that agriculture dominates Nigeria's rural economy. In view of this, non-banking activities are a welcome development since some of their approaches are proven to be knowledge enhancing and empowering for the rural population. Overall, community banks should attempt to strengthen non-banking approaches by collaborating more with self-help groups or nongovernmental organizations to be more empowering, results-oriented, and sustainable. Moreover, regulatory authorities should ensure that guidelines relate to credit application in terms of volume and sector allocation.

  3. History, culture, and substance use in a rural Scottish community.

    PubMed

    Dean, Alan

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed discussion of substance use and misuse in a rural community in the Western Highlands of Scotland, United Kingdom. Attention is focused on the way in which patterns of substance use arise from a complex interplay of historical, cultural, social, and personal events. The discussion illustrates how large changes in patterns of intoxication in rural communities can be rendered intelligible through an understanding of the impact of economic, religious, and social changes. The analysis is based on an historical and ethnographic account, carried out between 1987 and 1990 with adolescents, of patterns of use which range from pagan ceremonies in the 16th century to contemporary "soft drug" use.

  4. Standard Implications: Alaskans Reflect on a Movement To Change Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Annie, Ed.; Christian, Scott, Ed.

    In this anthology, rural Alaskan English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network describe their experiences implementing new state education standards while continuing their commitment to learner-centered and place-based practice. The book presents narratives about teaching grounded in knowledge and understanding of students and…

  5. Incidental Education (for Women) in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Valmai

    The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…

  6. Connecting Allied Health Students to Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, W. Kent; Mishoe, Shelley C.; Taft, Arthur A.; Campbell, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Statewide studies indicate a continuing shortfall of personnel in several allied health disciplines in rural Georgia. National trends indicate lagging enrollment in allied health education programs, suggesting that the workforce shortages will worsen. Purpose: This article describes the efforts of the School of Allied Health Sciences at…

  7. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  8. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Under Secretary for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence or... may hereafter be delegated to the Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development....

  9. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  10. Photovoice for Healthy Relationships: Community-Based Participatory HIV Prevention in a Rural American Indian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an example of a culturally responsive, community-based project for addressing social determinants of health in rural American Indian (AI) communities through: 1) empowering youth and community voices to set directions for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy prevention and education efforts; 2) using…

  11. Career-Community Development: A Framework for Career Counseling and Capacity Building in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robin S.; Espinoza, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    The authors propose a framework for career counseling in rural communities that addresses the psychosocial and economic challenges of natural disasters and other catastrophic transitions. The career-community development framework expands the notion of "client" to include a community-as-client approach within a capacity building…

  12. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  13. The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2004-01-01

    The Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme provides funds to help Indigenous communities in rural and remote Australia provide employment, skills development, and various essential and desirable municipal services. However, there is room to improve the range and quality of employment and community development activities available.…

  14. Rural communities' preferences for arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Junaid; Goldar, Bishwanath; Misra, Smita

    2006-12-01

    In the context of arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh, this paper analyses rural people's preferences for arsenic-free drinking water options. A particular focus is on rural households' willingness to pay for piped water supply which can provide a sustainable solution to the arsenic problem, and how the preference for piped water supply compares with that for various other household/community-based arsenic mitigation technologies. The analysis is based on data collected in a survey of over 2700 households in rural Bangladesh. Six arsenic mitigation technologies were selected for the study: three-kolshi (pitcher) method, activated alumina method (household-based and community-based), dugwell, pond sand filter and deep tubewell (handpump). The survey results indicate that, after taking into consideration the initial and recurring costs, convenience, associated risks and the advantages and disadvantages of each selected technology, the preference of the rural people is overwhelmingly in favor of deep tubewells, followed by the three-kolshi method. The analysis reveals a strong demand for piped water in both arsenic-affected and arsenic-free rural areas, and scope of adequate cost recovery. Between piped water and other arsenic mitigation technologies, the preference of the rural people is found to be predominantly in favor of the former.

  15. 77 FR 8854 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) will be renewed for an additional...

  16. 78 FR 38361 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community... Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of funding awards. SUMMARY: In accordance with... the 2012 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Rural Capacity Building for...

  17. Rural Location and Relative Location: Adding Community Context to the Study of Sexual Assault Survivor Time Until Presentation for Medical Care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ingrid Diane; Hiller, Matthew L

    2016-08-12

    Despite a strong empirical base linking community context and proximity to resources to individual health care access, studies examining predictors of sexual assault survivor time until presentation for medical care have not yet examined these relationships. This study addresses this gap. The data included retrospective records on a sample of 1,630 female survivors who reported their sexual assault to law enforcement and were subsequently seen by a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) in one of eight Alaskan communities between the years 1996 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether delays in presentation (presentation 12 hr or more after assault) differed for women presenting in unique communities (rural location), and between those whose assault and exam occurred in different communities versus occurring in the same community (relative location). Although rural location did not seem to have a unique impact on time until presentation, differing locations (i.e., relative location) of assaults and exams increased the likelihood of delays in presentation. Non-American Indian/Alaska Native race/ethnicity and knowing one's assailant(s) also increased the likelihood of delays. These results indicate that in addition to a need for further research, there is a need for more appropriate and reliable sexual assault medical services across communities, and that survivors assaulted by known assailants should be targeted in efforts to reduce time until presentation.

  18. Response of plant community structure and primary productivity to experimental drought and flooding in an Alaskan fen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, A.C.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; McGuire, Anthony; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2014-01-01

    Northern peatlands represent a long-term net sink for atmospheric CO2, but these ecosystems can shift from net carbon (C) sinks to sources based on changing climate and environmental conditions. In particular, changes in water availability associated with climate control peatland vegetation and carbon uptake processes. We examined the influence of changing hydrology on plant species abundance and ecosystem primary production in an Alaskan fen by manipulating the water table in field treatments to mimic either sustained flooding (raised water table) or drought (lowered water table) conditions for 6 years. We found that water table treatments altered plant species abundance by increasing sedge and grass cover in the raised water table treatment and reducing moss cover while increasing vascular green area in the lowered water table treatment. Gross primary productivity was lower in the lowered treatment than in the other plots, although there were no differences in total biomass or vascular net primary productivity among the treatments. Overall, our results indicate that vegetation abundance was more sensitive to variation in water table than total biomass and vascular biomass accrual. Finally, in our experimental peatland, drought had stronger consequences for change in vegetation abundance and ecosystem function than sustained flooding.

  19. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  20. Rural Community College Student Perceptions of Barriers to College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Shanda; Miller, Michael T.; Morris, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    Rural community college students face unique difficulties in higher education for many reasons, including the resources they typically have access to, their collective histories, and in many cases, the preparation they received in high school. These challenges might be low-performing secondary schools, a lack of tradition and precedence in…

  1. Vocational Education in Rural Community Colleges: Strategic Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen; Miller, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    Eight challenges for rural vocational education in community colleges include (1) inadequate state funding; (2) higher professional development costs; (3) higher business costs; (4) difficulty assessing labor market needs; (5) flooding the market with graduates; (6) focus on preserving local culture; (7) difficulty launching new programs; and (8)…

  2. Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network: A Portable Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The experiences of two teachers describe how BreadNet, an online professional-development and educational conference, enables teachers with similar interests to work together and maintain a sense of community. BreadNet allowed their rural schools to participate in projects with distant schools, leading to improvements in the quantity and quality…

  3. Resource Dependence and Community Well-Being in Rural Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Richard C.; Parkins, John R.; Beckley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The well-being of residents of resource dependent communities is a question of traditional interest to rural sociologists. The label "resource dependent" obscures how this relationship may vary between particular resource industries, regions, or indicators of well-being. Few analyses have compared the relationship between well-being and resource…

  4. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Professions Shortage Area, (under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act) or (2)...

  5. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Professions Shortage Area, (under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act) or (2)...

  6. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Professions Shortage Area, (under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act) or (2)...

  7. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Professions Shortage Area, (under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act) or (2)...

  8. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Professions Shortage Area, (under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act) or (2)...

  9. Empowering an Indigenous Rural Community: Local Teachers for Local Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, John; Wenmoth, Derek

    2001-01-01

    Christchurch College of Education (New Zealand) offers a distance teacher education course to a rural Maori community experiencing a teacher shortage. Program success is attributed to local initiative in establishing the program, significant local input into program development, attention to the student profile in course design and delivery,…

  10. Locally Sourced Capital for Small Businesses in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampien, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Lack of adequate access to capital is a major barrier for rural entrepreneurs. Washington State University Extension and the Association of Washington Cities partnered to explore and test an innovative local investment approach that provides access to capital and engages the community in the success of individual businesses. The approach offers…

  11. 77 FR 7576 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... as oral and written communication skills; and an ability and willingness to participate in a... range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities... identified by name, occupation, organization, position, current business address, email address, and...

  12. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  13. School-Community Agency Collaboration in Rural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Beverly B.

    A multiple-case study examined how schools and community human-services agencies collaborate to meet the needs of at-risk youth in two rural Oregon counties. Four youth services teams (YST) were composed of approximately 10 members each, representing local public schools, county social and health services agencies, and local law enforcement units.…

  14. Building Institutional Capacity at Rural Community Colleges through Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

    According to this paper, rural community colleges face new challenges, which require openness to institutional partnerships that in the past may have been unthinkable due to traditional institutional competitiveness. These challenges include enrollment fluctuation, increased legislative scrutiny, calls for accountability, inadequate and…

  15. Faculty Perspectives on Diversity at a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, James C.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States has become progressively more diverse in rural areas, America's higher education system has wrestled to comprehend and resolve issues related to diversity in higher education. Community colleges enrolled nearly 50% of culturally diverse college students (Cohen & Brawer, 2002) because they often afford the only points of…

  16. Landscapes of Learning: Lifelong Learning in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Fred, Ed.

    This document contains 12 papers about lifelong learning in rural communities in Great Britain. The papers, which are intended for lecturers, tutors, and guidance professionals but may also prove useful to organizations providing lifelong learning and policymakers, include conceptual tools as well as empirical case studies documenting lifelong…

  17. Tensions Impacting Student Success in a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlinka, Karen R.; Mobelini, Deronda C.; Giltner, Terri

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study examining factors influencing the decision-making processes of traditional-age students living in rural, southeastern Kentucky as they progress toward acquiring a bachelor's degree using the community college as a steppingstone. Specifically, this study explored students' perspectives of the factors that…

  18. Rising Cost of Gasoline Pinches Students at Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Aware of the increasing burden of fuel costs on their students, administrators of rural community colleges are looking for ways to help students stay on track with their studies even as their monthly transportation bills rise. Two common tactics are increasing the number of online courses and offering block scheduling that allows students to pack…

  19. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  20. The Role of Rural Community Colleges in the Development of Personal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Deggs, David

    2012-01-01

    Rural community colleges have an often understated impact on the communities they serve, especially in regard to their role in developing the identity of individuals. The ability of the rural community college to influence individual identity development is often exasperated due to the challenges associated with rural American life. The role of…

  1. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  2. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  3. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  4. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  5. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  6. Rurality, Region, Ethnic Community Make-Up and Alcohol Use among Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Randall C.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As the most widely used substance among adolescents in the United States, alcohol remains a critical public health issue. The majority of research in this area has focused on individual-level variables. This study examined the contextual effects of rurality, geographic region, and community ethnicity in the prediction of alcohol use among…

  7. Culture of a Contemporary Rural Community: El Cerrito, New Mexico. Rural Life Studies: 1, November 1941.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen; Loomis, C. P.

    Located on the Pecos River in San Miguel County, El Cerrito (New Mexico) was a culturally stable rural community. Almost a cultural island, its inhabitants were of native or Spanish American stock, descendants of conquistadores who mixed their blood with that of the indigenous population. Religion and the Catholic church had a profound influence…

  8. Place, Purpose, and Role in Rural Community Development Outreach: Lessons from the West Virginia Community Design Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plein, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines how the social construction of community may influence faculty perceptions, roles, and actions in rural community development outreach. Special attention is given to the social construction of rural communities and how disciplinary perspective and popular culture influence these perceptions of community. The essay considers how…

  9. Alaska's Small Rural High Schools. Are They Working? ISER Report Series No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith S.; And Others

    Interviews with principals and school board presidents, site surveys of 32 randomly selected schools, achievement test scores, and in-depth studies by educators provided data describing educational programs, identifying educational problems, and revealing strategies to strengthen the 162 small rural high schools located in Alaskan communities of…

  10. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  11. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  12. An Assessment of a Freshmen Learning Community at a Rural, Public Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenstein, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem facing many higher education institutions is the ability to engage freshmen students during the first semester of college in order to sustain their enrollment. This study assessed the effectiveness of a freshmen learning community as a retention strategy at a small, rural, and public community college. The purpose of this ex post facto…

  13. Enhancing the Analysis of Rural Community Resilience: Evidence from Community land Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerratt, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Resilience, and specifically the resilience of (rural) communities, is an increasingly-ubiquitous concept, particularly in the contexts of resistance to shocks, climate change, and environmental disasters. The dominant discourse concerning (community) resilience centres around bounce-back from external shocks. In this paper, I argue that it is…

  14. Building Community Based Initiatives in Rural Coastal Communities. Staff Paper 95.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, Chris; Lamb, Greg; Miller, Al; Sadowske, Sue; Shaffer, Ron

    In rural coastal communities, trade-offs between conserving and developing environmentally sensitive resources are acute. At the community level, part-time volunteers and citizen officials are asked to make complex decisions based on ambiguous and frequently contradictory "scientific" evidence of economic and environmental relationships.…

  15. The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report, "The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities," (ED495158) and is an added resource for further information. The contents of this support docment include: (1) Regional Council--Roma; (2) Regional Council--Tennant…

  16. School Wellness in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The list of issues confronting education leaders today seems to be growing longer, with school wellness being pushed to the forefront by the surge in childhood obesity rates. Whether walking the halls of the schools or the local shopping mall, it is easy to see why society needs to adopt healthier lifestyles. That is why more community leaders,…

  17. Perceived Community Functions and the Rural Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; Lawton, M. Powell

    1980-01-01

    Perceived community function (PCF) provides a model for assessing the role of environmental attributes in individual well-being. Subjects over 60 viewed health and nutritional programs as maintenance functions, while turning to senior centers for both maintenance and recreation. Delivery systems must consider the different expectations of…

  18. Community Correlates of Rural Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Chambers, Jeff M.

    2003-01-01

    Social disorganization is the primary theory by which criminologists account for crime rates. Current versions of social disorganization theory assume that strong networks of social relationship prevent crime and delinquency. A community's capacity to develop and maintain strong systems of social relationship is influenced by residential…

  19. Toward Community Growth. A Career Education Model for Iowa and Other Predominantly Rural States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskerville, Roger A.

    The Lohrville Career Education Model (LCEM) is a successful program to influence the decision of rural high school students to remain in the community after graduation and to help them examine local occupational opportunities and potential. The LCEM consists of a 7-unit course in local history, rural living, rural economy, rural attitudes,…

  20. "Hey, I Saw Your Grandparents at Walmart": Teacher Education for Rural Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This is a case study about how teacher education might better prepare rural teacher candidates for rural schools. Parents, teachers, community members, and students associated with a rural school described what is important in the preparation of teachers for today's rural schools. Their goals and wishes for their children's school and community…

  1. Occlusal variation in a rural Kentucky community.

    PubMed

    Corruccini, R S; Whitley, L D

    1981-03-01

    Some major theories concerning the etiology of malocclusion and its modern increase in frequency include genetic explanations, such as inbreeding, racial crossing, and accumulation of mutations, as well as such environmental causes as "habits," allergies, and caries causing reduced arch space of premature deciduous tooth loss. Reduction of masticatory stress resulting from modern urbanism is less often considered as an agent. Many examples of acquisition of gross malocclusion in aboriginal peoples immediately following dietary "modernization" contradict the genetic explanations. A rural population from central Kentucky presents several propitious social characteristics for epidemiologic study of occlusion. They have experienced almost no professional dental care, they are highly inbred (but less so during the last 30 years), and their diet included many difficult-to-chew foods until the recent introduction of industry to the area. Occlusion was evaluated according to the criteria of the Treatment Priority Index. The temporal change and correlates of occlusal variation were assessed on wax-bite impressions of thirty-four persons, informant dietary histories, and other information. The older inhabitants raised on more traditional diets show significantly better occlusion. Dietary consistency provides the most powerful explanation for the transition in occlusal variation, through it was not conclusive in these data.

