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Sample records for alb anoplophora glabripennis

  1. Native natural enemies of native woodborers: Potential as biological control agents for the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree species in 13 genera in N.A., most notable seven maple species. Biological control represents an alternative approach for control...

  2. The impacts of feeding in a resistant tree on the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and its gut microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB; Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring beetle capable of thriving in the heartwood of a broad range of angiospermous trees. Here, it faces a number of nutritional and digestive challenges, including the presence of highly recalcitrant lignocellulose a...

  3. Les longicornes asiatiques Anoplophora glabripennis et A. chinensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current status in Europe of the invasive pests Anoplophora glabripennis and A. chinensis is presented as well as a description of the damage, introduction pathways, past and current infestations in North America and Europe, and their host plants. Risk analysis tied to new introductions, and alternat...

  4. Behavioral Ecology of Host Selection in the Asian Longhorn Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cermabycidae): Implications for Survey, Detection and Monitoring Adult Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China, with infestations in New York City and Long Island, NY, Chicago, IL, Jersey City, Carteret and Linden, NJ, and Toronto, Canada. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree s...

  5. Sex-specific trail pheromone mediates complex mate finding behavior in Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a polyphagous member of the Cerambycidae, which is considered worldwide to be one of the most serious quarantine pests attacking deciduous trees. We isolated and identified four chemicals from the trail wash of A. glabripennis virgin females that were not presen...

  6. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Wang, Jingzhen; Cui, Mingming; Tao, Jing; Luo, Youqing

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory proteins form the basis of insect olfactory recognition, which is crucial for host identification, mating, and oviposition. Using transcriptome analysis of Anoplophora glabripennis antenna, we identified 42 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 14 pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs), 1 odorant-degrading enzymes (ODE), 37 odorant receptors (ORs), 11 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), and 4 ionotropic receptor (IR). All CSPs and PBPs were expressed in antennae, confirming the authenticity of the transcriptome data. CSP expression profiles showed that AglaCSP3, AglaCSP6, and AglaCSP12 were expressed preferentially in maxillary palps and AglaCSP7 and AglaCSP9 were strongly expressed in antennae. The vast majority of CSPs were highly expressed in multiple chemosensory tissues, suggesting their participation in olfactory recognition in almost all olfactory tissues. Intriguingly, the PBP AglaPBP2 was preferentially expressed in antenna, indicating that it is the main protein involved in efficient and sensitive pheromone recognition. Phylogenetic analysis of olfactory proteins indicated AglaGR1 may detect CO2. This study establishes a foundation for determining the chemoreception molecular mechanisms of A. glabripennis, which would provide a new perspective for controlling pest populations, especially those of borers. PMID:27222053

  7. Sensory aspects of trail-following behaviors in the Asian longhorned beetle, anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anoplophora glabripennis has a complex suite of mate-finding behaviors, the functions of which are not entirely understood. These behaviors are elicited by a number of factors, including visual and chemical cues. Chemical cues include a male-produced volatile semiochemical acting as a long-range sex...

  8. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian Longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Previous work demonstrated that larval guts collected from a variety of geographically di...

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium solani associated with the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for phylogene...

  10. Contrasting diets reveal metabolic plasticity in the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Charles J.; Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-09-01

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets containing low protein quantities, recalcitrant carbohydrate sources, and plant defensive compounds. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a wood-feeding insect that attacks and kills a diversity of hardwood tree species. We compared gene expression of midguts collected from larvae feeding in a preferred tree, sugar maple, to those consuming a nutrient-rich artificial diet, to identify genes putatively involved in host plant utilization. Anoplophora glabripennis larvae exhibited differential expression of ~3600 genes in response to different diets. Genes with predicted capacity for plant and microbial carbohydrate usage, detoxification, nutrient recycling, and immune-related genes relevant for facilitating interactions with microbial symbionts were upregulated in wood-feeding larvae compared to larvae feeding in artificial diet. Upregulation of genes involved in protein degradation and synthesis was also observed, suggesting that proteins incur more rapid turnover in insects consuming wood. Additionally, wood-feeding individuals exhibited elevated expression of several mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase genes, suggesting increased aerobic respiration compared to diet-fed larvae. These results indicate that A. glabripennis modulates digestive and basal gene expression when larvae are feeding in a nutrient-poor, yet suitable host plant compared to a tractable and nutrient-rich diet that is free of plant defensive compounds.

  11. Contrasting diets reveal metabolic plasticity in the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Scully, Erin D; Geib, Scott M; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-09-22

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets containing low protein quantities, recalcitrant carbohydrate sources, and plant defensive compounds. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a wood-feeding insect that attacks and kills a diversity of hardwood tree species. We compared gene expression of midguts collected from larvae feeding in a preferred tree, sugar maple, to those consuming a nutrient-rich artificial diet, to identify genes putatively involved in host plant utilization. Anoplophora glabripennis larvae exhibited differential expression of ~3600 genes in response to different diets. Genes with predicted capacity for plant and microbial carbohydrate usage, detoxification, nutrient recycling, and immune-related genes relevant for facilitating interactions with microbial symbionts were upregulated in wood-feeding larvae compared to larvae feeding in artificial diet. Upregulation of genes involved in protein degradation and synthesis was also observed, suggesting that proteins incur more rapid turnover in insects consuming wood. Additionally, wood-feeding individuals exhibited elevated expression of several mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase genes, suggesting increased aerobic respiration compared to diet-fed larvae. These results indicate that A. glabripennis modulates digestive and basal gene expression when larvae are feeding in a nutrient-poor, yet suitable host plant compared to a tractable and nutrient-rich diet that is free of plant defensive compounds.

  12. Contrasting diets reveal metabolic plasticity in the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Charles J.; Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets containing low protein quantities, recalcitrant carbohydrate sources, and plant defensive compounds. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a wood-feeding insect that attacks and kills a diversity of hardwood tree species. We compared gene expression of midguts collected from larvae feeding in a preferred tree, sugar maple, to those consuming a nutrient-rich artificial diet, to identify genes putatively involved in host plant utilization. Anoplophora glabripennis larvae exhibited differential expression of ~3600 genes in response to different diets. Genes with predicted capacity for plant and microbial carbohydrate usage, detoxification, nutrient recycling, and immune-related genes relevant for facilitating interactions with microbial symbionts were upregulated in wood-feeding larvae compared to larvae feeding in artificial diet. Upregulation of genes involved in protein degradation and synthesis was also observed, suggesting that proteins incur more rapid turnover in insects consuming wood. Additionally, wood-feeding individuals exhibited elevated expression of several mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase genes, suggesting increased aerobic respiration compared to diet-fed larvae. These results indicate that A. glabripennis modulates digestive and basal gene expression when larvae are feeding in a nutrient-poor, yet suitable host plant compared to a tractable and nutrient-rich diet that is free of plant defensive compounds. PMID:27654346

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Scott M.; Scully, Erin D.; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria del Mar; Carlson, John E.; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2012-01-01

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic variance at this locus was low among A. glabripennis-associated isolates. To better survey the genetic variation of F. solani associated with A. glabripennis, and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other members of the F. solani species complex, single spore isolates were created from different populations and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis was performed using a combination of the translation elongation factor alpha-1, internal transcribed spacer, and large subunit rDNA regions. These analyses revealed that colony-derived larvae reared in three different tree species or on artificial diet, as well as larvae from wild populations collected from three additional tree species in New York City and from a single tree species in Worcester, MA, consistently harbored F. solani within their guts. While there is some genetic variation in the F. solani carried between populations, within-population variation is low. We speculate that F. solani is able to fill a broad niche in the A. glabripennis gut, providing it with fungal lignocellulases to allow the larvae to grow and develop on woody tissue. However, it is likely that many F. solani genotypes could potentially fill this niche, so the relationship may not be limited to a single member of the F. solani species complex. While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their symbiotic associations with insects, this report suggests that larval A. glabripennis has developed an intimate relationship with F. solani

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Scully, Erin D; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria Del Mar; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2012-02-10

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic variance at this locus was low among A. glabripennis-associated isolates. To better survey the genetic variation of F. solani associated with A. glabripennis, and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other members of the F. solani species complex, single spore isolates were created from different populations and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis was performed using a combination of the translation elongation factor alpha-1, internal transcribed spacer, and large subunit rDNA regions. These analyses revealed that colony-derived larvae reared in three different tree species or on artificial diet, as well as larvae from wild populations collected from three additional tree species in New York City and from a single tree species in Worcester, MA, consistently harbored F. solani within their guts. While there is some genetic variation in the F. solani carried between populations, within-population variation is low. We speculate that F. solani is able to fill a broad niche in the A. glabripennis gut, providing it with fungal lignocellulases to allow the larvae to grow and develop on woody tissue. However, it is likely that many F. solani genotypes could potentially fill this niche, so the relationship may not be limited to a single member of the F. solani species complex. While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their symbiotic associations with insects, this report suggests that larval A. glabripennis has developed an intimate relationship with F. solani

  15. Genome Sequence of Fusarium Isolate MYA-4552 from the Midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Invasive, Wood-Boring Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal, and insect associates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. PMID:27445364

  16. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  17. Genome Sequence of Fusarium Isolate MYA-4552 from the Midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Invasive, Wood-Boring Beetle.

    PubMed

    Herr, Joshua R; Scully, Erin D; Geib, Scott M; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E; Geiser, David M

    2016-07-21

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal, and insect associates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis.

  18. A comparison of the virulence of North American Beauveria brongniartii and commercial pathogenic fungal species against Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States (US) the development and field application of Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to control invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) have been hampered because it was unknown whether this...

  19. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis; AGLAB) is a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important orchard, ornamental and forest trees. Genome sequencing, annotation, gene expression assays, and functional and comparative genomic s...

  20. Tree colonization by the Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): effect of habitat and tree suitability.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Favaro, Riccardo; Concheri, Giuseppe; Squartini, Andrea; Battisti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Tree colonization and feeding activity of the invasive wood-borer Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), an Asian pest introduced into North America and Europe, was studied in a newly invaded area in Italy. The hypothesis being tested was that the reproductive success of the insect depend on habitat type and tree suitability. Adult beetles were caged on branches of host and nonhost species, in both urban and forest habitats. Two months later, number and size of feeding patches on plant tissues, eggs laid, and surviving larvae were assessed. Bark concentration of C and N was also measured from the same trees. Results indicated that the mean area of plant tissues consumed by adult feeding was significantly larger on trees growing in forest than in urban habitat, although within the same habitat there were no differences between susceptible and nonsusceptible trees. ALB tree colonization, in terms of number of eggs laid and young larvae survival, was not affected by habitat while it was higher on susceptible trees. Although trees growing in forests had a lower nitrogen concentration, they allowed colonization rates similar to those of trees growing in the urban habitat. Hence, the amount of carbon and nitrogen did not fully explain tree suitability or habitat selection. We suggest compensatory feeding as a potential mechanism that might explain this peculiar situation, as supported by a more intensive feeding activity recorded on trees in the forest. Suitability of different trees may be due to other factors, such as secondary chemical compounds.

  1. Lethal Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Demand® CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Implications for Population Suppression, Tree Protection, Eradication and Containment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for adult Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, using topical application. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: the LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. Residual...

  2. Integration of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Host Plant Identification by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    L.Yv, Fei; Hai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Zhigang; Yan, Aihua; Liu, Bingxiang; Bi, Yongguo

    2015-01-01

    Some insects use host and mate cues, including odor, color, and shape, to locate and recognize their preferred hosts and mates. Previous research has shown that the Asian longicorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), uses olfactory cues to locate host plants and differentiate them from non-host plants. However, whether A. glabripennis adults use visual cues or a combination of visual and olfactory cues remains unclear. In this study, we tested the host location and recognition behavior in A. glabripennis, which infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, Europe and Asia. We determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues from Acer negundo in host plant location and recognition, as well as in the discrimination of non-host plants (Sabina chinensis and Pinus bungeana), by female and male A. glabripennis. Visual and olfactory cues from the host plants (A. negundo), alone and combined, attracted significantly more females and males than equivalent cues from non-host plants (S. chinensis and P. bungeana). Furthermore, the combination of visual and olfactory cues of host plants attracted more adults than either cue alone, and visual cues alone attracted significantly more adults than olfactory cues alone. This finding suggests that adult A. glabripennis has an innate preference for the visual and/or olfactory cues of its host plants (A. negundo) over those of the non-host plant and visual cues are initially more important than olfactory cues for orientation; furthermore, this finding also suggests that adults integrate visual and olfactory cues to find their host plants. Our results indicate that different modalities of host plant cues should be considered together to understand fully the communication between host plants and Asian longhorned beetles. PMID:26556100

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Fusarium solani Isolated from the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Erin D.; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John; Tien, Ming; Geib, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a highly intractable food source, yet many insects successfully colonize and thrive in this challenging niche. Overcoming the lignin barrier of wood is a key challenge in nutrient acquisition, but full depolymerization of intact lignin polymers has only been conclusively demonstrated in fungi and is not known to occur by enzymes produced by insects or bacteria. Previous research validated that lignocellulose and hemicellulose degradation occur within the gut of the wood boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle), and that a fungal species, Fusarium solani (ATCC MYA 4552), is consistently associated with the larval stage. While the nature of this relationship is unresolved, we sought to assess this fungal isolate's ability to degrade lignocellulose and cell wall polysaccharides and to extract nutrients from woody tissue. This gut-derived fungal isolate was inoculated onto a wood-based substrate and shotgun proteomics using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was employed to identify 400 expressed proteins. Through this approach, we detected proteins responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, including proteins belonging to 28 glycosyl hydrolase families and several cutinases, esterases, lipases, pectate lyases, and polysaccharide deacetylases. Proteinases with broad substrate specificities and ureases were observed, indicating that this isolate has the capability to digest plant cell wall proteins and recycle nitrogenous waste under periods of nutrient limitation. Additionally, several laccases, peroxidases, and enzymes involved in extracellular hydrogen peroxide production previously implicated in lignin depolymerization were detected. In vitro biochemical assays were conducted to corroborate MudPIT results and confirmed that cellulases, glycosyl hydrolases, xylanases, laccases, and Mn- independent peroxidases were active in culture; however, lignin- and Mn- dependent peroxidase activities were

  4. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John; Tien, Ming; Geib, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a highly intractable food source, yet many insects successfully colonize and thrive in this challenging niche. Overcoming the lignin barrier of wood is a key challenge in nutrient acquisition, but full depolymerization of intact lignin polymers has only been conclusively demonstrated in fungi and is not known to occur by enzymes produced by insects or bacteria. Previous research validated that lignocellulose and hemicellulose degradation occur within the gut of the wood boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle), and that a fungal species, Fusarium solani (ATCC MYA 4552), is consistently associated with the larval stage. While the nature of this relationship is unresolved, we sought to assess this fungal isolate's ability to degrade lignocellulose and cell wall polysaccharides and to extract nutrients from woody tissue. This gut-derived fungal isolate was inoculated onto a wood-based substrate and shotgun proteomics using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was employed to identify 400 expressed proteins. Through this approach, we detected proteins responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, including proteins belonging to 28 glycosyl hydrolase families and several cutinases, esterases, lipases, pectate lyases, and polysaccharide deacetylases. Proteinases with broad substrate specificities and ureases were observed, indicating that this isolate has the capability to digest plant cell wall proteins and recycle nitrogenous waste under periods of nutrient limitation. Additionally, several laccases, peroxidases, and enzymes involved in extracellular hydrogen peroxide production previously implicated in lignin depolymerization were detected. In vitro biochemical assays were conducted to corroborate MudPIT results and confirmed that cellulases, glycosyl hydrolases, xylanases, laccases, and Mn- independent peroxidases were active in culture; however, lignin- and Mn- dependent peroxidase activities were

  5. Microbial community profiling to investigate transmission of bacteria between life stages of the wood-boring beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria del Mar; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; Jabbour, Randa; Hoover, Kelli

    2009-07-01

    Many insects harbor specific bacteria in their digestive tract, and these gut microbiota often play important roles in digestion and nutrient provisioning. While it is common for a given insect species to harbor a representative gut microbial community as a population, how this community is acquired and maintained from generation to generation is not known for most xylophagous insects, except termites. In this study, we examined acquisition of gut microbiota by the wood-feeding beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, by identifying and comparing microbial community members among different life stages of the insect and with microbes it encounters in the environment. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was employed to compare bacterial communities present in the egg and larval stages of A. glabripennis as well as with microbes found in the oviposition site and the surrounding woody tissue. Multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between sample type and specific bacterial types (operational taxonomic units). From this analysis, bacteria that were derived from the environment, the oviposition site, and/or the egg were identified and compared with taxa found in larvae. Results showed that while some larval microbes were derived from environmental sources, other members of the larval microbial community appear to be vertically transmitted. These findings could lead to a better understanding of which microbial species are critical for the survival of this insect and to development of techniques that could be used to alter this community to disrupt the digestive physiology of the host insect as a biological control measure.

  6. Contrasting diets reveal the metabolic plasticity of the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets with low quantities of protein, recalcitrant sources of carbohydrates, and high levels of defensive compounds. These insects have multiple, complementary mechanisms to contend with these digestive challenges. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora g...

  7. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brabbs, Thomas; Collins, Debbie; Hérard, Franck; Maspero, Matteo; Eyre, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan, and fungal infection results in high mortality rates. Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments. Parasitoids: a parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitising up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs; some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents. Predators: two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin, have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests. The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora spp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible.

  8. Midgut transcriptome profiling of Anoplophora glabripennis, a lignocellulose degrading Cerambycid beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wood-feeding insects often work in collaboration with microbial symbionts to degrade lignin biopolymers and release glucose and other fermentable sugars from recalcitrant plant cell wall carbohydrates, including cellulose and hemicellulose. Here, we present the midgut transcriptome of la...

  9. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Teale, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest. PMID:26241651

  10. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Teale, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest.

  11. Asian Longhorned Beetle: Renewed threat to north-eastern USA and implications worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB; ANOPLOPHORA GLABRIPENNIS Motschulsky) is a serious invasive pest of urban forests in North America and Europe, with infestations in New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Toronto, Canada, Germany, Austria, Italy and France. In July 2008 a new ALB infestation was discovere...

  12. Efficacy of Lambda-Cyhalothrin for Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China. The only method thus far proven to control adult ALB is the removal of infested trees. To date, over 32,000 and 23,000 high value shade trees have been removed in t...

  13. Genome sequence of Fusarium isolate MYA-4552 from the midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an invasive, wood-boring beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal and insect associates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplopho...

  14. Phylogenetic Status and Morphological Characters of Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae Kanzaki and Futai was re-isolated from its type host (carrier), the cerambycid beetle Anoplophora malasiaca, collected in an experimental field of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. The nematode was cultured on nematode growth medium plates seeded with Escherichia coli OP50, and its morphological characters and molecular profile were examined to modernize the description. Scanning electron microscopic and light microscopy revealed the presence of four stomatal flaps, a very long gymnostom, a single ventral papilla in males, and a horizontal slit-like vulval opening in females. The positions of the deirids, hemizonids, phasmids, and rectal glands are additionally described, and the absence of a male bursa was confirmed. Phylogenetically, the genus forms a well-supported clade in the family Diplogastridae. Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae is a member of the monophyletic Rhabditolaimus clade and is closely related to R. leuckarti and several undescribed species. PMID:24644370

  15. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  16. Profiles of Internet Use among ALBE Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jim I.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to create profiles of adult literacy and basic education (ALBE) instructors and their use of the Internet in their classrooms. I used Rogers' diffusion of innovations framework and results of a previous study to develop a 56-item survey. Twelve hundred surveys were distributed in 24 states; 219 were returned for a response rate…

  17. Functional genomics and microbiome profiling of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) reveal insights into the digestive physiology and nutritional ecology of wood feeding beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gut microbial communities associated with xylophagous beetles are taxonomically rich and predominately comprised of taxa that are poised to promote survival in woody tissue, which is devoid of nitrogen and essential nutrients. However, the contributions of gut microbes to digestive physiology a...

  18. Life history, reproductive biology, and larval development of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly associated parasitoid of the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive xylophagous beetle originating from Asia. Several endemic North American hymenopteran (Braconidae) species located in the mid-Atlantic region were found attacking and reproducing on A. glabripennis larvae. Ontsira ...

  19. Professional Development Needs of ALBE Teachers Working in Changing Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue

    Adult Literacy and Basic Education (ALBE) teachers face many challenges as they attempt to reconcile the demands of educational providers, learners, and government agencies with their own values and beliefs about the aims and purposes of literacy. Recent research on ALBE programs was examined from the standpoint of their relationship to the…

  20. Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) waveform analysis for bottom return characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, Firat; Pe'eri, Shachak; Rzhanov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) waveforms provide a time log for the interaction of the laser pulse with the environment (water surface, water column and seafloor) along its ray-path geometry. Using the water surface return and the bottom return, it is possible to calculate the water depth. In addition to bathymetry, the ALB bottom return can provide information on seafloor characteristics. The main environmental factors that contribute to the ALB bottom return measurements are: slope, roughness, vegetation, and mineral composition of the surface geology. Both the environment and the ALB hardware affect the bottom return and contribute to the measurement uncertainties. In this study, the ALB bottom return waveform was investigated spatially (i.e., area contributing to the return) and temporally (i.e. the shape of the waveform return) for seafloor characterization. A system-agnostic approach was developed in order to distinguish between the spatial variations of different bottom characteristics. An empirical comparison of bottom characteristics was conducted near the Merrimack River Embayment, Gulf of Maine, USA. The study results showed a good correlation to acoustic backscatter collected over the same area.

  1. The Developmentally Regulated alb1 Gene of Aspergillus fumigatus: Its Role in Modulation of Conidial Morphology and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huei-Fung; Chang, Yun C.; Washburn, Ronald G.; Wheeler, Michael H.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an important opportunistic pathogen which commonly affects neutropenic patients, produces conidia with a bluish-green color. We identified a gene, alb1, which is required for conidial pigmentation. The alb1 gene encodes a putative polyketide synthase, and disruption of alb1 resulted in an albino conidial phenotype. Expression of alb1 is developmentally regulated, and the 7-kb transcript is detected only during the conidiation stage. The alb1 mutation was found to block 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene production, indicating that alb1 is involved in dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin biosynthesis. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the alb1 disruptant exhibited a smooth conidial surface, whereas complementation of the alb1 deletion restored the echinulate wild-type surface. Disruption of alb1 resulted in a significant increase in C3 binding on conidial surfaces, and the conidia of the alb1 disruptant were ingested by human neutrophils at a higher rate than were those of the wild type. The alb1-complemented strain producing bluish-green conidia exhibited inefficient C3 binding and neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis quantitatively similar to those of the wild type. Importantly, the alb1 disruptant had a statistically significant loss of virulence compared to the wild-type and alb1-complemented strains in a murine model. These results suggest that disruption of alb1 causes pleiotropic effects on conidial morphology and fungal virulence. PMID:9620950

  2. [Coagulation performance and mechanism of Al(b) species in treating simulative dye wastewater].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Ying; Gao, Bao-Yu; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Ming; Yue, Qin-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Al(b) species was obtained from polyaluminum chloride (PAC) using ethanol-acetone mixed precipitation method. Al(b) and PAC were comparatively investigated in terms of color removal and zeta potential under different coagulant dosage and solution pH in the treatment of dispersive yellow and direct purple simulative dyeing wastewater. The changes of floc size of Al(b) and PAC were analyzed with PDA2000 and Mastersizer2000, and the coagulation mechanisms were also investigated. Compared with PAC, Al(b) species can work within a wider pH range and the flocs formed by Al(b) showed a more compact structure, a better settle ability and regrowth ability.