  2. Learning in Place: A Special Report to the Rural School and Community Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Rural School and Community Trust has made place central to its educational and community-building work. Because the understanding of a place is fundamental to building sustainable communities, Rural Trust schools and communities are committed to providing their children and young people with opportunities to explore, analyze, and contribute to…

  3. "Like Human Beings": Responsive Relationships and Institutional Flexibility at a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin; Chavis, Barbara; Kester, John

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on data from a program serving displaced workers and adult students, this article explores how students at a small rural-serving community college in North Carolina believe rurality influences their retention. We review the research and descriptive literature on rural community college challenges, advantages, and approaches to supporting…

  4. The Availability, Prospects, and Fiscal Potential of On-Campus Housing at Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeck, Pat G.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Hardy, David E.; Bush, V. Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Many rural community colleges have long provided on-campus housing. This article profiles the availability of housing at rural community colleges in 2001-2002 and 2005-2006, examines the factors that will continue to make on-campus housing an important service at rural institutions, and draws on 2005-2006 data from the Institutional…

  5. The Role of Rural Communities in the Postsecondary Preparation of Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, rural education has been critiqued for contributing to brain drain and social stratification that saps the human, social, and economic resources of rural communities. This article, based on an investigation of six small rural school districts in the same state, offers an alternative view of the role of community groups and…

  6. Exploring Online Community among Rural Medical Education Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ryan Tyler

    2013-01-01

    There is a severe shortage of rural physicians in America. One reason physicians choose not to practice, or persist in practice, in rural areas is due to a lack of professional community, i.e., community of practice (CoP). Online, "virtual" CoPs, enabled by now common Internet communication technology can help give rural physicians the…

  7. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices.

  8. Growing rural doctors as teachers: a rural community of medical education practice.

    PubMed

    Maley, Moira A; Lockyer-Stevens, Vanessa L; Playford, Denese E

    2010-01-01

    This reflective work considered the journey of rural doctors from diverse backgrounds as teachers and academics during the establishment and rapid expansion of an Australian rural clinical school. The observed social and academic processes are analysed in the context of social learning theory. The extent to which the theoretical social processes match observations during a period of transformational change indicates how social learning processes contributed to the outcome. Ten areas of thematic teacher concerns were identified during teachers' professional development and the strategies used to address these declared. Despite the concurrent evolution of both the overall organisation (teacher environment) and teachers' task (curriculum approach), a community of rural educational practice (CREP) formed and thrived. It adopted a culture of sharing experiences which enabled ongoing knowledge brokering, engaged experts and transformed members. Critical reflection resulting from engagement in mutual activity and a supporting culture of enablement driven by senior leadership was central to success. A generic framework for building a successful CREP includes, leadership that 'enables' its members to flourish, a rural academic identity with a 'Community of Practice' governance, internal benchmarking by members to measure and refine practice, critical reflection 'in' and 'on' academic practice, vertical and horizontal mentoring.

  9. Assessing Flood Impacts in Rural Coastal Communities Using LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal communities are vulnerable to floods from storm events which are further exacerbated by storm surges. Additionally, coastal towns provide specific challenges during flood events as many coastal communities are peninsular and vulnerable to inundation of road access points. Publicly available lidar data has been used to model areas of inundation and resulting flood impacts on road networks. However, these models may overestimate areas that are inaccessible as they rely on publicly available Digital Terrain Models. Through incorporation of Digital Surface Models to estimate bridge height, a more accurate model of flood impacts on rural coastal residents can be estimated.

  10. Predicting Rural Practice and Service to Indigent Patients: Survey of Dental Students Before and After Rural Community Rotations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, C Ken; Price, Shelia S; Jackson, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Community-based clinical rotations in rural areas expose dental students to diverse patient populations, practice models, and career opportunities as well as rural culture. The aims of this study at West Virginia University were to determine the best predictors of rural practice, assess the predictive validity of students' intention to practice in a rural area before and after their rural rotations, and evaluate the relationship between students' intention to practice in a rural area and intention to provide care for indigent patients. Online survey data were submitted pre- and post-rural clinical rotation by 432 of 489 dental students over the study period 2001-12, yielding an 88% response rate. In 2013, practice addresses from the West Virginia Board of Dentistry were added to the student database. The results showed that significant predictors of rural practice site were intended rural practice choice, rural hometown, and projected greater practice accessibility for indigent patients. The likelihood of students' predicting they would choose a rural practice increased after completion of their rural rotations. After the rotations, students predicted providing greater accessibility to indigent patients; these changes occurred for those who changed their predictions to rural practice choice after the rotations and those who subsequently entered rural practice. The dental students with a rural background or a greater service orientation were also more likely to expect to enter a rural practice and actually to do so after graduation. These findings suggest that dental school curricula that include rural rotations may increase students' sensitivity to issues of indigent patients and increase students' likelihood of rural practice choice.

  11. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  12. Adaptation to study design challenges in rural health disparities community research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intervention research in rural health disparities communities presents challenges for study design, implementation, and evaluation, thus threatening scientific rigor, reducing response rates, and confounding study results. A multisite nutrition intervention was conducted in the rural Lower Mississip...

  13. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs.

  14. Community participation in a rural community health trust: the case of Lawrence, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Rachel; Gauld, Robin

    2003-09-01

    Since the mid-1980s, the New Zealand health sector has been in a state of continual change. The most radical changes were in the early-1990s, with the creation of an internal market system for public health care delivery. Rural health services, seen to be unviable, were given the option of establishing themselves as 'community trusts', owning and running their own services. Community trusts have since become a feature of rural health care in New Zealand. An expectation was that community trusts would facilitate community participation. This article reports on a study of participation in a rural community health trust. The 'pentagram model' of Rifkin and coworkers, with its five dimensions of participation-needs assessment, leadership, resource mobilization, management and organization-was applied. High levels of participation were found across each of these dimensions. The research revealed additional dimensions that could be added to the framework, including 'sustainability of participation', 'equity in participation' and 'the dynamic socio-political context'. In this regard, it supports recent theoretical work by Laverack (2001) and Laverack and Wallerstein (2001). Finally, the article comments on the future of rural health trusts in the current round of health sector restructuring.

  15. The Effect of Rural Hospital Closures on Community Economic Health

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, George M; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Randolph, Randy K; Poley, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of rural hospital closures on the local economy. Data Sources U.S. Census Bureau, OSCAR, Medicare Cost Reports, and surveys of individuals knowledgeable about local hospital closures. Study Design Economic data at the county level for 1990–2000 were combined with information on hospital closures. The study sample was restricted to rural counties experiencing a closure during the sample period. Longitudinal regression methods were used to estimate the effect of hospital closure on per-capita income, unemployment rate, and other community economic measures. Models included both leading and lagged closure terms allowing a preclosure economic downturn as well as time for the closure to be fully realized by the community. Data Collection Information on closures was collected by contacting every state hospital association, reconciling information gathered with that contained in the American Hospital Association file and OIG reports. Principal Findings Results indicate that the closure of the sole hospital in the community reduces per-capita income by $703 (p<0.05) or 4 percent (p<0.05) and increases the unemployment rate by 1.6 percentage points (p<0.01). Closures in communities with alternative sources of hospital care had no long-term economic impact, although income decreased for 2 years following the closure. Conclusions The local economic effects of a hospital closure should be considered when regulations that affect hospitals' financial well-being are designed or changed. PMID:16584460

  16. From Ripples to Waves: The Rural Community College Initiative to Build New Partnerships in Support of America's Rural Communities. RRD 190

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In 1994 the Ford Foundation launched the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) as a "national demonstration project to help community colleges in distressed regions move their people and communities toward prosperity. It challenged community colleges to become catalysts for economic development and supported aggressive efforts to increase…

  17. Learning in Rural Communities: A Response to Rapid Economic Change. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Falk, Ian; Harrison, Lesley

    Rural communities with populations of under 15,000 are the least resilient to negative economic shocks, but local initiatives can reduce the negative impact of rapid economic change. Data from a study of three rural Australian communities and one "community-of-common-purpose" were used to develop a model of how the informal learning…

  18. Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Boubakar; Kateh, Francis; Amoah, Aurora; Nagbe, Thomas K.; Raghunathan, Pratima; Neatherlin, John C.; Kinzer, Mike; Pillai, Satish K.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Hajjeh, Rana; Dweh, Emmanuel; Painter, John; Barradas, Danielle T.; Williams, Seymour G.; Blackley, David J.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Patel, Monita R.; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Barskey, Albert E.; Zarecki, Shauna L. Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N.; Maxwell, T. Nikki; Hagan, Jose E.; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M.; Marston, Barbara; Dahl, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities. PMID:27268508

  19. Opportunities in Place: National Assessment of the Rural Community College Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Ron; Jensen, Jane McEldowney; Robbins, Rebecca L.; Russell, Jack; Salant, Priscilla; Torres, Vasti; Viterito, Arthur

    The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI), supported by the Ford Foundation, sought to energize distressed rural communities and the local colleges that serve them. Through a structured process of guided intervention, 24 colleges and their communities learned how to build new partnerships, adapt new ideas to local needs, and implement…

  20. Blind Spots: Small Rural Communities and High Turnover in the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamrath, Barry; Brunner, C. Cryss

    2014-01-01

    This article examines high superintendency turnover through rural community members' perceptions of such attrition in their districts. Findings indicate that community members perceived high turnover as negative and believed that turnover was created by financial pressures, rural community resistance to educational trends, and bias against…

  1. The Road Less Traveled: Atypical Doctoral Preparation of Leaders in Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Ned; Crittenden, Laura; Davis, Melvin; Stumpf, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses an atypical doctoral degree program in Community College Leadership at Mississippi State University, which takes an interdisciplinary approach to educating future rural community college administrators. Program characteristics include: (1) instruction and research driven by priorities established by rural community colleges; (2) a degree…

  2. Presence of a Community Health Center and Uninsured Emergency Department Visit Rates in Rural Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George; Baltrus, Peter; Ye, Jiali; Daniels, Elvan; Quarshie, Alexander; Boumbulian, Paul; Strothers, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Context: Community health centers (CHCs) provide essential access to a primary care medical home for the uninsured, especially in rural communities with no other primary care safety net. CHCs could potentially reduce uninsured emergency department (ED) visits in rural communities. Purpose: We compared uninsured ED visit rates between rural…

  3. Differential Effectiveness of Head Start in Urban and Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Morris, Pamela A.; Connors, Maia C.; Gomez, Celia J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that Head Start may be differentially effective in improving low-income children’s early language and literacy skills based on a number of individual- and family-level characteristics. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (n = 3503; 50% male, 63% treatment group), the present study extends this work to consider program impact variation based on centers’ location in urban versus rural communities. Results indicate that Head Start is more effective in increasing children’s receptive vocabulary (as measured by the PPVT) in urban areas and their oral comprehension (as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Oral Comprehension task) in rural areas. Additional analyses suggest that related characteristics of the center – including concentration of dual language learners and provision of transportation services – may underlie these associations. Implications for research on program evaluation and policy are discussed. PMID:26834304

  4. Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) network: first-person accounts in a community-university partnership.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Alter, Theodore R; Brown, Leigh Gordon; Corbin, Marilyn A; Flaherty-Craig, Claire; McPhail, Lindsay G; Nevel, Pauline; Shoop, Kimbra; Sterner, Glenn; Terndrup, Thomas E; Weaver, M Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Community research and action projects undertaken by community-university partnerships can lead to contextually appropriate and sustainable community improvements in rural and urban localities. However, effective implementation is challenging and prone to failure when poorly executed. The current paper seeks to inform rural community-university partnership practice through consideration of first-person accounts from five stakeholders in the Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network. The REACH Network is a unique community-university partnership aimed at improving rural health services by identifying, implementing, and evaluating innovative health interventions delivered by local caregivers. The first-person accounts provide an insider's perspective on the nature of collaboration. The unique perspectives identify three critical challenges facing the REACH Network: trust, coordination, and sustainability. Through consideration of the challenges, we identified several strategies for success. We hope readers can learn their own lessons when considering the details of our partnership's efforts to improve the delivery infrastructure for rural healthcare.

  5. Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Taş, Neslihan; Prestat, Emmanuel; McFarland, Jack W; Wickland, Kimberley P; Knight, Rob; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Jorgenson, Torre; Waldrop, Mark P; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost soils are large reservoirs of potentially labile carbon (C). Understanding the dynamics of C release from these soils requires us to account for the impact of wildfires, which are increasing in frequency as the climate changes. Boreal wildfires contribute to global emission of greenhouse gases (GHG—CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirectly result in the thawing of near-surface permafrost. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of fire on soil microbial communities and metabolic potential for GHG fluxes in samples collected up to 1 m depth from an upland black spruce forest near Nome Creek, Alaska. We measured geochemistry, GHG fluxes, potential soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure via 16SrRNA gene and metagenome sequencing. We found that soil moisture, C content and the potential for respiration were reduced by fire, as were microbial community diversity and metabolic potential. There were shifts in dominance of several microbial community members, including a higher abundance of candidate phylum AD3 after fire. The metagenome data showed that fire had a pervasive impact on genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, methanogenesis and the nitrogen cycle. Although fire resulted in an immediate release of CO2 from surface soils, our results suggest that the potential for emission of GHG was ultimately reduced at all soil depths over the longer term. Because of the size of the permafrost C reservoir, these results are crucial for understanding whether fire produces a positive or negative feedback loop contributing to the global C cycle. PMID:24722629

  6. Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Taş, Neslihan; Prestat, Emmanuel; McFarland, Jack W; Wickland, Kimberley P; Knight, Rob; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Jorgenson, Torre; Waldrop, Mark P; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-09-01

    Permafrost soils are large reservoirs of potentially labile carbon (C). Understanding the dynamics of C release from these soils requires us to account for the impact of wildfires, which are increasing in frequency as the climate changes. Boreal wildfires contribute to global emission of greenhouse gases (GHG-CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirectly result in the thawing of near-surface permafrost. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of fire on soil microbial communities and metabolic potential for GHG fluxes in samples collected up to 1 m depth from an upland black spruce forest near Nome Creek, Alaska. We measured geochemistry, GHG fluxes, potential soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure via 16SrRNA gene and metagenome sequencing. We found that soil moisture, C content and the potential for respiration were reduced by fire, as were microbial community diversity and metabolic potential. There were shifts in dominance of several microbial community members, including a higher abundance of candidate phylum AD3 after fire. The metagenome data showed that fire had a pervasive impact on genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, methanogenesis and the nitrogen cycle. Although fire resulted in an immediate release of CO2 from surface soils, our results suggest that the potential for emission of GHG was ultimately reduced at all soil depths over the longer term. Because of the size of the permafrost C reservoir, these results are crucial for understanding whether fire produces a positive or negative feedback loop contributing to the global C cycle.

  7. Living and Learning in Rural Schools and Communities: Lessons from the Field. A Report to the Annenberg Rural Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Vito; Canniff, Julie G.; Casey, Mary E.; Cochrane, Candace; Fontaine, Carla; Ulichny, Polly; Williams, Ben; Wood, Douglas

    This volume compiles descriptions of the work being done by rural students in 13 schools/sites with grants from the Annenberg Rural Challenge. The work reflects a belief in education that privileges the local nature of learning and connects schools and communities for their mutual benefit. Entries include focused lessons, long-term projects, and…

  8. Community-Based Education and Rural Development. Site Visit to Nebraska. Rural Funders Working Group Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeden, Carol Lee

    In September 2000, grantmakers from around the country traveled to three Nebraska communities--Albion, Crete, and Henderson--to see how community-based education can positively affect the economic, environmental, and cultural development of a rural community. In Albion, the school is an open laboratory in which students, teachers, and parents work…

  9. Interactive effects of wildfire and permafrost on microbial communities and soil processes in an Alaskan black spruce forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Boreal forests contain significant quantities of soil carbon that may be oxidized to CO2 given future increases in climate warming and wildfire behavior. At the ecosystem scale, decomposition and heterotrophic respiration are strongly controlled by temperature and moisture, but we questioned whether changes in microbial biomass, activity, or community structure induced by fire might also affect these processes. We particularly wanted to understand whether postfire reductions in microbial biomass could affect rates of decomposition. Additionally, we compared the short-term effects of wildfire to the long-term effects of climate warming and permafrost decline. We compared soil microbial communities between control and recently burned soils that were located in areas with and without permafrost near Delta Junction, AK. In addition to soil physical variables, we quantified changes in microbial biomass, fungal biomass, fungal community composition, and C cycling processes (phenol oxidase enzyme activity, lignin decomposition, and microbial respiration). Five years following fire, organic surface horizons had lower microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations compared with control soils. Reductions in soil fungi were associated with reductions in phenol oxidase activity and lignin decomposition. Effects of wildfire on microbial biomass and activity in the mineral soil were minor. Microbial community composition was affected by wildfire, but the effect was greater in nonpermafrost soils. Although the presence of permafrost increased soil moisture contents, effects on microbial biomass and activity were limited to mineral soils that showed lower fungal biomass but higher activity compared with soils without permafrost. Fungal abundance and moisture were strong predictors of phenol oxidase enzyme activity in soil. Phenol oxidase enzyme activity, in turn, was linearly related to both 13C lignin decomposition and microbial respiration

  10. White Exodus, Latino Repopulation, and Community Well-Being: Trends in California's Rural Communities. Research Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Rochin, Refugio I.