  3. Cover-collapse sinkholes of the Franconian Alb / Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, M.; Heckmann, T.; Mehlhorn, S.; Umstädter, K.; Miedaner, H.; Becht, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent events of cover-collapse sinkhole formation, the geomorphological, geological and hydrological conditions of selected sinkholes and the spatial and temporal occurrences of such landforms were studied in the Franconian Alb, a karst area located in southeastern Germany. The Franconian Alb consists of karstified limestones and dolomites of Jurassic Age. It is partly covered by Cretaceous and Miocene deposits and a clayey to loamy overburden. The thickness of the loamy cover ranges from a few decimetres up to ten meters. Sinkholes are widely distributed in the area, to some extent they were formed by cover-collapse processes. In order to prepare a geohazard map, historical records from different archives (municipalities, counties, water management agencies, governmental archives, newspapers) were used for a compilation of sinkholes which resulted from collapses. The frequency of occurrence of cover-collapse sinkholes differs in areas with agricultural or forestal use. Farmers often backfill these surficial cavities immediately after their formation, before they can be registered officially. Therefore a documentation of such collapse events may be restricted in terms of detailed statistical analyses. Nevertheless seasonal clusters of collapses can be observed. Recent collapses show close relations to climatic conditions. During winter or spring the majority of collapse events is associated with snow melt or heavy rainfall resulting in an increase of the soil moisture and a decrease of shear strength within the loamy cover. Consequently, loose material overlaying cavities can be washed down, or the sediment itself moves downward. For single events, the antecedent climatic development (precipitation, thickness of snow cover, air temperature, soil temperature) was analysed for identification of the triggering factors. In this context, small-scale surficial karst depressions without outlet (underlain by thick loamy deposits) show an efficient drainage via a few

  4. The Maternally Inheritable Wolbachia wAlbB Induces Refractoriness to Plasmodium berghei in Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Pan, Xiaoling; McFadden, Michael J.; Bevins, David; Liang, Xiao; Lu, Peng; Thiem, Suzanne; Xi, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia wAlbB induces refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles stephensi, the primary mosquito vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asia. However, it remains unknown whether such refractoriness can be extended to other malaria species. In particular, it was reported that under very specific conditions, wAlbB can enhance Plasmodium infection in some hosts. Here, we measured the impact of wAlbB on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in A. stephensi by comparing the load of oocysts and sporozoites in midguts and salivary glands, respectively, between wAlbB-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes. To investigate whether wAlbB modulated mosquito immune defense against parasites, we compared the expression of the immune genes, which were previously reported to involve in antimalarial response, in both midguts and the remaining carcass tissues of mosquitoes. The stable association of wAlbB with A. stephensi resulted in reduction of parasites by more than half at the oocyst stage, and up to 91.8% at the sporzoite stage. The anti-plasmodium immune genes, including TEP1, LRIM1, Toll pathway gene Rel1 and the effector Defensin 1, were induced by wAlbB in different mosquito body tissues. These findings suggest that immune priming is a potential cause of wAlbB-mediated antimalarial response in A. stephensi. More importantly, no evidence was found for any enhancement of Plasmodium infection in A. stephensi stably infected with wAlbB. We discuss these findings with possible implementations of Wolbachia for malaria control in disease endemic areas. PMID:28337184

  5. Comparative metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading systems in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. The biggest impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars locke...

  6. [Coagulation performance and mechanism of Alb species in polyaluminum chloride in removing humic acid].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu-Ming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Xu, Wei-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Biao

    2008-11-01

    Alb species [Al12 AlO4 (OH)24(7+)] is multinuclear hydroxyl compound formed in PAC hydrolysis-polymerization process, with properties of small particle sizes, much positive charge, high aggregation degree and large molecular weight. Alb species was purified from PAC containing high concentration of Alb species using ethanol-acetone mixed precipitation method. The influence of dosage, pH and inorganic ions on humic acid removal from simulative water was studied by measuring zeta potential and UV254. The PDA output (FI curve) was analyzed and the relationship between the parameters (S1, S2, H1, H2) of FI curve and coagulation mechanism were studied at different Alb dosage and pH. When the dosage was 4.3 to 6.3 mg x L(-1) and pH was 3.0 to 6.0, the highest humic acid removal efficiency was obtained. The existence of NH4+, SiO3(2-) and H2PO(-) inhibits the coagulation performance. The results of coagulation kinetics and Zeta potential studies revealed that Alb acted mainly by charge neutralization as well as adsorption bridge building in water treatment.

  7. Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride with high content of Alb or Alc.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changwei; Zhang, Jingbo; Luan, Zhaokun; Peng, Xianjia; Ren, Xiaojing

    2009-01-01

    A novel membrane distillation concentration method was used to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high content of Alb or Alc. 2.52 mol/L PACl1 with 88% Alb and 2.38 mol/L PACl2 with 61% Alc were successfully prepared. Three coagulants, AlCl3, PACl1 and PACl2 were investigated on their hydrolysis behavior and speciation under different conditions. The effects of pH and dilution ratio on Al species distribution were investigated by ferron assay. Experimental result showed that pH had a significant effect on Al species distribution for the three coagulants. Dilution ratio had little effects on Alb and Alc distribution in whole dilution process except the beginning for PACl1 and PACl2. The results indicated that transformation of Al depends largely on their original composition. AlCl3 was the most unstable coagulant among these three coagulants during hydrolysis process. PACl1 and PACl2 with significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products were less affected by the hydrolysis conditions and could maintain high speciation stability under various conditions.

  8. Preparing high- and low-aspect ratio AlB2 flakes from borax or boron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. C.; Economy, J.

    2000-02-01

    The commercial preparation of aluminum-diboride flakes in aluminum relies on relatively expensive starting materials. A new synthesis has been developed that allows AlB2 to be prepared directly from the reaction of borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) or boron oxide (B2O3) with aluminum. Aluminum metal at temperatures higher than 900°C has been shown to reduce these boron-containing compounds, producing an Al2O3-containing slag and AlB2. A natural separation occurs, leaving AlB2 in the molten aluminum and Al2O3 as part of a slag that forms at the melt surface. Samples containing up to 10 vol.% AlB2 in an aluminum matrix have been directly prepared using this method.

  9. Mutational Analysis of the sbo-alb Locus of Bacillus subtilis: Identification of Genes Required for Subtilosin Production and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guolu; Hehn, Robin; Zuber, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis 168 derivative JH642 produces a bacteriocin, subtilosin, which possesses activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of the presubtilosin polypeptide encoded by the gene sboA and sequence data from analysis of mature subtilosin indicate that the precursor subtilosin peptide undergoes several unique and unusual chemical modifications during its maturation process. The genes of the sbo-alb operon are believed to function in the synthesis and maturation of subtilosin. Nonpolar mutations introduced into each of the alb genes resulted in loss or reduction of subtilosin production. sboA, albA, and albF mutants showed no antilisterial activity, indicating that the products of these genes are critical for the production of active subtilosin. Mutations in albB, -C, and -D resulted in reduction of antilisterial activity and decreased immunity to subtilosin, particularly under anaerobic conditions. A new gene, sboX, encoding another bacteriocin-like product was discovered residing in a sequence overlapping the coding region of sboA. Construction of an sboX-lacZ translational fusion and analysis of its expression indicate that sboX is induced in stationary phase of anaerobic cultures of JH642. An in-frame deletion of the sboX coding sequence did not affect the antilisterial activity or production of or immunity to subtilosin. The results of this investigation show that the sbo-alb genes are required for the mechanisms of subtilosin synthesis and immunity. PMID:10809709

  10. Notch effects on room temperature tensile and bend properties of Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khadkikar, P. S.; Rigney, J. D.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Vedula, K.

    1989-01-01

    The notched mechanical properties of Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B prepared by powder metallurgy techniques have been determined in both tension and bending at room temperature. Tensile tests performed using double-notched specimens containing relatively blunt notches produced intergranular fracture in both Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B, with evidence of fracture initiating in an intergranular manner ahead of the blunt notch in both cases. Estimates of notched fracture toughness from bend tests and of local grain boundary fracture stress from the notched tensile tests suggest an increase in these values with boron addition.

  11. Nonlinear relationship between the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response and the Al/B ratio in a soda-lime aluminoborosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of Al/B ratio on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response. In an aluminoborosilicate soda-lime glass based on a modified International Simple Glass, ISG-3, the Al/B ratio varied from 0 to 0.55 (in mole fractions). In agreement with various models of the PCT response as a function of glass composition, we observed a monotonic increase of B and Na releases with decreasing Al/B mole ratio, but only when the ratio was higher than 0.05. Below this value (Al/B < 0.05), we observed a sharp decrease that we attribute to B in tetrahedral coordination.

  12. Specificity determinants for the two tRNA substrates of the cyclodipeptide synthase AlbC from Streptomyces noursei

    PubMed Central

    Moutiez, Mireille; Seguin, Jérôme; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Belin, Pascal; Jacques, Isabelle Béatrice; Favry, Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel; Gondry, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) use two aminoacyl-tRNA substrates in a sequential ping-pong mechanism to form a cyclodipeptide. The crystal structures of three CDPSs have been determined and all show a Rossmann-fold domain similar to the catalytic domain of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). Structural features and mutational analyses however suggest that CDPSs and aaRSs interact differently with their tRNA substrates. We used AlbC from Streptomyces noursei that mainly produces cyclo(l-Phe-l-Leu) to investigate the interaction of a CDPS with its substrates. We demonstrate that Phe-tRNAPhe is the first substrate accommodated by AlbC. Its binding to AlbC is dependent on basic residues located in the helix α4 that form a basic patch at the surface of the protein. AlbC does not use all of the Leu-tRNALeu isoacceptors as a second substrate. We show that the G1-C72 pair of the acceptor stem is essential for the recognition of the second substrate. Substitution of D163 located in the loop α6–α7 or D205 located in the loop β6–α8 affected Leu-tRNALeu isoacceptors specificity, suggesting the involvement of these residues in the binding of the second substrate. This is the first demonstration that the two substrates of CDPSs are accommodated in different binding sites. PMID:24782519

  13. [Increased risk of infection by Echinococcus multilocularis for people in the endemic "Schwaebische Alb" region?].

    PubMed

    Kimmig, P; Mühling, A

    1985-06-01

    The infestation by the larva of Echinococcus multilocularis, also known as alveolar echinococcosis, is the most dangerous parasitic disease of man in Middle Europe. This is due to the location in the liver but still more so because of the proliferative and infiltrating growth of the larval tissue. The basic infective cycle of the parasite is a zoonosis between foxes as final hosts and small rodents such as common voles as intermediate hosts. Man can be a false intermediate host and thus a carrier of the larval stage. The infection arises from oral ingestion of the tapeworm eggs either on wild berries or in dust. Dogs and cats are a further important source of infection. They can be facultative carriers of adult E. multilocularis and are thus able to excrete eggs or proglottids of the tapeworm. In west Germany, in particular the "Schwäbische Alb" must be regarded as an endemic region for E. multilocularis. According to the examinations of Zeyhle, the infection rate of foxes here is more than 15% on an average, in some local areas as for example in the district of Reutlingen it is over 25%. In order to estimate the danger of infection for man in hyperendemic areas the population of two villages of this district and also specially endangered occupational groups (hunters, foresters) of the whole "Schwäbische Alb" have been examined for echinococcosis by serological means. A stepless ELISA was used as screening test. Thus circa 2200 persons liable to E. multilocularis could be examined. Among the population of the district of Reutlingen nine highly suspective sera could be detected. Computer tomography of these nine persons showed only one case of Echinococcus which could be identified as E. multilocularis after operation. Presumably serological positive cases come up as a consequence of a real contact with E. multilocularis. But in most cases the larval cestode tissue might soon degenerate because man is a relatively poor intermediate host. It cannot be excluded

  14. ALB3 Insertase Mediates Cytochrome b6 Co-translational Import into the Thylakoid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Króliczewski, Jarosław; Piskozub, Małgorzata; Bartoszewski, Rafał; Króliczewska, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome b6 f complex occupies an electrochemically central position in the electron-transport chain bridging the photosynthetic reaction center of PS I and PS II. In plants, the subunits of these thylakoid membrane protein complexes are both chloroplast and nuclear encoded. How the chloroplast-encoded subunits of multi-spanning cytochrome b6 are targeted and inserted into the thylakoid membrane is not fully understood. Experimental approaches to evaluate the cytochrome b6 import mechanism in vivo have been limited to bacterial membranes and were not a part of the chloroplast environment. To evaluate the mechanism governing cytochrome b6 integration in vivo, we performed a comparative analysis of both native and synthetic cytochrome b6 insertion into purified thylakoids. Using biophysical and biochemical methods, we show that cytochrome b6 insertion into the thylakoid membrane is a non-spontaneous co-translational process that involves ALB3 insertase. Furthermore, we provided evidence that CSP41 (chloroplast stem–loop-binding protein of 41 kDa) interacts with RNC-cytochrome b6 complexes, and may be involved in cytochrome b6 (petB) transcript stabilization or processing. PMID:27698412

  15. Preparation of silicon target material by adding Al-B master alloy in directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengting; Wang, Kai; Ren, Shiqiang; Jiang, Dachuan; Tan, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The silicon target material was prepared by adding Al-6B master alloy in directional solidification. The microstructure was characterized and the resistivity was studied in this work. The results showed that the purity of the silicon target material was more than 99.999% (5N). The resistivity was ranges from 0.002 to 0.030 Ω·cm along the ingot height. It was revealed that the particles of AlB2 in Al-6B master alloy would react spontaneously and generate clusters of [B] and [Al] in molten silicon at 1723 K. After directional solidification, the content of B and Al were increasing gradually with the increase of solidified fraction. The measured values of B were in good agreement with the curve of the Scheil equation below 80% of the ingot height. The mean concentration of B was about 17.20 ppmw and the mean concentration of Al was about 8.07 ppmw after directional solidification. The measured values of Al were fitting well with the curve of values which the effective segregation coefficient was 0.00378. It was observed that B co-doped Al in directional solidification polysilicon could regulate resistivity mutually. This work provides the theoretical basis and technical support for industrial production of the silicon target material.

  16. Sources and processes affecting sulfate in a karstic groundwater system of the Franconian Alb, southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Einsiedl, Florian; Mayer, Bernhard

    2005-09-15

    Chemical and isotope analyses on groundwater sulfate and 3H measurements on groundwaterwere used to determine the sulfate sources and sulfur transformation processes in a heterogeneous karst aquifer of the Franconian Alb, southern Germany. Sulfate was found to be derived from atmospheric deposition. Young groundwater was characterized by high sulfate concentrations and delta34S values similar to those of recent atmospheric sulfate deposition. However, the delta18O values of groundwater SO4(2-) were depleted by several per mil with respect to those of atmospheric deposition. This isotopic shift is indicative of mineralization of carbon-bonded S in the vadose zone of the karst system. In groundwater with mean residence times of more than 60 years, a trend of increasing delta34S values and delta18O values with decreasing sulfate concentrations was observed. This trend could not be solely explained by preindustrial atmospheric sulfate deposition with higher delta34S values, and hence, we conclude that bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction in the porous matrix of the karst aquifer must have occurred. This process has the potential to contribute to long-term biodegradation of contaminants in the porous rock matrix representing the dominantwater reservoir of the fissured porous karst aquifer.

  17. Theoretical study of the BeLi, BeNa, MgLi, MgNa, and AlBe molecules and their negative ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1992-01-01

    The alkaline earth-alkali diatomics are found to have weak bonds, because the diffuse alkali valence s orbitals cannot form a bond of sufficient strength to pay the promotion energy of the alkaline-earth atoms. This leads to van der Waals bonding in the neutrals as well as the negative ions. In fact, the negative ions have larger binding energies than the neutrals as a result of the much larger polarizability of the negative ion. The binding energy of AlBe is significantly larger than the Be-alkali molecules, due to a covalent contribution to the bonding. The binding energy in AlBe(-) is considerably larger than AlBe; the binding energy of the X 3Sigma(-) state of AlBe(-) is computed to be 1.36 eV, as compared with 0.57 eV for the X 2Pi state of AlBe.

  18. Ca- and Sc-based ternary AlB2-like crystals: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2017-02-01

    The aluminum diboride (AlB2) crystal structure comprises intercalated metal atoms between honeycomb sheets. In addition to metal diborides, which represent the most common family of AlB2-like structures, many more materials are known to crystallize in this geometry. Here we use first-principles calculations to probe the structural and electronic properties of several such systems. Specifically, we investigate the stability of various polymorphs of CaAuAs, CaAuP, CaCuP, ScAuGe, ScAuSi, Ca2AgSi3 and Ca2AuGe3 and find lattice parameters in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The analysis of densities of states and band structure diagrams show that all materials are metallic. However, the details of band dispersion vary significantly, from typical metals such as CaAuP, to almost semi-metallic behaviour in CaCuP.

  19. The Arabidopsis Tellurite resistance C protein together with ALB3 is involved in photosystem II protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Anja; Steinberger, Iris; Strissel, Henning; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Manavski, Nikolay; Meurer, Jörg; Burkhard, Gabi; Jarzombski, Sabine; Schünemann, Danja; Geimer, Stefan; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Leister, Dario

    2014-04-01

    Assembly of photosystem II (PSII) occurs sequentially and requires several auxiliary proteins, such as ALB3 (ALBINO3). Here, we describe the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membrane protein Tellurite resistance C (AtTerC) in this process. Knockout of AtTerC was previously shown to be seedling-lethal. This phenotype was rescued by expressing TerC fused C-terminally to GFP in the terc-1 background, and the resulting terc-1TerC- GFP line and an artificial miRNA-based knockdown allele (amiR-TerC) were used to analyze the TerC function. The alterations in chlorophyll fluorescence and thylakoid ultrastructure observed in amiR-TerC plants and terc-1TerC- GFP were attributed to defects in PSII. We show that this phenotype resulted from a reduction in the rate of de novo synthesis of PSII core proteins, but later steps in PSII biogenesis appeared to be less affected. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that TerC interacts with PSII proteins. In particular, its interaction with the PSII assembly factor ALB3 has been demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. ALB3 is thought to assist in incorporation of CP43 into PSII via interaction with Low PSII Accumulation2 (LPA2) Low PSII Accumulation3 (LPA3). Homozygous lpa2 mutants expressing amiR-TerC displayed markedly exacerbated phenotypes, leading to seedling lethality, indicating an additive effect. We propose a model in which TerC, together with ALB3, facilitates de novo synthesis of thylakoid membrane proteins, for instance CP43, at the membrane insertion step.

  20. Electronic structure and magnetic properties in T2AlB2 (T =Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, and Ni) and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liqin; Harmon, Bruce N.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2017-03-01

    The electronic structure and intrinsic magnetic properties of Fe2AlB2 -related compounds and their alloys have been investigated using density functional theory. For Fe2AlB2 , the crystallographic a axis is the easiest axis, which agrees with experiments. The magnetic ground state of Mn2AlB2 is found to be ferromagnetic in the basal a b plane, but antiferromagnetic along the c axis. All 3 d dopings considered decrease the magnetization and Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2 . Electron doping with Co or Ni has a stronger effect on the decreasing of Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2 than hole doping with Mn or Cr. However, a larger amount of Mn doping on Fe2AlB2 promotes the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition. A very anisotropic magnetoelastic effect is found in Fe2AlB2 : the magnetization has a much stronger dependence on the lattice parameter c than on a or b , which is explained by electronic-structure features near the Fermi level. Dopings of other elements on B and Al sites are also discussed.

  1. Electronic structure and magnetic properties in T2AlB2 (T = Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, and Ni) and their alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Ke, Liqin; Harmon, Bruce N.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2017-03-20

    In this study, the electronic structure and intrinsic magnetic properties of Fe2AlB2-related compounds and their alloys have been investigated using density functional theory. For Fe2AlB2, the crystallographic a axis is the easiest axis, which agrees with experiments. The magnetic ground state of Mn2AlB2 is found to be ferromagnetic in the basal ab plane, but antiferromagnetic along the c axis. All 3d dopings considered decrease the magnetization and Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2. Electron doping with Co or Ni has a stronger effect on the decreasing of Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2 than hole doping with Mn or Cr. However, a larger amountmore » of Mn doping on Fe2AlB2 promotes the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition. A very anisotropic magnetoelastic effect is found in Fe2AlB2: the magnetization has a much stronger dependence on the lattice parameter c than on a or b, which is explained by electronic-structure features near the Fermi level. Dopings of other elements on B and Al sites are also discussed.« less

  2. Characterization of the bacterial community associated with larvae and adults of Anoplophora chinensis collected in Italy by culture and culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Aurora; Crotti, Elena; Borruso, Luigimaria; Jucker, Costanza; Lupi, Daniela; Colombo, Mario; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis Forster, native to China, has recently spread to North America and Europe causing serious damage to ornamental and forest trees. The gut microbial community associated with these xylophagous beetles is of interest for potential biotechnological applications in lignocellulose degradation and development of pest-control measures. In this study the gut bacterial community of larvae and adults of A. chinensis, collected from different host trees in North Italy, was investigated by both culture and culture-independent methods. Larvae and adults harboured a moderately diverse bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae (genera Gibbsiella, Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella) was the best represented. The abundance of such bacteria in the insect gut is likely due to the various metabolic abilities of Enterobacteriaceae, including fermentation of carbohydrates derived from lignocellulose degradation and contribution to nitrogen intake by nitrogen-fixing activity. In addition, bacteria previously shown to have some lignocellulose-degrading activity were detected at a relatively low level in the gut. These bacteria possibly act synergistically with endogenous and fungal enzymes in lignocellulose breakdown. The detection of actinobacterial symbionts could be explained by a possible role in the detoxification of secondary plant metabolites and/or protection against pathogens.

  3. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Associated with Larvae and Adults of Anoplophora chinensis Collected in Italy by Culture and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Aurora; Crotti, Elena; Lupi, Daniela; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis Forster, native to China, has recently spread to North America and Europe causing serious damage to ornamental and forest trees. The gut microbial community associated with these xylophagous beetles is of interest for potential biotechnological applications in lignocellulose degradation and development of pest-control measures. In this study the gut bacterial community of larvae and adults of A. chinensis, collected from different host trees in North Italy, was investigated by both culture and culture-independent methods. Larvae and adults harboured a moderately diverse bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae (genera Gibbsiella, Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella) was the best represented. The abundance of such bacteria in the insect gut is likely due to the various metabolic abilities of Enterobacteriaceae, including fermentation of carbohydrates derived from lignocellulose degradation and contribution to nitrogen intake by nitrogen-fixing activity. In addition, bacteria previously shown to have some lignocellulose-degrading activity were detected at a relatively low level in the gut. These bacteria possibly act synergistically with endogenous and fungal enzymes in lignocellulose breakdown. The detection of actinobacterial symbionts could be explained by a possible role in the detoxification of secondary plant metabolites and/or protection against pathogens. PMID:24069601

  4. SINMAP Modeling of an active landslide area in the Swabian Alb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhorst, Birgit; Jaeger, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are a common hazard in German low mountain areas such as the Swabian Alb. As areas of former landslides are highly prone to secondary movements, this study aims to assess the susceptibility for landslide hazard around Mössingen-Öschingen, a region consistently affected by landslides during the last decades. Based on the history and development of mass movements and a detailed geomorphological map, slope stability was calculated using SINMAP (Stability Index Mapping). SINMAP (Pack et al., 1998; Tarboton, 1997) is based on the "infinite slope stability model" by Hammond et al. (1992) and Montgomery and Dietrich (1994) describing the ratio of slope stabilizing factors (e.g. cohesion) and slope destabilizing factors (e.g. gravitation) on a slip surface parallel to the slope. Most input parameters are determined by the relief and therefore, can be calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM, resolution 5 m). Based on the local morphology and geology, a total of 10 'calibration regions', each with similar hydrogeological characteristics, were defined. Further input parameters were: Shear strength via friction angle (Phi), cohesion (C) and hydraulic conductivity (T/R). The data was obtained from soil mechanical assessments and field/laboratory analyses. As a result, a specific stability index is calculated, describing the susceptibility of a slope movement. In a first step, the 'topographic wetness index' (derived from catchment area, slope gradient and hydraulic conductivity) was calculated. Results show several preferred (natural) drainage channels with generally higher water saturations in morphological depressions. Several of them can be linked to the location of damaged houses in the settlement area on the lower slope. The SINMAP calculation clearly revealed the impermeable Callovian clay layers as most prone to slope movements. A comparison of the susceptibility map with slide masses which were mapped during a field survey showed generally good

  5. Particles in a karstic spring, Swabian Alb: Physicochemical and hydraulic effects during a snow melt event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The studied karst spring 'Gallusquelle' is located on the Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. The catchment area of the 'Gallusquelle' measures about 45 km². An average annual discharge of 0.5 m³/s serves drinking water to about 40,000 people via a waterworks. The study is part of the research project 'AGRO' (www.projekt-agro.de). The main objective of the project 'AGRO' is to develop a tool for the process-based risk management of micropollutants and pathogens in rural karst aquifers on catchment scale. As particle related transport could play an important role for micropollutants and pathogens, the characterization of particles in the spring water is one focus of this work. Furthermore we will attempt to correlate physicochemical parameters with the characteristics of particles in the spring water in order to enhance the knowledge of the transport mechanisms within the karst aquifer. For the measurement of the particle concentration and the particle size distribution the CIS 1 (GALAI) was used. The system works in a range of 0.5 to 150 µm with a resolution of at least 0.5 µm. The measurement is based on time-of-transition method using a laser beam. The turbidity was measured with an ULTRATURB PLUS (DR.LANGE) and a Fluorometer (GGUN-FL30, ALBILLIA), both working with scattering light method. To verify these measurements we used a portable turbidimeter (2100P IS PORTABLE TURBIDIMETER, HACH) working with the ratio of the signals from the scattered and the transmitted light. Temperature and electrical conductivity where also measured with the GGUN-FL30, whereby the electrical conductivity was verified with a portable multimeter (HQ 40D, HACH). Discharge, pH, water hardness, anion- and cation concentration, total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also determined. To characterize the particles, the spring water was filtered onsite and the filter cake was analyzed in the laboratory. For SEM (scanning electron microscopy) including EDAX

  6. A GIS-based susceptibility map for landslides at the Franconian Alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Daniel; Wilde, Martina; Lorenz, Michael; Terhorst, Birgit; Neuhäuser, Bettina; Damm, Bodo; Bemm, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    In general, slopes of cuesta scarps like the Franconian Alb are highly prone to slide activity due to susceptible geological and geomorphological conditions. The geological setting with alternating permeable and non-permeable bedrock results in the characteristic cuesta landforms of almost flat backslopes and steeper front slopes. Furthermore, this bipartite structure leads to a strong disposition for mass movements. The slopes of the study area near the town of Ebermannstadt are affected by different types of mass movements, such as topples, slides, lateral spreads and flows, either in single or in combined occurrence. In the years 1625, 1957, 1961 and 1979, four large landslides took place in the area of Ebermannstadt, reaching close to the town limits and causing major destructions to traffic facilities. In the study area, slopes are covered by debris and slide masses, thus they are prone to remobilization and further mass movements. In order to assess hazardous areas, a GIS-based susceptibility modelling was generated for the study area. The susceptibtibility modeling was processed with the slope stability model SINMAP (Stability Index Mapping), developed by TARBOTON (1997) and PACK et al. (1999). As SINMAP was particularly designed to model shallow translational slides, it should be well designed for describing the conditions of the study area in a sufficient way. SINMAP is based on the "infinite slope stability model" by HAMMONT et al. (1992) and MONTGOMERY & DIETRICH (1994), which focuses on the relation of stabilizing (cohesiveness, friction angle) and destabilizing (gravitation) factors on a plain surface. By adding a slope gradient, as well as soil mechanical and climatical data, indices of slope stabilities are calculated. For a more detailed modeling of the slope conditions, SINMAP computes different "calibration regions", which merge similar parameters of soil, land-use, vegetation, and geology. Due to the fact that vegetation, land-use, and soils only

  7. Potential new associations of North American parasitoids with the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a polyphagous wood-boring insect native to Asia. Since it invaded North America in the 1990s, the beetle has been continuously targeted by quarantines and eradication programs in the United States and Canada. In the present st...

  8. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  9. Antiviral Activity of Bay 41-4109 on Hepatitis B Virus in Humanized Alb-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brezillon, Nicolas; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Lamant, Céline; DaSilva, Lucie; Berissi, Sophie; Belghiti, Jacques; Hannoun, Laurent; Puerstinger, Gherard; Wimmer, Eva; Neyts, Johan; Hantz, Olivier; Soussan, Patrick; Morosan, Serban; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC50 of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy. PMID:22162746

  10. Formation of Al/B4C Surface Nano-composite Layers on 7075 Al Alloy Employing Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani-Bozorg, S. F.; Jazayeri, K.

    2009-06-01

    Al/B4C surface nano-composite layers was achieved on commercial 7075 Al substrate employing friction stir processing technique. Agglomeration of B4C particles was occurred after a single pass. The dispersion of B4C particles was found to be affected by the number of FSP passes. A distribution of nano-size B4C particle was achieved after four passes. Moreover, the increasing in number of FSP passes causes a decreasing in matrix grain size of the surface nano-composite layer. The micro hardness of the surface nano-composite layer improves by almost two times as compared to that of the as-received substrate; this is attributed to the finer matrix grains and dispersion of nano-sized B4C particles.

  11. Multiband electronic transport in α-Yb1₋xSrx AlB4 [ x = 0, 0.19(3)] single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Bozin, Emil; ...

    2016-08-19

    Here we report on the evidence for the multiband electronic transport in α- YbAlB4 and α-Yb0.81(2)Sr0.19(3)AlB4. Multiband transport reveals itself below 10 K in both compounds via Hall effect measurements, whereas anisotropic magnetic ground state sets in below 3 K in α-Yb0.81(2)Sr0.19(3)AlB4. Our results show that Sr2+ substitution enhances conductivity, but does not change the quasiparticle mass of bands induced by heavy fermion hybridization.

  12. Applying the Power of Reticular Chemistry to Finding the Missing alb-MOF Platform Based on the (6,12)-Coordinated Edge-Transitive Net.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Weseliński, Łukasz J; Adil, Karim; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Jiang, Hao; Bhatt, Prashant M; Guillerm, Vincent; Dauzon, Emilie; Xue, Dong-Xu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Highly connected and edge-transitive nets are of prime importance in crystal chemistry and are regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report the design and synthesis of highly connected MOFs based on reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as double six-membered-ring (d6R) building unit, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal-prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminum diboride, hexagonal-prism and trigonal-prism). Decidedly, the combination of our recently isolated 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) nonanuclear [RE9(μ3-OH)12(μ3-O)2(O2C-)12] carboxylate-based cluster, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of hexagonal-prism d6R, with 4-connected (4-c) square porphyrinic tetracarboxylate ligand led to the formation of the targeted RE-shp-MOF. This is the first time that RE-MOFs based on 12-c molecular building blocks (MBBs), d6R building units, have been deliberately targeted and successfully isolated, paving the way for the long-awaited (6,12)-c MOF with alb topology. Indeed, combination of a custom-designed hexacarboxylate ligand with RE salts led to the formation of the first related alb-MOF, RE-alb-MOF. Intuitively, we successfully transplanted the alb topology to another chemical system and constructed the first indium-based alb-MOF, In-alb-MOF, by employing trinuclear [In3(μ3-O)(O2C-)6] as the requisite 6-connected trigonal-prism and purposely made a dodecacarboxylate ligand as a compatible 12-c MBB. Prominently, the dodecacarboxylate ligand was employed to transplant shp topology into copper-based MOFs by employing the copper paddlewheel [Cu2(O2C-)4] as the complementary square building unit, affording the first Cu-shp-MOF. We revealed that highly connected edge-transitive nets such shp and alb are ideal for topological transplantation and deliberate construction of related MOFs based on minimal edge-transitive nets.

  13. Interfacial properties and electron structure of Al/B4C interface: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Yajiang; Qiu, Ruizhi; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2016-09-01

    This research aims at investigating the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the Al (111)/B4C (0001) interface by first-principles calculations. This model geometry Al (111)/B4C (0001) is chosen because the close-packed planes of Al and B4C have the (111) and (0001) orientation, respectively, and the lattice mismatch is only ∼2.1%. Among four B4C (0001) surfaces with different terminations, our calculation of surface free energies predicted that C-terminated B4C (0001) surface is the most stable one. Relaxed atomic geometries, the work of adhesion and interfacial free energies were calculated for three C-terminated B4C (0001)/Al (111) interfaces with different stacking sequences (top-site, hollow-site, and bridge-site). Results reveal that the relaxed top-site (hollow-site-like) Al/B4C interface has the best adhesion force and also be the most stable. The interfacial electron structure including charge density difference, Bader charge and density of states (DOS) is analyzed to determine the nature of metal/carbide bonding and we find the formation of Alsbnd C bond and possibly the formation of Al4C3 in the interface.

  14. Relative importance of hydrolyzed Al(III) species (Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c)) during coagulation with polyaluminum chloride: a case study with the typical micro-polluted source waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; He, Wenjie; Chow, Christopher W K

    2007-12-15

    The relative importance of three different Al species, Al(a) (monomeric species, instantaneous reacted species), Al(b) (medium polymer species, reacted less than 120 min), and Al(c) (colloidal or solid species, no reaction), defined by timed complexation reaction rate measured by using ferron reagent in polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated in terms of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), UV(254), and turbidity removal efficiencies. Micro-polluted, typical North China, source waters were used to conduct the experiments. The results show that DOC removal is correlated well to the content of Al(b). Removal of UV(254) is determined by the content of Al(b) and Al(c), particularly Al(c). Turbidity removal is primarily related to the content of Al(c); however, Al(b) could destabilize particles efficiently, and the flocs formed by Al(b) are not as large as those formed by Al(c), which affected the settling efficiency. Unlike the preformed Al(b), the in situ formed Al(b) could remove turbidity more efficiently since Al(c) is the dominant final species formed during coagulation. Al(a) shows a strong ability to react with some unsatisfied coordinate bonds of organic matter to facilitate particle and DOC removal. The distinct coagulation feature of Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c) can be applied to develop tailor-made PACl (with the correct distribution of Al species) to match the characteristics of raw water for optimized coagulation.

  15. Multiple episodes of dolomitization and dolomite recrystallization during shallow burial in Upper Jurassic shelf carbonates: eastern Swabian Alb, southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, C.

    1998-10-01

    The Upper Jurassic of the eastern Swabian Alb is composed of oolitic platform sands with associated microbe-siliceous sponge mounds at the platform margins. They are surrounded by argillaceous or calcareous mudstones and marl-limestone alternations, deposited in adjacent marl basins. Partial to complete dolomitization is predominantly confined to the mound facies. Six types of dolomite, as well as one type of ankerite, document a complex diagenetic history during shallow burial with multiple episodes of dolomite formation and recrystallization. The earliest massive matrix dolomitization is Ca-rich, has slightly depleted oxygen isotope values relative to Late Jurassic seawater, and carbon isotopic values in equilibrium with Late Jurassic seawater. This initial massive matrix dolomitization occurred during latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous and is related to pressure dissolution during very shallow burial at temperatures of at least 50°C. Hydrologic conditions and mass-balance calculations indicate that burial compaction provided sufficient fluids for dolomitization. Mg is derived from negligibly modified seawater, that was expelled from the adjacent off-reef strata into the mound facies. Position of the mounds along the platform margins controlled the distribution of the shallow-burial dolomite. Covariant trends between textural modification, increasing stoichiometry, partial changes in trace element content (Mn, Fe, Sr) and depletion in stable isotopes as well as distinctive CL pattern illustrate two recrystallization phases of the precursor matrix dolomite during further burial at elevated temperatures. Strong Sr enrichment of the second phase of recrystallized dolomite is ascribed to Sr-rich meteoric waters descending from overlying aragonite-bearing reef limestones or evaporite-bearing peritidal carbonates. Late-stage coarsely crystalline dolomite cements occur as vug and fracture fillings and formed during burial. Ankerite, associated with sulphide and

  16. Anti-HCV therapies in chimeric scid-Alb/uPA mice parallel outcomes in human clinical application.

    PubMed

    Kneteman, Norman M; Weiner, Amy J; O'Connell, John; Collett, Marc; Gao, Tiejun; Aukerman, Lea; Kovelsky, Rosemary; Ni, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Qing; Hashash, Ahmad; Kline, Janine; Hsi, Belinda; Schiller, Daniel; Douglas, Donna; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Mercer, David F

    2006-06-01

    Compounds with in vitro anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity are often advanced directly into clinical trials with limited or no in vivo efficacy data. This limits prediction of clinical efficacy of compounds in the HCV drug pipeline, and may expose human subjects to unnecessary treatment effects. The scid-Alb-uPA mouse supports proliferation of transplanted human hepatocytes and subsequent HCV infection. Cohorts of genotype 1a HCV-infected mice were treated with interferon alpha-2b(IFN-alpha), BILN-2061 (anti-NS3 protease), or HCV371 (anti-NS5B polymerase). Mice treated with 1350 IU/g/day IFN-alpha intramuscularly for 10 to 28 days demonstrated reduced viral titers compared with controls in all five experiments (P < .05, t test); viral titers rebounded after treatment withdrawal. A more pronounced antiviral effect with IFN-alpha was seen in genotype 3a-infected mice. Pilot studies with BILN2061 confirmed exposure to 10X replicon EC50 at trough and reduced viral titer over 2 log at 4 days. In a second 7-day study, mean HCV RNA titers dropped 1.1 log in BILN2061-treated animals, 0.6 log in IFN-treated mice, and rose 0.2 log in controls (P = .013, ANOVA). Pre-existing mutants with partial resistance to BILN2061 were identified by sequencing both the human inoculum and sera from treated mice. The polymerase inhibitor HCV371 yielded a decline in HCV titers of 0.3 log relative to vehicle-treated controls (P = NS). Performance of all three antiviral regimens in the chimeric mouse model paralleled responses in humans. In conclusion, this system may help selection of lead compounds for advancement into human trials with an increased likelihood of clinical success while broadening the tools available for study of the biology of HCV infection.

  17. Genetic variations of CYP2B6 gene were associated with plasma BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxiang; Guo, Huan; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-06-20

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the main components of coke oven emissions, can induce activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which metabolize PAHs and result in DNA damage by forming adducts. This study was designed to know whether genetic variants of CYP genes are associated with plasma benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage in coke oven workers. In this study, 298 workers were divided into four groups according to the environmental PAHs exposure levels. The concentrations of plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were detected by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and the DNA damage levels were measured using comet assay. Twelve tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) of 4 CYP genes were selected and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In the top group, workers with CYP2B6 rs3760657GA genotype have lower BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels than those with rs3760657GG genotype (P<0.05). In the control group, the DNA damage levels of subjects with CYP1A1 rs4646421AA or GA+AA genotypes were lower than those with GG genotype (P<0.05). However, no such effects were shown for the other tagSNPs. These results suggested that genetic variations of CYP2B6 might be associated with low BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels in worker with high exposure to PAHs.

  18. Data management with a landslide inventory of the Franconian Alb (Germany) using a spatial database and GIS tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemm, Stefan; Sandmeier, Christine; Wilde, Martina; Jaeger, Daniel; Schwindt, Daniel; Terhorst, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    The area of the Swabian-Franconian cuesta landscape (Southern Germany) is highly prone to landslides. This was apparent in the late spring of 2013, when numerous landslides occurred as a consequence of heavy and long-lasting rainfalls. The specific climatic situation caused numerous damages with serious impact on settlements and infrastructure. Knowledge on spatial distribution of landslides, processes and characteristics are important to evaluate the potential risk that can occur from mass movements in those areas. In the frame of two projects about 400 landslides were mapped and detailed data sets were compiled during years 2011 to 2014 at the Franconian Alb. The studies are related to the project "Slope stability and hazard zones in the northern Bavarian cuesta" (DFG, German Research Foundation) as well as to the LfU (The Bavarian Environment Agency) within the project "Georisks and climate change - hazard indication map Jura". The central goal of the present study is to create a spatial database for landslides. The database should contain all fundamental parameters to characterize the mass movements and should provide the potential for secure data storage and data management, as well as statistical evaluations. The spatial database was created with PostgreSQL, an object-relational database management system and PostGIS, a spatial database extender for PostgreSQL, which provides the possibility to store spatial and geographic objects and to connect to several GIS applications, like GRASS GIS, SAGA GIS, QGIS and GDAL, a geospatial library (Obe et al. 2011). Database access for querying, importing, and exporting spatial and non-spatial data is ensured by using GUI or non-GUI connections. The database allows the use of procedural languages for writing advanced functions in the R, Python or Perl programming languages. It is possible to work directly with the (spatial) data entirety of the database in R. The inventory of the database includes (amongst others

  19. Sintering Behavior of Al/B4C-AlB12-Al2O3 Nanostructure Composite Synthesized by In Situ Processing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Omid; Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Reza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this article is to study the effect of time and temperature of sintering on the properties and microstructure of Al/B4C-AlB12-Al2O3 nanocomposite synthesized via in situ processing method. In this method, a mixture of Al-B2O3-C, as starting materials, was activated and reacted in a planetary ball mill under Argon atmosphere. The phase analysis, morphology, and particles size were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The composite powders were compressed with uniaxial cold press and then were sintered at different temperatures (470-600 °C) for various times (30-90 min). The density, hardness, and compressive strength of sintered samples were investigated. The results revealed that by increasing the sintering temperature and sintering time, both hardness and compaction strength of nanocomposite reach to maximum at 560 °C. The results showed that the sample sintered at 560 °C for 90 min had highest sintered density (≈2590 kg/m3) and highest hardness value of ~88 BHN with compaction strength of ~313 MPa. Nanosize and homogeneous distribution of in situ formed ceramic particles were observed in the synthesized composite.

  20. Fitness of wAlbB Wolbachia Infection in Aedes aegypti: Parameter Estimates in an Outcrossed Background and Potential for Population Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Axford, Jason K.; Ross, Perran A.; Yeap, Heng Lin; Callahan, Ashley G.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts are potentially useful tools for suppressing disease transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes because Wolbachia can interfere with the transmission of dengue and other viruses as well as causing deleterious effects on their mosquito hosts. Most recent research has focused on the wMel infection, but other infections also influence viral transmission and may spread in natural populations. Here, we focus on the wAlbB infection in an Australian outbred background and show that this infection has many features that facilitate its invasion into natural populations including strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a lack of effect on larval development, an equivalent mating success to uninfected males and perfect maternal transmission fidelity. On the other hand, the infection has deleterious effects when eggs are held in a dried state, falling between wMel and the more virulent wMelPop Wolbachia strains. The impact of this infection on lifespan also appears to be intermediate, consistent with the observation that this infection has a titer in adults between wMel and wMelPop. Population cage experiments indicate that the wAlbB infection establishes in cages when introduced at a frequency of 22%, suggesting that this strain could be successfully introduced into populations and subsequently persist and spread. PMID:26711515

  1. Identical superconducting gap on different Fermi surfaces of Ca(Al0.5Si0.5)2 with the AlB2 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, S.; Yokoya, T.; Shin, S.; Imai, M.; Hase, I.

    2004-03-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of Ca(Al0.5Si0.5)2 (CaAlSi), which is a superconductor (transition temperature is 7.7 K) with the AlB2 structure, revealed that superconducting gaps on two Fermi surfaces (FSs) with three-dimensional character around Γ(A) and M(L) in the Brillouin zone provide essentially the same superconducting gap value (˜1.2 meV±0.2 meV). This is in contrast to the case of MgB2, in which different FSs exhibit different gap values. The reduced gap value 2Δ(0)/kBTc of ˜4.2±0.2 classifies CaAlSi as a moderately strong-coupling superconductor.

  2. What Students and Researchers in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Should Know about PUS and STS: A Look at Fages and Albe's Viewpoint on Social Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Master's Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in order to pursue the conversation begun by Fages and Albe ("Cult Stud Sci Educ" 2014), I highlight three conceptual contributions that could be made by familiarizing nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers and engineers with the work being carried out in science and technology studies and public understanding of…

  3. A cyanobacterial chlorophyll synthase-HliD complex associates with the Ycf39 protein and the YidC/Alb3 insertase.

    PubMed

    Chidgey, Jack W; Linhartová, Markéta; Komenda, Josef; Jackson, Philip J; Dickman, Mark J; Canniffe, Daniel P; Koník, Peter; Pilný, Jan; Hunter, C Neil; Sobotka, Roman

    2014-03-01

    Macromolecular membrane assemblies of chlorophyll-protein complexes efficiently harvest and trap light energy for photosynthesis. To investigate the delivery of chlorophylls to the newly synthesized photosystem apoproteins, a terminal enzyme of chlorophyll biosynthesis, chlorophyll synthase (ChlG), was tagged in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and used as bait in pull-down experiments. We retrieved an enzymatically active complex comprising ChlG and the high-light-inducible protein HliD, which associates with the Ycf39 protein, a putative assembly factor for photosystem II, and with the YidC/Alb3 insertase. 2D electrophoresis and immunoblotting also provided evidence for the presence of SecY and ribosome subunits. The isolated complex contained chlorophyll, chlorophyllide, and carotenoid pigments. Deletion of hliD elevated the level of the ChlG substrate, chlorophyllide, more than 6-fold; HliD is apparently required for assembly of FLAG-ChlG into larger complexes with other proteins such as Ycf39. These data reveal a link between chlorophyll biosynthesis and the Sec/YidC-dependent cotranslational insertion of nascent photosystem polypeptides into membranes. We expect that this close physical linkage coordinates the arrival of pigments and nascent apoproteins to produce photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes with minimal risk of accumulating phototoxic unbound chlorophylls.

  4. Effect of host tree species on cellulase activity and bacterial community composition in the gut of larval Asian longhorned beetle.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria Del Mar; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2009-06-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis, the Asian longhorned beetle, is a wood-boring insect that can develop in a wide range of healthy deciduous hosts and requires gut microbes to aid in wood degradation and digestion. Here we show that larval A. glabripennis harbor a diverse gut bacterial community, and this community can be extremely variable when reared in different host trees. A. glabripennis reared in a preferred host (Acer saccharum) had the highest gut bacterial diversity compared with larvae reared either in a secondary host (Quercus palustris), a resistant host (Pyrus calleryana), or on artificial diet. The gut microbial community of larval A. glabripennis collected from field populations on Brooklyn, NY, showed the highest degree of complexity among all samples in this study. Overall, when larvae fed on a preferred host, they harbored a broad diversity of gut bacteria spanning the alpha-, beta-, gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Cellulase activities (beta-1,4-endoglucanase, beta-1,4-exoglucanase, and beta-1,4-glucosidase) in the guts of larvae fed in a preferred host (A. saccharum) or a secondary host (Q. palustris) were significantly higher than that of artificial diet fed larvae. Larvae that fed on wood from a resistant host (P. calleryana) showed suppressed total gut cellulase activity. Results show that the host tree can impact both gut microbial community complexity and cellulase activity in A. glabripennis.

  5. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  6. Worldwide Asian longhorned beetle eradication: An example of biological applications of noncontact microwave and ultrasound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Mary R.

    Destructive pests such as the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motsch.) (ALB) can be transported around the world via wooden packing materials used in pallets and crates, placing urban and forest resources at grave risk. A potential nondestructive technique to detect pest infestations in wooden packing materials is noncontact ultrasound technology. Noncontact ultrasound (100 kHz to 500 kHz) detection of living larvae in wood was found to be unfeasible due to inference of transmission by the tunnel air/wood interfaces in the wood. However, 100 kHz, 200 kHz, and 500 kHz ultrasound transmission through 1-in. thick wood samples of any orientation was possible. C-scan images (200 kHz) showed the location of holes drilled inside the wood and movement of a larva placed on top of the wood. The use of microwave energy to treat these wooden packing materials in the source country before transport to eradicate wood-boring pests infesting these materials was also investigated. Destruction of pests infesting wooden packing materials is required by international guidelines. Eradication of cerambycid larval infestations in laboratory-size pine and poplar lumber less than 6-in. thick (volume of 216 in3) was shown to be feasible using 2.45 GHz microwave energy. Five minutes of 1100 W radiation produced 100% mortality of cottonwood borer and ALB infestations in red pine, eastern white pine, loblolly pine, and aspen samples with moisture contents ranging from 30% to 130% of dry weight. The parameters of importance for scale up to commercial size loads include wood moisture content and energy to wood volume ratios. Lethal doses of 2.45 GHz microwave energy increased as wood moisture content increased. The proposed optimal energy to volume ratio for up to 78% moisture content wood samples is 2,812.5 J/in3. Total insect mortality occurred for all three time/power combinations (1000 W for 3 minutes, 2000 W for 1.5 minutes, or 3000 W for 1 minute) tested. Industry

  7. Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Filley, Timothy R; Hatcher, Patrick G; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria del Mar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Sleighter, Rachel L; Tien, Ming

    2008-09-02

    The aromatic polymer lignin protects plants from most forms of microbial attack. Despite the fact that a significant fraction of all lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. Using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, we show lignin degradation by two insect species, the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and the Pacific dampwood termite (Zootermopsis angusticollis). In both the beetle and termite, significant levels of propyl side-chain oxidation (depolymerization) and demethylation of ring methoxyl groups is detected; for the termite, ring hydroxylation is also observed. In addition, culture-independent fungal gut community analysis of A. glabripennis identified a single species of fungus in the Fusarium solani/Nectria haematococca species complex. This is a soft-rot fungus that may be contributing to wood degradation. These results transform our understanding of lignin degradation by wood-feeding insects.

  8. Synthesis, structure and research on quasi-aromaticity of a new organically templated aluminoborate: [NH0.5C4H4NH0.5][AlB12O14(OH)12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, HengBin; Chen, XiangYi; Deng, Song; Cai, Feng; Sun, YanQiong; Chen, YiPing

    2012-02-01

    By employing hydrothermal method, we identify a new organically templated aluminoborate [NH0.5C4H4NH0.5][AlB12O14(OH)12] which is structurally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and characterized by simulated and experimental IR, 2D IR COS (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy), NICS (nucleus-independent chemical shifts) and Mulliken charges calculations. Although the cluster anions [AlB12O14(OH)12]- is identical to the counterpart of compound reported by Lin et al. at 2008, we firstly bring up its quasi-aromaticity, discuss and confirm it by NICS, Mulliken charges calculations and magnetic-induced 2D IR COS, and conclude that three isolated and non-coplanar four-center six-electron π bonds of cluster could cooperate and interact with each other to form a closed conjugated large π orbital system, endowing the cluster anions with quasi-aromaticity. Thus, a one-dimensional chain is constructed by π-π stacked interaction between quasi-aromatic clusters and aromatic pyrazine along [1 0¯ 1] direction. The title compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 18.397(4), b = 12.0670(16), c = 11.075(2) Å, α = 90.00, β = 116.483(11), γ = 90.00°, Z = 4, V = 2200.6(7) Å, R = 0.0442 and wR = 0.1128 for 2689 observed reflections.