    This paper examines both the out-migration of non-Hispanic Whites and the in-migration of Latinos in rural California, to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and the well-being of California's rural communities. Theoretical explanations for ethnic transformation and community well-being focus on agricultural and industrial…

  11. Factors associated to endemic dental fluorosis in Brazilian rural communities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2010-08-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p < 0.05). No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  12. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Efigênia F.; Vargas, Andréa Maria D.; Castilho, Lia S.; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M.; Fantinel, Lucia M.; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p < 0.05). No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value. PMID:20948951

  13. COMMUNITY DISCLOSURE BY PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV IN RURAL CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Feng, Nan; Ji, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The decision to disclose HIV serostatus is a complex and a challenging task because of potential stigma, blame, and fear associated with HIV infection. Despite continued research on HIV disclosure, literature on HIV disclosure to community is still scarce. The purpose of the study is to describe patterns of HIV status disclosure to community members in a sample of HIV-infected men and women in rural China. This study used the baseline data of a randomized controlled intervention trial for HIV-affected families in China. The data was collected between late 2011 to early 2013. In addition to demographic and HIV-related clinical characteristics, we collected the extent of HIV disclosure to members within the community. We first calculated descriptive statistics and frequencies to describe the demographics of the sample. We then compared the extents of HIV disclosure to different community members. We performed chi-square tests to determine whether the demographic and socioeconomic variables were associated with the extent of HIV disclosure to community. A total of 522 PLH were included in the study. The results show that age and family income are associated with the extent of disclosure of HIV status to members within the community, including neighbor, village leaders, people in the village, and coworkers. More disclosures were found among older age groups. People with less family income tend to disclose more to the community than those with higher family income. There is a need to explore the association of HIV disclosure to the community to help realize the public health and personal implications of disclosure. Our results underscore the potential benefits of age and socioeconomic status–specific interventions in the efforts to dispel barriers to HIV status disclosure to the community. PMID:27427924

  14. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Oqueli, Hector Lopez; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    Background We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Results Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01), and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg), from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01). We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01). At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Conclusions Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for improving hypertension

  15. Rural Revitalization in New Mexico: A Grass Roots Initiative Involving School and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…

  16. Perceived Density, Social Interaction and Morale in New South Wales Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argent, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between population density, social interaction patterns, and morale in rural communities. It tests two apparently competing hypotheses concerning rural population density, social interaction patterns and overall levels of morale: one, that low (and rapidly declining) rural densities lead to feelings of…

  17. 76 FR 80868 - Increasing Access to Rural Community Investment Opportunities for Investors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... America. USDA understands that investors have a responsibility to provide market rate returns for their... USDA has a long and successful history of making loans to rural communities. USDA's Rural Development... whether there is also a demand for low-risk, long-term investments in rural America with stable cash...

  18. Human Relations and Community Life in Rural New York State: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Trends, strengths and assets, weaknesses and problem areas, goals, and public policy questions in the area of human relations and community life in rural New York state are presented with supporting statistics. Trends considered include rural and elderly rural population increases; suicide, homicide, and domestic violence rate increases; demands…

  19. Perspectives on Designing Rural Schools As Community Learning and Service Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaerman, Robert; And Others

    In 1994, a 2-day symposium was conducted on a broadened, more inclusive mission for rural schools--rural schools functioning as community learning and service centers. The symposium aimed to enhance the knowledge base related to five key dimensions that must be planned, implemented, and evaluated when designing rural schools in this fashion:…

  20. Issues Affecting Rural Communities (II). Proceedings of the International Conference [on] Rural Communities & Identities in the Global Millennium (Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, May 1-5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jim C., Ed.; Kitchenham, Andrew D., Ed.

    This proceedings of a conference held in May 2000 at Malaspina University-College (British Columbia) contains approximately 63 conference papers, abstracts of papers, and keynote speeches. The conference examined issues affecting rural communities, with major themes being rural education, health, human services, families, and the sustainability of…

  1. Application Profiling for Rural Communities: eGov Services and Training Resources in Rural Inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamolegkos, Pantelis; Maroudas, Axel; Manouselis, Nikos

    Metadata plays a critical role in the design and development of online repositories. The efficiency and ease of use of the repositories are directly associated with the metadata structure, since end-user functionalities such as search, retrieval and access are highly dependent on how the metadata schema and application profile have been conceptualized and implemented. The need for efficient and interoperable application profiles is even more substantial when it comes to services related to the e-government (eGov) paradigm, given a) the close association between services related to eGov and the metadata usage and b) the fact that the eGov concept is associated with time and cost critical processes, i.e. interaction of citizens and services with public authorities. In this paper, we outline an effort related to application profiling for eGov services and training resources, used in the platform of RuralObservatory2.0, which will underpin a major objective of the ICT PSP Rural Inclusion project, i.e. the eGov paradigm uptake by rural communities.

  2. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  3. A theory of how rural health services contribute to community sustainability.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jane; Prior, Maria; Taylor, Judy

    2012-11-01

    Study and opinion suggest that health services play a significant role in supporting the social fabric of fragile rural communities. We draw on empirical evidence about the added-value contributions of health services to communities and unite it with theory of capitals to propose a theoretical model depicting how rural health services contribute to community sustainability. While providing an analytical framework, the paper also points to construction of a measurement tool for enabling planners to measure the contributions of diverse sectors to community sustainability and predict or measure the impact of changes to models of service delivery on the future of rural communities.

  4. Alaskan Native Education: An Historical Perspective. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 18-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Charles K.

    Designed to help Alaskan Native communities and organizations, State and Federal officials, citizens of Alaska, and professional educators in dealing with changing educational situations, the report provides a reliable and succinct history of Alaskan education from the time of the area's purchase from Russia in 1867. One of the major problems in…

  5. Rural Policy Matters: A Newsletter of Rural School & Community Action, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Policy Matters, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the 11 issues of the newsletter "Rural Policy Matters" published in 2001. Issues examine recent educational research on small and rural schools; report on court litigation related to rural school finance, local advocacy efforts in support of rural schools, and the condition of rural school facilities; outline policy issues…

  6. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities....58 Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. (a) Administrator: The authority to approve the following is reserved to the Administrator: (1) Allocation of appropriated funds among high energy...

  7. Multiple Points of Contact: Promoting Rural Postsecondary Preparation through School-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2013-01-01

    Formal and informal partnerships between rural schools and their communities can provide a wide range of supports for all students, but particularly those from low-income families. In this analysis of six small rural school districts in Virginia we show how the broad participation of community groups and individuals supports academic achievement…

  8. Standing Up for Community and School: Rural People Tell Their Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bradwell D.

    Seven case studies illustrate how rural people and communities have resisted the arbitrary limits of public policy. In contrast to one-size-fits-all education policy, a history teacher in rural southern Texas motivated his Mexican American high school students to collect oral histories in their community, develop them into a curriculum, and teach…

  9. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Capital in Rural Communities of the Greek North Aegean Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseloni, Andromachi; Zissi, Anastasia; Skapinakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    Which facets of social capital affect mental health in rural settings? This study explores the association between different aspects of social capital and psychiatric morbidity in rural communities of the Greek North Aegean islands. A large number of individual and community characteristics that may influence psychiatric morbidity are concurrently…

  10. The Power of Competing Narratives: A New Interpretation of Rural School-Community Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Often considered harmonious places, rural communities are in reality spaces often fragmented along class lines, with political factions promoting competing values and interests regarding the purpose of schooling. Using an exemplar case, this study affords us a new interpretation of rural school-community relations in times of conflict. It…

  11. A Computer-Based Curricular Provision for Rural Communities (RP110).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    In 1983, a project at East Devon College of Further Education sought to identify learning needs in scattered rural communities, particularly among the unemployed, and to meet those needs with distance education technology. The project team identified the characteristics of several types of rural Devon communities and assessed curricular needs…

  12. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  13. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities....58 Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. (a) Administrator: The authority to approve the following is reserved to the Administrator: (1) Allocation of appropriated funds among high energy...

  14. Perception of Community Problems by Rural Residents and County Leaders: Implications for Citizen Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Nelson L.; Lilley, Stephen C.

    Two problem identification surveys conducted to support Extension Community and Resource Development programs in South Carolina's rural Williamsburg County focused on some implications for citizen involvement in public decision making, specifically in rural community development. A 1975 survey of 41 leaders and 1976 citizen survey of 214 rural…

  15. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  16. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  17. Community Support for a Gold Cyanide Process Mine: Resident and Leader Differences in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rebecca T.; Brod, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have established that community residents and leaders differ in their support for hazardous waste facility siting in rural areas (Spies et al. 1998). We examine whether these same differences exist in rural communities that face other high-risk development decisions by analyzing resident and leader support for a proposed gold…

  18. School-Community Collaboration in a Rural Setting: Sources and Profiles. Knowledge Brief, Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Sylvie van Heusden

    This article provides resources for school-community collaboration to support at-risk students and their families in rural settings. Rural schools and their communities must work together efficiently and economically to counteract problems such as geographic isolation, shortage of resources, economic decline, lack of political power and…

  19. Diversion or Democratization: Do Rural, Hispanic, Community College Students Show Signs of Academic Undermatch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between academic undermatch theory and the college-going decisions, experiences, and aspirations of first-generation, rural Hispanic community college students in the new destination meatpacking town of Winstead, Kansas. Ethnographic data from rural high school guidance counselors, community college faculty,…

  20. Community-Based HIV Clinical Trials: An Integrated Approach in Underserved, Rural, Minority Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Isler, Malika Roman; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Banks, Bahby

    2013-01-01

    Background Although racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, these groups are underrepresented in HIV-related clinical trials. This illustrates the need for more innovation in attempts to engage underrepresented populations in calls for interdisciplinary and translational research. Objectives Eleven focus groups and 35 interviews were conducted with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to explore the perspectives of rural community leaders, service providers, and PLWHA about bringing HIV-related research, including clinical trials, into rural communities. Methods Over a period of 3 months in spring 2007, we collected qualitative data from three sources: Community leaders, service providers, and PLWHA. Text data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and content analysis techniques of theme identification. Results Respondents want an integrated approach to HIV research that builds trust, meets community needs, and respects their values. They conceptualize HIV research as part of a broader spectrum of HIV testing, prevention, and care, and suggest integrating HIV trials with existing community services, organizations, and structures, engaging various segments of the community, and conducting research using a personal approach. Conclusions These findings support calls for more relevant, translational, and engaged research. An integrated approach may be an important innovation to transform the research enterprise to meet these goals and more directly improve the health of individuals. PMID:22820222

  1. Teens, Crime, and Rural Communities. How Youth in Rural America Can Help Reduce Violent and Property Crimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Erin; O'Neil, Jean F., Ed.

    Featuring the Teens, Crime, and Community (TCC) program, this monograph focuses on youth crime and crime prevention in rural settings. TCC actively involves teens and adults in a partnership designed to reduce teen victimization and to encourage teens to be catalysts of change for community safety. The guide provides teachers, administrators, and…

  2. The Use of Community-Based Support To Effect Curriculum Renewal in Rural Settings. Rural Curriculum Handbook No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Jack W.

    This report examines the use of community-based support to facilitate curriculum renewal efforts in small rural school districts. Interviews with educators from five school districts in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington describe three approaches to curriculum renewal: community-initiated approaches, state-directed reform efforts, and…

  3. Making Wise Choices: Telecommunications for Rural Community Viability. Proceedings of a Workshop (Kansas City, Missouri, February 25-27, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Eric A., Ed.

    This proceedings contains keynote speeches, community case studies, and small-group recommendations concerned with successful telecommunications initiatives in rural communities. The four keynote addresses are: "Electronic Highways and Byways: Converging Technologies and Rural Development" (Heather E. Hudson); "Information…

  4. Cross-Cultural Issues in Alaskan Education. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray, Ed.

    A collection of 15 articles on cross-cultural issues in Alaskan education addresses educational policy issues, educational development issues, community/school issues, and teaching/learning issues. The one theme that permeates all of the articles is the value of participation by community members in all levels of the education of their children.…

  5. Women and Minorities in Alaskan Aviation. Alaskan Equity Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordan, Mary Lou; Nicholson, Deborah

    This resource guide tells the story of Alaskan women and minority aviators and those in aviation-related businesses, from the early 20th century to the present. Developed for secondary students but also suitable for younger students, the guide combines six accounts of Alaskan women and minority aviators with classroom activities centered around…

  6. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Oqueli, Hector Lopez; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    Background We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Results Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01), and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg), from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01). We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01). At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Conclusions Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for improving hypertension

  7. Rural Communities in an Advanced Industrial Society: Dilemmas and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.

    The major features previously used to define rural life now fail to describe much of rural America, as changes that place rural areas in the vanguard of American society are manifest in rural landscape, institutions, economic activity, and life. The principal policy thrusts of modernization and urbanization and the related theories of product…

  8. Addressing health disparities in rural communities using telehealth.

    PubMed

    Marcin, James P; Shaikh, Ulfat; Steinhorn, Robin H

    2016-01-01

    The regionalization of pediatric services has resulted in differential access to care, sometimes creating barriers to those living in underserved, rural communities. These disparities in access contribute to inferior healthcare outcomes among infants and children. We review the medical literature on telemedicine and its use to improve access and the quality of care provided to pediatric patients with otherwise limited access to pediatric subspecialty care. We review the use of telemedicine for the provision of pediatric subspecialty consultations in the settings of ambulatory care, acute and inpatient care, and perinatal and newborn care. Studies demonstrate the feasibility and efficiencies gained with models of care that use telemedicine. By providing pediatric subspecialty care in more convenient settings such as local primary care offices and community hospitals, pediatric patients are more likely to receive care that adheres to evidence-based guidelines. In many cases, telemedicine can significantly improve provider, patient, and family satisfaction, increase measures of quality of care and patient safety, and reduce overall costs of care. Models of care that use telemedicine have the potential to address pediatric specialists' geographic misdistribution and address disparities in the quality of care delivered to children in underserved communities.

  9. Building a Sense of Community. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 13, Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This packet includes reprints of journal articles and other resources concerning building a sense of community among staff and learners in small, rural schools. The four sections of the packet cover involving the community in education, establishing a learning community within the school, using the community as a resource for the classroom, and…

  10. The Barefoot Teacher on the Telematic Highway--Serving Rural Communities in Kwa Zulu Natal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fregona, Charl; Harris, Maureen; Kruger, Johann

    The Department of Community Nursing and the Open Learning Centre of Technikon Natal (South Africa) and the community-owned Community Development Programme are collaborating to provide online learning to rural and urban community nurses. The project involves the development of a multimedia pharmacology course, a virtual Internet class, and the…

  11. El Silencio: a rural community of learners and media creators.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    A one-to-one learning environment, where each participating student and the teacher use a laptop computer, provides an invaluable opportunity for rethinking learning and studying the ways in which children can program computers and learn to think about their own thinking styles and become epistemologists. This article presents a study done in a rural school in Costa Rica in which students used computers to create media. Three important components of the work are described: (1) student-owned technology that can accompany students as they interact at home and in the broader community, (2) activities that are designed with sufficient scope to encourage the appropriation of powerful ideas, and (3) teacher engagement in activity design with simultaneous support from a knowledge network of local and international colleagues and mentors.

  12. Factors contributing to participation of a rural community in health education: a case study from ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Abebaw Yirga

    This study investigated factors that contributed to the participation of a rural community in health education. It was conducted in the Awi zone of the Amhara region in Ethiopia. The participants were rural community members and health extension workers. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit rural community members, whereas convenient sampling was used to recruit health extension workers. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews, and focus group discussions. The study revealed various factors contributing to the participation of a rural community in health education, including attainability of the objectives of health education, profiles of the health extension workers, peer influence, organization of the health education program in terms of place and time, and meaningfulness of the health education in terms of rural community lives. Although the ultimate goal of participation in health education is similar for all rural community members, they were attracted to the program by one or more than one different factor. Efforts aimed at enhancing participation of a rural community in health education program should address each factor that contributes to the participation of community members.

  13. Humans as Long-Distance Dispersers of Rural Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Cousins, Sara A. O.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24 354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36%) are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion. PMID:23658770

  14. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  15. Developing sustainable social programmes for rural ethnic seniors: perspectives of community stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel; Hulme Chambers, Alana

    2016-07-11

    This qualitative study explores barriers to delivering sustainable rural community programmes to increase social participation among Australian ethnic seniors. In 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 stakeholders across eight rural/regional organisations that had received state government funding to provide social participation initiatives for ethnic seniors. Within interviews, participants were asked to outline factors that had enhanced or hindered their capacity to deliver the funded projects, and their plans for sustainability. Data were analysed thematically in accordance with Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone's (1998) tripartite programme sustainability framework (project design and implementation, organisational setting and broader community environment). Findings indicate that in the context of resource and staffing constraints and a lack of ethnic critical mass, programme sustainability reflected the increased capacity of rural ethnic seniors to integrate into existing community groups and maintain their own groups and activities. However, this is dependent on the ability of mainstream government, health and social care services to cater for diverse cultural needs and preferences, the ability of rural organisations to support ethnic seniors to manage their own cultural groups and activities, and the capacity of funding bodies, rural community and policy structures to maintain cultural sensitivity while compensating for the rural premium. In addition to identifying some key learnings for rural governments, health and community organisations, this research highlights the precarious nature of rural programme sustainability for ethnic seniors in the context of wider community, organisational and policy constraints.