  9. What students and researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology should know about PUS and STS: a look at Fages and Albe's viewpoint on social issues in nanoscience and nanotechnology Master's degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, in order to pursue the conversation begun by Fages and Albe (Cult Stud Sci Educ 2014), I highlight three conceptual contributions that could be made by familiarizing nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers and engineers with the work being carried out in science and technology studies and public understanding of science. First, it would allow them to become acquainted with less naive conceptualizations of the capacities of citizens. Second, it would help them to consider the nature and role of scientific expertise from richer, more nuanced and less stereotypical conceptual angles. Third and lastly, it would allow future researchers and engineers to become familiar with different models of interaction between citizens, scientists and decision.

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of La21Cr8−2aAlbGe7−bC12 [a = 0.22 (2) and b = 0.758 (19)

    PubMed Central

    Pabla, Jaskarun; Janssen, Yuri; Simonson, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of a new multinary chromium carbide, La21Cr8−2aAlbGe7−bC12 (henicosa­lanthanum octa­chromium aluminium hexa­germanium dodeca­carbide), were grown from an La-rich self flux and were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The face-centered cubic crystal structure is composed of isolated and geometrically frustrated regular Cr tetra­hedra that are co-centered within regular C octa­hedra. These mutually separated Cr4−aC6 clusters are distributed throughout a three-dimensional framework of Al, Ge, and La. The title compound is isotypic with La21−δMn8 X 7C12 and R 21Fe8 X 7C12 (R = La, Ce, Pr; X = Al, Bi, Ge, Sn, Sb, Te) and represents the first example of a Cr-based compound with this structure-type. PMID:27840709

  11. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M11–xM2xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure

    PubMed Central

    Alling, B.; Högberg, H.; Armiento, R.; Rosen, J.; Hultman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M11–xM2xB2 alloys comprising MiB2 (Mi = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1–xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2. PMID:25970763

  12. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M11-xM2xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, B.; Högberg, H.; Armiento, R.; Rosen, J.; Hultman, L.

    2015-05-01

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M11-xM2xB2 alloys comprising MiB2 (Mi = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

  13. Targeting on the ALB-F Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    DFSCOORD informed, and recommends changes to priorities and attack means. o Coordinates between the CTOCSE and the TCAE to ensure potential targets are... TCAE via the division EW composite target list of the electronic warfare requesting/tasking message (EWRTM). 33 o Receives a summary of EW missions from...the electronic warfare mission summary report form the tactical control and analysis element ( TCAE ). The G3 air responsibilities include: o Advises

  14. An Experimental Investigation of Effects of Fluxes (Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6), Element Alloys (Mg), and Composite Powders ((Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP) on Distribution of Particles and Phases in Al-B4C and Al-TiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Younes; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Meratian, Mahmood; Zarchi, Mehdi Karimi

    2017-04-01

    The wettability, incorporation, and gravity segregation of TiC and B4C particles into molten aluminum are important problems in the production of Al-TiC and Al-B4C composites by the casting techniques. In order to solve these problems, different methods consisting of adding the Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6 fluxes and Mg (as the alloying element) into the molten aluminum and injection of the (Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP composite powders instead of B4C and TiC particles are evaluated. In this work, the conditions of sample preparation, such as particle addition temperature, stirring speed, and stirring time, are determined after many studies and tests. Microstructural characterizations of samples are investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The results show better distribution and incorporation of TiCp and B4Cp in aluminum matrix when the fluxes are used, as well as EDS analysis of the interface between the matrix and reinforcement-strengthened formation of the different phases such as Al4C3 in the Al-TiC composites and Al3BC, TiB2 in the Al-B4C composites.

  15. An Experimental Investigation of Effects of Fluxes (Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6), Element Alloys (Mg), and Composite Powders ((Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP) on Distribution of Particles and Phases in Al-B4C and Al-TiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Younes; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Meratian, Mahmood; Zarchi, Mehdi Karimi

    2017-01-01

    The wettability, incorporation, and gravity segregation of TiC and B4C particles into molten aluminum are important problems in the production of Al-TiC and Al-B4C composites by the casting techniques. In order to solve these problems, different methods consisting of adding the Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6 fluxes and Mg (as the alloying element) into the molten aluminum and injection of the (Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP composite powders instead of B4C and TiC particles are evaluated. In this work, the conditions of sample preparation, such as particle addition temperature, stirring speed, and stirring time, are determined after many studies and tests. Microstructural characterizations of samples are investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The results show better distribution and incorporation of TiCp and B4Cp in aluminum matrix when the fluxes are used, as well as EDS analysis of the interface between the matrix and reinforcement-strengthened formation of the different phases such as Al4C3 in the Al-TiC composites and Al3BC, TiB2 in the Al-B4C composites.

  16. A Computer Model of Insect Traps in a Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Hall, Brian; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-11-01

    Attractant-based trap networks are important elements of invasive insect detection, pest control, and basic research programs. We present a landscape-level, spatially explicit model of trap networks, focused on detection, that incorporates variable attractiveness of traps and a movement model for insect dispersion. We describe the model and validate its behavior using field trap data on networks targeting two species, Ceratitis capitata and Anoplophora glabripennis. Our model will assist efforts to optimize trap networks by 1) introducing an accessible and realistic mathematical characterization of the operation of a single trap that lends itself easily to parametrization via field experiments and 2) allowing direct quantification and comparison of sensitivity between trap networks. Results from the two case studies indicate that the relationship between number of traps and their spatial distribution and capture probability under the model is qualitatively dependent on the attractiveness of the traps, a result with important practical consequences.

  17. A computer model of insect traps in a landscape.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Hall, Brian; Geib, Scott M

    2014-11-12

    Attractant-based trap networks are important elements of invasive insect detection, pest control, and basic research programs. We present a landscape-level, spatially explicit model of trap networks, focused on detection, that incorporates variable attractiveness of traps and a movement model for insect dispersion. We describe the model and validate its behavior using field trap data on networks targeting two species, Ceratitis capitata and Anoplophora glabripennis. Our model will assist efforts to optimize trap networks by 1) introducing an accessible and realistic mathematical characterization of the operation of a single trap that lends itself easily to parametrization via field experiments and 2) allowing direct quantification and comparison of sensitivity between trap networks. Results from the two case studies indicate that the relationship between number of traps and their spatial distribution and capture probability under the model is qualitatively dependent on the attractiveness of the traps, a result with important practical consequences.

  18. A Computer Model of Insect Traps in a Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Hall, Brian; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Attractant-based trap networks are important elements of invasive insect detection, pest control, and basic research programs. We present a landscape-level, spatially explicit model of trap networks, focused on detection, that incorporates variable attractiveness of traps and a movement model for insect dispersion. We describe the model and validate its behavior using field trap data on networks targeting two species, Ceratitis capitata and Anoplophora glabripennis. Our model will assist efforts to optimize trap networks by 1) introducing an accessible and realistic mathematical characterization of the operation of a single trap that lends itself easily to parametrization via field experiments and 2) allowing direct quantification and comparison of sensitivity between trap networks. Results from the two case studies indicate that the relationship between number of traps and their spatial distribution and capture probability under the model is qualitatively dependent on the attractiveness of the traps, a result with important practical consequences. PMID:25388652

  19. Airland Battlefield Environment (ALBE) Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) Demonstration Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-12

    verification, database storage and retrieval, simultaneous user procedures, and twenty standard map projections. The AMS software is menu driven, with...control, and .na data storage and description MOSSANALYSIS - extracticn and croductlcn of inlcrmat-on from exlstinr na data, usuadly resulting in a new...map .T- general hsekeepii and display cf map files MSS data is stored a: binary’, MOSS format. Polygon information s Freser;ed, with d’"c:ite storage

  20. POTENTIAL EFFECT OF ANPLOPHORA GLABRIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE) ON URBAN TREES IN THE UNITED STATES. (R825792)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Complete coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Monochamus alternatus hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Ye; Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope, 1842, an important forest pest, mainly occurs in Far East. It is the main vector of pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which causes pine wilt disease. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome coding region of M. alternatus using long PCR and conserved primer walking. Our results show that the entire mitogenome coding region is 14,649 bp long, with 78.22% A+T content [deposited in GenBank (JX987292)]. Positions and arrangement of the 37 genes encoded by the coding region are identical to those of two other longhorn beetles (Psacothea hilaris and Anoplophora glabripennis) for which the complete gene content and arrangement are known. All protein-coding genes start with a typical initiation codon ATN in insects. All tRNAs show standard clover-leaf structure, except the tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacks dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The most unusual feature found is the use of TCT as tRNA(Ser) (AGN) anticodon instead of GCT, which is used in most other arthropods. This provides further insights into the diversity and evolution of the Cerambycidae family of long-horned beetles.

  2. Genetic Population Structure of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) From Different Long-Horned Beetle Hosts Based on Complete Sequences of Mitochondrial COI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengqing; Chang, Yong; Li, Menglou

    2017-03-03

    Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of long-horned beetles in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, the genetic sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit Ι was used to investigate the genetics and relationships within and among D. helophoroides populations collected from five different geographic locations. We used principal component analysis, heatmap, and Venn diagram results to determine the relationship between haplotypes and populations. In total, 26 haplotypes with 51 nucleotide polymorphic sites were defined, and low genetic diversity was found among the different populations. Significant genetic variations were observed mainly within populations, and no correlation was found between genetic distribution and geographical distance. Low pairwise fixation index values (-0.01424 to 0.04896) and high gene flows show that there was high gene exchange between populations. The codistributed haplotype DH01 was suggested to be the most ancestral haplotype, and other haplotypes were thought to have evolved from it through several mutations. In four of the populations, both common haplotypes (DH01, DH03, and DH22) and unique haplotypes were found. Low genetic diversity among different populations is related to a relatively high flight capacity, host movement, and human-aided dispersal of D. helophoroides. The high gene exchange and typically weak population genetic structure among five populations, especially among populations of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), Monochamus alternatus (Hope), and Massicus raddei (Blessig), may suggest that these populations cross naturally in the field.

  3. Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuezhu; Gao, Jingkun; Li, Fei; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-05-30

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements has been recognized to be a major force driving genomic variation and biological innovation of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanisms of HT in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. The non-autonomous Helitron family, Lep1, has been found to be widespread in lepidopteran species, and showed little interspecific sequence similarity of acquired sequences at 3' end, which makes Lep1 a good candidate for the study of HT. In this study, we describe the Lep1-like elements in multiple non-lepidopteran species, including two aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii, two parasitoid wasps, Cotesia vestalis, and Copidosoma floridanum, one beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, as well as two bracoviruses in parasitoid wasps, and one intracellular microsporidia parasite, Nosema bombycis. The patchy distribution and high sequence similarity of Lep1-like elements among distantly related lineages as well as incongruence of Lep1-like elements and host phylogeny suggest the occurrence of HT. Remarkably, the acquired sequences of both NbLep1 from N. bombycis and CfLep1 from C. floridanum showed over 90% identity with their lepidopteran host Lep1. Thus, our study provides evidence of HT facilitated by host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, in the context of these data, we discuss the putative directions and vectors of HT of Lep1 Helitrons.

  4. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm imidacloprid, 68% of reproductively mature mated beetles survived 21 d and 56% of unmated recently eclosed beetles survived 42 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm, beetles ingested an average of 30 nanograms of imidacloprid per day. Bark consumption was reduced at higher imidacloprid levels (> 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  5. Is There a requirement for Heavy Mortars in Airland Battle Future (ALB- F)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-09

    ineffective the heavy mortars are in a fast -moving battle fought at the NTC, if they managed to get into the fight at all. Reports indicate that the heavy...Army Operational Concept," Final Draft, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth, KS. 10 January 1989. Forword . 2. Ibid. pp. D1-D3. 3. Ibid

  6. New Results on the Palaeobiology of Bears on the Swabian Alb (Chronology, Isotopic Geochemistry and Palaeogenetics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzel, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Paleogenetic investigations at three geographically close caves in the Ach Valley near Blaubeuren have revealed two different cave bear haplogroups. These two haplogroups correspond to Ursus spelaeus (haplogroup 1) and Ursus ingressus (haplogroup 4) (Rabeder & Hofreiter 2004, Die Höhle 55, 58-77). This genetic variability was first attested for Geißenklösterle and Sirgenstein cave, but the new genetic data attest them also for Hohle Fels. In all three caves Ursus ingressus replaced Ursus spelaeus around 28 000 B.P. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes of the two genetic types do not vary significantly, meaning that there is no dietary difference between them and Ursus spelaeus were in dietary competition with Ursus ingressus in the Ach valley. The radiocarbon dates suggested a sudden replacement (Hofreiter et al. 2007, Current Biology 17(4): R1-R3), which must have been accompanied by local extinction of the older cave bear, according to the dietary competition with the younger bear. The possible reasons for this replacement are not clear yet. Climatic changes are unlikely, since the faunal composition remains the same and the environmental data do not differ significantly. But we cannot exclude human impact on the cave bear population, since a cave bear vertebra with an embedded fragment of a flint projectile was recovered in the Gravettian layer AH IIcf dated to 27 830+150-140 B.P. and gives indisputable proof of the hunting of cave bears. Numerous cut marks proof an ongoing exploitation of this species. In this context, new radiocarbon dates and isotopic results on cave bears and coeval brown bears will help us to refine the possible scenarios of this complex evolutionary and ecological process. These results will be used to test hypotheses of competitive exclusion between the different bear species. This study will exemplify how combining evidence from different approaches can provide invaluable clues about palaeobiology of late Pleistocene large mammals such as fossil bears in Europe.

  7. Materials Data on AlB2 (SG:191) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-07-14

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. The Air-Launched Balloon System (ALBS) Development Program, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    inert " yarn " which had been placed in some of the lines by the con- tractor to eliminate thermal oscillation. About two weeks were devoted by NBS and...modified struts 206 916.3 Plywood for upper frame (includes fasteners) 140 622.7 Crushable padding used in upper frame ( spacers ) 15 66.7 Two-ft flanged

  9. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness Evaluation of an Investment Cast Al-Be Alloy for Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.; McGill, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum-Beryllium metal matrix composite materials are useful due to their desirable performance characteristics for aerospace applications. Desirable characteristics of this material includes light-weight, dimensional stability, stiffness, good vibration damping characteristics, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and workability, This material is 3.5 times stiffer and 22% lighter than conventional aluminum alloys. electro-optical systems, advanced sensor and guidance components for flight and satellite systems, components for light-weight high-performance aircraft engines, and structural components for helicopters. Aluminum-beryllium materials are now available in the form of near net shape investment castings. In this materials properties characterization study, the cryogenic tensile and fracture properties of an investment casting alloy, Beralcast 363, were determined. Tensile testing was performed at 21 C (70 F), -73.3 C (-100 F), -195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F), and fracture (K(sub lc) and da/dN) testing was performed at -73.3 C (-100 F), -195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F). Their use is attractive for weight critical structural applications such as advanced

  10. Determination of Optimum Cutting Parameters for Surface Roughness in Turning AL-B4C Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channabasavaraja, H. K.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Srinivasan, D.

    2016-09-01

    Many materials such as alloys, composites find their applications on the basis of machinability, cost and availability. In the present work, machinability of Aluminium 1100 and Boron carbide (AL+ B4C) composite material is examined by using lathe tool dynometers (BANKA Lathe) by varying the cutting parameters like spindle speed, Depth of cut and Feed rate in 3 levels. Also, surface roughness is measured against the weight % of reinforcement in the composite (0, 4 and 8 %). From the study it is observed that the hardness of a composite material increases with increase in weight % of reinforcement material (B4C) by 26.27 and 66.7 % respectively. The addition of reinforcement materials influences the machinability. The cutting force in both X and Z direction were also found increment with the reinforcement percentage.

  11. Materials Data on Mg2AlB2Ir5 (SG:127) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-08-24

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 Applied in Hydromulch for Control of Asian Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Goble, Tarryn A; Hajek, Ann E; Jackson, Mark A; Gardescu, Sana

    2015-04-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia (hyphal aggregates). Microsclerotia of strain F52 produced as granules and incorporated into hydromulch (hydro-seeding straw, water, and a natural glue) provides a novel mycoinsecticide that could be sprayed onto urban, forest, or orchard trees. We tested this formulation against adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) using three substrates (moistened bark, dry bark, absorbent bench liner) sprayed with a low rate (9 microsclerotia granules/cm2) of hydromulch. Median survival times of beetles continuously exposed to sprayed moist bark or absorbent liner were 17.5 and 19.5 d, respectively. Beetles exposed to sprayed dry bark, which had a lower measured water activity, lived significantly longer. When moist bark pieces were sprayed with increased rates of microsclerotia granules in hydromulch, 50% died by 12.5 d at the highest application rate, significantly sooner than beetles exposed to lower application rates (16.5-17.5 d). To measure fecundity effects, hydromulch with or without microsclerotia was sprayed onto small logs and pairs of beetles were exposed for a 2-wk oviposition period in containers with 98 or 66% relative humidity. At 98% humidity, oviposition in the logs was highest for controls (18.3±1.4 viable offspring per female) versus 3.9±0.8 for beetles exposed to microsclerotia. At 66% humidity, fecundities of controls and beetles exposed to microsclerotia were not significantly different. This article presents the first evaluation of M. brunneum microsclerotia in hydromulch applied for control of an arboreal insect pest.

  13. PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY CORRELATION IN Al-B4C SURFACE COMPOSITE PRODUCED VIA FRICTION STIR PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Komarasamy, Mageshwari; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Baumann, John A.; Grant, Glenn J.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2013-01-29

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to prepare surface composites (SC) composed of B4C particles in 5024 Al matrix. The processing parameters, such as hole pattern and geometry,and the number of FSP passes, were optimized to obtain uniform powder distribution. The micrographs revealed a homogeneous distribution of the particles with good interfacial bonding. The hardness of the composite was uniform across the processed region which again indicates the uniformity of powder distribution. The modulus of the surface composite was measured using strain gage and showed a significant improvement. This improvement in modulus lies in the load sharing capability from the soft matrix to the hard particles.

  14. Selective Reduction of CO2 to CH4 by Tandem Hydrosilylation with Mixed Al/B Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiawei; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2016-04-27

    This contribution reports the first example of highly selective reduction of CO2 into CH4 via tandem hydrosilylation with mixed main-group organo-Lewis acid (LA) catalysts [Al(C6F5)3 + B(C6F5)3] {[Al] + [B]}. As shown by this comprehensive experimental and computational study, in this unique tandem catalytic process, [Al] effectively mediates the first step of the overall reduction cycle, namely the fixation of CO2 into HCOOSiEt3 (1) via the LA-mediated C═O activation, while [B] is incapable of promoting the same transformation. On the other hand, [B] is shown to be an excellent catalyst for the subsequent reduction steps 2-4, namely the hydrosilylation of the more basic intermediates [1 to H2C(OSiEt3)2 (2) to H3COSiEt3 (3) and finally to CH4] through the frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-type Si-H activation. Hence, with the required combination of [Al] and [B], a highly selective hydrosilylative reduction of CO2 system has been developed, achieving high CH4 production yield up to 94%. The remarkably different catalytic behaviors between [Al] and [B] are attributed to the higher overall Lewis acidity of [Al] derived from two conflicting factors (electronic and steric effects), which renders the higher tendency of [Al] to form stable [Al]-substrate (intermediate) adducts with CO2 as well as subsequent intermediates 1, 2, and 3. Overall, the roles of [Al] and [B] are not only complementary but also synergistic in the total reduction of CO2, which render both [Al]-mediated first reduction step and [B]-mediated subsequent steps catalytic.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF Al-Be ALLOYS WITH Y, La AND Ce ADDITIVES UP TO 33.3 AT. %,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    resemble each other and differ from the Ce-Be-Al system in the character of the phase equilibrium, whereas the La-Be-Al and Ce-Be-Al compounds are more closely related in the type of crystalline structure which forms. (Author)

  16. Ischemia-modified albümin and malondialdehyde levels in patients with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism: effects of treatment on oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Erem, Cihangir; Suleyman, Akile Karacin; Civan, Nadim; Mentese, Ahmet; Nuhoglu, İrfan; Uzun, Aysegul; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Deger, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with OHyper and SHyper, to assess the effects of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy on the oxidative stress (OS) parameters. Forty-five untreated patients with overt hyperthyroidism (OHyper), 20 untreated patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were prospectively included in the study. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were evaluated in all patients before and after treatment. Compared with the control subjects, the levels of MDA, glucose and TG were significantly increased in patients with SHyper (p<0.05), whereas LDL-C levels were significantly decreased (p<0.01). Patients with OHyper showed significantly elevated MDA and glucose levels (p<0.001) and significantly decreased LDL-C and HDL-C levels compared with the controls (p<0.01). In patients with Graves' disease, serum TSH levels were inversely correlated with plasma MDA levels (r: -0.42, p<0.05). Plasma MDA levels significantly decreased and levels of TC, LDL-C and HDL-C significantly increased in the groups of OHyper and SHyper after treatment. Serum IMA levels did not significantly change at baseline and with the therapy in all subjects. In conclusion, increased MDA levels in both patient groups represent increased lipid peroxidation which might play an important role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis in these patients. Increased oxidative stress in patients with SHyper and OHyper could be improved by ATD therapy. Also, MDA can be used as a reliable marker of OS and oxidative damage, while IMA is considered to be inappropriate.

  17. Nonlinear relationship between the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response and the Al/B ratio in a soda-lime aluminoborosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of A1/B ratio on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response. In an aluminoborosilicate soda-lime glass based on a modified International Simple Glass, ISG-3, the A1/B ratio varied from 0 to 0.55 (in mole fractions). In agreement with various models of the PCT response as a function of glass composition, we observed a monotonic increase of B and Na releases with decreasing A1/B mole ratio, but only when the ratio was higher than 0.05. Below this value (A1/B < 0.05), we observed a sharp decrease that we attribute to B in tetrahedral coordination.

  18. Persistent Infection by Wolbachia wAlbB Has No Effect on Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Adult Female Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao; Joshi, Deepak; Xi, Zhiyong; Norman, Beth; Walker, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6.4%) and Pseudomonas (6.0%), or unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (37.2%). Bacterial communities were similar between Wolbachia-cured and Wolbachia-infected mosquito lines, indicating that the gut microbiota were not dysregulated in the presence of Wolbachia. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in mosquitoes fed a blood meal compared to those provided a sugar meal. Collectively, the bacterial community had a similar structure in older Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes 8 days after the blood meal, as in younger Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes before a blood meal, except that older mosquitoes had a higher proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and lower proportion of Elizabethkingia. Consistent presence of certain predominant bacteria (Elizabethkingia, Asaia, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests they would be useful for paratransgenesis to control malaria infection, particularly when coupled to a Wolbachia-based intervention strategy.

  19. Persistent Infection by Wolbachia wAlbB Has No Effect on Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Adult Female Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao; Joshi, Deepak; Xi, Zhiyong; Norman, Beth; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6.4%) and Pseudomonas (6.0%), or unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (37.2%). Bacterial communities were similar between Wolbachia-cured and Wolbachia-infected mosquito lines, indicating that the gut microbiota were not dysregulated in the presence of Wolbachia. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in mosquitoes fed a blood meal compared to those provided a sugar meal. Collectively, the bacterial community had a similar structure in older Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes 8 days after the blood meal, as in younger Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes before a blood meal, except that older mosquitoes had a higher proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and lower proportion of Elizabethkingia. Consistent presence of certain predominant bacteria (Elizabethkingia, Asaia, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests they would be useful for paratransgenesis to control malaria infection, particularly when coupled to a Wolbachia-based intervention strategy. PMID:27708633

  20. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  1. Metagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a Microbial Community Associated with a Wood-Feeding Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli; Tien, Ming; Tringe, Susannah G.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Chovatia, Mansi; Herr, Joshua R.; Carlson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an assemblage of microbes hypothesized to make significant contributions to these processes. While lignin degrading mechanisms have been well characterized in pure cultures of white rot basidiomycetes, little is known about such processes in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects. The goals of this study were to develop a taxonomic and functional profile of a gut community derived from an invasive population of larval A. glabripennis collected from infested host trees and to identify genes that could be relevant for the digestion of woody tissue and nutrient acquisition. To accomplish this goal, we taxonomically and functionally characterized the A. glabripennis midgut microbiota through amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing and conducted a large-scale comparison with the metagenomes from a variety of other herbivore-associated communities. This analysis distinguished the A. glabripennis larval gut metagenome from the gut communities of other herbivores, including previously sequenced termite hindgut metagenomes. Genes encoding enzymes were identified in the A. glabripennis gut metagenome that could have key roles in woody tissue digestion including candidate lignin degrading genes (laccases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, novel peroxidases and β-etherases), 36 families of glycoside hydrolases (such as cellulases and xylanases), and genes that could facilitate nutrient recovery, essential nutrient synthesis, and detoxification. This community could serve as a

  2. Discovery of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a larval ectoparasitoid of citrus longhorned beetle in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, which belongs to the Spathius exarator species group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) was found as an ectoparasitoid of the first- and second-instar larvae of the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster), from Gwangneung, Pocheon, Kore...

  3. Impact of single dose of diethylcarbamazine and other antifilarial drug combinations on bancroftian filarial infection variables: assessment after 2 years.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Rajendran, R; Mani, T R; Munirathinam, A; Reuben, R; Dash, A P

    2006-09-01

    The impact of single dose mass drug administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), DEC with albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVR) with albendazole, was examined on the human bancroftian filarial infections in village scale trials in south India, from a follow-up study after 2 years. The treatment arms administered with DEC alone and DEC+ALB demonstrated long-term benefits in reducing microfilaraemia significantly (P<0.05), while antigenaemia reduction was negligible. The arm with ALB+IVR did not show such reductions. Among the antigenaemic and microfilaraemic individuals, 87% became amicrofilaraemic in DEC+ALB arm, which were higher than that observed in the other 2 treatment arms. Among amicrofilaraemics (but Ag+), nearly 35% cleared of infection in DEC+ALB, while 26% and 6% in DEC alone and IVR+ALB arms, respectively. The drug combination DEC+ALB was observed to demonstrate a significant impact in reducing filarial infection even after 2 years post treatment.

  4. Podoplanin expression in adamantinoma of long bones and osteofibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Takeshi G; Dongre, Arunthati; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Taylor, Richard; Athanasou, Nicholas A

    2011-07-01

    Adamantinoma of long bones (ALB) and osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) are rare osteolytic bone tumours that principally arise in the tibia. Both ALB and OFD contain epithelial and stromal elements, as well as areas of fibro-osseous proliferation. We assessed expression of podoplanin, a glycoprotein found in osteocytes, in OFD and ALB as well as in fibrous dysplasia and metastatic cancer. Forty-two cases of ALB and OFD, 20 cases of fibrous dysplasia and 20 cases of metastatic carcinoma to bone were stained by immunohistochemistry for expression of podoplanin, epithelial (cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen) and vascular (CD34, LYVE-1) markers. Podoplanin was expressed in epithelial cells and tumour glands in ALB as well as in scattered intertrabecular stromal cells in both ALB and OFD. Podoplanin was not expressed by intertrabecular stromal cells in fibrous dysplasia or in metastatic adenocarcinoma. Podoplanin was expressed by osteocytes but not osteoblasts of woven and lamellar bone trabeculae in ALB, OFD, fibrous dysplasia and skeletal metastases. The finding of a common osteocyte marker in OFD/ALB stromal cells is in keeping with a close histogenetic relationship between OFD and ALB; this may reflect the prominence of fibro-osseous proliferation in these tumours. The expression of podoplanin in an osteolytic tumour of the tibia may be useful as a diagnostic discriminant in distinguishing OFD from fibrous dysplasia and ALB from metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  5. Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangming; Tu, Jiangfeng; Liu, Lingang; Luo, Laisheng; Wu, Jiaqi; Tao, Lisha; Zhang, Chenjing; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Ai, Xinbo; Shen, Bo; Pan, Wensheng

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND Serum albumin (ALB) may be low during acute inflammation, but it is also affected by nutritional status. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALB and the C-reactive protein/ALB ratio (CRP/ALB) may be associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 100 patients with CD and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The patients with CD were subdivided into patients with active disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and those in remission. ALB levels, CRP levels, and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS ALB and CRP levels and the CRP/ALB ratio were the most useful for differentiating between active and nonactive CD. ALB levels (r=-0.50, P<0.01), CRP levels (r=0.39, P<0.01), and CRP/ALB ratio (r=0.42, P<0.01) all correlated with CD activity. These correlations were more prominent in males. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) representing ALB (0.79) was higher than the AUC representing CRP (0.73) or CRP/ALB ratio (0.75; P>0.05). The AUCs corresponding to ALB level, CRP level, and CRP/ALB ratio were more prominent in males versus females (P<0.05). CRP level (14.55 mg/L), ALB level (34.35 g/L), and CRP/ALB ratio (0.69) had sensitivities of 67.7%, 72.6%, and 59.7%, and specificities of 73.7%, 78.9%, and 81.6%, respectively, for CD activity. CONCLUSIONS In the present retrospective study, we found that ALB level and CRP/ALB ratio were useful biomarkers for identifying CD activity, especially in males. These results suggest that, in addition to inflammation, assessment of patient nutritional status could also aid in identifying CD activity.

  6. Modelling of Two-sided Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Resource Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razif Abdullah Make, Muhammad; Fadzil Faisae Rashid, Mohd; Magffierah Razali, Muhamad

    2016-11-01

    Two-sided assembly line balancing (2S-ALB) problems is practically useful in improving the production of large-sized high-volume products. Many published papers have proposed various approaches to balance this well-known ALB problem. However, little attention is given in formulating the 2S-ALB problems. In this paper, 2S-ALB is modelled with four different objective functions comprising minimization of workstations, mated- workstation, idle time and resource constraints. In different with existing model, this paper also considers resource constraint with a mathematical modelling formulation in solving the 2S- ALB problems. The modelling procedures are present for each objective functions with a simple 2S-ALB example problem. Then, the anticipated performance solution is obtained from the test problem.

  7. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method.

    PubMed

    Kusakawa, You; Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrO2) was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). As proteins, fibronectin (Fn), a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb), a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2.

  8. Biomonitoring Human Albumin Adducts: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin (Alb) is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Alb reacts with many carcinogens and/or their electrophilic metabolites. Studies conducted over 20 years ago showed that Alb forms adducts with the human carcinogens aflatoxin B1 and benzene, which were successfully used as biomarkers in molecular epidemiology studies designed to address the role of these chemicals in cancer risk. Alb forms adducts with many therapeutic drugs or their reactive metabolites such as β-lactam antibiotics, acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, and antiretroviral therapy drugs. The identification and characterization of the adduct structures formed with Alb have served to understand the generation of reactive metabolites and to predict idiosyncratic drug reactions and toxicities. The reaction of candidate drugs with Alb is now exploited as part of the battery of screening tools to assess the potential toxicities of drugs. The use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) enabled the identification and quantification of multiple types of Alb xenobiotic adducts in animals and humans during the past three decades. In this perspective, we highlight the history of Alb as a target protein for adduction to environmental and dietary genotoxicants, pesticides, and herbicides, common classes of medicinal drugs, and endogenous electrophiles, and the emerging analytical mass spectrometry technologies to identify Alb-toxicant adducts in humans. PMID:27989119

  9. The novel albumin–chitosan core–shell nanoparticles for gene delivery: preparation, optimization and cell uptake investigation

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahdi; Avci, Pinar; Mobasseri, Rezvan; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Natural polymers and proteins such as chitosan (CS) and albumin (Alb) have recently attracted much attention both in drug delivery and gene delivery. The underlying rationale is their unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and controlled release. This study aimed to prepare novel albumin–chitosan–DNA (Alb-CS-DNA) core–shell nanoparticles as a plasmid delivery system and find the best conditions for their preparation. Phase separation method and ionic interaction were used for preparation of Alb nanoparticles and Alb-CS-DNA core–shell nanoparticles, respectively. The effects of three important independent variables (1) CS/Alb mass ratio, (2) the ratios of moles of the amine groups of cationic polymers to those of the phosphate groups of DNA (N/P ratio), and (3) Alb concentration, on the nanoparticle size and loading efficiency of the plasmid were investigated and optimized through Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found to be CS/Alb mass ratio = 3, N/P ratio = 8.24 and Alb concentration = 0.1 mg/mL. The most critical factors for the size of nanoparticles and loading efficiency were Alb concentration and N/P ratio. The optimized nanoparticles had an average size of 176 ± 3.4 nm and loading efficiency of 80 ± 3.9 %. Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were not toxic. The high cellular uptake of nanoparticles (~85 %) was shown by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. PMID:24363607

  10. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    PubMed Central

    Kusakawa, You

    2017-01-01

    Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrO2) was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). As proteins, fibronectin (Fn), a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb), a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2. PMID:28246591

  11. The novel albumin-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles for gene delivery: preparation, optimization and cell uptake investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Avci, Pinar; Mobasseri, Rezvan; Hamblin, Michael R.; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Natural polymers and proteins such as chitosan (CS) and albumin (Alb) have recently attracted much attention both in drug delivery and gene delivery. The underlying rationale is their unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and controlled release. This study aimed to prepare novel albumin-chitosan-DNA (Alb-CS-DNA) core-shell nanoparticles as a plasmid delivery system and find the best conditions for their preparation. Phase separation method and ionic interaction were used for preparation of Alb nanoparticles and Alb-CS-DNA core-shell nanoparticles, respectively. The effects of three important independent variables (1) CS/Alb mass ratio, (2) the ratios of moles of the amine groups of cationic polymers to those of the phosphate groups of DNA (N/P ratio), and (3) Alb concentration, on the nanoparticle size and loading efficiency of the plasmid were investigated and optimized through Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found to be CS/Alb mass ratio = 3, N/P ratio = 8.24 and Alb concentration = 0.1 mg/mL. The most critical factors for the size of nanoparticles and loading efficiency were Alb concentration and N/P ratio. The optimized nanoparticles had an average size of 176 ± 3.4 nm and loading efficiency of 80 ± 3.9 %. Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were not toxic. The high cellular uptake of nanoparticles ( 85 %) was shown by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy.

  12. The significance of the C-reactive protein to albumin ratio as a marker for predicting survival and monitoring chemotherapeutic effectiveness in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Iseki, Yasuhito; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has been reported to play an important role in cancer progression and various inflammatory markers have been reported to be useful prognostic markers. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the significance of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in colorectal cancer patients who received palliative chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective review of 99 patients who underwent palliative chemotherapy for unresectable colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010. The cutoff value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined based on a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. The relationship between the CRP/ALB ratio and survival was assessed. The cutoff value for the CRP/ALB ratio was 0.183. The high pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio group showed significantly worse overall survival. Patients with a high pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio and in whom the CRP/ALB ratio normalized after chemotherapy tended to have better overall survival than those in whom both the pretreatment and posttreatment CRP/ALB ratios were high. The CRP/ALB ratio is a useful marker for predicting survival and monitoring chemotherapeutic effectiveness in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.

  13. Albumin and magnetic resonance imaging-liver volume to identify hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hang; Chen, Tian-Wu; Li, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Li; Chen, Guang-Wen; Hu, Jia-Ni; Ye, Yong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether liver lobe volume and albumin (ALB) could predict the presence and severity of liver cirrhosis, and esophageal varices. METHODS: Seventy-one cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B and 21 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. All the participants underwent abdominal enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to measure each liver lobe volume, and biochemical workup for testing ALB and Child-Pugh class. All cirrhotic patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to show the presence of cirrhotic esophageal varices. Right liver lobe volume (RV), left medial liver lobe volume (LMV), left lateral liver lobe volume (LLV), and caudate lobe volume (CV) were measured using enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The ratios of RV to ALB (RV/ALB), LMV to ALB (LMV/ALB), LLV to ALB (LLV/ALB) and CV to ALB (CV/ALB) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether and how the combination of liver lobe volume measured using magnetic resonance imaging and albumin could predict the presence and severity of liver cirrhosis, and the presence of esophageal varices. RESULTS: RV, LMV, LLV and CV decreased (r = -0.51-0.373; all P < 0.05), while RV/ALB increased (r = 0.424; P < 0.05), with the progress of Child-Pugh class of liver cirrhosis. RV, LMV, CV, LLV/ALB and CV/ALB could identify presence of liver cirrhosis; LLV and LMV could distinguish Child-Pugh class A from B; RV, LMV, LLV, CV, RV/ALB and LLV/ALB could distinguish class A from C; RV and LLV/ALB could differentiate B from C; and RV, RV/ALB and CV/ALB could identify presence of esophageal varices (all P < 0.05). Among these parameters, CV/ALB could best identify the presence of liver cirrhosis, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.860, a sensitivity of 82.0% and a specificity of 83.0%. LLV could best distinguish class A from B, with an AUC of 0.761, a sensitivity of 74.4% and a specificity of 73.1%. RV could best distinguish class A from C

  14. Pathways to a family of low-cost, high-performance, metal matrix composites based on aluminum diboride in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher

    The continued development of a new family of metal matrix composites based on the in-situ formation of AlB2 flakes in liquid aluminum is described. First, a new synthesis technique for the preparation of high aspect ratio AlB2 is demonstrated. Borax and B2O 3 were reacted with molten aluminum to prepare high aspect ratio AlB 2. The focus then shifts to further understanding the Al-B alloy system. Work on the Al-B alloy system concentrated on the Al(L) + AlB 2 → Al(L) + AlB12 peritectic transformation and the growth of AlB2 in aluminum. The equilibrium peritectic transformation temperature was redetermined and found to be 950 +/- 5°C. The kinetics of the peritectic transformation were measured and reported for the first time. Cu, Fe, and Si additions were made to the alloy, and their effect on the peritectic reaction was investigated. All three elements shorten the time required for the peritectic reaction to occur. The effect of these three elements on flake growth was also investigated. They each caused a reduction in the size of growing AlB2 flakes. Finally two samples containing more than 30v% AlB2 in aluminum were prepared. Their properties were measured. The sample containing 40v% AlB2 exhibited a flexural strength of 200 MPa. The 35v% sample exhibited a flexural strength of 150 MPa. When the 35v% sample was tested in compression, it exhibited an ultimate strength close to 200 MPa. Its modulus varied from 200--300 GPa depending on the orientation of the loading axis with respect to the flake reinforcement.

  15. Efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole alone and in combination for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths in pregnancy and adverse events: a randomized open label controlled intervention trial in Masindi district, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kabatereine, Narcis; Olsen, Annette; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    A randomized open-label trial, including 834 pregnant women, examined efficacy and recorded adverse events of ivermectin (ivc) and albendazole (alb) alone and combined (comb) on soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) in the second trimester of pregnancy. One abortion occurred in the alb group and 10 stillbirths (1, 5, 3, and 1) in the ivc, alb, comb, and the reference group (ref) with no STHs, respectively. Two babies were born with congenital abnormalities (1 [ivc] and 1 [ref]). The prevalence of anemia at first antenatal care (ANC) visit was 20.6% (23.7% [ivc], 21.1% [alb], 22.2% [comb], and 16.1% [ref]). Anemia was reduced to 8.5% at 36 weeks of gestation with 10.9% (ivc), 11.5% (alb), 7.7% (comb), and 6.9% (ref). Hookworm cure rates were 29.4% (ivc), 95.5% (alb), and 92.6% (comb). No severe adverse events were reported by the women after the administration of ivc, alb, or comb during the second trimester of pregnancy, but long-term pharmacovigillance is needed to assess safety of ivc, alb, or comb in pregnancy.

  16. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein/Albumin is An Inflammatory Prognostic Score for Predicting Overall Survival of Patients with Small-cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Jianhua; Hong, Shaodong; Hu, Zhihuang; Fang, Wenfeng; Qin, Tao; Ma, Yuxiang; Yang, Yunpeng; He, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the C-reactive protein/ albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this retrospective study, a total of 367 eligible SCLC patients were analyzed and the correlation between the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio and overall survival (OS) was investigated. The optimal cutoff level of CRP/Alb ratio was at 0.441. A low and high CRP/Alb ratio was assigned to 65.1% and 34.9% of patients, respectively. The median OS of patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio was worse than those in the low group (13.70 vs 18.90 months HR, 1.34; p = 0.005). Disease stage (p < 0.001), performance status (PS) (p < 0.001) and pretreatment LDH (p < 0.001) were also significant predictors of OS. Multivariate analyses showed that the CRP/Alb ratio is an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). This study demonstrated that the CRP/Alb ratio could independently predict OS in patients with SCLC, and had comparable prognostic value to other known prognostic markers. Therefore, the CRP/Alb ratio could have prognostic value and be a measurable biomarker in patients with SCLC. PMID:26084991

  17. The effect of acrylic latex-based polymer on cow blood adhesive resins for wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.; Lin, H. L.; Feng, G. Z.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, alkali-modified cow blood adhesive (BA) and blood adhesive/acrylic latex-based adhesive (BA/ALB) were prepared. The physicochemical and adhesion properties of cow blood adhesive such as UV- visible spectra, particle size, viscosity were evaluated; share strength, water resistance were tested. UV- visible spectra indicates that the strong bonding strength of BA/ALB appeared after incorporating; the particle size of adhesive decreased with the increase of ALB concentration, by mixing ALB and BA, hydrophilic polymer tends locate or extand the protein chains and provide stability of the particles; viscosity decreased as shear rate increased in concordance with a pseudoplastic behavior; both at dry and soak conditions, BA and ALB/BA show significant difference changes when mass fraction of ALB in blend adhesive was over 30% (p < 0.05). ALB/ BA (ALB30%) is not significant different than that of phenol formaldehyde which was used as control. A combination of cow blood and acrylic latex-based adhesive significantly increased the strength and water resistance of the resulting wood.

  18. Prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-tong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Han, Ping; Chen, Renhui; Huang, Xiao-ming

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods One hundred and twenty-nine newly diagnosed LSCC patients admitted between May 2006 and October 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Their serum CRP and ALB were quantified preoperatively. The relationship between the CRP/ALB ratio and the clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio. Then, the Cox proportional hazards model was used in univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival and overall survival. Results The cutoff value for CRP/ALB ratio was 0.047. An elevated CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with nodal metastasis, late disease stage, and recurrence. Also, high values of CRP/ALB ratio were significant predictors for poor overall survival and disease-free survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio may be a significant prognostic marker in LSCC. PMID:28243123

  19. Tolerance and efficacy of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and intestinal helminth infections in Haitian children.

    PubMed

    Fox, Leanne M; Furness, Bruce W; Haser, Jennifer K; Desire, Dardith; Brissau, Jean-Marc; Milord, Marie-Denise; Lafontant, Jack; Lammie, Patrick J; Beach, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated the tolerance, efficacy, and nutritional benefit of combining chemotherapeutic treatment of intestinal helminths and lymphatic filariasis. Children were infected with Ascaris (30.7%), Trichuris (53.4%), and hookworm (9.7%) with 69.9% having more than one of these parasites. A total of 15.8% of the children had Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. Children were randomly assigned treatment with placebo, albendazole (ALB), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), or combined therapy. The combination of DEC/ALB reduced microfilarial density compared with placebo, ALB, or DEC (P < or = 0.03). Albendazole and DEC/ALB reduced the prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm more than placebo or DEC (P < or = 0.03). Among Trichuris-infected children, those receiving ALB and DEC/ALB demonstrated greater gains in weight compared with placebo (P < or = 0.05). Albendazole and DEC/ALB were equally efficacious in treating intestinal helminths and for children with W. bancrofti microfilaremia, DEC/ALB was more effective than DEC, with no increase in severity of adverse reactions.

  20. Passive targeting and lung tolerability of enoxaparin microspheres for a sustained antithrombotic activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shaimaa S; Osman, Rihab; Mortada, Nahed D; Geneidy, Ahmed-Shawky; Awad, Gehanne A S

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary bed can retain microparticles (MP) larger than their capillaries' diameter, hence we offer a promising way for lung passive targeting following intravenous (IV) administration. In this study, enoxaparin (Enox)-albumin microspheres (Enox-Alb MS) were, optimally, developed as lung targeted sustained release MP for IV use. Lung tolerability and targeting efficiency of Enox-Alb MS were tested, and the pharmacokinetic profile following IV administration to albino rats was constructed. In vivo studies confirmed high lung targeting efficiency of Enox-Alb MS with lack of potential tissue toxicity. The anticoagulant activity of the selected Alb MS was significantly sustained for up to 38 h compared to 5 h for the market product. Alb MS are promising delivery carriers for controlled and targeted delivery of Enox to the lungs for prophylaxis and treatment of pulmonary embolism.

  1. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3′-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  2. The C-reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Is an independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Feng; Feng, Xing-Lai; Jin, Qi-Feng; Jin, Ting; Piao, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. A total of 719 patients with NPC treated between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum albumin and CRP levels were measured before treatment. The associations between the CRP/ALB ratio and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to identify significant prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS). The prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal CRP/ALB ratio cutoff value was 0.141. High CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), more advanced T category (P < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.024). Patients with an elevated CRP/ALB ratio (≥ 0.141) had poorer OS than those with a CRP/ALB ratio < 0.141 (5-year OS rates: 91.9% vs. 78.1%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested clinical T category [hazard ratio (HR) 2.284; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.429-3.652; P = 0.001]; clinical N category (HR 1.575; 95% CI, 1.007-2.464; P = 0.047) and CRP/ALB ratio (HR 2.173; 95% CI, 1.128-3.059; P = 0.015) were independently associated with OS. In conclusion, pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio is an objective biomarker with significant prognostic value for OS in NPC. The CRP/ALB ratio can enhance conventional TNM staging to stratify patients and may help facilitate individualized treatment of high-risk cases. PMID:27877215

  3. Protein-thiol substitution or protein dethiolation by thiol/disulfide exchange reactions: the albumin model.

    PubMed

    Summa, Domenico; Spiga, Ottavia; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Niccolai, Neri; Di Simplicio, Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Dethiolation experiments of thiolated albumin with thionitrobenzoic acid and thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine) were carried out to understand the role of albumin in plasma distribution of thiols and disulfide species by thiol/disulfide (SH/SS) exchange reactions. During these experiments we observed that thiolated albumin underwent thiol substitution (Alb-SS-X+RSH<-->Alb-SS-R+XSH) or dethiolation (Alb-SS-X+XSH<-->Alb-SH+XSSX), depending on the different pK(a) values of thiols involved in protein-thiol mixed disulfides (Alb-SS-X). It appeared in these reactions that the compound with lower pK(a) in mixed disulfide was a good leaving group and that the pK(a) differences dictated the kind of reaction (substitution or dethiolation). Thionitrobenzoic acid, bound to albumin by mixed disulfide (Alb-TNB), underwent rapid substitution after thiol addition, forming the corresponding Alb-SS-X (peaks at 0.25-1 min). In turn, Alb-SS-X were dethiolated by the excess nonprotein SH groups because of the lower pK(a) value in mixed disulfide with respect to that of other thiols. Dethiolation of Alb-SS-X was accompanied by formation of XSSX and Alb-SH up to equilibrium levels at 35 min, which were different for each thiol. Structures by molecular simulation of thiolated albumin, carried out for understanding the role of sulfur exposure in mixed disulfides in dethiolation process, evidenced that the sulfur exposure is important for the rate but not for determining the kind of reaction (substitution or dethiolation). Our data underline the contribution of SH/SS exchanges to determine levels of various thiols as reduced and oxidized species in human plasma.

  4. The C-reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Is an independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Feng; Feng, Xing-Lai; Jin, Qi-Feng; Jin, Ting; Piao, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. A total of 719 patients with NPC treated between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum albumin and CRP levels were measured before treatment. The associations between the CRP/ALB ratio and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to identify significant prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS). The prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal CRP/ALB ratio cutoff value was 0.141. High CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), more advanced T category (P < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.024). Patients with an elevated CRP/ALB ratio (≥ 0.141) had poorer OS than those with a CRP/ALB ratio < 0.141 (5-year OS rates: 91.9% vs. 78.1%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested clinical T category [hazard ratio (HR) 2.284; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.429-3.652; P = 0.001]; clinical N category (HR 1.575; 95% CI, 1.007-2.464; P = 0.047) and CRP/ALB ratio (HR 2.173; 95% CI, 1.128-3.059; P = 0.015) were independently associated with OS. In conclusion, pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio is an objective biomarker with significant prognostic value for OS in NPC. The CRP/ALB ratio can enhance conventional TNM staging to stratify patients and may help facilitate individualized treatment of high-risk cases.

  5. The C-reactive protein/albumin ratio predicts overall survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengwan; Guo, Jing; Guo, Lihong; Zuo, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio in cancer. However, the role of the CRP/Alb ratio in advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been examined. A retrospective study of 233 patients with advanced PC was conducted. We investigated the relationship between the CRP/Alb ratio, clinicopathological variables, and overall survival (OS). The optimal cutoff point of the CRP/Alb ratio was 0.54. A higher CRP/Alb ratio was significantly associated with an elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P < 0.001) and higher modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) (P < 0.001). Using univariate analyses, we found that the age (P = 0.009), disease stage (P < 0.001), NLR (P < 0.001), mGPS (P < 0.001), and CRP/Alb ratio (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of OS. Patients with a higher CRP/Alb ratio had a worse OS than patients with a lower CRP/Alb ratio (hazard ratio (HR) 3.619; 95 % CI 2.681-4.886; P < 0.001). However, the CRP/Alb ratio was identified as the only inflammation-based parameter with an independent prognostic ability in the multivariate analyses (P < 0.001). The pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio is a superior prognostic and therapeutic predictor of OS in advanced PC.