  16. Rural Adolescents and Mental Health: Growing Up in the Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Beverly Hartung

    1987-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on the subject of rural adolescent mental health. Discusses demographics, unique situations, and problems of rural youth. Presents impact of the rural economic crisis. Suggests treatment strategies to deal with mental health problems of rural adolescents: individual therapy, family therapy, and peer group programs. (NEC)

  17. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…

  18. STRUCTURAL INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR WOMEN PRISONERS RELEASED TO RURAL COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Nicdao, Ethel G.; Trott, Elise M.; Kellett, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Incarceration and community reentry for rural women reflect gendered processes. We draw upon in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups to examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Our findings underscore the complexity of the reentry process for rural women and its particular impact on their families. We challenge dominant discourses of personal responsibility that detract from the structura violence and injustice shaping reentry experiences for women and their social supporters. We also consider the policy implications of discharge and reentry planning for rural women and their families, as well as strategies to reduce recidivism. PMID:27274615

  19. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  20. Inexpensive, Robust Water Stage Sensor for Rural Community Footbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A.; McDermot, D. J.; Langenfeld, K.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Footbridges across streams and rivers provide rural communities in many countries essential access to hospitals, schools, and economic opportunities. Without these, communities experience isolation during the rainy season. However, many of these bridges are subject to immersion at times, and there is a need for sensing the river stage before venturing onto a bridge. We have developed an inexpensive, robust, self-contained sensor that meets this need. A two-wire electrical cord, purchased in bulk from a home improvement supplier, is the basic sensing element. The two conductors of the cord form a transmission line capacitor. The cord is suspended below the footbridge and the capacitance is a function of the fraction of the electrical cord that is immersed in water. The cord/capacitor is part of the timing element of an electronic oscillator circuit. As the water level rises, the capacitance and oscillator frequency decrease. The oscillator frequency is measured with a microcontroller. The microcontroller calculates the corresponding water stage and displays it on a small LCD display. The electronics are contained in a 12×7×7 cm watertight container. Four AA batteries power the sensor. The device has calibration features to accommodate different types of electrical cord.

  1. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  2. Diversity of rickettsiae in a rural community in northern California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Blaney, Alexandra; Clifford, Deana; Gabriel, Mourad; Wengert, Greta; Foley, Patrick; Brown, Richard N; Higley, Mark; Buckenberger-Mantovani, Sarah; Foley, Janet

    2017-02-27

    Far northern California forests are highly biodiverse in wildlife reservoirs and arthropod vectors that may propagate rickettsial pathogens in nature. The proximity of small rural communities to these forests puts people and domestic animals at risk of vector-borne infection due to spillover from wildlife. The current study was conducted to document exposure to rickettsial pathogens in people and domestic animals in a rural community, and identify which rickettsiae are present in sylvatic and peri-domestic environments near this community. Blood samples from people, domestic animals (dogs, cats, and horses) and wild carnivores were tested for Rickettsia spp. antibodies and DNA (people and domestic animals only) by serology and real time (RT)-PCR, respectively. Ectoparasites were collected from dogs, wild carnivores and from vegetation by flagging, and tested for Rickettsia spp. DNA by RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of the rickettsial 17kDa protein gene or the ompA gene was used for species identification. Despite a seroprevalence of 3% in people, 42% in dogs, 79% in cats, 33% in gray foxes, and 83% in bobcats, RT-PCR on blood was consistently negative, likely because the sensitivity of this test is low, as Rickettsia spp. do not often circulate in high numbers in the blood. Rickettsia spp. DNA was found in four flea species collected from bobcats and Ctenocephalides felis collected from domestic dogs. All amplicons sequenced from fleas were R. felis. Ixodes pacificus collected by flagging were commonly infected with a Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont. Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was found in Dermacentor variabilis from dogs, black bears, a gray fox, and a D. occidentalis collected by flagging. Dermacentor variabilis from dogs and black bears also contained R. montanensis DNA. Multiple Rickettsia spp. (including species with zoonotic and pathogenic potential) were found among human biting arthropod vectors of both wild and domestic carnivores and on flags. Knowledge of the

  3. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  4. Developing a rural community-based disability service: (I) service framework and implementation strategy.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, P; Kendall, E; Hancock, T

    2001-02-01

    In response to widely recognised dilemmas associated with rehabilitation and disability service provision in remote and rural areas of Australia, a community-based, participatory approach to service development was adapted for a disability service project in central Queensland. The service framework, known as Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR), fosters the involvement of community members in disability service provision. Although this framework has been described previously, few guidelines exist regarding appropriate implementation of such an approach. Consequently, the implementation strategy known as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was adopted. Participatory Rural Appraisal has been reported to foster the participation and decision-making of community members in community projects. The present article describes the application of this implementation strategy to disability service provision in a relatively under-resourced rural shire. The rationale, framework and process of the pilot are described. A subsequent publication will document the service component, detail evaluation findings and describe the long-term outcomes of this research.

  5. Engaging Alaskan Students in Cryospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Permafrost/Active Layer Monitoring Program is an ongoing project, which builds on work begun in 2005 to establish long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring sites adjacent to schools in Alaskan communities and in the circumpolar permafrost region. Currently, there are about 200 schools in Alaska involved in the project including also Denali National Park and Preserve. The project has both scientific and outreach components. The monitoring sites collect temperature data on permafrost, and the length and depth of the active layer (the layer above the permafrost that thaws during summer and freezes again during winter). To ensure scientific integrity, the scientist installed all of the monitoring instruments and selected the sites representative of the surrounding biome and thermal conditions. This is a unique collaboration opportunity in that 1) uses scientifically accurate instruments, 2) is scientist led and supervised including instrumentation set-up and data quality check, 3)has teacher/student organized observation network, 4) increased spatial scale of monitoring sites that covers all of the Alaskan communities. Most of the monitoring sites are located in remote communities, where the majority of residents depend on a subsistence lifestyle. Changes in climate, length of seasons, and permafrost conditions directly impact natural resources and subsistence activities. Changes in permafrost conditions also affect local ecosystems and hydrological regimes, and can influence the severity of natural disasters. In addition to extending our knowledge of the arctic environment, the program involves school-age students. Several students have been using the data for their projects and have been inspired to continue their studies. The data gathered from these stations are shared with other schools and made available to the public through our web site (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Also communities have increasingly become interested in this project not only as

  6. Cost-effective strategies for rural community outreach, Hawaii, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Karen L; Barbato, Anna; Holuby, R Scott; Ciarleglio, Anita E; Taniguchi, Ronald

    2014-12-11

    Three strategies designed to maximize attendance at educational sessions on chronic disease medication safety in older adults in rural areas were implemented sequentially and compared for cost-effectiveness: 1) existing community groups and events, 2) formal advertisement, and 3) employer-based outreach. Cost-effectiveness was measured by comparing overall cost per attendee recruited and number of attendees per event. The overall cost per attendee was substantially higher for the formal advertising strategy, which produced the lowest number of attendees per event. Leveraging existing community events and employers in rural areas was more cost-effective than formal advertisement for recruiting rural community members.

  7. What community characteristics help or hinder rural communities in becoming age-friendly? Perspectives from a Canadian prairie province.

    PubMed

    Spina, John; Menec, Verena H

    2015-06-01

    Age-friendly initiatives are increasingly promoted as a policy solution to healthy aging, The primary objective of this article was to examine older adults' and key stakeholders' perceptions of the factors that either help or hinder a community from becoming age-friendly in the context of rural Manitoba, a Canadian prairie province. Twenty-four older adults and 17 key informants completed a qualitative interview. The findings show that contextual factors including size, location, demographic composition, ability to secure investments, and leadership influence rural communities' ability to become age-friendly. Government must consider the challenges these communities face in becoming more age-friendly and develop strategies to support communities.

  8. Revitalizing the Rural Economy for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Home to 65 million people, rural America is no longer insulated from national and international events. Once dependent entirely upon agriculture and natural resource industries, today rural America relies upon manufacturing and service industries. Jobs and other income opportunities in rural America must respond to global business cycles and…

  9. Compositional, Contextual, and Collective Community Factors in Mental Health and Well-Being in Australian Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jessica; Ward, Bernadette M.; Snow, Pamela; Kippen, Sandra; Judd, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    There are disproportionately higher and inconsistently distributed rates of recorded suicides in rural areas. Patterns of rural suicide are well documented, but they remain poorly understood. Geographic variations in physical and mental health can be understood through the combination of compositional, contextual, and collective factors pertaining to particular places. The aim of this study was to explore the role of “place” contributing to suicide rates in rural communities. Seventeen mental health professionals participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Principles of grounded theory were used to guide the analysis. Compositional themes were demographics and perceived mental health issues; contextual themes were physical environment, employment, housing, and mental health services; and collective themes were town identity, community values, social cohesion, perceptions of safety, and attitudes to mental illness. It is proposed that connectedness may be the underlying mechanism by which compositional, contextual, and collective factors influence mental health and well-being in rural communities. PMID:26848083

  10. Online Attrition at a Community College in Rural Appalachia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Victoria Sue

    2013-01-01

    The education attainment level of residents in rural Appalachia has consistently ranked below the remaining populous of the United States. Although distance education initiatives have attempted to bridge the disparities between rural Appalachia and the rest of the nation, online community college students in this region are likely to drop out or…

  11. Assets, Challenges, and the Potential of Technology for Nutrition Education in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.; Desmond, Sharon M.; Saperstein, Sandra L.; Billing, Amy S.; Gold, Robert S.; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine assets of and challenges to getting adequate nutrition and physical activity among low-income rural residents, and the potential for technology to provide health education. Methods: Environmental scans and community stakeholder interviews were conducted in 5 rural counties in Maryland. During environmental scans, stakeholders…

  12. Mathematics Education in Rural Communities in Light of Current Trends in Mathematics Education. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James E.

    Despite the considerable efforts now under way to improve our nation's mathematics education for all students, students in rural settings do not receive their share of attention. This paper considers school mathematics in rural communities in the larger context of current reform from a number of perspectives, including curricular materials,…

  13. Symbiotic Relationship between Telecentre and Lifelong Learning for Rural Community Development: A Malaysian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malek, Jalaluddin Abdul; Razaq Ahmad, Abdul; Mahzan Awang, Mohd; Alfitri

    2014-01-01

    Telecentres in the 21st century may be able to improve standard of living, quality of life, and stability of knowledge for the rural population. The role of telecentres is widely increasing in developing political and management awareness, economic, socio-culture, technology, education and regulation awareness in rural communities. Telecentres in…

  14. Creating an Academic and Rural Community Network To Improve Diabetes Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carol A.; Kennedy, Diane M.; Lahoz, Monina Rasay; Hislop, David A.; Erkel, Elizabeth E.

    The South Carolina Rural Interdisciplinary Program in Training (SCRIPT) provides practical educational experiences for students from multiple health care majors in rural communities in the Low Country (Southern region) of South Carolina. Faculty from the Medical University of South Carolina joined with staff from the Low Country Area Health…

  15. From Closed to Open Classes--Repositioning Schools to Sustain Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Schools have always been central to rural communities, but today they are critical to the sustainability of social and economic life for people who live beyond major centres of population. The development of virtual structures and processes that enhance classes in and between rural schools has provided extended educational and, indirectly,…

  16. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  17. University-Rural Community Partnership for People-Centred Development: Experiences from Makhado Municipality, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, J.; Dube, B.; Mokganyetji, T.; Chitapa, T.

    2010-01-01

    Children, youth, women, the elderly, men and their leaders are integral components of rural communities. It is important to ensure that their unique needs and perceptions shape development programming. However, despite having various policies and legal frameworks introduced to deepen democracy in South Africa, current rural development programming…

  18. Gendered Economies: Transferring Private Gender Roles into the Public Realm through Rural Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the important issue of women's economic participation in rural community development and regeneration. The paper explores the economic lives and actions of women residents in ''Ilston'', a village in the Northumberland Rural Coalfield. The women's narratives illustrate the economic connections between private and public…

  19. Southern Seven Women's Initiative for Cardiovascular Health: Lessons Learned in Community Health Outreach with Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M.; Huber, Rachel; Moehring, Patricia A.; Koch, Abby; Geller, Stacie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Rural women have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to both behavioral and environmental factors. Models of prevention that are tailored to community needs and build on existing resources are essential for effective outreach to rural women.…

  20. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  1. The Association of Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms in Rural Communities of Missouri, Tennessee, and Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Salas, Joanne; Habicht, Katherine; Pien, Grace W.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between sleep duration and depressive symptoms in a rural setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Wave 3 of the Walk the Ozarks to Wellness Project including 12 rural communities in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee (N = 1,204). Sleep duration was defined based on average…

  2. Rural Responses to H1N1: A Flexible Model for Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Denise; Aubrey, Debra Larsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a regional 2009 H1N1 rural response model, which utilises community partnerships with local government, county emergency management, public health, private healthcare, Medical Reserve Corps volunteers, and other organisations in rural Southeast Idaho. Unique aspects of the collaborative use of federal, state, county, and…

  3. Taking the Metropolitan University to a Rural Community: The Role of a Needs Assessment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Shamima

    1999-01-01

    When metropolitan universities refer to serving the entire metropolitan area, they often refer to rural fringes as well as concentrated urban populations. Working with rural communities requires somewhat different approaches to planning programs and understanding needs. Survey research helps the campus understand the perceptions and realities of…

  4. Preliminary Effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in Rural Communities. CYFS Working Paper No. 2012-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Holmes, Shannon R.; Coutts, Michael J.; Smith, Tyler E.

    2012-01-01

    Families in rural communities are often poorly connected to schools due to challenges associated with geographic isolation, poverty, inexperienced staff, inadequate resources, scheduling challenges, and low parental education. This creates problems with the access, availability, and acceptability of services. Teachers in rural schools often have…

  5. "Our Culture Does Not Allow that": Exploring the Challenges of Sexuality Education in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khau, 'Mathabo

    2012-01-01

    Within sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS is becoming a greater threat to rural communities due to the high numbers of urban dwellers and migrant labourers who return to their rural villages when they fall ill and due to the lack of information and health services. Previous studies have found a reduced rate of infection among people who have high…

  6. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. 1700.34 Section 1700.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.34 Assistance to High Energy Cost...

  7. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. 1700.58 Section 1700.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.58 Assistance to high energy cost...

  8. Vocational Education and Training in Rural Schools: Education for the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Kilpatrick, Peter

    A study examined the impact of high school vocational education and training (VET) courses on small, rural communities in Tasmania (Australia). Data were gathered from site visits and interviews with school principals, VET coordinators, and VET students from three rural Tasmanian high schools. Findings show that the programs met the immediate…

  9. Implementation of a Coordinated School Health Program in a Rural, Low-Income Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Lisa; Hawley, Suzanne R.; St. Romain, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Background: Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs) bring together educational and community resources in the school environment. This method is particularly important in rural areas like Kansas, where resources and trained health professionals are in short supply. Rural Stafford County, Kansas, struggles with health professional shortages and…

  10. Using Communication and Information Technologies To Empower Women in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Margaret

    Research aimed to enhance rural women's access to communication and information technologies and to assess the impact of their technology use on their participation in small business development and community development. Over 200 women throughout Queensland (Australia) were involved. A trial electronic mailing list linking rural women to urban…

  11. What Is Social Capital? A Study of Interaction in a Rural Community. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian; Kilpatrick, Sue

    A case study in a rural Australian township sought to determine the nature of the interactive productivity between the local networks in a community. Participants were chosen based on recommendations of community members concerning to whom they turn for help, advice, or information. Community interactivity was recorded using interviews,…

  12. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  13. "It Really Comes Down to the Community": A Case Study of a Rural School Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeusen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Communities, schools, their music programs, and the individuals who participate in these groups are tied to the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they reside. Schools are often connected to their communities, and are often deeply cherished in rural communities. School music programs hold the potential to influence a small…

  14. Rural Governance, Community Empowerment and the New Institutionalism: A Case Study of the Isle of Wight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David; Southern, Rebekah; Beer, Julian

    2007-01-01

    This article compares two different institutional models--state-sponsored rural partnerships and community-based development trusts--for engaging and empowering local communities in area-based regeneration, using the Isle of Wight as a case study. Following a critical review of the literature on community governance, we evaluate the effectiveness…

  15. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  16. The Ambivalence of Community: A Critical Analysis of Rural Education's Oldest Trope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of community has been central to the discourse of rural education for generations. At the same time, community has been and continues to be a deeply problematic concept. I begin this analysis with Raymond Williams's characterization of the idea of community as a uniquely positive concept, arguing that this framing is, as Williams…

  17. Reporting and Founding of Child Neglect in Urban and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, John L.; Staudt, Marlys M.

    1991-01-01

    Contrasts urban and rural community perceptions of neglect by lay citizens and protective service workers. Even though citizens in both types of communities generally agreed as to what they would report, workers did not agree about the likelihood of substantiating cases in the different communities. (GH)

  18. Rural Community Colleges Are the Land-Grant Institutions of This Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2007-01-01

    Community colleges in all areas of the country offer students opportunities for postsecondary education that they might not otherwise have. The nearly 600 community colleges that serve rural communities play a special role in providing access, one that the author believes deserves greater understanding and recognition. He shares some of what he…

  19. Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 1: Education and the Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Asian Centre for Educational Innovation for Development.