  6. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as prognostic score in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have examined histopathological factors and various prognostic scores related to inflammation to predict outcomes. Here, we examined the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/alb) ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 40 patients with OSCC. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we focused on the correlation of the CRP/alb ratio with clinicopathological characteristics and with overall survival. We then compared five inflammation-based prognostic scores, CRP/alb ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/alb ratio was 0.085. The group with a high CRP/alb ratio had a high TNM clinical stage (P=0.002) and larger primary tumors (P=0.029), with statistically significant differences in lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In addition, when the CRP/alb ratio was high, multivariate analysis showed a lower survival rate (P=0.002; hazard ratio=6.078), and the ROC curve showed more outstanding discriminatory ability regarding overall survival compared to other inflammation-based prognostic scores. Conclusion The CRP/alb ratio can be an independent prognostic factor when predicting prognosis in OSCC and has good prognostic ability. PMID:27847731

  7. In vitro investigation of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion on inorganic biomaterial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Lü, Xiaoying; Jingwu, Ma; Huang, Nan

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the surface properties, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion behaviors of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium (Ti) films. The surface energy and microstructures of these films were characterized by contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A modified Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) protein assay was used to study the amount of adsorbed proteins. Platelet adhesion was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AFM results show that the DLC film is smoother than Ti. Protein adsorption results from CBB protein assay show that the ratio of adsorbed albumin (Alb) to IgG ( RA/I) on DLC is larger than Ti, which coincide with the sequence of the ratio of interfacial tension between solid surface and Alb ( γS,Alb) to interfacial tension between surface and IgG ( γS,IgG) ( γS,Alb/ γS,IgG). The DLC film has a preferential adsorption for Alb. The results suggest that the ratio of γS,Alb/ γS,IgG may indicate an Alb/IgG affinity ratio of materials. More platelets adhere on Ti film than on DLC, which may correspond to the surface roughness of materials. The conclusion is the blood compatibility of DLC seems to be better than Ti.

  8. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities and surfactant properties of protein hydrolysates as obtained of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. grain.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Santos, J; Escalona-Buendía, H

    2015-04-01

    Even though some research has been carried out on surfactant properties of amaranth protein hydrolysates, their bio-functionality has not been studied yet. In this work amaranth grain Alb 1 and Glob were hydrolyzed (Alb 1H, Glob H) and foams and emulsions at optimal conditions (t, E/S, pH5) were prepared in order to assess techno-functional properties such as foaming (F) and emulsifying (E) (capacity (C) and stability (S)). FC and EC were much better for Glob H than for Alb H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity was higher for Alb 1H (roughly 50 %) than that of Glob H (roughly 30 %). Scavenging of radicals activity (DPPH· or ABTS· (+) ) of Alb 1H and Glob H, at 2 mg/mL, was similar (approx. 40 %), but lower than Alb 1 (approx. 70 %), which was the best antioxidant. The low reducing power showed that hydrolysates barely donate an electron or hydrogen. Chelating activity on Cu(2+) was lower than that exhibited by Fe(2+,) which was remarkable, approx. 80 % as long as DH% > 10 %, where hydrolysates displayed high solubility (Alb 1H = 85 %, Glob H = 70 %) because of occurrence of 1-10 kDa peptides. Amaranth foams and emulsions prepared with protein hydrolysates have a potential as a nutraceutical food.

  9. Homocysteinemia control by cysteine in cerebral vascular patients after methionine loading test: evidences in physiological and pathological conditions in cerebro-vascular and multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ulivelli, Monica; Priora, Raffaella; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Coppo, Lucia; Summa, Domenico; Margaritis, Antonios; Frosali, Simona; Bartalini, Sabina; Martini, Giuseppe; Cerase, Alfonso; Di Simplicio, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The toxicity risk of hyperhomocysteinemia is prevented through thiol drug administration which reduces plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations by activating thiol exchange reactions. Assuming that cysteine (Cys) is a homocysteinemia regulator, the hypothesis was verified in healthy and pathological individuals after the methionine loading test (MLT). The plasma variations of redox species of Cys, Hcy, cysteinylglycine, glutathione and albumin (reduced, HS-ALB, and at mixed disulfide, XSS-ALB) were compared in patients with cerebral small vessels disease (CSVD) (n = 11), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 11) at 2-4-6 h after MLT. In MLT-treated subjects, the activation of thiol exchange reactions provoked significant changes over time in redox species concentrations of Cys, Hcy, and albumin. Significant differences between controls and pathological groups were also observed. In non-methionine-treated subjects, total Cys concentrations, tHcy and thiol-protein mixed disulfides (CSS-ALB, HSS-ALB) of CSVD patients were higher than controls. After MLT, all groups displayed significant cystine (CSSC) increases and CSS-ALB decreases, that in pathological groups were significantly higher than controls. These data would confirm the Cys regulatory role on the homocysteinemia; they also explain that the Cys-Hcy mixed disulfide excretion is an important point of hyperhomocysteinemia control. Moreover, in all groups after MLT, significant increases in albumin concentrations, named total albumin (tALB) and measured as sum of HS-ALB (spectrophometric), and XSS-ALB (assayed at HPLC) were observed. tALB increases, more pronounced in healthy than in the pathological subjects, could indicate alterations of albumin equilibria between plasma and other extracellular spaces, whose toxicological consequences deserve further studies.

  10. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids maintains the serum albumin level in the course of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kakazu, Eiji; Kondo, Yasuteru; Kogure, Takayuki; Ninomiya, Masashi; Kimura, Osamu; Iwata, Tomoaki; Morosawa, Tatsuki; Iwasaki, Takao; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Serum albumin (Alb) is an important prognostic factor for patients with HCC. Moreover, plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), L-valine, L-leucine, and L-isoleucine, are commonly decreased in patients with cirrhosis. Accordingly, formulations of BCAA has been used to maintain the Alb level and prevent ascites in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in the changes in Alb between a group that received a BCAA formulation (n = 29) and a group given a standard diet (n = 60) in the course of HCC recurrences. All patients experienced more than one hospitalization (mean: 2.6; range: 2-10) owing to recurrence. The plasma BCAA concentration and BCAA-to-tyrosine ratio (BTR), which is a good indicator of the severity of hepatic parenchymal injury in patients with cirrhosis, were significantly correlated with Alb. We defined the changes in BCAA and Alb between recurrences as ΔBCAA and ΔAlb, respectively, and stratified the patients in both groups based on number of recurrences (3 < early, 3-5 middle, or 5 > later). There was also a positive correlation between ΔBCAA and ΔAlb. Interestingly, in the group with BCAA, ΔAlb and ΔBCAA were significantly smaller, especially in the middle period (3-5 recurrences), than in the group without BCAA. These results indicate that the BCAA supplementation could maintain the BCAA and Alb levels in the middle period (3-5 recurrences). BCAA formulation is useful for hypoalbuminemia in the course of HCC recurrence.

  11. A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: Al+AlB{sub 2} flakes

    SciTech Connect

    HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.

    2000-06-08

    Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the Al-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio AlB{sub 2} from an Al-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of AlB{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the Al-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.

  12. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini)

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented. PMID:27551207

  13. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini).

    PubMed

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented.

  14. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  15. The albonoursin gene Cluster of S noursei biosynthesis of diketopiperazine metabolites independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Lautru, Sylvie; Gondry, Muriel; Genet, Roger; Pernodet, Jean Luc

    2002-12-01

    Albonoursin [cyclo(deltaPhe-DeltaLeu)], an antibacterial peptide produced by Streptomyces noursei, is one of the simplest representatives of the large diketopiperazine (DKP) family. Formation of alpha,beta unsaturations was previously shown to occur on cyclo(L-Phe-L-Leu), catalyzed by the cyclic dipeptide oxidase (CDO). We used CDO peptide sequence information to isolate a 3.8 kb S. noursei DNA fragment that directs albonoursin biosynthesis in Streptomyces lividans. This fragment encompasses four complete genes: albA and albB, necessary for CDO activity; albC, sufficient for cyclic dipeptide precursor formation, although displaying no similarity to non ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes; and albD, encoding a putative membrane protein. This first isolated DKP biosynthetic gene cluster should help to elucidate the mechanism of DKP formation, totally independent of NRPS, and to characterize novel DKP biosynthetic pathways that could be engineered to increase the molecular diversity of DKP derivatives.

  16. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-11-30

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  17. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  18. Prognostic significance of preoperative C-reactive protein: albumin ratio in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yingjie; Fan, Min; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Wang, Kun; Cao, Wei; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a retrospective analysis to evaluate the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for its prognostic value in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The study comprised 406 CCRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy between 2003 and 2012 in our hospital. The correlations among the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio, clinicopathological parameters, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. An elevated CRP/Alb ratio was associated with older age at surgery (P=0.007), more advanced TNM stage (P<0.001), more presence of tumor necrosis (P<0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (P<0.001), lower concentration of hemoglobin (P<0.001) and calcium (P=0.005), and shorter OS (P<0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed that the CRP/Alb ratio independently predicted the OS of patients with CCRCC (P<0.001), the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (P=0.001) and modified GPS (mGPS) (P=0.019) were independent prognostic factors also. At last, we evaluated the prognostic value of the CRP/Alb ratio compared with the similar inflammation-based prognostic scores GPS and mGPS using the area under the curve (AUC). Although the differences were not statistically significant, the AUC value of the CRP/Alb ratio (continuous, categorical) was higher compared with the GPS and mGPS, except that the AUC value for the CRP/Alb ratio (categorical) at 3 years was lower than that for the GPS. The CRP/Alb ratio could take the place of the GPS and mGPS in terms of predicting prognosis in CCRCC. PMID:26823819

  19. Investigation of the cumulative body burden of estrogen-3,4-quinone in breast cancer patients and controls using albumin adducts as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che; Chen, Dar-Ren; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Yu, Wen-Fa; Lin, Ching-Chiuan; Ko, Mao-Huei; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen. Elevation of E2-3,4-Q to E2-2,3-Q ratio is thought to be an important indicator of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Our current study compared the cumulative body burden of these estrogen quinones in serum samples taken from Taiwanese women with breast cancer (n=152) vs healthy controls (n=75) by using albumin (Alb) adducts as biomarkers. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in all study population at levels ranging from 61.7-1330 to 66.6-1,590 pmol/g, respectively. Correlation coefficient between E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was 0.610 for controls and 0.767 for breast cancer patients (p<0.001). We also noticed that in premenopausal subjects with body mass index (BMI) less than 27, background levels of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was inversely proportional to BMI with about 25% increase in E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb per 5 kg/m(2) decrease in BMI (p<0.001). In addition, we confirmed that mean levels of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in breast cancer patients were ∼5-fold greater than in those of controls (p<0.001). Overall, this evidence suggests that disparity in estrogen disposition and the subsequent elevation of cumulative body burden of E2-3,4-Q may play a role in the development of breast cancer.

  20. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Predicts Muscle Mass in Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP–Alb ratio) is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with disease. We examined the predictive value of this ratio in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, 91 eligible adult HD patients were analyzed, and the correlation between the CRP–Alb ratio and skeletal muscle mass normalized for body weight (SMM/wt; estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer) was investigated. The mean age of the study participants was 54.9 ± 6.6 years (ranging from 27 to 64 years); 43 (47.2%) were men. The mean values for the SMM/wt were 39.1% ± 5.4%. The CRP–Alb ratio was found to be negatively correlated with SMM/wt (r = −0.33, P = 0.002) and creatinine (r = −0.20, P = 0.056). All the univariate significant and nonsignificant relevant covariates were selected for multivariable stepwise regression analysis. We determined that the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and CRP–Alb ratio were independent risk determinants for SMM/wt (βHOMA-IR = −0.18 and βCRP–Alb ratio = −3.84, adjusted R2 = 0.32). This study indicated that the CRP–Alb ratio may help clinicians in predicting muscle mass in adult patients undergoing HD. PMID:27768746

  1. Photothermal treatment of liver cancer with albumin-conjugated gold nanoparticles initiates Golgi Apparatus-ER dysfunction and caspase-3 apoptotic pathway activation by selective targeting of Gp60 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells based on a simple gold nanoparticle (GNP) carrier system such as serum albumin (Alb), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy compared with normal hepatocyte cells. HepG2 or hepatocytes were treated with Alb-GNPs at various concentrations and various incubation times, and further irradiated using a 2 W, 808 nm laser. Darkfield microscopy and immunochemical staining was used to demonstrate the selective internalization of Alb-GNPs inside the HepG2 cells via Gp60 receptors targeting. The postirradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with Alb-GNPs ranged from 25.8% (for 5 μg/mL) to 48.2% (for 50 μg/mL) at 60 seconds, while at 30 minutes the necrotic rate increased from 35.7% (5 μg/mL) to 52.3% (50 μg/mL), P-value <0.001. Significantly lower necrotic rates were obtained when human hepatocytes were treated with Alb-GNPs in a similar manner. We also showed by means of immunocytochemistry that photothermal treatment of Alb-conjugated GNPs in liver cancer initiates Golgi apparatus-endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction with consequent caspase-3 apoptotic pathway activation and cellular apoptosis. The presented results may become a new method of treating cancer cells by selective therapeutic vectors using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

  2. Influence of a Regular, Standardized Meal on Clinical Chemistry Analytes

    PubMed Central

    Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Background Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinical chemistry testing. Methods We studied 17 healthy volunteers who consumed light meals containing a standardized amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. We collected blood for routine clinical chemistry tests before the meal and 1, 2, and 4 hr thereafter. Results One hour after the meal, triglycerides (TG), albumin (ALB), uric acid (UA), phosphatase (ALP), Ca, Fe, and Na levels significantly increased, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and P levels decreased. TG, ALB, Ca, Na, P, and total protein (TP) levels varied significantly. Two hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, and Na levels remained significantly high, whereas BUN, P, UA, and total bilirubin (BT) levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were recorded for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Fe, Na, P, BT, and direct bilirubin (BD) levels. Four hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, Na, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), P, Mg, and K levels significantly increased, whereas UA and BT levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were observed for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Na, Mg, K, C-reactive protein (CRP), AST, UA, and BT levels. Conclusions A significant variation in the clinical chemistry parameters after a regular meal shows that fasting time needs to be carefully considered when performing tests to prevent spurious results and reduce laboratory errors, especially in an emergency setting. PMID:22779065

  3. Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

  4. Mechanism of natural organic matter removal by polyaluminum chloride: effect of coagulant particle size and hydrolysis kinetics.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ni, Jinren; Qu, Jiuhui; Chow, Christopher W K; Liu, Hailong

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of natural organic matter (NOM) removal by AlCl(3) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated through bench-scale tests. The fraction distributions of NOM and residual Al after coagulation in solution, colloid and sediment were analyzed as changes of coagulant dosage and pH. The influence of NOM, coagulant dose and pH on coagulation kinetics of AlCl(3) was investigated using photometric dispersion analyzer compared with PACl. Monomeric Al species (Al(a)) shows high ability to satisfy some unsaturated coordinate bonds of NOM to facilitate particle and NOM removal, while most of the flocs formed by Al(a) are small and difficult to settle. Medium polymerized Al species (Al(b)) can destabilize particle and NOM efficiently, while some flocs formed by Al(b) are not large and not easy to precipitate as compared to those formed by colloidal or solid Al species (Al(c)). Thus, Al(c) could adsorb and remove NOM efficiently. The removal of contaminant by species of Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c) follows mechanisms of complexation, neutralization and adsorption, respectively. Unlike preformed Al(b) in PACl, in-situ-formed Al(b) can remove NOM and particle more efficiently via the mechanism of further hydrolysis and transfer into Al(c) during coagulation. While the presence of NOM would reduce Al(b) formed in-situ due to the complexation of NOM and Al(a).

  5. Development and validation of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of albuterol, budesonide, and ipratropium bromide in compounded nebulizer solutions.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Anthony J; Varma, Deepti; Gilles, Tiffany; Butcher, Rashidi; Jacob, Jaini; Amazan, Jean; Jansen, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a large increase in the use of pharmaceutical compounding to prepare medications that are not commercially available. The treatment of asthma typically includes the use of albuterol (ALB), ipratropium bromide (IPB), and/or budesonide (BUD) nebulizer solutions. There is currently no commercially available nebulizer solution containing all three of these compounds, and patients must rely on often-unregulated compounding. There is a distinct need for methodologies that can be used to analyze compounded formulations to ensure patient safety. We report an HPLC-UV method to separate and quantitate ALB, IPB, and BUD in nebulizer solutions. The method used a gradient elution to achieve separation via an RP C18 column. The method was validated, showed good selectivity, and was linear over several orders of magnitude. The method was applied to the analysis of nebulizer solutions and determination of their storage stability. Significant ALB-dependent degradation occurred within 5 h in solutions formulated with the free base of ALB, while those containing the sulfate salt of ALB produced no degradation. Alkali solutions can cause base-catalyzed hydrolysis of IPB and degradation of BUD. Compounded formulations containing ALB need to include an acid to control pH and prevent degradation.

  6. Characterization of estrogen quinone-derived protein adducts and their identification in human serum albumin derived from breast cancer patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shou-Tung; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Tsai, Chen-His; Wei, Hz-Han; Chen, Guan-Jie; Yang, Tsung-Chou; Lin, Che; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2011-05-10

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E₂-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E₂-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen that are thought to be responsible for the estrogen-induced genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to analyze estrogen quinone-derived protein adducts and to measure the background levels of these adducts in human serum albumin (Alb) derived from female blood donors in Taiwan. Results from in vitro experiments confirmed that the production of estrogen quinone-derived adducts on serum Alb increased with increased concentration of estrogen quinones. Time-course experiments suggested that both E₂-2,3-Q- and E₂-3,4-Q-derived adducts rapidly reached maximum values at 10 min mark and remained constant thereafter for up to 24 h. Additionally, with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) pretreatment, the production of estrogen quinone-derived protein adducts was detected in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to estrogen. Co-treatment of a catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor further enhanced the production of estrogen quinone-derived adducts in all cases. When we investigated the levels of estrogen quinone-derived adducts in human serum Alb, cysteinyl adducts of E₂-2,3-Q-1-S-Alb, E₂-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb, and E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb were detected in all healthy female controls (n=10) with median levels at 147 (range 14.1-533), 197 (range 30.0-777), and 65.6 (range 17.6-1360) (pmol/g), respectively. We noticed that levels of E₂-2,3-Q-derived adducts were 2-fold greater than those of E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in controls whereas levels of E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb were 2-fold higher than those of E₂-2,3-Q-derived adducts in patients (n = 20). Additionally, levels of E₂-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb correlated significantly with those of E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb (correlation coefficient r = 0.684-0.850, p < 0.05). Overall, we conclude that cumulative body burden of E₂-3,4-Q is a significant predictor of breast cancer.

  7. Comparison of Doxycycline, Minocycline, Doxycycline plus Albendazole and Albendazole Alone in Their Efficacy against Onchocerciasis in a Randomized, Open-Label, Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Batsa, Linda; Ayisi-Boateng, Nana Kwame; Osei-Mensah, Jubin; Mubarik, Yusif; Konadu, Peter; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Fimmers, Rolf; Arriens, Sandra; Dubben, Bettina; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark; Hoerauf, Achim

    2017-01-01

    The search for new macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis that can be administered in shorter regimens than required for doxycycline (DOX, 200mg/d given for 4–6 weeks), identified minocycline (MIN) with superior efficacy to DOX. Further reduction in the treatment regimen may be achieved with co-administration with standard anti-filarial drugs. Therefore a randomized, open-label, pilot trial was carried out in an area in Ghana endemic for onchocerciasis, comprising 5 different regimens: the standard regimen DOX 200mg/d for 4 weeks (DOX 4w, N = 33), the experimental regimens MIN 200mg/d for 3 weeks (MIN 3w; N = 30), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks plus albendazole (ALB) 800mg/d for 3 days (DOX 3w + ALB 3d, N = 32), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks (DOX 3w, N = 31) and ALB 800mg for 3 days (ALB 3d, N = 30). Out of 158 randomized participants, 116 (74.4%) were present for the follow-up at 6 months of whom 99 participants (63.5%) followed the treatment per protocol and underwent surgery. Histological analysis of the adult worms in the extirpated nodules revealed absence of Wolbachia in 98.8% (DOX 4w), 81.4% (DOX 3w + ALB 3d), 72.7% (MIN 3w), 64.1% (DOX 3w) and 35.2% (ALB 3d) of the female worms. All 4 treatment regimens showed superiority to ALB 3d (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.008, respectively), which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Additionally, DOX 4w showed superiority to all other treatment arms. Furthermore DOX 4w and DOX 3w + ALB 3d showed a higher amount of female worms with degenerated embryogenesis compared to ALB 3d (p = 0.028, p = 0.042, respectively). These results confirm earlier studies that DOX 4w is sufficient for Wolbachia depletion and the desired parasitological effects. The data further suggest that there is an additive effect of ALB (3 days) on top of that of DOX alone, and that MIN shows a trend for stronger potency than DOX. These latter two results are preliminary and need confirmation in a fully randomized controlled phase 2 trial. Trial

  8. Complementing airborne laser bathymetry with UAV-based lidar for capturing alluvial landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Riegl, Ursula; Haring, Alexander; Wieser, Martin; Glira, Philipp; Winiwarter, Lukas

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report on a flight experiment employing airborne laser bathymetry (ALB) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based laser scanning (ULS) for capturing very high resolution topography of shallow water areas and the surrounding littoral zone at the pre-alpine Pielach River in Austria. The aim of the research is to assess how information gained from non-bathymetric, ultra-high resolution ULS can support the ALB data. We focus first on the characterization of the water surface of a lowland river and provide validation results using the data of a topographic airborne laser scanning (ALS) sensor and a low flying ULS system. By repeat ULS survey of a the meandering river reach we are able to quantify short-term water level changes due to surface waves in high resolution. Based on a hydrodynamic-numerical (HN) model we assess the accuracy of the water surface derived from a water penetrating ALB sensor. In the second part of the paper we investigate the ability of ALB, ALS, and ULS to describe the complex topography and vegetation structure of the alluvial area. This is carried out by comparing the Digital Terrain Models (DTM) derived from different sensor configurations. Finally we demonstrate the potential of ULS for estimating single tree positions and stem diameters for detailed floodplain roughness characterization in HN simulations. The key findings are: (i) NIR scan data from ALS or ULS provide more precise water level height estimates (no bias, 1σ: 2 cm) compared to ALB (bias: 3 cm, 1σ: 4 cm), (ii) within the studied reach short-term water level dynamics irrelevant for ALB data acquisition considering a 60 cm footprint diameter, and (iii) stem diameters can be estimated based on ULS point clouds but not from ALS and ALB.