    The five studies on education for rural development are directed to teachers, administrators, and others concerned with education in rural areas in their efforts to raise the social and economic status of the rural poor. The Indian study discusses the problem of wastage at the primary school level (with specific reference to Tamil Nadu), and…

  20. Creating Caring and Ethical Communities in Rural, Small Schools. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 18, Spring 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This packet includes reprints of articles concerning the development of a caring and ethical rural school community. The four sections of the packet overview theories and rationale for developing a caring classroom, successful programs in ethical schools and classrooms, leadership and decision making for building a caring and ethical school…

  1. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  2. Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network: First-Person Accounts in a Community-University Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louis D.; Alter, Theodore R.; Brown, Leigh Gordon; Corbin, Marilyn A.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire; McPhail, Lindsay G.; Nevel, Pauline; Shoop, Kimbra; Sterner, Glenn; Terndrup, Thomas E.; Weaver, M. Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Community research and action projects undertaken by community-university partnerships can lead to contextually appropriate and sustainable community improvements in rural and urban localities. However, effective implementation is challenging and prone to failure when poorly executed. The current paper seeks to inform rural community-university partnership practice through consideration of first-person accounts from five stakeholders in the Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network. The REACH Network is a unique community-university partnership aimed at improving rural health services by identifying, implementing, and evaluating innovative health interventions delivered by local caregivers. The first-person accounts provide an insider’s perspective on the nature of collaboration. The unique perspectives identify three critical challenges facing the REACH Network: trust, coordination, and sustainability. Through consideration of the challenges, we identified several strategies for success. We hope readers can learn their own lessons when considering the details of our partnership’s efforts to improve the delivery infrastructure for rural healthcare. PMID:22547002

  3. Schools and communities: An experience in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Aruna

    1980-09-01

    When India became independent, primary education in the state of Rajasthan was made the responsibility of the Panchayats (Village Councils), and a number of village schools were opened. However they only drew around 40 per cent of the 6-11 age group, and the curricula, text books, and even the teachers themselves, recruited from the cities, were out of touch with the needs of the rural communities. A study conducted in 1974 showed that, to improve the situation, it would be necessary to make the school more relevant to village life, to involve the parents in planning, and to run it at times when the children could be spared from domestic or farm work; to select the teachers from village residents; and to adapt the curricula and teaching methods to the environment. An appropriate programme was worked out and introduced in three villages in 1975. It provided for morning classes for the regular pupils and evening school for children who worked during the day. The emphasis in the curricula was to be on agriculture and animal husbandry, and teaching methods were to be closely in keeping with the life of the village. Suitable local people were found and trained as teachers. The author describes the implementation of this programme in detail. It proved a success and has now been extended to ten villages with a total attendance at the schools of more than five hundred children.

  4. Homestead tree planting in two rural Swazi communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Tree planting practices were investigated on a total of 95 homesteads in two communities in rural Swaziland. Information was also collected on socioeconomic characteristics of the homesteads. In both the study areas, Sigombeni and Bhekinkosi, there was considerable variation amongst individual homesteads in size, relative wealth (as indicated by cattle and motor vehicle ownership), and amount and types of trees planted. Eighty-five percent of all homesteads in Sigombeni and 73% in Bhekinkosi had planted at least one tree. Common forms of planting included small woodlots, fruit trees, and ornamentals. Virtually all the woodlots consisted of two introduced wattle species (Acacia mearnsii and A. decurrens). The most commonly planted fruit trees were avocados, bananas, and peaches. No complex or labor-intensive agroforestry practices (such as maize/leucaena intercropping) were observed. There was some evidence that the poorest and newest homesteads were the least likely to have planted any trees and that the richest homesteads were the most likely to have planted woodlots. The results indicate that forestry research and extension efforts should take into account homestead characteristics, and strive to offer a range of tree planting options that vary in input requirements, labor needs, and complexity.

  5. An Alaskan legend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, H.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Jack Lee is a prominent personality, an Alaskan individualist and a skeptic worthy of remembrance if for no other reason than being inextricably associated with the catastrophic Katmai eruption in 1912. Jack remains a provocative reminder of Alaska's pre-1958 drilling and was quite possibly the earliest observer (excepting natives and possibly Russians) of the oil seeps in the area now encompassed by the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge. His observation of the impressive live oil seeps in the Ugashik and Becharof Lakes area, and his subsequent involvement in the early drilling entirely consumed his future interests. He is a firm believer that individualism and suspicion are powerful tools when forced to reconsider alternatives to readily accepted interpretations of modern exploration results. His individualism and sometimes annoying, but thought-provoking skepticism remains useful in any field where clich??s provide safe guards from new concepts.

  6. Representations and antinomies: rural and city social objects in a Brazilian peasant community.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Mariana; de Souza, Lídio; Trindade, Zeidi Araujo; Menandro, Maria Cristina Smith

    2013-01-01

    The present work is part of a series of studies that primarily focus on social representations of rural and city objects in the process of constructing a social identity of the countryside. Using social representation theory, this study aimed to investigate the representational field linked to the rural and city objects for the members of a peasant community. A total of 200 members of a Brazilian rural community from four generational groups, of both sexes and aged between 7 and 81 years, participated in this study. We conducted individual interviews with semi-structured scripts. The data corpora, processed using EVOC software, consisted of free associations of the rural and city inductor terms. In constitutive terms, the results allow for the identification of antinomies between the objects discussed; in functional terms, they indicate that the process of constructing social identity is based on the symbolic field, which acts as a reference system for the preparation of the rural identity shared by the participants.

  7. The unique contribution of community clinical nurse specialists in rural Wales.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie; Hibberd, Pat; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Turley, Joanne

    2014-12-01

    To date, quality indicators that have been developed for nursing tend to focus on acute, secondary care settings. It remains unclear whether such quality indicators are applicable to community settings, particularly in rural environments. This research aims to identify the consensus view among specialist nurses regarding their unique nursing contribution within their rural community. Identifying agreed aspects of the unique role within the rural community area will enable quality care metrics to be developed, allowing specialist nurses to measure their unique contribution to rural health care in the future. The research used the Delphi technique to identify a consensus view among a population of specialist community nurses working in a designated rural area in Wales. The strongest area of consensus related to clinical and teaching expertise, where participants perceive educational expertise as being at the forefront of their role. In terms of care for individuals, consensus was focused on four main areas: developing appropriate criteria for referral in to the service, collaborative working, education, and advocacy roles. The findings highlight similarities to models of care provision elsewhere. Specific quality indicators are required for clinical nurse specialists working in rural areas. Current quality indicators may not be applicable across all clinical settings. Further work is required to explore the nature of rural nursing practice.

  8. Place Identity, Participation, and Emotional Climate in a Rural Community From the Northern Coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.

  9. Effective Collaboration Among Health Care and Education Professionals: A Necessary Condition for Successful Early Intervention in Rural Areas. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Dickson, Bonnie, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.

    Addressing the lack of cooperation between early intervention programs and the rural health community, this monograph presents eight papers by educators and health professionals who identify specific problems and offer solutions in the form of effective collaboration techniques and model programs. Papers by Susan Hastings and Stewart Gabel…

  10. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  11. Reaching Rural Communities: Increasing Access to Disability Research Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Nonmetropolitan areas have the highest percentage of people with disabilities, including severe disabilities. However, rural people with disabilities may represent a population that is underserved or difficult to reach. Barriers to information dissemination in rural areas include limited transportation and communications infrastructures, greater…

  12. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  13. Pharmacy Access to Emergency Contraception in Rural and Frontier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigbee, Jeri L.; Abood, Richard; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Maderas, Nicole Monastersky; Foster, Diana Greene; Ravnan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Context: Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) has emerged as a major public health effort in the prevention of unintended pregnancies. The recent FDA decision to allow over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception for adult women presents important rural health implications. American women, especially those living in rural and…

  14. A new inter-professional course preparing learners for life in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Medves, Jennifer; Paterson, Margo; Chapman, Christine Y; Young, John H; Tata, Elizabeth; Bowes, Denise; Hobbs, Neil; McAndrews, Brian; O'Riordan, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The 'Professionals in Rural Practice' course was developed with the aim of preparing students enrolled in professional programs in Canada to become better equipped for the possible eventuality of professional work in a rural setting. To match the reality of living and working in a rural community, which by nature is interprofessional, the course designers were an interprofessional teaching team. In order to promote group cohesiveness the course included the participation of an interprofessional group of students and instructors from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, teacher education, and theology. The format of the course included three-hour classes over an eight-week period and a two-day field experience in a rural community. The course utilized various experiential and interactive teaching and learning methods, along with a variety of assessment methods. Data were collected from student participants over two iterations of the course using a mixed methods approach. Results demonstrate that students value the interprofessional and experiential approach to learning and viewed this course as indispensable for gaining knowledge of other professions and preparation for rural practice. The data reveal important organizational and pedagogical considerations specific to interprofessional education, community based action research, and the unique interprofessional nature of training for life and work in a rural community. This study also indicates the potential value of further longitudinal study of participants in this course. Key words: Canada, community based action research, education, interdisciplinary, interprofessional.

  15. An exploration of the longer-term impacts of community participation in rural health services design.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jane; Currie, Margaret; Kenny, Amanda; Munoz, Sarah-Anne

    2015-09-01

    This article explores what happened, over the longer term, after a community participation exercise to design future rural service delivery models, and considers perceptions of why more follow-up actions did or did not happen. The study, which took place in 2014, revisits three Scottish communities that engaged in a community participation research method (2008-2010) intended to design rural health services. Interviews were conducted with 22 citizens, healthcare practitioners, managers and policymakers all of whom were involved in, or knew about, the original project. Only one direct sustained service change was found - introduction of a volunteer first responder scheme in one community. Sustained changes in knowledge were found. The Health Authority that part-funded development of the community participation method, through the original project, had not adopted the new method. Community members tended to attribute lack of further impact to low participation and methods insufficiently attuned to the social nuances of very small rural communities. Managers tended to blame insufficient embedding in the healthcare system and issues around power over service change and budgets. In the absence of convincing formal community governance mechanisms for health issues, rural health practitioners tended to act as conduits between citizens and the Health Authority. The study provides new knowledge about what happens after community participation and highlights a need for more exploration.

  16. Tasmania's Rural and Isolated Young People: Issues, Solutions and Strategies. Report of a Community Consultation with Young People, Government, Youth and Organisations, in Rural and Isolated Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Office of Youth Affairs, Hobart (Australia).

    The Tasmanian (Australia) Office of Youth Affairs and Family conducted consultations concerning issues impacting young people living in rural and isolated areas. Eight workshops specifically for youth were attended by 123 young people. Five community forums were attended by 25-30 participants each. The difficulties of living in isolated situations…

  17. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus in a Rural Community in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Trinta, Karen S.; Montalbano, Camila A.; Sucupira, Michel V. F.; de Lima, Maricelia M.; Marques, Erenilde; Romanholi, Izilyanne H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The emergence of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently expanding. In 2015, 38,332 cases of Chikungunya were reported to the Brazilian epidemiological surveillance system. Eighteen months after notification of the first case in the city of Feira de Santana, we conducted the first serosurvey to define the magnitude of transmission in a rural community in Brazil. Methodology/Main findings The serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 450 residences in the Chapada district, located 100 kilometers from Feira de Santana. We administered questionnaires and tested 120 sera from Chapada district residents for CHIKV IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies. An individual with CHIKV infection was defined as any person with CHIKV IgM or IgG antibodies detected in the serum. One Hundred cases of Chikungunya were reported after prolonged rainfall, which reinforced the relationship between the rainfall index and CHIKV transmission. Eighteen months after the start of the outbreak, we identified a seroprevalence of 20% (95% CI, 15.4–35%). CHIKV IgG- and IgM-specific antibodies were detected in 22/120 (18.3%) and 6/120 (5.0%) individuals, respectively. Among seropositive patients, 13/24 (54.2%) reported fever and joint pain over the previous two years (p<0.01). The rate of symptomatic CHIKV infection was 40.7%. Conclusions/Significance We identified a moderate seroprevalence of Chikungunya in the Chapada district, and in half of the confirmed CHIKV infections, patients reported arthralgia and fever over the previous two years. PMID:28107342

  18. Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about Effective Schooling in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    The challenges of making rural schools more effective vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…

  19. Sex Education in Rural Schools in the United States: Impact of Rural Educators' Community Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this exploratory research was to better understand rural educators' feelings about school-based sex education in order to foster better communication and collaboration between prevention researchers and rural teachers and administrators. In order to accomplish this purpose, the research question asked "How does…

  20. Behavioral and Community Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Chlamydia Rates in Rural Counties in Minnesota1

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Methods Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15–19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota’s 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n=66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Findings Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. Conclusions This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  1. Assessing Rural Community Viewpoints to Implement a School-Based Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadomski, Anne; McLaud, Barbara; Lewis, Carol; Kjolhede, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the need for school-based health centers in rural New York state. Examination of existing data, community organizational activities, parent telephone surveys, school staff surveys, and focus groups with community members, school staff, and 6th- to 12th-grade students indicated that respondents had varying opinions about school-based…

  2. A Rural Community and Its School: Contemporary Insights through Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Keith

    1999-01-01

    The experiences of two schoolmasters in the small Western Port Bay fishing community of Hastings (Australia) in the last century are presented to provide insights to present-day teachers about the nature of living and teaching in a rural community. The second schoolmaster did a much better job than the first in involving parents in school…

  3. Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…

  4. The Power Within: Institution-Based Leadership Development Programs in Rural Community Colleges in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbini, Jaleh T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine institution-based leadership development programs in rural community colleges in Illinois, and the impact of these programs in supporting and preparing future community college leaders. The study also explored the efficacy of these programs and whether their implementation aligns with the institutions'…

  5. SMALL TOWN IN MASS SOCIETY--CLASS, POWER, AND RELIGION IN A RURAL COMMUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENSMAN, JOSEPH; VIDICH, ARTHUR J.

    A RURAL DAIRY COMMUNITY IN UPSTATE NEW YORK IS THE SUBJECT OF THIS STUDY WRITTEN AFTER 3 YEARS OF PARTICIPATION BY THE AUTHORS IN THE DAILY LIFE OF THE COMMUNITY. THE ANALYSIS INCLUDES DESCRIPTIONS OF (1) THE VARIOUS SOCIAL CLASS GROUPS AND THEIR ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHIES AND SOCIAL ATTITUDES, (2) THE POLITICAL POWERS, BOTH VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE, AND…

  6. Managing Tensions in Statutory Professional Practice: Living and Working in Rural and Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis-Tracey, Paula; Chenoweth, Lesley; McAuliffe, Donna; O'Connor, Barry; Stehlik, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Delivering essential health, education and human services in rural and remote communities remains a critical problem for Australia. When professionals have mandatory responsibilities (e.g. in child protection, law enforcement, education or mental health), tensions can arise between workers and the communities in which they live. This paper reports…

  7. The Dona Elena Project, A Better-Living Program in an Isolated Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lydia J.

    In 1958 a project was begun in a small, isolated, rural farm community in Puerto Rico to provide nutrition education and improve other conditions of home and community living. Preliminary meetings, interviews, and examinations revealed the interest and great need of the 100 families. Progress reports were made after 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years.…

  8. The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

  9. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  10. Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…

  11. Spatial Redistribution of Poverty through Migration of Poor People to Depressed Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    Case study describes a depressed rural New York community that became a migration destination for urban poor people, causing dramatic increases in poverty rate, welfare rolls, and service needs. In-migrants were attracted by low-income housing and, because of their limited job skills, were not deterred by lack of jobs. Discusses community impacts…

  12. Reconciling the Needs and Wants of Respondents in Two Rural Ethiopian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavers, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the Quality of Life research carried out by the Wellbeing in Developing Countries (WeD) Research Group to examine the importance respondents have attributed to a variety of goals in two rural communities in Ethiopia. The results are analysed at the community, household and individual levels to expose the contestation involved in…

  13. Bringing the Community Along: A Case Study of a School District's Information Technology Rural Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafft, Kai A.; Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    We draw on interactional community theory to analyze the relationship between information technology and local development through a case study of a geographically isolated and economically disadvantaged rural school district. This district has used state-of-the-art information technology infrastructure in a broad-based community and economic…

  14. Perceptions of the Environment for Eating and Exercise in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Mary Maly; Warren, Barbour S.; Devine, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To understand how members of a rural community perceive the effect of the built, natural, and social environments on their food choice and physical activity behaviors. Methods: A constructivist community environmental assessment was conducted including 17 individual qualitative interviews, 2 focus groups, and photo elicitation (n = 27)…

  15. Mobile Skilled Workers: Making the Most of an Untapped Rural Community Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Johns, Susan; Vitartas, Peter; Homisan, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many small rural communities have a flow of skilled people through the community, including employees from the government, non government and private sectors on fixed-term contracts, and a range of professionals, often attracted by amenity and seeking a sea change or tree change. The aim of the study reported in this paper was to investigate how…

  16. Keeping Opportunities in Place: The Influence of the Rural Community College Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Viterito, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    A request from the Ford Foundation prompted a fourth and final assessment of the demonstration phase of the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI), established by the Ford Foundation. Between 1994 to 2002, 24 community colleges answered the foundation's charge to improve access to higher education and to expand the economic development of their…

  17. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Syvertsen, Amy K; Greenberg, Mark T

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization - collective efficacy and social trust - with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency.