  9. Low serum albumin concentrations are associated with disease severity in patients with myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yi-Yun; Yang, De-Hao; Qian, Mei-Zi; Wei, Mao-Mao; Yin, Fang; Li, Jia; Li, Xiang; Chen, Ying; Ding, Zhang-Na; He, Yi-Bo; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum albumin (S-Alb) is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status and disease severity in patients with autoimmune diseases. We investigated the correlation between S-Alb and the severity of myasthenia gravis (MG). A total number of 166 subjects were recruited in the study. Subjects were divided into 3 groups (T1 to T3) by S-Alb levels: T1: 21.1 to 38.4 g/L, T2: 38.5 to 41.5 g/L, T3: 41.6 to 48.9 g/L. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of initial albumin concentrations and the severity of disease of MG. Lower levels of S-Alb were observed in subjects with increased disease severity than those with slight disease severity, meanwhile, incidence of myasthenia crisis increased in the lower albumin tertiles (P < 0.001). The disease severity assessment was performed according to the criteria established by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and duration of disease, it showed that higher S-Alb concentrations were associated with lower disease severity. Odds ratios (ORs) of T2 to T3 were 0.241 (95% CI: 0.103–0.566, P < 0.001), 0.140 (95% CI: 0.054–0.367, P < 0.001) when compared with subjects in the T1, respectively. When subjects were stratified into hypoalbuminemia and normal albumin groups, we found that the association between S-Alb and MG remained significant in the hypoalbuminemia group only (OR: 0.693, 95% CI: 0.550–0.874, P = 0.002) after further adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease. This is the first study to demonstrate that S-Alb was independently associated with MG severity. In patients with low S-Alb, S-Alb concentration could be a potential biomarker for MG disability. PMID:27684858

  10. Evaluation of Cell Viability Dyes in Antiviral Assays with RNA Viruses that Exhibit Different Cytopathogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Smee, Donald F; Hurst, Brett L; Evans, W Joseph; Clyde, Nathan; Wright, Sean; Peterson, Christopher; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Day, Craig W

    2017-03-27

    Studies were conducted to determine the performance of four dyes in assessing antiviral activities of compounds against three RNA viruses with differing cytopathogenic properties. Dyes included alamarBlue(®) measured by absorbance (ALB-A) and fluorescence (ALB-F), neutral red (NR), Viral ToxGlo™ (VTG), and WST-1. Viruses were chikungunya, dengue type 2, and Junin, which generally cause 100, 80-90, and 50% maximal cytopathic effect (CPE), respectively, in Vero 76. Compounds evaluated were 6-azauridine, BCX-4430, 3-deazaguanine, EICAR, favipiravir, infergen, mycophenolic acid (MPA), ribavirin, and tiazofurin. The 50% virus-inhibitory (EC50) values for each inhibitor and virus combination did not vary significantly based on the dye used. However, dyes varied in distinguishing the vitality of virus-infected cultures when not all cells were killed by virus infection. For example, VTG uptake into dengue-infected cells was nearly 50% when visual examination showed only 10-20% cell survival. ALB-A measured infected cell viability differently than ALB-F as follows: 16% versus 32% (dengue-infected), respectively, and 51% versus 72% (Junin-infected), respectively. Cytotoxicity (CC50) assays with dyes in uninfected proliferating cells produced similar CC50 values for EICAR (1.5-8.9μM) and MPA (0.8-2.5μM). 6-Azauridine toxicity was 6.1-17.5μM with NR, VTG, and WST-1, compared to 48-92μM with ALB-A and ALB-F.(P<0.001). Curiously, the CC50 values for 3-deazaguanine were 83-93μM with ALB-F versus 2.4-7.0μM with all other dyes including ALB-A (P<0.001). Overall, ALB minimized the toxicities detected with these two inhibitors. Because the choice of dyes affected CC50 values, this impacted on the resulting in vitro selectivity indexes (calculated as CC50/EC50 ratio).

  11. A green synthesis of magnetic bentonite material and its application for removal of microcystin-LR in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Lili; Cao, Xueling; Wu, Yuqing; Sun, Dazhi; Lou, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    A simple and green method has been developed for in situ assembly of magnetic Fe3O4 on the pillared bentonite by a solvothermal reaction. Fe3O4 nanopaticles have a nearly uniform size of about 200 nm, and they create the homogeneous structures distributed on the bentonite surface. The resulting magnetic material (Fe3O4@Al-B) has a surface area of 110 m2/g and a saturation magnetization of 36.18 emu/g. At the same time, Fe3O4@Al-B has a strong surface affinity toward microcystin-LR (MC-LR) both in Mili-Q water and river water samples. Adsorption of MC-LR on Fe3O4@Al-B increases with pH decrease, with a maximum adsorption at pH 2.1. The equilibrium adsorption data are also analyzed by using the Langmuir and Freundlich models to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@Al-B and a result of 161.29 mg/g is achieved. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Therefore, Fe3O4@Al-B is an effective technology and has a great potential in removing MC-LR from drinking water resources.

  12. Alzheimer disease with amygdala Lewy bodies: a distinct form of alpha-synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Uchikado, Hirotake; Lin, Wen-Lang; DeLucia, Michael W; Dickson, Dennis W

    2006-07-01

    Lewy bodies (LBs) are alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions with a predilection for specific cortical and subcortical regions, including the amygdala. In this study, the presence of LBs was assessed in 347 cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). In 87 cases, LB pathology was diagnostic of brainstem (n=3), transitional (n=32), or diffuse (n=52) Lewy body disease (LBD). The remaining 260 cases of AD were screened for amygdala LBs (AD/ALB) and 62 (24%) cases were found. If AD/LBD cases are included, LBs were detected in 149 (43%) cases of AD. The presence alpha-synuclein pathology was assessed in multiple brain regions of the 62 cases of AD/ALB and 57 randomly selected cases of AD, and only sparse alpha-synuclein pathology was detected in both. The burden of alpha-synuclein pathology in brainstem nuclei, amygdala, and neocortex was significant lower in AD/ALB than in AD/LBD. In comparison to AD/LBD, AD/ALB did not differ in age at death, disease duration, male-to-female ratio, brain weight, Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage, average senile plaque density, or apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele frequency. The results suggest that AD/ALB is pathologically different from AD/LBD, suggesting that it is a neuropathologically distinct and isolated alpha-synucleinopathy.

  13. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 among Workers Exposed to Different Organic Dust with Emphasis on Polymorphism Role of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Shahy, Eman M.; Shaheen, Weam; Taha, Mona M.; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Ibrahim, Khadiga S.; Hafez, Salwa F.; Fadl, Nevein N.; El-Shamy, Karima A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed to investigate effects of organic dust exposure from different sources on aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts (AFB1/Alb), and role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism in hepatotoxicity of (AFB1) among exposed workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver enzymes, AFB1/Alb, and GST polymorphism were estimated in 132 wheat flour dust and 87 woods sawmill workers, and 156 controls. RESULTS: Results revealed that AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes were significantly elevated in exposed workers compared to controls, and were significantly higher in sawmill workers compared to flour workers. AFB1/Alb in flour and sawmill workers with GSTT1 and GSTM1&GSTT1 null genotypes were significantly higher than controls, and in sawmill workers with GSTM1&GSTT1 null than flour workers. Liver enzymes (ALT and AST) in sawmill workers were significantly higher than flour workers and controls in all GST polymorphism; except in GSTT1 polymorphism, where these enzymes were significantly higher in the two exposed groups than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, organic dust exposure may cause elevation in AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes of exposed workers, and GST gene polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility to hepatic parenchymal cell injury; except in workers with GSTT1&GSTM1 null genotype, gene susceptibility seemed to have little role and the main role was for environmental exposures. PMID:27335608

  14. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Danielle; Liu, Yueying; Crosson, Craig E.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE). Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA), suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro) and fluid transport (in vivo). Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina. PMID:27617745

  15. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis.

  16. ER stress is associated with reduced ABCA-1 protein levels in macrophages treated with advanced glycated albumin - reversal by a chemical chaperone.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Gabriela; Okuda, Ligia S; Pinto, Raphael S; Iborra, Rodgiro T; Nakandakare, Edna R; Santos, Celio X; Laurindo, Francisco R; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mediates the export of excess cholesterol from macrophages, contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) is prevalent in diabetes mellitus and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Independently of changes in ABCA-1 mRNA levels, AGE-alb induces oxidative stress and reduces ABCA-1 protein levels, which leads to macrophage lipid accumulation. These metabolic conditions are known to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We sought to determine if AGE-alb induces ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in macrophages and how disturbances to the ER could affect ABCA-1 content and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. AGE-alb induced a time-dependent increase in ER stress and UPR markers. ABCA-1 content and cellular cholesterol efflux were reduced by 33% and 47%, respectively, in macrophages treated with AGE-alb, and both were restored by treatment with 4-phenyl butyric acid (a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress), but not MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor). Tunicamycin, a classical ER stress inductor, also impaired ABCA-1 expression and cholesterol efflux (showing a decrease of 61% and 82%, respectively), confirming the deleterious effect of ER stress in macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Glycoxidation induces macrophage ER stress, which relates to the reduction in ABCA-1 and in reverse cholesterol transport, endorsing the adverse effect of macrophage ER stress in atherosclerosis. Thus, chemical chaperones that alleviate ER stress may represent a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in diabetes.

  17. Analysis of the biosynthesis of antibacterial cyclic dipeptides in Nocardiopsis alba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongli; Lai, Ying-Mi; Lu, Yi; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chen, Shawn

    2014-11-01

    Nocardiopsis alba is frequently isolated from environment and has recently been suggested as a casual symbiotic actinobacterium of diverse invertebrates. Using activity-guided fractionation, we purified two antibacterial cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(ΔPhe-ΔLeu) (albonoursin) and cyclo(ΔmTyr-ΔLeu), from a culture of Nocardiopsis alba ATCC BAA-2165. Analysis of N. alba genome revealed genetic information similar to albonoursin biosynthetic gene cluster, albABC. An albABC gene deletion mutant of N. alba was generated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mutant could not produce the cyclic dipeptides. Cyclic dipeptide production in the mutant was restored by genetic complementation with the albABC cloned in a native plasmid of Nocardiopsis. β-Glucuronidase reporter assays with a second mutant construct, in which albABC promoter is transcriptionally fused to the reporting gene gusA, indicated that albABC gene expression was subject to osmoregulation. The system presented will be used to study the metabolic and genetic control of cyclic dipeptide biosynthesis in Nocardiopsis.

  18. Mapping Resistance to Alternaria cucumerina in Cucumis melo.

    PubMed

    Daley, James; Branham, Sandra; Levi, Amnon; Hassell, Richard; Wechter, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Infection with Alternaria cucumerina causes Alternaria leaf blight (ALB), a disease characterized by lesion formation on leaves, leading to substantial yield and quality losses in Cucumis melo (melon). Although fungicides are effective against ALB, reduction in the frequency of application would be economically and environmentally beneficial. Resistant melon lines have been identified but the genetic basis of this resistance has not been determined. A saturated melon genetic map was constructed with markers developed through genotyping by sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population (F6 to F10; n = 82) derived from single-seed descent of a F2 population from a cross between the ALB-resistant parent MR-1 and the ALB-susceptible parent Ananas Yokneum. The population was evaluated for A. cucumerina resistance with an augmented block greenhouse study using inoculation with the wounded-leaf method. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping identified two QTL that explained 33.9% of variation in lesion area. Several candidate genes within range of these QTL were identified using the C. melo v3.5 genome. Markers linked to these QTL will be used to accelerate efforts to breed melon cultivars resistant to ALB.

  19. A novel method to synthesize polyaluminum chloride with a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Jia, Zhi-qian; Peng, Yue-lian; Wang, Pei-jing; Liu, Zhong-zhou

    2004-01-01

    Al13 or Alb is usually regarded as the most efficient species of polyaluminum chloride (PAC), the performance flocculant for water treatment. This paper was intended to report a new method to synthesize PAC with high content Alb, by using the membrane reactor. NaOH solutions were managed to permeate slowly through the micropores of ultrafiltration membrane into AICl3 solutions under the suitable transmembrane pressure(TMP). Meanwhile NaOH drops size was limited to nano-scale, resulting in dramatical reduction of the characteristic diffusion time and great increment of contact interface between the strong base and Al ions in solution to favor the formation of Al(OH)4-, the precursor of Al13, so few precipitates and much Alb are produced. When the initial concentration of AlCl3/NaOH is 0.40/2.0 (mol/L), MWCO = 10000, TMP = 0.0085 MPa, T = 305 K and B (molar ratio of OH-/Al3+) = 2.25, the quantity of Alb attains about 80%. The results of 27Al-NMR determination showed that the Al13 content is equal to Alb content. And our PAC product has shown better flocculation effects than the commercial product.

  20. Temperature alters Plasmodium blocking by Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, Courtney C.; Blanford, Simon; Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2014-02-01

    Very recently, the Asian malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi) was stably transinfected with the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia, inducing refractoriness to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, conditions in the field can differ substantially from those in the laboratory. We use the rodent malaria P. yoelii, and somatically transinfected An. stephensi as a model system to investigate whether the transmission blocking potential of wAlbB is likely to be robust across different thermal environments. wAlbB reduced malaria parasite prevalence and oocyst intensity at 28°C. At 24°C there was no effect on prevalence but a marked increase in oocyst intensity. At 20°C, wAlbB had no effect on prevalence or intensity. Additionally, we identified a novel effect of wAlbB that resulted in reduced sporozoite development across temperatures, counterbalancing the oocyst enhancement at 24°C. Our results demonstrate complex effects of temperature on the Wolbachia-malaria interaction, and suggest the impacts of transinfection might vary across diverse environments.

  1. Bancroftian filariasis: effect of repeated treatment with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on microfilaraemia, antigenaemia and antifilarial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Hanan; Weil, Gary J; Ellethy, Abou Sree T; Ahmed, Ehab S; Setouhy, Maged El; Ramzy, Reda M R

    2006-07-01

    Diethylcarbamazine/albendazole (DEC/ALB) therapy is widely used in mass drug administration (MDA) programmes aimed at eliminating lymphatic filariasis. We studied the effects of repeated annual treatments with DEC/ALB on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia, filarial antigenaemia and IgG4 antibodies to Bm14 antigen. Fifty-seven subjects with asymptomatic microfilaraemia were treated with one or seven daily doses of DEC/ALB at time zero. All subjects were re-treated with single-dose DEC/ALB 12, 24 and 36 months later. The two treatment groups had comparable pre-treatment microfilaria counts. Multidose treatment cleared microfilaraemia more effectively than single-dose treatment. Filarial antigen levels decreased equally in both treatment groups. Total antigen clearance was observed in 29.6%, 52.0%, 63.6% and 79.5% of subjects at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. These clearance rates are much higher than those observed in prior treatment trials with DEC or ivermectin. Antibody levels increased 4 weeks after treatment and then slowly decreased in most subjects. Antibody tests turned negative in 20%, 35%, 39.4% and 52.5% of treated subjects at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months post treatment. These results show that the studied parameters decline at different rates and to differing degrees following DEC/ALB treatment. These findings have important implications regarding strategies for monitoring the effects of MDA in populations.

  2. Quantitative correlation of aflatoxin biomarker with dietary intake of aflatoxin in Tanzanian children.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Michael N; Kimanya, Martin E; Shirima, Candida P; Wild, Christopher P; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-08-01

    The association between aflatoxin intake from maize-based weaning food and aflatoxin albumin adducts (AF-alb) was investigated in 148 Tanzanian children aged between 12 and 22 months, at 2 visits 6 months apart. At the first visit (storage season) there was a significant correlation at the individual level between AF-alb (geometric mean 43.2 pg/mg albumin) and aflatoxin intake (geometric mean 81.7 ng/kg b.w./d) through maize-based weaning food (r = 0.51, p < 0.01). Overall, this correlation was r = 0.43 (p < 0.01). The AF-alb level in weaning-age children in Tanzania closely reflects aflatoxin intake from maize in weaning food. Exposure levels suggest children may be at risk from aflatoxin associated health effects.

  3. Current Evidence on the Use of Antifilarial Agents in the Management of Bancroftian Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2011-01-01

    Many trials have explored the efficacy of individual drugs and drug combinations to treat bancroftian filariasis. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for drug management of bancroftian filariasis. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) remains the prime antifilarial agent with a well-established microfilaricidal and some macrofilaricidal effects. Ivermectin (IVM) is highly microfilaricidal but minimally macrofilaricidal. The role of albendazole (ALB) in treatment regimens is not well established though the drug has a microfilaricidal effect. The combination of DEC+ALB has a better long-term impact than IVM+ALB. Recent trials have shown that doxycycline therapy against Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium of the parasite, is capable of reducing microfilaria rates and adult worm activity. Followup studies on mass drug administration (MDA) are yet to show a complete interruption of transmission, though the infection rates are reduced to a very low level. PMID:21234244

  4. [Synthesis of high-concentration polyaluminum chloride and its aluminium species distribution and transformation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua-zhang; Cai, Gu-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2004-09-01

    Using solid CaO as basification agent, the high-concentration polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was prepared by feeding total alkali at a time. The characteristics of the reaction and the distribution and transformation of the aluminium species were also studied. The experimental results show that the distinctive hydration of CaO can contribute to the high-concentration PAC whose Al concentration (Al(T)) and basicity (B) can reach 2.1 mol/L and 2.1 respectively. There is an optimal B value in any concentration of PAC, at which the Al(b) content is the highest. The optimal B value and the highest Al(b) content drops with the increasing of Al(T). The predominant reaction is the formation of Al(b) if B is less than the optimal B value, and the formation of Al(c) if B is more than the optimal B value.

  5. D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-protein disulphide in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Joyce, D A; Day, R O

    1990-10-01

    1. The plasma pharmacokinetics of D-penicillamine (D-pen) and D-penicillamine-albumin disulphide (D-pen-alb) were examined over a dosage interval in six patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In two of these, 24 h synovial fluid profiles of D-pen and D-pen-alb were also obtained. 2. D-pen was undetectable in plasma at the beginning of the study. The peak concentration (5.4 +/- 1.2 microM) occurred at between 45 min and 2 h and the mean elimination half-life was 0.6 h. D-pen-alb, however, was present at a mean plasma concentration of 19.1 microM prior to dosage, peaked at 26.2 microM and was eliminated with a half-life of 40 h. 3. D-pen concentrations in synovial fluid rose more slowly and peaked lower than in plasma. D-pen-alb was present in synovial fluid of the patients at 50.1% and 83.6%, respectively, of the simultaneous plasma concentration prior to dosage. Concentrations varied during the study interval, corresponding to changes in plasma concentrations. 4. These results demonstrate that D-pen forms stable conjugates with protein in treated patients. The presence of D-pen-alb in relatively high concentrations throughout the dosage interval contrasts with the low concentrations and rapid elimination of D-pen. Both D-pen and D-pen-alb were also shown to be present at the putative site of drug action (the inflamed synovial joint) in concentrations lower than those in plasma.

  6. Cellular Responses Modulated by FGF-2 Adsorbed on Albumin/Heparin Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kumorek, Marta; Kubies, Dana; Filová, Elena; Houska, Milan; Kasoju, Naresh; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Matějka, Roman; Krýslová, Markéta; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    In a typical cell culture system, growth factors immobilized on the cell culture surfaces can serve as a reservoir of bio-signaling molecules, without the need to supplement them additionally into the culture medium. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of albumin/heparin (Alb/Hep) assemblies for controlled binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The surfaces were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes albumin and heparin and were subsequently stabilized by covalent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. An analysis of the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy showed that two Alb/Hep bilayers are required to cover the surface of substrate. The formation of the Alb/Hep assemblies was monitored by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the infrared multiinternal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR MIRS) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The adsorption of FGF-2 on the cross-linked Alb/Hep was followed by SPR. The results revealed that FGF-2 binds to the Alb/Hep assembly in a dose and time-dependent manner up to the surface concentration of 120 ng/cm2. The bioactivity of the adsorbed FGF-2 was assessed in experiments in vitro, using calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (CPAE). CPAE cells could attach and proliferate on Alb/Hep surfaces. The adsorbed FGF-2 was bioactive and stimulated both the proliferation and the differentiation of CPAE cells. The improvement was more pronounced at a lower FGF-2 surface concentration (30 ng/cm2) than on surfaces with a higher concentration of FGF-2 (120 ng/cm2). PMID:25945799

  7. Cellular Responses Modulated by FGF-2 Adsorbed on Albumin/Heparin Layer-by-Layer Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kumorek, Marta; Kubies, Dana; Filová, Elena; Houska, Milan; Kasoju, Naresh; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Matějka, Roman; Krýslová, Markéta; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    In a typical cell culture system, growth factors immobilized on the cell culture surfaces can serve as a reservoir of bio-signaling molecules, without the need to supplement them additionally into the culture medium. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of albumin/heparin (Alb/Hep) assemblies for controlled binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The surfaces were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes albumin and heparin and were subsequently stabilized by covalent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. An analysis of the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy showed that two Alb/Hep bilayers are required to cover the surface of substrate. The formation of the Alb/Hep assemblies was monitored by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the infrared multiinternal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR MIRS) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The adsorption of FGF-2 on the cross-linked Alb/Hep was followed by SPR. The results revealed that FGF-2 binds to the Alb/Hep assembly in a dose and time-dependent manner up to the surface concentration of 120 ng/cm(2). The bioactivity of the adsorbed FGF-2 was assessed in experiments in vitro, using calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (CPAE). CPAE cells could attach and proliferate on Alb/Hep surfaces. The adsorbed FGF-2 was bioactive and stimulated both the proliferation and the differentiation of CPAE cells. The improvement was more pronounced at a lower FGF-2 surface concentration (30 ng/cm(2)) than on surfaces with a higher concentration of FGF-2 (120 ng/cm(2)).

  8. A new model for the discrimination between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhe; Ma, Wei-Ping; Shao, Xiao-Na; Yu, Chao-Hui; Du, Juan; Xiang, Zun; Guo, Gan-Hua; Zhang, Hong; Li, You-Ming; Yue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn’s disease (CD) is sometimes difficult in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to identify a series of independent serum markers capable of distinguishing between UC and CD. 140 UC and 174 CD patients hospitalized at The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University were recruited into this study. A panel of serum markers was quantified for each patient and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was used to determine a discrimination model. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was used to evaluate the performance of the model, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the model. Serum albumin (Alb), total cholesterol (TC), total calcium (TCa), platelet (Plt), glycyl proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (GPDA) and their ratios (Alb: Plt, Alb: GPDA, TCa: TC, and Plt: GPDA) were selected into the diagnosis model using BIC. The resulting CD/UC Index (CUI) is CUI = 1.901 + 0.425 Alb - 3.324 TC - 7.444 TCa + 0.018 Plt + 0.087 GPDA - 0.0007 Alb: Plt - 0.004 Alb: GPDA + 1.839 TC: TCa + 0.003 Plt: GPDA, with CUI > 0 incrementally favored a diagnosis of UC, while CUI < 0 corresponded to a higher likelihood of a diagnosis of CD. An average value of the AUC for the CUI model is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.80). The CUI, derived from commonly available serum biomarkers, could try to differentiate UC from CD in patients with unclear clinical features as a new approach to diagnosis. PMID:25785066

  9. Efficacy of single dose combinations of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M; Jayakody, R L; Weil, G J; Nirmalan, N; Jayasinghe, K S; Abeyewickrema, W; Rezvi Sheriff, M H; Rajaratnam, H N; Amarasekera, N; de Silva, D C; Michalski, M L; Dissanaike, A S

    1998-01-01

    In a 'blind' trial on 50 male asymptomatic microfilaraemic subjects with Wuchereria bancrofti infection, the safety, tolerability and filaricidal efficacy of a single dose of albendazole (alb) 600 mg alone or in combination with ivermectin (iver) 400 micrograms/kg or diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) 6 mg/kg was compared with a single dose of the combination DEC 6 mg/kg and iver 400 micrograms/kg over a period of 15 months after treatment. All but one subject, with 67 microfilariae (mf)/mL, had pre-treatment counts > 100 mf/mL. All 4 treatments significantly reduced mf counts, but alb/iver was the most effective regimen for clearing mf from night blood: 9 of 13 subjects (69%) were amicrofilaraemic by membrane filtration 15 months after treatment compared to one of 12 (8%), 3 of 11 (27%), and 3 of 10 (30%) in the groups treated with alb, alb/DEC, and DEC/iver, respectively. Filarial antigen tests suggested that all 4 treatments had significant activity against adult W. bancrofti; alb/DEC had the greatest activity according to this test, with antigen levels decreasing by 77% 15 months after therapy. All 4 regimens were well tolerated and clinically safe, although mild, self-limited systemic reactions were observed in all treatment groups. These results suggest that alb/iver is a safe and effective single dose regimen for suppression of microfilaraemia in bancroftian filariasis that could be considered for control programmes. Additional benefits of this combination are its potent, broad spectrum activity against intestinal helminths and potential relative safety in areas of Africa where DEC cannot be used for filariasis control because of co-endemicity with onchocerciasis or loiasis.