  18. Perceptions of Students at a Rural Mississippi Community College Regarding Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrris, Cortney R.

    2013-01-01

    Research studies show that there is a skills gap in American society today. This research study examined employability perceptions of community college students at a rural community college in Mississippi. Students were asked to complete an online survey that questioned the degree of importance placed on several employability skills, as well as…

  19. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  20. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  1. Rural Arts Collaborations: The Experience of Artists in Minnesota Schools & Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Mary; Caddy, John

    This book describes the process and results of a 5 year arts initiative, Artists in Minnesota Schools and Communities (AMSC). Based on the premise that rural communities hold an undervalued wealth of artistic and cultural resources rarely tapped by schools, the project piloted a variety of models for integrating art in the educational experiences…

  2. Literacy in Its Place. An Investigation of Literacy Practices in Urban and Rural Communities. Overview & Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edith Cowan Univ., Perth (Australia).

    This document consists of an overview and five papers examining the findings of a comparative analysis of literacy practices in urban and rural Australian communities. The study included case studies of 23 families in 6 communities and documentation of the literacy practices within the 9 schools attended by the children of those families.…

  3. Latino Immigrants, Meatpacking, and Rural Communities: A Case Study of Lexington, Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouveia, Lourdes; Stull, Donald D.

    In 1988, IBP, the world's largest meat processing firm, announced it would open a beefpacking plant in Lexington, Nebraska. This was part of the latest wave of meatpacking restructuring which moved plants away from urban centers and union strongholds to rural communities. This paper examines community changes accompanying the opening of a large…

  4. Predictors of Community and Life Satisfaction in Rural Mississippi. Research Bulletin Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Woong K.; Ritter, Gerald

    Researchers used data from a 1981 questionnaire survey of 248 heads of household in 3 Mississippi counties to examine efficient predictors of community and life satisfaction in rural Mississippi. Analyzing the impact of 43 variables on 25 questionnaire items concerning community satisfaction, researchers found 13 significant predictors of…

  5. Supporting a strong sense of purpose: lessons from a rural community.

    PubMed

    Shamah, Devora

    2011-01-01

    Many rural youth leave their small home towns, at least temporarily, to pursue education and work opportunities after high school. A strong sense of purpose will likely help these young people navigate their transition to adulthood away from the comforts of home. A case study of high school students in a remote rural county in the Pacific Northwest using survey and ethnographic data showed that traditional out-of-school activities (for example, sports, theater, band, Future Farmers of America) and community-based activities (for example, community symphony, community classes, community events), along with work experiences, were all important for developing a strong sense of purpose. The case study points to the important role small rural schools can play in supporting youth and connecting them to activities that foster a strong sense of purpose. In addition, this article discusses the importance of paying attention to the development of a sense of purpose alongside traditional measures of academic achievement and social competence.

  6. Smart Growth Self-Assessment for Rural Communities: Madison County

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from a technical assistance project to help Madison County, NY, develop a tool to help rural local governments assess how well their policies are helping them achieve the type of development they want.

  7. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  8. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  9. HIV-related Stigma in Rural and Tribal Communities of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Mitchell G.; Rao, Shobha; Ali, Firdaus; Prentice, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Stigma is a recognized barrier to early detection of HIV and causes great suffering for those affected. This paper examines HIV-related stigma in rural and tribal communities of Maharashtra, an area of relatively high HIV prevalence in India. The study used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to compare adult women and adolescents in a rural area, women in a rural area, and women in a tribal area. The respondents included 494 married women and 186 adolescents in a rural community and 49 married women in six tribal villages. HIV-related stigma was prevalent in all communities and was the highest among tribal and older respondents. High-risk behaviour was reported in both areas, accompanied with denial of personal risk. Our findings suggest that HIV may be spreading silently in these communities. To our knowledge, this is the first community-based study to make an in-depth assessment of HIV-related stigma in rural and tribal areas of India. By situating our findings within the broader discourse on stigma in the national and state-level data, this study helps explain the nature and persistence of stigma and how to address it more effectively among subcultural groups in India. PMID:23304905

  10. Online communities of practice to support collaborative mental health practice in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    The provision of quality mental health services in rural areas continues to be an ongoing challenge for nurses and the patients they serve. The use of computer mediated communication to construct collaborative learning environments similar to those suggested in Wenger's community of practice framework has the potential to mitigate a number of the difficulties faced by rural health care providers. The author presents a brief discussion of social learning theories, the communities of practice framework, and related concepts. Examples of current online communities of practice used as a means for knowledge construction in various professional disciplines are presented in building the case for the fit between online communities of practice and the needs of nurses in rural mental health. Nurses providing mental health care in rural areas have documented needs for interdisciplinary teamwork, access to a collaborative learning environment, and ongoing contact with expert resources. The construction of online communities of practice could potentially address a multitude of concerns identified by nurses practicing mental health care in rural areas.

  11. Social cohesion, cultural identity, and drug use in Mexican rural communities.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Fernando; Diaz, David B; López, Aida L; Collado, Ma Elena; Aldaz, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore drug use in Mexican rural communities and its relationship to social cohesion, cultural identity, migration, and transculturation. Community models typification was used, considering cohesion as the central point of analysis. The research was conducted during 15-day periods in each of nine communities during 1991. Both documentary and ethnographic techniques were used to gather information. Results indicated that rural communities where there was little or no drug use among its members show more social cohesion, cultural identity, and community links consolidation, and more capacity for integrating change. This pattern is most apparent among young community members who have had more contact with the outer world (drug trafficking, North American culture, and Mexican urban culture).

  12. Addressing the problem of rural community engagement in healthcare service design.

    PubMed

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; West, Christina; Currie, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    Policy suggests that health service providers should plan services with communities. In remote and rural areas this is sometimes ineffective, resulting in resistance to change. An action research project investigated best practise in rural community engagement. As a result a planning 'game' was developed that uses a number of types and levels of cards and allows community members, as part of a process of engagement, to express their priorities and designs in a form that is directly usable by health service managers. The game is a unique community engagement resource in that it combines the priorities of the community (including their experiences of using services) with existing service data. It allows community members and service managers to apply their priorities for services to a healthcare budget to identify appropriate and affordable ways of providing safe local services.

  13. Alaskan Exemplary Program The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) A Quarter Century of Success of Educating, Nurturing, and Retaining Alaska Native and Rural Students An International Polar Year Adventure in Barrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2007-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute, began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of geoscience, biochemistry, math, business, rural development, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 25 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of the RAHI alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 230 have earned a bachelors degree, twenty-nine have earned masters degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Ph.D., or M.D.), along with 110 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelors degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural Native students in the

  14. Knowledge of community care workers about key family practices in a rural community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Marjorie; Eygelaar, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions by community care workers within the context of community-based integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI) may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices. Setting The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI. Methods A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied. Results Only 25 of the respondents (10%) obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledge-based items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]). Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01), the level of in-service training (p < 0.01), attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01), and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01). Conclusion The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence. PMID:26842523

  15. From social network to safety net: Dementia-friendly communities in rural northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Elaine C; Denton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Dementia-friendly communities, as communities that enable people with dementia to remain involved and active and have control over their lives for as long as possible, centrally involve social support and social networks for people living with dementia. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand the context of dementia in rural northern communities in Ontario with an emphasis on understanding how dementia friendly the communities were. Using qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with a total of 71 participants, including 37 health service providers, 15 care partners, 2 people living with dementia and 17 other community members such as local business owners, volunteers, local leaders, friends and neighbours. The strong social networks and informal social support that were available to people living with dementia, and the strong commitment by community members, families and health care providers to support people with dementia, were considered a significant asset to the community. A culture of care and looking out for each other contributed to the social support provided. In particular, the familiarity with others provided a supportive community environment. People with dementia were looked out for by community members, and continued to remain connected in their communities. The social support provided in these communities demonstrated that although fragile, this type of support offered somewhat of a safety net for individuals living with dementia. This work provides important insights into the landscape of dementia in rural northern Ontario communities, and the strong social supports that sustain people with dementia remaining in the communities.

  16. Building a community-academic partnership: implementing a community-based trial of telephone cognitive behavioral therapy for rural latinos.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Dwight-Johnson, Meagan; O'Brien, Mary; Ludman, Evette J; Golinelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking) primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.

  17. Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Dwight-Johnson, Meagan; O'Brien, Mary; Ludman, Evette J.; Golinelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking) primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities. PMID:23050133

  18. Barriers to substance abuse treatment in rural and urban communities: counselor perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare rural and urban substance abuse counselors' perceptions of barriers to providing effective treatment services. Data were collected from 28 substance abuse counselors in Kentucky during four focus group sessions in 2008. Line-by-line coding and memoing were used by two raters on the transcribed data to isolate findings. The results of this study suggest that, though rural and urban counselors encounter similar constraints that hamper successful treatment outcomes, rural counselors are subject to special circumstances within their communities that present unique challenges to treatment efficacy. Novel contributions, implications, and limitations are also discussed.

  19. Epidemiology of Hymenolepis nana infections in primary school children in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mason, P R; Patterson, B A

    1994-04-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.

  20. The Reliance on and Demand for Adjunct Faculty Members in America's Rural, Suburban, and Urban Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Hara D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a survey of chief academic officers at 347 community colleges nationwide, this study examined the impact of institutional type (rural, suburban, urban) on reliance on and demand for adjunct faculty members. Findings indicated that rural institutions rely less on adjuncts, whereas both rural and urban institutions report high levels of…

  1. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  2. Selecting for a sustainable workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of rural communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hay, M; Mercer, A M; Lichtwark, I; Tran, S; Hodgson, W C; Aretz, H T; Armstrong, E G; Gorman, D

    2017-05-01

    An undersupply of generalists doctors in rural communities globally led to widening participation (WP) initiatives to increase the proportion of rural origin medical students. In 2002 the Australian Government mandated that 25% of commencing Australian medical students be of rural origin. Meeting this target has largely been achieved through reduced standards of entry for rural relative to urban applicants. This initiative is based on the assumption that rural origin students will succeed during training, and return to practice in rural locations. One aim of this study was to determine the relationships between student geographical origin (rural or urban), selection scores, and future practice intentions of medical students at course entry and course exit. Two multicentre databases containing selection and future practice preferences (location and specialisation) were combined (5862), representing 54% of undergraduate medical students commencing from 2006 to 2013 across nine Australian medical schools. A second aim was to determine course performance of rural origin students selected on lower scores than their urban peers. Selection and course performance data for rural (461) and urban (1431) origin students commencing 2006-2014 from one medical school was used. For Aim 1, a third (33.7%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future rural practice at course exit, and even fewer (6.7%) urban origin students made this preference. Results from logistic regression analyses showed significant independent predictors were rural origin (OR 4.0), lower Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) (OR 2.1), or lower Undergraduate Medical and Health Sciences Admissions Test Section 3 (non-verbal reasoning) (OR 1.3). Less than a fifth (17.6%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future generalist practice at course exit. Significant predictors were female gender (OR 1.7) or lower ATAR (OR 1.2), but not rural origin. Fewer (10.5%) urban origin

  3. A Comparison of Didactic and Inquiry Teaching Methods in a Rural Community College Earth Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beam, Margery Elizabeth

    The combination of increasing enrollment and the importance of providing transfer students a solid foundation in science calls for science faculty to evaluate teaching methods in rural community colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods, inquiry teaching methods and didactic teaching methods, applied in a rural community college earth science course. Two groups of students were taught the same content via inquiry and didactic teaching methods. Analysis of quantitative data included a non-parametric ranking statistical testing method in which the difference between the rankings and the median of the post-test scores was analyzed for significance. Results indicated there was not a significant statistical difference between the teaching methods for the group of students participating in the research. The practical and educational significance of this study provides valuable perspectives on teaching methods and student learning styles in rural community colleges.

  4. Impact of an interprofessional rural health care practice education experience on students and communities.

    PubMed

    Charles, Grant; Bainbridge, Lesley; Copeman-Stewart, Kathy; Kassam, Rosemin; Tiffin, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    The Interprofessional Rural Program of British Columbia (IRPBC) was established in 2003 as a pilot program aimed at supporting the recruitment of health and human service professionals to rural communities in British Columbia, Canada. The program was designed to expose students in the health and human service professions to rural communities and to assess whether this exposure increased the likelihood of their return to work in nonurban settings once they completed their studies. The initial qualitative evaluation of IRPBC was conducted via individual interviews in the first year and written questionnaires in the second year. In general, IRPBC was perceived by the participants to have had a significant impact on the students and communities. The students who participated in it benefited not only from the chance to engage in rural practice but also from the opportunity to interact within an interprofessional context; and the communities participating in the program profited from enhanced health care and the possibility of attracting new practitioners from these students. Exposure to new ways of providing service and the impact that the introduction of teams of passionate students can have on both practitioners and small communities have greatly enriched the broader communities.

  5. Public Health Service Act, Rural Physician Training Grant Program, definition of "underserved rural community." Interim final rule with request for comment.

    PubMed

    2010-05-26

    This interim final rule (IFR) with request for comment is meant to comply with the statutory directive to issue a regulation defining "underserved rural community" for purposes of the Rural Physician Training Grant Program in section 749B of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. This IFR is technical in nature. It will not change grant or funding eligibility for any other grant program currently available through the Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) or HRSA. For purposes of the Rural Physician Training Grant Program only, HRSA has combined existing definitions of "underserved" and "rural" by using the definition of rural utilized by the ORHP Rural Health Grant programs and the definition of "underserved" established by HRSA's Office of Shortage Designation (OSD) in the Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr).

  6. Political climate and smoke-free laws in rural Kentucky communities.

    PubMed

    Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy L; Adkins, Sarah M; Kaufman, Erin L; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine factors associated with rural communities' political readiness to enact smoke-free laws. Data from baseline assessment of a longitudinal intervention study to promote smoke-free policy in rural Kentucky communities; key informants (n = 144) and elected officials (n = 83) from 29 counties participated in cross-sectional telephone interviews. Controlling for population size and county-level smoking rate, the following factors predicted elected officials' perception of the likelihood of a local smoke-free law passing in the next 12 months: (1) support from the local board of health; (2) support from local leaders; and (3) smoke-free hospitals. Communities with lower adult smoking prevalence were more ready for smoke-free laws. Rural health advocates can increase political readiness for smoke-free laws by educating and engaging Board of Health members and local leaders, promoting the voluntary adoption of smoke-free policies in rural hospitals, and investing in effective population-based approaches to evidence-based tobacco treatment in rural communities.

  7. Art therapy: promoting wellbeing in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Art therapy encompasses both preventative and curative activities and aims to improve ways of engaging those who might be reticent in seeking more traditional forms of psychological support offered through 'talking therapies'. The Longreach base of the Royal Flying Doctor Service in Queensland provides mental health support to people living in rural and remote locations in central western Queensland and has been complemented since 2006 by the addition of a full-time art therapist. This paper provides an overview of art therapy and a description of this innovative approach to addressing mental health needs in a rural and remote setting.

  8. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  9. Effectiveness of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course for Educating Nurses and Other Health Care Providers at Rural Community Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Thein Hlaing; Hollister, Lisa; Scheumann, Christopher; Konger, Jennifer; Opoku, Dazar

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates (1) health care provider perception of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course (RTTDC); (2) improvement in acute trauma emergency care knowledge; and (3) early transfer of trauma patients from rural emergency departments (EDs) to a verified trauma center. A 1-day, 8-hour RTTDC was given to 101 nurses and other health care providers from nine rural community hospitals from 2011 to 2013. RTTDC participants completed questionnaires to address objectives (1) and (2). ED and trauma registry data were queried to achieve objective (3) for assessing reduction in ED time (EDT), from patient arrival to decision to transfer and ED length of stay (LOS). The RTTDC was positively perceived by health care providers (96.3% of them completed the program). Significant improvement in 13 of the 19 knowledge items was observed in nurses. Education intervention was an independent predictor in reducing EDT by 28 minutes and 95% confidence interval (CI) [-57, -0.1] at 6 months post-RTTDC, and 29 minutes and 95% CI [-53, -6] at 12 months post-RTTDC. Similar results were observed with ED LOS. The RTTDC is well-perceived as an education program. It improves acute trauma emergency care knowledge in rural health care providers. It promotes early transfer of severely injured patients to a higher level of care.

  10. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect.

  11. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  12. EXAMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY FOR DEMONSTRATION AND USE OF RADIOLUMINESCENT LIGHTS FOR ALASKAN REMOTE RUNWAY LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.; Perrigo, L.; Leonard, L.; Hegdal, L

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of radioluminescent light applications for rural Alaskan airports. The work presented in this report covers four tasks: State of the Art Evaluation of Radioluminescent Lights, Environmental, Radiological, and Regulatory Evaluations, Engineering Evaluations, and Demonstration Plan Development.

  13. It Happens When We Get There. Conversations With Teachers in Alaskan Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, C. David

    Developed through in-depth interviews with experienced "bush" teachers from interior Alaska, this booklet is the product of a five-day workshop in the design of vocational education curriculum materials for rural Alaskan secondary schools. The statements in this booklet represent the edited responses of experienced teachers to the…

  14. Value of Community Partnership for Understanding Stress and Coping in Rural Yup’ik Communities: The CANHR Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Inna D.; Lopez, Ellen; Quaintance, Tonie M.; Trimble, Joseph; Hopkins, Scarlett; Fleming, Candace; Orr, Eliza; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and trauma can compromise physical and mental health. Rural Alaska Native communities have voiced concern about stressful and traumatic events and their effects on health. The goal of the Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping Project is to develop an in-depth understanding of experiences of stress and ways of coping in Yup’ik communities. The long-range goal is to use project findings to develop and implement a community-informed and culturally grounded intervention to reduce stress and promote physical and mental health in rural Alaska Native communities. This paper introduces a long-standing partnership between the Yukon-Kuskokwim Regional Health Corporation, rural communities it serves, and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Within the context of the Stress and Coping project, we then discuss the value and challenges of taking a CBPR approach to advance science and address a priority community concern, and share strategies to respond to challenges. Focus groups were conducted to culturally adapt an existing structured interview and daily diary protocol to better fit Yup’ik ways of knowing. As modified, these interviews increased understanding of stress and coping particular to two Yup’ik communities. Challenges included the geographical nature of Yup’ik communities, communication barriers, competing priorities, and confidentiality issues. Community participation was central in the development of the study protocol, helped ensure that the research was culturally appropriate and relevant to the community, and facilitated access to participant knowledge and rich data to inform intervention development. PMID:23914339

  15. The intellectual legacy of Mary Neth's work on farm women and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Osterud, Grey

    2009-01-01

    Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.

  16. Education, Equity, and the Crisis in the Rural Community. Proceedings of the Rural Education Research Association Conference (Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia, February, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, J. M. R., Ed.; Griffith, D. A., Ed.

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a national forum for persons with an interest in and commitment to research into issues affecting people living in rural and remote areas across Australia. The six sub-themes of the conference were: (1) the role of the community in teacher preparation; (2) the quality of education in rural Australia; (3)…

  17. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  18. Teenage Drinking In Idaho's Rural Communities. Research Bulletin 121.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassey, M. L.; Carlson, J. E.

    In 1977, 8th and 12th grade students (n=889) from largely rural schools in 3 Idaho counties were surveyed as representive of both early and late stages of the teenage period to determine levels and patterns of liquor consumption. Respondents categorized themselves as nondrinkers (NDs), seldom drinkers (SDs), occasional drinkers (ODs), and frequent…

  19. Drug Use Patterns and Trends in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Larson, Sharon L.; Colliver, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study examines the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use among adolescents and adults in 3 types of counties: "rural" (nonmetropolitan counties with urban population less than 20,000), "urbanized nonmetropolitan" (nonmetropolitan counties with urban population 20,000 or higher), and…

  20. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention in a Rural Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Janet W.; Skenandore, Alice H.; Scow, Beverly M.; Schanen, Jennifer G.; Clary, Frieda Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, the United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized nation. Native American youth have a higher birth rate than the national rate. A full-year healthy relationship program, based on Native American teachings, traditions, and cultural norms, was delivered to all eighth-grade students at a rural tribal…

  1. Emerging Latino Communities: A New Challenge for the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cruz C.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an internal migration of Latinos to the Southeast. Attracted by the rural South's healthy economy, the Hispanic population in the South is projected to double by 2025. Most in-migrants are seeking permanent rather than seasonal employment. With an increased Hispanic population comes increased purchasing…

  2. Developing a Respite Program in a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Maribeth; And Others

    Respite care provides relief or backup emergency care for families of individuals who are developmentally disabled. In sparsely populated rural areas, center-based urban models for service delivery and provider recruitment and training may be inappropriate. Las Cumbres Learning Services has developed a model for provision of respite care services…

  3. Rural Districts in Crisis: When a Community Is Divided.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascock, Catherine H.

    One of the results of rural school district consolidation has been the potential for schisms that develop among the divergent populations with distinct traditions, culture, and customs. This paper presents research on an Appalachian school district that remains in cultural turmoil after 25 years of consolidation. The population of the three…

  4. Up Here It's Different: Community Education in Rural East Donegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevin, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The familiar advertising slogan, "Up here it's different," used to attract visitors to the rugged beauty of County Donegal, was correct in highlighting that things are different in Donegal, although not for the reasons one might connect with tourism. For many, Donegal evokes nostalgic images of old, rural Ireland such as close community…

  5. Small Business Success in Rural Communities: Explaining the Sex Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Sharon R.; Sapp, Stephen G.; Lee, Motoko Y.

    2001-01-01

    Supporting a "structural relational" view of small business success, data from 423 small business owners in Iowa suggest that links between owner characteristics, social relational processes, business structure, and success operate differently depending on urban-rural location and owner sex. Female owners had more professional training…

  6. Drug and Alcohol Use among Youth in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ruth W.

    This paper compares data on the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use by students in grades 8 and 12 across four sizes of communities. Data from the American Drug and Alcohol Survey (ADAS), administered in approximately 250 communities during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 school years, were analyzed for four community sizes: very small (population…

  7. Outcomes Program in a Small, Rural Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dale R.; Fleming, Donald

    Student educational outcomes and the quality of instruction are now being monitored by several programs at Worthington Community College (WCC) in southwest Minnesota. WCC, one of the 20 community colleges in the Minnesota Community College system, currently serves 875 students, and has been intensifying its efforts to serve the whole service area…

  8. The Local Beneath the National and Global - Institutional Education, Credentialed Natural Resource Management (NRM) and Rural Community (Un) Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of strategies for national and global outcomes has in some instances left rural community resources and practices devalued and disturbed and rural people demoralised with the result that local community sustainability has been compromised. Formal education in Australia is about many things, but is rarely sympathetic towards…

  9. Rural Schoolteachers and the Pressures of Community Life: Local and Cosmopolitan Coping Strategies in Mid-Twentieth-Century Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Erkko; Vaananen, Ari

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses rural schoolteachers' relationships with local village communities in mid-twentieth-century Finland. At the time, Finnish rural teachers were typically very public figures in their local community. To deal with the pressures of their position, teachers resorted to coping strategies which the authors name "local"…

  10. An Early History of the Rural Community College Initiative: Reflections on the Past and Implications for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, Mike; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The $17.2 million Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) demonstration grant program funded by the Ford Foundation which ran from 1994 to 2001 represents the largest philanthropic project specifically aimed at rural community colleges in United States history. While a good deal of literature has been published about this initiative, much was…

  11. Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

    2010-01-01

    Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

  12. National Rural Communities Facilities Assessment Study. Report on the Conference (Austin, Texas, December 13-15, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Center, Washington, DC.

    An 18-month National Rural Community Facilities Assessment Study, commissioned by the Farmers Home Administration and conducted by Abt Associates, Inc. will assess community facilities serving rural populations and identify the types and extent of investment in facilities necessary to provide an adequate flow of services to these populations. In…

  13. Translating Community Connectedness to Practice: A Qualitative Study of Midlevel Health Workers in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alison; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The performance of midlevel health workers is a critical lever for strengthening health systems and redressing inequalities in underserved areas. Auxiliary nurses form the largest cadre of health workers in Guatemala. In rural settings, they provide essential services to vulnerable communities, and thus have great potential to address priority health needs. This paper examines auxiliary nurses' motivation and satisfaction, and the coping strategies they use to respond to challenges they confront in their practice. Methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 auxiliary nurses delivering health services in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Results. Community connectedness was central to motivation in this rural Guatemalan setting. Participants were from rural communities and conveyed a sense of connection to the people they were serving through shared culture and their own experiences of health needs. Satisfaction was derived through recognition from the community and a sense of valuing their work. Auxiliary nurses described challenges commonly faced in low-resource settings. Findings indicated they were actively confronting these challenges through their own initiative. Conclusions. Strategies to support the performance of midlevel health workers should focus on mechanisms to make training accessible to rural residents, support problem-solving in practice, and emphasize building relationships with communities served. PMID:23097715

  14. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of food programs are available for rural seniors? Rural older adults may benefit from a range ... guide, What are some food assistance programs for seniors, such as home meal deliveries, in rural communities? ...

  15. Scoping review of the exclusion and inclusion of rural newcomers in community participation.

    PubMed

    Patten, Emma; O'Meara, Peter; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have considered the impact of rural migration on rural community engagement. The objective of this research was to undertake a scoping review about the inclusion and exclusion of newcomers in rural community participation to inform design of inclusive participation processes. The scoping review used the six stages of Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Narrative analysis of the articles was structured using three themes of inclusion and exclusion derived from the literature: interpersonal, socio-cultural norms, and structural and organisational processes. Inclusion and exclusion at the interpersonal level is intricate and often represents broader social rules and tensions that newcomers must navigate in order to become involved. Social norms, such as fear of outsiders and difference, can exclude newcomers from participating in a rural community. Newcomer's awareness of these issues means they are mindful of how they contribute and give respect to the social position of existing residents. Despite this, resistance to change is experienced by newcomers when contributing in organisational contexts. Formal participation processes can harness the practice and value of rural hospitality that newcomers experience as inclusionary. Deliberately designing group processes and operational norms for inclusion can reduce tensions when change occurs and prevent group loss due to exclusionary practices.

  16. What Rural Physicians Need to Engage in Community Based Education: A Qualitative Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Manabu; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Kisa, Kengo; Maezawa, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    There is systematic evidence that community-based education is effective in the recruitment of rural physicians to remote communities. However, various obstacles may exist that prevent rural physicians from sustaining their mentoring activities. The aim of this study was to explore ways for rural physicians to overcome such adversities and continue their mentoring activities. We interviewed four nominated physicians (all male, mean age 48 years) based in Hokkaido, Japan, who practiced in an area with less than 10,000 inhabitants. Semi-structured interviews of approximately 60 minutes were performed and focused on topics rural physicians’ found necessary for their teaching activities. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, the verbatim transcripts were analyzed and repeated themes were identified. Three themes that emerged as needs were 1. sustained significant human relationship, including the formation of a network between students and university faculty, as well as developing partnerships with many community relationships, or other medical professions; 2. intrinsic motivations and satisfaction, including pleasure in mentoring the younger generations; and 3. rewards, including financial compensation. Rural physicians as preceptors require nonremunerative, intrinsic motivational factors, such as a sense of satisfaction regarding the education of medical students and being able to relate to residents and others health-care professions, when pursuing their educational activities. To support them, focusing only on monetary facets may be unsuccessful in encouraging them to continue their educational work. PMID:25648537

  17. The interaction of mental illness, criminal behavior and culture: native Alaskan mentally ill criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Inui, T S

    1986-06-01

    The rapid changes experienced by non-Western ethnic groups as they become "acculturated" to Western life-styles are frequently associated with disintegration of the traditional cultures and psychosocial dysfunction of the groups' members. How culture changes lead to maladaptation remains a mystery. As a first step in clarifying this relationship, this paper proposes a method for analyzing the interaction of cultural change and psychosocial maladjustment. It uses Native Alaskans as a paradigmatic example of a group that is undergoing rapid changes and describes in detail a maladjusted subgroup of Native Alaskans--mentally ill criminal offenders. It compares 567 Native Alaskan criminal offenders who were referred to mental health professionals (from 1977 thru 1981) to 939 White Alaskan offenders. We find that alcohol abuse, the dominant social problem for Native Alaskans, is not clearly associated with the degree of sociocultural change. Residence in larger communities and higher educational achievement are associated with greater psychosocial maladjustment. The region of residence (i.e., Native Corporation) has a stronger influence on the rate and type of maladjustment than the ethnic group (i.e., Eskimo, Indian, or Aleut) or the "ethnic density" of the community of residence (i.e., the proportion of Native Alaskans in the population). We emphasize the importance of using such quantitative findings to focus the questions that should be addressed by ethnographic research.

  18. Diversities of Gifts: The Role of Giftedness in the Sustainability of Rural Schools and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    Two concepts have been confused: equality of opportunity and equality of ability, which has led us to link intellectual giftedness with elitism. This linkage undercuts the ability to nurture and benefit from the gifts of the gifted, an important issue in rural places experiencing either withering economies and loss of population or an influx of…

  19. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  20. Respectful, Responsible, and Reciprocal Ruralities Research: Approaching and Positioning Educational Research Differently within Australian Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-based…

  1. Rural Communities and Optical Information Technologies: Optical Disks Move Rural America Closer to the Information Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, David Gray

    Optical disk technologies now offer a way to move large, complex, remote computer databases from the large urban areas to rural users. Recently, the Optical Information Systems (OIS) Conference provided an opportunity to discuss the use of this new technology for a variety of innovative applications; for example, "The State Education…

  2. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of…

  3. Interdisciplinary student health teams: combining medical education and service in a rural community-based experience.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C B; Smith, C A; Butters, J M

    1997-01-01

    Several initiatives have been introduced over the years to address the maldistribution of health care professionals and to improve access to care for underserved rural populations. One of these is the sponsorship of community-based, service-oriented teams comprised of students from various health disciplines. This study investigated extramural training as a complement to traditional hospital-based experiences. The specific objective of the study was to determine the extent to which the nation's medical schools combine training with a rural community-based experience in the form of an interdisciplinary student health team program. In the fall of 1994, a 32-item questionnaire was mailed to the chief academic or clinical affairs administrators of the nation's 126 allopathic medical schools. A total of 104 (82.5%) medical schools responded to the survey. Eighty-six of the respondents (82.7%) reported some type of rural training or public service activity; 22 (21.2%) acknowledged the sponsorship of an interdisciplinary student health team program. Small rural communities, those with populations of 5,000 or fewer, were the focus of 76 percent of the reporting programs. Nearly two-thirds of the reporting programs were located in the South, the region with the nation's lowest physician-to-population ratio. The nursing and medical professions were most frequently represented, although a wide range of disciplines were identified as participating on the student health teams. Activities of the teams included both ambulatory care and community outreach services. The majority of the programs used team-building exercises to enhance team effectiveness. Extramural training programs offer students a realistic examination of the social, cultural, economic, and political forces that influence both individual and community health. Rural community-based programs, such as interdisciplinary student health teams, should be valued because they can strengthen the link between the sponsoring

  4. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H

    2015-05-19

    Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State.

  5. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  6. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  7. Agriculture, Communities, and New Social Movements: East European Ruralities in the Process of Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…

  8. The College Transition for First-Year Students from Rural Oregon Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganss, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of 10 students entering college from rural Oregon communities. Using narrative inquiry, the author examines students' transition, common experiences, and enrollment barriers. Resulting themes include: (a) unexpected emotional and social transition, (b) motivations for enrolling, (c) lack of social and…

  9. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  10. THE ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM IN THE SOLUTION OF RURAL YOUTH MANPOWER PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILLIAMS, J. EARL

    SUBSTANTIAL POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS HAS BEEN CAUSED BY UNEMPLOYMENT DUE TO THE TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION WHICH HAS MECHANIZED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN THE EXCLUSIVE DOMAIN OF THE FARM LABORER. A WELL-ORGANIZED COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM PROVIDES A MEANS OF EFFECTIVELY COMBATING THE RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT WHICH IS ESPECIALLY HIGH AMONG…

  11. Performance Assessment for California Teachers and English-Language Arts Candidates in a Rural Border Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the appropriateness of the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) as an instrument of assessing English-language arts (ELA) teacher candidates' effectiveness in a rural border community. Eight -candidates participated in the study. The findings call into question the adequacy of PACT to assess the candidates'…

  12. Sorting Procedures in Enclosed Rural Communities: Admitting "People like Us" into Renewing Kibbutzim in Northern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charney, Igal; Palgi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the attempts made by the renewing kibbutzim to maintain their way of life as much as possible through the adjustment of their gating mechanisms. In this type of a rural gated community, sorting procedures and admittance criteria of nonmembers are the most notable elements. Background material and interviews with informants at…

  13. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  14. Improved Maternal and Child Health Care Access in a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcillo, Joseph A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an underserved rural community in which health care initiatives increased access to comprehensive care. Over a 3-year period, increased accessibility to maternal and child health care also increased use of preventive services, thus decreasing emergency room visits and hospitalizations as well as low birth weight, risk of congenital…

  15. HIGH LONESOME: A School Community Survey of the Encino Rural Independent School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Mary Josephine; And Others

    An assessment of school facilities and services and a survey of staff, student, and community attitudes was undertaken at the request of the Encino School Board to aid in educational planning and improvement for its small rural school which is faced with the problems of declining population (from 400 to 150 in the past 20 years), declining…

  16. Preserving Heritage While Restoring and Improving Facilities: A Rural Community's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Burton Edward

    In Waitsburg, Washington, the community was actively involved in a rural school facilities improvement project. The district serves approximately 410 students in three buildings on a single campus. Spurred by growing enrollment and aging facilities, the project included the complete renovation and restoration of a historic school building to serve…

  17. A Qualitative Study of a Rural Community College Workforce Development Customized Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rear, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Across the United States, partnerships have formed between business and industry and rural community college workforce development customize training programs to meet the demands of the 21st century labor market. For many business and industry managers, a partnership has become a necessary means to train the unskilled as well as update skills…

  18. Indicators of Citizen Participation: Lessons from Learning Teams in Rural EZ/EC Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Janice

    2000-01-01

    A study of participatory evaluation by learning teams at 10 rural sites of the Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities program showed the importance of separating indicators of participation from project impacts. Evaluation of three categories was recommended: citizen participation (process indicators), impact of participation on individuals and…

  19. Adolescent Drug Use in Three Small Rural Communities in the Rocky Mountain Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Randall; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Differences were found among three small Rocky Mountain towns in both lifetime prevalence and frequency of occurrence of different types of drug users, indicating that small, rural communities are likely to develop idiosyncratic patterns of drug use. These differences were more evident among eighth-grade than among twelfth-grade students.…

  20. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  1. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  2. Risk and Resilience in Rural Communities: The Experiences of Immigrant Latina Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Tran, Steve P.; Wiley, Angela R.; Galarza-Heras, Maria; Lazarevic, Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants from Latin America are increasingly settling in rural U.S. communities that welcome them as workers but are often unprepared to address their needs and promote their well-being. Building on recent descriptive studies, we examined factors associated with individual and family well-being in a sample of 112 immigrant Latina mothers (mean…

  3. What Factors Are Related to the Satisfaction of Online Instructors at Rural Community Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Kristie G.

    2011-01-01

    Student enrollment in online classes has witnessed a significant growth over the past decade. Higher education institutions, in particular, rural community colleges recognize both the need and demand for online classes and have taken great strides to incorporate them into their course curriculum. However, with the growth of online courses there…

  4. The Kentucky Homeplace Project: Family Health Care Advisers in Underserved Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Campbell, Karen A.; Garrity, John F.; Snider, Lyle B.; Main, Karen

    2001-01-01

    In the Kentucky Homeplace Project, specially trained paraprofessionals who live in medically underserved rural communities make home visits, facilitate access to health care, and provide case management and culturally appropriate prevention education for poor families. Strengths include local administration and staff and holistic and traditional…

  5. Youth Exodus and Rural Communities: Valorising Learning for Choice--(SPERA Keynote 2009 Conference Address)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, R. John

    2009-01-01

    One of the common characteristics of rural communities globally, and especially those in the developed countries of the world, is the exodus of youth in search of "greener pastures." While this exodus of youth has been happening for centuries and has often been spurred along by fundamental changes in the way societies organise…

  6. Getting "Tillerized": Traits and Outcomes of Students in a Rural Community Field Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Paige; Carawan, Lena; Burroughs, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to reveal the traits and outcomes of students who completed a rural community organizing field placement. All stakeholders involved in the placement of students took part in a focus group and follow-up individual interviews. Findings suggest that students need to be open, flexible, self-directed, and maverick in…

  7. Decision-Making and Extra-Community Assistance to Rural Local Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Anthony Andrew

    As rural communities strive to meet the demands of both their citizens and of higher levels of government for increased local services, they must rely more and more on outside assistance. The maze and complexity of federal and state mandates forces officials to seek technical assistance from a network of public and private agencies. The dynamics…

  8. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both…

  9. Leading Remotely: Exploring the Experiences of Principals in Rural and Remote School Communities in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    School leadership is an exciting although challenging job. Principals of schools located in rural and remote communities, particular small schools, experience and encounter many challenges that their counterparts in suburban and urban areas do not experience. Concerns over staffing, the quality and availability of materials, facilities,…

  10. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  11. The Importance of a Small Rural School District to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard Kent

    2013-01-01

    Hallsburg ISD is a small, rural, K-6 school district struggling to sustain its operations due to reduced funding from the state, decreased enrollment, and a decrease in the local tax base. This Problem in Practice Record of Study examines the sustainability issues associated with this school district and its importance to the community. Key…

  12. The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

  13. Farm Fair Voices, Space, History, the Middle Ground and "The Future" of Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, John

    2011-01-01

    This article is essentially written as two linked parts. The first part considers how space, spatiality and history can contribute to understanding and "doing something about" the sustainability of rural communities. This is done by extensive reference to Soja's (1989 & 1996) space and spatial theorising and selective perspectives of…

  14. Exploring Culturally Specific Drug Resistance Strategies of Hawaiian Youth in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…

  15. Districts on the Edge: The Impact of Urban Sprawl on a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Portrays the controversy surrounding schools and education in a rural community experiencing both an influx of urban and suburban newcomers and the effects of urban sprawl. Reports on surveys of student educational attitudes, household information, and outside activities, and on interviews with teachers, school administrators, and residents.…

  16. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters and Nonattempters with Schizophrenia in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hou, Zai-Jin; Tang, Mu-Ni; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Yip, Paul S. F.; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-01-01

    In this study, demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural community who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt were compared. Among individuals with schizophrenia, subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 472) a lifetime history of suicide…

  17. Rural Older Adults' Access Barriers to In-Home and Community-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong

    2006-01-01

    This study identified specific access barriers to seven commonly used in-home and community-based services (CBS) and examined factors that were related to barriers to these services. The data used in this study were extracted from the 1999 National Long Term Care Survey and included 283 dyads of rural older adults and their caregivers. The CBS to…

  18. The Engagement of an Urban-Based, Comprehensive University with Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattle, Stephen R.; Bloomfield, Dianne M.; Klineberg, Iven J.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Sydney has a long-standing record of commitment to social inclusion in tertiary education. The Australian government agenda has brought into sharp focus the importance of universities engaging with rural and remote communities. The University of Sydney provides placement opportunities and pathways to attract more undergraduate…

  19. Adolescents in Rural Communities Seeking Help: Who Reports Problems and Who Sees Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Heather A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether adolescents who were at various stages of the help-seeking process differed on demographic characteristics, use of informal helpers, and markers of emotional and behavioral adjustment. Method: Youths (N = 644; Grades 7-12) living in three rural communities completed a survey at school. Three comparisons were…

  20. Workforce: Gap Analysis of a Rural Community College's Training and Local Business & Industry Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Delfina Acosta

    2009-01-01

    In Mississippi, the bulk of the responsibility to conduct workforce training falls on the community colleges. With the recent trends of large industry relocating overseas, layoffs, and plant closures, these challenges have become prevalent in rural America. Through the development and delivery of workforce programs to local business and industry,…

  1. Using Inexpensive Technology and Multimedia to Improve Science Education in Rural Communities of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neupane, Sujaya

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an ongoing project that promotes science education in rural communities of western Nepal by using affordable technology. With the advent of inexpensive technology and multimedia resources, teaching materials for science education can be accessed with a much smaller budget than was previously possible. A preliminary survey…

  2. Community Economic Development Strategies in Rural Washington: Toward a Synthesis of Natural and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Jessica A.

    2006-01-01

    Routes to economic development attract considerable attention in community and rural sociology. Social scientists draw increasingly on studies of social capital and environmental surroundings as they examine the factors that facilitate and inhibit economic development. However, few empirical analyses exist that analyze the impact of the…

  3. 75 FR 52960 - Medicare Program; Rural Community Hospital Demonstration Program: Solicitation of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... subsequent cost reporting period, the lesser of their reasonable costs or a target amount. The target amount.... The target amount in subsequent cost ] reporting periods is defined as the preceding cost reporting... establishing cost-based reimbursement for ``rural community hospitals'' to furnish covered inpatient...

  4. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  5. Factors Related to Predicting Grade Point Averages of Dislocated Workers at a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, James Brent

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relationships which existed between selected demographics and college grade point averages "GPAs" for dislocated workers and non dislocated workers enrolled in career-technical courses at a rural community college. The variables included in the study are age, gender, and marital status. The study…

  6. Detecting the changes in rural communities in Taiwan by applying multiphase segmentation on FORMOSA-2 satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yishuo

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural activities mainly occur in rural areas; recently, ecological conservation and biological diversity are being emphasized in rural communities to promote sustainable development for rural communities, especially for rural communities in Taiwan. Therefore, since 2005, many rural communities in Taiwan have compiled their own development strategies in order to create their own unique characteristics to attract people to visit and stay in rural communities. By implementing these strategies, young people can stay in their own rural communities and the rural communities are rejuvenated. However, some rural communities introduce artificial construction into the community such that the ecological and biological environments are significantly degraded. The strategies need to be efficiently monitored because up to 67 rural communities have proposed rejuvenation projects. In 2015, up to 440 rural communities were estimated to be involved in rural community rejuvenations. How to monitor the changes occurring in those rural communities participating in rural community rejuvenation such that ecological conservation and ecological diversity can be satisfied is an important issue in rural community management. Remote sensing provides an efficient and rapid method to achieve this issue. Segmentation plays a fundamental role in human perception. In this respect, segmentation can be used as the process of transforming the collection of pixels of an image into a group of regions or objects with meaning. This paper proposed an algorithm based on the multiphase approach to segment the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI, of the rural communities into several sub-regions, and to have the NDVI distribution in each sub-region be homogeneous. Those regions whose values of NDVI are close will be merged into the same class. In doing so, a complex NDVI map can be simplified into two groups: the high and low values of NDVI. The class with low NDVI values corresponds to those

  7. Reaching Rural Handicapped Children: The Transportation Situation in Rural Service Delivery. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jamie; And Others

    Almost everyone who responded to three transportation surveys of rural Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects identified transportation as a critical problem in the delivery of services to handicapped children in rural areas. Transportation problems encountered were attributed to environmental/geographic factors,…

  8. What explains the rural-urban gap in infant mortality: household or community characteristics?

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Ellen; O'Donnell, Owen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2009-11-01

    The rural-urban gap in infant mortality rates is explained by using a new decomposition method that permits identification of the contribution of unobserved heterogeneity at the household and the community level. Using Demographic and Health Survey data for six Francophone countries in Central and West sub-Saharan Africa, we find that differences in the distributions of factors that determine mortality--not differences in their effects--explain almost the entire gap. Higher infant mortality rates in rural areas mainly derive from the rural disadvantage in household characteristics, both observed and unobserved, which explain two-thirds of the gap. Among the observed characteristics, environmental factors--a safe source of drinking water, electricity, and quality of housing materials--are the most important contributors. Community characteristics explain less than one-quarter of the gap, with about two-thirds of this coming from community unobserved heterogeneity and one-third from the existence of a health facility within the community. The effect of disadvantageous environmental conditions--such as limited electricity and water supply--derives both from a lack of community-level infrastructure and from the inability of some households to exploit it when available. Policy needs to operate at both the community and household levels to correct such deficiencies.

  9. A Rural School/Community: A Case Study of a Dramatic Turnaround & Its Implications for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    This paper presents a case study of a rural community exhibiting a dramatic turnaround in community support for a new school bond issue. Demographic change was partly responsible for the change in community attitudes, with two waves of immigration altering the long-term conservative orientation of this community. After a series of failed…

  10. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  11. A Community Health Advisor Program to reduce cardiovascular risk among rural African-American women.

    PubMed

    Cornell, C E; Littleton, M A; Greene, P G; Pulley, L; Brownstein, J N; Sanderson, B K; Stalker, V G; Matson-Koffman, D; Struempler, B; Raczynski, J M

    2009-08-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community's physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention.

  12. Creating Virtual Classrooms for Rural and Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Kavita; Eady, Michelle; Edelen-Smith, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Students in remote communities face many challenges to get an education. This is especially true for indigenous and native people. To train teachers for these populations, the authors used web-based conferencing, which avoids some of the technological challenges of communicating with students in these communities. The virtual classes also were…

  13. Community Perspectives on Access to and Availability of Healthy Food in Rural, Low-Resource, Latino Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, A. Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Grassi, Kathleen; Nathan, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a “food desert.” Methods We used a mixed-methods approach and conducted 3 focus groups (n = 20) and in-depth interviews (n = 59) and surveys (n = 79) with residents of a rural yet agricultural community. We used thematic analysis to explore residents’ perceptions of access to healthy foods. Results Residents (n = 79; mean age, 41.6 y; 72% female; 79% Latino; 53% Spanish-speaking) reported that dollar and discount stores in this agricultural area provided access to produce; however, produce at retail stores was less affordable than produce at nonretail outlets such as fruit and vegetable stands. Gifts and trades of fruits and vegetables from neighbors and community organizations supplied no-cost or low-cost healthy foods. Residents’ suggestions to improve food access centered on lowering the cost of produce in existing retail outlets and seeking out nonretail outlets. Conclusion Our findings contribute to understanding of the food environment in low-resource, rural yet agricultural areas. Although such areas are characterized as “food deserts,” residents identified nonretail outlets as a viable source of affordable produce, while indicating that the cost of retail produce was a concern. Innovative policy solutions to increase healthy food consumption must focus on affordability as well as accessibility, and consider alternate, nonretail

  14. Outreach to Space - A Collaborative Model for Rural Community Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Sheldon; Space Museum Collaborative, Outreach to

    2008-05-01

    Outreach to Space is a collaborative project of 11 mid-western and west coast science museums, designed to provide astronomy and space exploration content to non-traditional audiences in non-traditional venues. Members have developed a set of 12 portable, interactive astronomy exhibits that will be delivered to mostly underserved rural populations, at non-traditional venues in 2008-2009. These venues are to include county and regional fairs, and summer and fall festivals - places that attract diverse and underserved audiences. During the intervening year, the exhibits will visit groups and agencies such as Rotary clubs, Urban League after-school programs, inner city youth clubs & agencies, rural libraries, and other similar venues. The primary target audience is 5-13 year old children and their extended families that live in rural and lower-economic areas. Outreach to Space Partner Museums Alaska: The Imaginarium, Anchorage California: The Exploratorium, San Francisco Illinois: Discovery Center, Rockford Lakeview Museum, Peoria SciTech, Aurora Indiana: Children's Science Museum, Terre Haute Evansville Museum of Arts and Science Science Central, Fort Wayne Iowa: Bluedorn Imaginarium, Waterloo Science Station, Cedar Rapids Oregon: Science Works, Ashland This session will include an opportunity to interact with each of the exhibits, review the educational materials, and use the personal media player programs that have been developed to provide additional depth to the visitor experience. The exhibit development process and organizational elements of the collaborative will also be discussed. Outreach to Space is funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation's Informal Science Program.

  15. The evolution of a community-based telepsychiatry program in rural Alabama: lessons learned-a brief report.

    PubMed

    Ulzen, Thaddeus; Williamson, Lloyda; Foster, Pamela Payne; Parris-Barnes, Kelley

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the partnership between a community-based rural mental health clinic and an academic health center to provide telepsychiatry services in rural Alabama. The partnership was developed to meet the needs of a clinic that serves an underserved rural population with limited psychiatric services. This paper offers valuable lessons learned for mental health practitioners who may be considering the benefits and challenges of forming community-based partnerships in use of telepsychiatry to build capacity to deliver clinical mental health services to rural mental health shortage areas.

  16. Demographic and contextual factors associated with inhalant use among youth in rural Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Dotterrer, Bruce; Collins, David; Ogilvie, Kristen; Grube, Joel; Johnson, Knowlton

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. Methods This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697). The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. Results As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Conclusion Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities. PMID:22564464

  17. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-12

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  18. A Community Health Advisor Program to reduce cardiovascular risk among rural African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community’s physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention. PMID:19047648

  19. 77 FR 75152 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice... communities. The purpose of this teleconference is to discuss specific topics of relevance for...

  20. Australian rural, remote and urban community nurses' health promotion role and function.

    PubMed

    Roden, Janet; Jarvis, Lynda; Campbell-Crofts, Sandra; Whitehead, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Community nurses have often been 'touted' as potential major contributors to health promotion. Critical literature, however, often states that this has not been the case. Furthermore, most studies examining nurses' role and function have occurred mainly in hospital settings. This is a sequential mixed-methods study of two groups of community nurses from a Sydney urban area (n = 100) and from rural and remote areas (n = 49) within New South Wales, Australia. A piloted questionnaire survey was developed based on the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Following this, 10 qualitative interviews were conducted for both groups, plus a focus group to support or refute survey results. Findings showed that rural and remote nurses had more positive attitudes towards health promotion and its clinical implementation. Survey and interview data confirmed that urban community nurses had a narrower focus on caring for individuals rather than groups, agreeing that time constraints impacted on their limited health promotion role. There was agreement about lack of resources (material and people) to update health promotion knowledge and skills. Rural and remote nurses were more likely to have limited educational opportunities. All nurses undertook more development of personal skills (DPS, health education) than any other action area. The findings highlight the need for more education and resources for community nurses to assist their understanding of health promotion concepts. It is hoped that community nurse leaders will collectively become more effective health promoters and contribute to healthy reform in primary health care sectors.