  10. Urinary albumin and transferrin as early diagnostic markers of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, Hiroto; SOGAWA, Kazuyuki; SAKAGUCHI, Kazuko; ABE, Saori; SAGIZAKA, Wataru; MOCHIZUKI, Shunsuke; HORIE, Waka; WATANABE, Toshifumi; SHIBATA, Yui; SATOH, Mamoru; SANDA, Akihiro; NOMURA, Fumio; SUZUKI, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Feline renal diseases are increasingly noted in veterinary practice. It is important to diagnose and identify the pathological basis of renal dysfunction accurately at an early stage, but there are only a few reports on this area in clinical veterinary medicine. We investigated the efficacy of measurement of urinary albumin (u-Alb) and urinary transferrin (u-Tf) for early diagnosis using 5-µl urine samples collected noninvasively by catheterization from normal (IRIS stage I) cats and cats with stage I chronic kidney disease (CKD). The u-Alb levels in normal and stage I CKD cats were 6.0 ± 4.5 and 11.2 ± 8.4 mg/dl, respectively, and the u-Tf levels were 0.09 ± 0.42 and 0.52 ± 0.79 mg/dl, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of u-Alb and u-Tf were higher than those of the currently used biomarker, the plasma creatinine level. The sensitivity of u-Alb was higher than that of u-Tf, whereas the specificity of u-Tf was higher than that of u-Alb. The validity of the threshold albumin level (20 mg/dl) was confirmed by measurements using SDS-PAGE. Since leakage of u-Tf in urine precedes leakage of u-Alb, inclusion of u-Tf in biochemistry tests may be appropriate for IRIS staging as a diagnostic marker of early diagnosis of renal disorder in cats. PMID:25819688

  11. Wastewater sludge dewaterability enhancement using hydroxyl aluminum conditioning: Role of aluminum speciation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bingdi; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Qiandi; Huang, Yangrui; Meng, Chenrui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-11-15

    Chemical conditioning is one of the most important processes for improve the performance of sludge dewatering device. Aluminum salt coagulant has been widely used in wastewater and sludge treatment. It is generally accepted that pre-formed speciation of aluminum salt coagulants (ASC) has an important influence on coagulation/flocculation performance. In this study, the interaction mechanisms between sludge particles and aluminum salt coagulants with different speciation of hydroxy aluminum were investigated by characterizing the changes in morphological and EPS properties. It was found that middle polymer state aluminum (Alb) and high polymer state aluminum (Alc) performed better than monomer aluminum and oligomeric state aluminum (Ala) in reduction of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and compressibility of wastewater sludge due to their higher charge neutralization and formed more compact flocs. Sludge was significantly acidified after addition Ala, while pH was much more stable under Alb and Alc conditioning due to their hydrolysis stability. The size of sludge flocs conditioned with Alb and Alc was small but flocs structure was denser and more compact, and floc strength is higher, while that formed from Ala is relatively large, but floc structure was loose, floc strength is relatively lower. Scanning environmental microscope analysis revealed that sludge flocs conditioned by Alb and Alc (especially PAC2.5 and Al13) exhibited obvious botryoidal structure, this is because sludge flocs formed by Alb and Alc were more compact and floc strength is high, it was easy generated plentiful tiny channels for water release. In addition, polymeric aluminum salt coagulant (Alb, Alc) had better performance in compressing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) structure and removing sticky protein-like substances from soluble EPS fraction, contributing to improvement of sludge filtration performance. Therefore, this study provides a novel solution for improving sludge

  12. Exploration and Validation of C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio as a Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Marker in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Tang, Ling-Long; Liu, Qing; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CRP/Alb), a novel inflammation-based marker, remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 1572 consecutive patients with non-metastatic NPC. Patients were randomly divided into a training set (n = 514) and validation set (n = 1058). The prognostic value of the CRP/Alb ratio and the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS; a well-recognized inflammation-based score) was assessed. Results: Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified 0.05 as the optimal CRP/Alb cut-off value for disease failure in the training set. Patients with a CRP/Alb > 0.05 had poorer overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the training set (all P < 0.05). These results were confirmed in the validation set (all P < 0.05) and the whole cohort (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 1.394; 95% CI, 1.004-1.937; P = 0.048) and DMFS (HR, 1.545; 95% CI, 1.124-2.122; P = 0.007), but not for DFS (P = 0.083). The mGPS had no significant independent prognostic value for any end-point. Conclusion: CRP/Alb ratio is an useful prognostic indicator in patients with NPC, independent of disease stage. PMID:27471556

  13. Therapeutic advantage of inhaled tacrolimus-bound albumin nanoparticles in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jisoo; Lee, Changkyu; Hwang, Ha Shin; Kim, Bomi; Thao, Le Quang; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lim, Jong-Lae; Choi, Han-Gon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2016-02-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) is an immunosuppressant that inhibits translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells and has therapeutic potential for pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a sustained-release type inhaled Tac formulation for treating bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inhalation has many meaningful advantages over injections, such as improved patient compliance, safety, and therapeutic effect. To this end, we fabricated inhalable albumin nanoparticles with bound Tac (Tac Alb-NPs) at a daily therapeutic dose (60 μg/mouse) using a high-pressure homogenizer via nanoparticle albumin-bound technology. The Tac Alb-NPs were spherical, ∼ 182.1 ± 28.5 nm in size, with a zeta potential of -34.5 ± 0.3 mV, and the Tac incorporation efficiency was as high as ∼ 85.3%. The bound tacrolimus was released gradually from Tac Alb-NPs for ∼ 24 h, which was sufficient time for pulmonary delivery. Most of all, the inhaled Tac Alb-NPs displayed remarkable anti-fibrotic efficacy in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was much better than the efficacy resulting from intraperitoneal administration of Tac (60 μg/mouse) based on histopathological results (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining). Furthermore, the inhaled Cy5.5-labelled Tac Alb-NPs were visualized throughout the lungs of mice for ∼ 48 h, indicating direct exposure to fibrotic tissues in lung lesions. In conclusion, Tac Alb-NPs offer great potential as an inhalation delivery formulation for treating pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, these NPs would be particularly useful as an effective and safe prototype for delivering practically insoluble therapeutic agents into the lungs.

  14. A randomized clinical trial comparing single- and multi-dose combination therapy with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    El Setouhy, Maged; Ramzy, Reda M R; Ahmed, Ehab S; Kandil, Amr M; Hussain, Omar; Farid, Hoda A; Helmy, Hanan; Weil, Gary J

    2004-02-01

    The Global Program for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis calls for mass drug administration for endemic populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa with a single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (Alb) annually for 4-6 years. Single-dose DEC/Alb dramatically reduces blood microfilaria (MF) counts, but most treated subjects fail to completely clear MF after a single dose. A more effective regimen might reduce the number of years required for elimination programs. We performed a randomized clinical trial in Egyptian adults with asymptomatic microfilaremia to compare treatment with seven daily doses of oral DEC (6 mg/kg) and Alb (400 mg) with a single dose of the same combination. We also studied the effect of re-treatment with single-dose DEC/Alb 12 months after the first treatment course. Multi-dose DEC/Alb was significantly more effective than single-dose therapy for reducing and clearing microfilaremia (mean reduction in MF/ml relative to pretreatment counts at 12 months, 99.6% versus 85.7%, with complete clearance in 75% versus 23.1%). The two regimens had similar activity against adult filarial worms, as indicated by serial ultrasound assessments. Neither regimen resulted in complete clearance of filarial antigenemia. There was no difference in adverse events, which were mild to moderate. Blood microfilaria and parasite antigen clearance rates increased following re-treatment. Multi-dose DEC/Alb may be a useful option for filariasis elimination programs, especially in the first year (when enthusiasm for mass drug administration and coverage rates are high), to quickly reduce community MF loads and transmission rates.

  15. Serotonin, but not dopamine, controls the stress response and anxiety-like behavior in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Fossat, Pascal; Bacqué-Cazenave, Julien; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Cattaert, Daniel; Delbecque, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    In the animal kingdom, biogenic amines are widespread modulators of the nervous system that frequently interact to control mood. Our previous investigations in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) have established that stress induces changes in brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations that are responsible for the appearance of anxiety-like behavior (ALB). Here, we further analyze the roles of 5-HT and another biogenic amine, dopamine (DA), on the crayfish response to stress. We show that the intensity of crayfish ALB depends on the intensity of stressful stimulation and is associated with increased concentrations of 5-HT in the brain. These 5-HT levels were significantly correlated, before, as well as after stress, with those of DA, which were approximately 3- to 5-times less abundant. However, whereas the degree of ALB was clearly correlated with brain 5-HT concentrations, it was not significantly correlated with DA. Moreover, in contrast to injections of 5-HT, DA injections were not able to elicit a stress response or ALB. In addition, 5-HT and DA levels were not modified by treatment with the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, confirming that suppression of ALB by this GABA-A receptor ligand acts downstream and is independent of changes in crayfish bioamine levels. Our study also provides evidence that the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT injections can be prevented by a preliminary injection of 5-HT antagonists. Altogether, our results emphasize that the rises in brain concentrations of 5-HT, but not DA, play a role in controlling the induction and the intensity of crayfish ALB.

  16. Field calibration and validation of remote-sensing surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pe'eri, Shachak; McLeod, Andy; Lavoie, Paul; Ackerman, Seth D.; Gardner, James; Parrish, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Optical Collection Suite (OCS) is a ground-truth sampling system designed to perform in situ measurements that help calibrate and validate optical remote-sensing and swath-sonar surveys for mapping and monitoring coastal ecosystems and ocean planning. The OCS system enables researchers to collect underwater imagery with real-time feedback, measure the spectral response, and quantify the water clarity with simple and relatively inexpensive instruments that can be hand-deployed from a small vessel. This article reviews the design and performance of the system, based on operational and logistical considerations, as well as the data requirements to support a number of coastal science and management projects. The OCS system has been operational since 2009 and has been used in several ground-truth missions that overlapped with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and swath-sonar bathymetric surveys in the Gulf of Maine, southwest Alaska, and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Research projects that have used the system include a comparison of backscatter intensity derived from acoustic (multibeam/interferometric sonars) versus active optical (ALB) sensors, ALB bottom detection, and seafloor characterization using HSI and ALB.

  17. Questioning Collectives and Agencies: A Commentary on Curricular Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This commentary explores theoretical alternatives for viewing the problem identified by Volny Fages and Virginie Albe in their article entitled Social issues in nanoscience and nanotechnology Master's degrees: The socio-political stakes of curricular choices. An approach to social research is suggested that would render visible the associations…

  18. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: I-Impact of Wolbachia Infection on the Fitness of Triple- and Double-Infected Strains of Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background (“Guangzhou City, China”) and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China. PMID:25849812

  19. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-02-18

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out dnd, a factor required for germ cell survival in vertebrates. To avoid studying mosaic animals, sgRNA targeting alb was simultaneously used as a visual tracer since the phenotype of alb KO is complete loss of pigmentation. Induced mutations for the tracer (alb) and the target (dnd) genes were highly correlated and produced germ cell-less fish lacking pigmentation, underlining the suitability of alb KO to serve as tracer for targeted double allelic mutations in F0 animals in species with prohibitively long generation times. This is also the first report describing dnd knockout in any fish species. Analyzing gene expression and histology of dnd KO fish revealed that sex differentiation of the somatic compartment does not depend on the presence of germ cells. However, the organization of the ovarian somatic compartment seems compromised in mutant fish.

  20. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-01-01

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out dnd, a factor required for germ cell survival in vertebrates. To avoid studying mosaic animals, sgRNA targeting alb was simultaneously used as a visual tracer since the phenotype of alb KO is complete loss of pigmentation. Induced mutations for the tracer (alb) and the target (dnd) genes were highly correlated and produced germ cell-less fish lacking pigmentation, underlining the suitability of alb KO to serve as tracer for targeted double allelic mutations in F0 animals in species with prohibitively long generation times. This is also the first report describing dnd knockout in any fish species. Analyzing gene expression and histology of dnd KO fish revealed that sex differentiation of the somatic compartment does not depend on the presence of germ cells. However, the organization of the ovarian somatic compartment seems compromised in mutant fish. PMID:26888627

  1. Estimation of Residual Peritoneal Volume Using Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, Konstantinos P; Fotopoulos, Andrew D; Balafa, Olga C; Tsiouris, Spyridon Th; Triandou, Eleni G; Al-Bokharhli, Jichad B; Kitsos, Athanasios C; Dounousi, Evagelia C; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Residual peritoneal volume (RPV) may contribute in the development of ultrafiltration failure in patients with normal transcapillary ultrafiltration. The aim of this study was to estimate the RPV using intraperitoneal technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid (Tc). Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis were studied. RPV was estimated by: 1) intraperitoneal instillation of Tc (RPV-Tc) and 2) classic Twardowski calculations using endogenous solutes, such as urea (RPV-u), creatinine (RPV-cr), and albumin (RPV-alb). Each method's reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of patients in two consecutive measurements 48 h apart. Both methods displayed reproducibility (r = 0.93, p = 0.001 for RPVTc and r = 0.90, p = 0.001 for RPV-alb) between days 1 and 2, respectively. We found a statistically significant difference between RPV-Tc and RPV-cr measurements (347.3 ± 116.7 vs. 450.0 ± 67.8 ml; p =0.001) and RPV-u (515.5 ± 49.4 ml; p < 0.001), but not with RPV-alb (400.1 ± 88.2 ml; p = 0.308). A good correlation was observed only between RPV-Tc and RPV-alb (p < 0.001). The Tc method can estimate the RPV as efficiently as the high molecular weight endogenous solute measurement method. It can also provide an imaging estimate of the intraperitoneal distribution of RPV.

  2. Liver-specific deletion of the Plpp3 gene alters plasma lipid composition and worsens atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Hilvo, Mika; Parolini, Cinzia; Ganzetti, Giulia S; Dellera, Federica; Ekroos, Kim; Jänis, Minna; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Sirtori, Cesare R; Laaksonen, Reijo; Chiesa, Giulia

    2017-03-14

    The PLPP3 gene encodes for a ubiquitous enzyme that dephosphorylates several lipid substrates. Genome-wide association studies identified PLPP3 as a gene that plays a role in coronary artery disease susceptibility. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Plpp3 deletion on atherosclerosis development in mice. Because the constitutive deletion of Plpp3 in mice is lethal, conditional Plpp3 hepatocyte-specific null mice were generated by crossing floxed Plpp3 mice with animals expressing Cre recombinase under control of the albumin promoter. The mice were crossed onto the athero-prone apoE(-/-) background to obtain Plpp3(f/f)apoE(-/-)Alb-Cre(+) and Plpp3(f/f)apoE(-/-)Alb-Cre(-) offspring, the latter of which were used as controls. The mice were fed chow or a Western diet for 32 or 12 weeks, respectively. On the Western diet, Alb-Cre(+) mice developed more atherosclerosis than Alb-Cre(-) mice, both at the aortic sinus and aorta. Lipidomic analysis showed that hepatic Plpp3 deletion significantly modified the levels of several plasma lipids involved in atherosclerosis, including lactosylceramides, lysophosphatidic acids, and lysophosphatidylinositols. In conclusion, Plpp3 ablation in mice worsened atherosclerosis development. Lipidomic analysis suggested that the hepatic Plpp3 deletion may promote atherosclerosis by increasing plasma levels of several low-abundant pro-atherogenic lipids, thus providing a molecular basis for the observed results.

  3. Biological Activities of a Mixture of Biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and Alkaline Lipase from Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Quadros, Cedenir; Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Marta; Maria Pastore, Gláucia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix) on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m-1, indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL-1). In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm-2. However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05). PMID:24031642

  4. Success rate of implants placed in autogenous bone blocks versus allogenic bone blocks: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Motamedian, Saeed Reza; Khojaste, Moein; Khojasteh, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review and compare survival/success rate of dental implants inserted in autogenous and allogenic bone blocks (ALBs). A PubMed search was performed from January 1990 to June 2014 limited to English language and human studies. Studies that reported treatment outcome of implants inserted in augmented alveolar ridges with autogenous or ALBs were included. Primary search identified 470 studies. For autogenous bone block (ABB) 36 articles and for ALB 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on implant survival/success rate of both techniques was limited to observational studies with relatively small sample sizes. Study design, treatment methods, follow-ups, defect location, and morphology varied among studies. The range of implant survival and success rates in ABB was from 73.8% to 100% and 72.8% to 100%, respectively. The corresponding numbers for ALB were 95.3–100% and 93.7–100%, respectively. A definite conclusion could not be reached. Future studies with long-term follow-ups are required to further elucidate this issue. PMID:27563613

  5. Metalworking method for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    Effective fabrication methods for aluminum/boron and aluminum/graphite composites have been investigated. Drawing and rolling were found to be adaptable to Al/B fabrication. Although graphite composites are not amenable to standard metal processing methods, it may be possible to reduce fabrication costs of Al/C through electron-beam heating.

  6. 78 FR 27853 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio AGENCY: Animal and Plant... prevent the artificial spread of ALB to noninfested areas of the United States. Surveys conducted in Ohio... Clermont County, OH. The State of Ohio has quarantined the infested areas to prevent the further spread...

  7. 75 FR 34320 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and... regulated articles from that area. We are also updating the list of regulated articles in order to reflect... regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of ALB to noninfested areas...

  8. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgar, A.S.; Verkhoglyadova, T.S.; Samsonov, G.V.

    1985-02-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  9. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolgar, A. S.; Verkhoglyadova, T. S.; Samsonov, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome; and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide; and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  10. 77 FR 24954 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals to Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals to Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change... 17227, BPH-20120327ALB, From HUDSON, IA, To EVANSDALE; HOG RADIO, INC., Station KLYR-FM, Facility...

  11. Liver-specific deletion of the Plpp3 gene alters plasma lipid composition and worsens atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Hilvo, Mika; Parolini, Cinzia; Ganzetti, Giulia S.; Dellera, Federica; Ekroos, Kim; Jänis, Minna; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Laaksonen, Reijo; Chiesa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The PLPP3 gene encodes for a ubiquitous enzyme that dephosphorylates several lipid substrates. Genome-wide association studies identified PLPP3 as a gene that plays a role in coronary artery disease susceptibility. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Plpp3 deletion on atherosclerosis development in mice. Because the constitutive deletion of Plpp3 in mice is lethal, conditional Plpp3 hepatocyte-specific null mice were generated by crossing floxed Plpp3 mice with animals expressing Cre recombinase under control of the albumin promoter. The mice were crossed onto the athero-prone apoE−/− background to obtain Plpp3f/fapoE−/−Alb-Cre+ and Plpp3f/fapoE−/−Alb-Cre− offspring, the latter of which were used as controls. The mice were fed chow or a Western diet for 32 or 12 weeks, respectively. On the Western diet, Alb-Cre+ mice developed more atherosclerosis than Alb-Cre− mice, both at the aortic sinus and aorta. Lipidomic analysis showed that hepatic Plpp3 deletion significantly modified the levels of several plasma lipids involved in atherosclerosis, including lactosylceramides, lysophosphatidic acids, and lysophosphatidylinositols. In conclusion, Plpp3 ablation in mice worsened atherosclerosis development. Lipidomic analysis suggested that the hepatic Plpp3 deletion may promote atherosclerosis by increasing plasma levels of several low-abundant pro-atherogenic lipids, thus providing a molecular basis for the observed results. PMID:28291223

  12. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    for Battlefield Management Systems now identified as “Digitization” Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and below (FBCB2) and led Vetronics -applying...to Development of AirLand Battle (ALB) .................................................................. 31 Part III: Case Study 2: From OIF to RAF...particular wars, campaigns, battles , generals and armies. Yet historians have largely neglected the course of events leading to given wars

  13. Interactions of Quinclorac with a bioherbicidal strain of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our laboratory, the fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (IMI Accession No. 3601690) (MV), is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi] and other invasive weeds. We have found that spore and mycelial formulations of MV exhibit relatively rapid bioher...

  14. Heterogeneity of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) and albumin containing cells in normal and pathological permissive states for AFP production: AFP containing cells induced in adult rats recapitulate the appearance of AFP containing hepatocytes in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Sell, S

    1980-01-01

    The cellular localization of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB) in permissive states for AFP synthesis has been examined. The cells containing AFP associated with permissive states in the adult are similar in appearance to cells that are present during the development of fetal liver. In fetal liver, AFP is seen in most developing hepatocytes ranging from small 'oval' like cells to larger dividing hepatocytes and in cells organized in glandular structures. Following exposure to some chemical hepatocarcinogens, AFP can also be seen in small 'oval' cells, ductal-like cells, and larger atypical hepatocytes that form glandular-like structures. Following partial hepatectomy or galactosamine-induced live injury, AFP is seen in a few large parenchymal cells usually containing identifiable chromatin Cells which contain AFP almost always contain ALB as well, but for each cell type there are many more ALB containing cells than AFP containing cells. ALB and AFP containing hepatoma cells are more frequently located adjacent to tumor vessels and AFP production by hepatoma 777 in vitro is associated with the growth state of the tumor. The AFP containing cells that are seen during restitutive proliferation most likely arise from deregulation of proliferating adult hepatocytes. The non-hepatoma AFP containing cells that appear early during carcinogenesis may arise in the adult by retrodifferentiation of hepatocytes or by proliferation of stem cells. These morphologically different AFP containing cells may or may not be precursors of the hepatocellular carcinomas which develop later.

  15. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, while plants in turn utilize immune receptors to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. alb...

  16. 77 FR 40564 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Asian Longhorned Beetle Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    .... Supporting documents and any comments we receive on this docket may be viewed at http://www.regulations.gov... tree-dependent industries such as timber, maple syrup, nurseries, and tourism. One of the most common ways the ALB can spread is by human transport. Of particular concern is firewood cut from personal...

  17. Development of Toxicity Data for Munition Compounds to Support Toxicity Reference Value Derivations for Wildlife

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    lacked righting reflex. Anesthesia prior to euthanasia was achieved via carbon dioxide exposure, and euthanasia was completed through decapitation and...10 concentrations of compound up to 5000 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) and observed daily. They were fed between 10–20 flightless fruit flies...the following clinical chemistries: albumin (ALB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), calcium (Ca), cholesterol (CHOL

  18. FORMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF BENZENE OXIDE IN MOUSE, RAT, AND HUMAN BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the formation and disposition of benzene oxide (BO), the initial metabolite arising from oxidation of benzene by cytochrome P450. In this study, reactions of BO with hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) were investigated in blood from B6C3F1 mice, F344 rats, ...

  19. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF BENZENE OXIDE AND 1,4-BENZOQUINONE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF BENZENE TO F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of cysteinyl adducts of benzene oxide (BO) and mono-S-substituted cysteinyl adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) was investigated in both hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) following administration of a single oral dose of 400 mg [U-14C/13C6]benzene/kg body weight ...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE RADICAL-MEDIATED PRODUCTION OF BENZENE OXIDE PROTEIN ADDUCTS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    High background levels of benzene oxide (BO) adducts with hemoglobin and albumin (BO-Hb and BO-Alb) have been measured in unexposed humans and animals. To test the influence of radical-mediated pathways on production of these BO-protein adducts, we employed Fenton chemistry to...

  1. Pentapeptide-repeat proteins that act as topoisomerase poison resistance factors have a common dimer interface

    PubMed Central

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Zhang, Yong; Blanchard, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The protein AlbG is a self-resistance factor against albicidin, a nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide with antibiotic and phytotoxic properties produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. Primary-sequence analysis indicates that AlbG is a member of the pentapeptide-repeat family of proteins (PRP). The structure of AlbG from X. albilineans was determined at 2.0 Å resolution by SAD phasing using data collected from a single trimethyllead acetate derivative on a home source. AlbG folds into a right-handed quadrilateral β-helix composed of approximately eight semi-regular coils. The regularity of the β-­helix is blemished by a large loop/deviation in the β-helix between coils 4 and 5. The C-terminus of the β-helix is capped by a dimerization module, yielding a dimer with a 110 Å semi-collinear β-helical axis. This method of dimer formation appears to be common to all PRP proteins that confer resistance to topoisomerase poisons and contrasts with most PRP proteins, which are typically monomeric. PMID:21393830

  2. Beer consumption and changes in stability of human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, S; Caspi, A; Goshev, I; Moncheva, S; Zemser, M; Weisz, M; Libman, I; Lerner, H T; Trakhtenberg, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of beer consumption (BC) on the functional and structural properties of human serum proteins (HSP). Thirty-eight volunteers (after coronary bypass) were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG). Nineteen volunteers of the EG consumed 330 mL per day of beer (about 20 g of alcohol) for 30 consecutive days. The CG volunteers consumed mineral water instead of beer. Blood samples were collected from EG and CG patients before and after the experiment. Albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), and methanol-precipitable proteins (MPP) from human serum were denatured with 8 M urea. Fluorescence and electrophoresis were employed in order to elucidate urea-induced conformational changes and structural behavior of proteins. The measured fluorescence emission spectra were used to estimate the stability of native and denatured protein fractions before and after BC. It was found that before BC the fractions most stable to urea denaturation were Glo, Alb, and MPP fractions. After BC in most of the beer-consuming patients (EG) some changes in native and denatured protein fractions were detected: a tendency to lower stability and minor structural deviations. These qualitative changes were more profound in MPP than in Alb and Glo. Thus, Glo is more resistible to alcohol influence than Alb, which in turn is more resistible than MPP. No serum protein changes were detected in patients of CG.

  3. Cyclodipeptide synthases are a family of tRNA-dependent peptide bond-forming enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gondry, Muriel; Sauguet, Ludovic; Belin, Pascal; Thai, Robert; Amouroux, Rachel; Tellier, Carine; Tuphile, Karine; Jacquet, Mickaël; Braud, Sandrine; Courçon, Marie; Masson, Cédric; Dubois, Steven; Lautru, Sylvie; Lecoq, Alain; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Genet, Roger; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2009-06-01

    Cyclodipeptides and their derivatives belong to the diketopiperazine (DKP) family, which is comprised of a broad array of natural products that exhibit useful biological properties. In the few known DKP biosynthetic pathways, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are involved in the synthesis of cyclodipeptides that constitute the DKP scaffold, except in the albonoursin (1) pathway. Albonoursin, or cyclo(alpha,beta-dehydroPhe-alpha,beta-dehydroLeu), is an antibacterial DKP produced by Streptomyces noursei. In this pathway, the formation of the cyclo(Phe-Leu) (2) intermediate is catalyzed by AlbC, a small protein unrelated to NRPSs. We demonstrated that AlbC uses aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates to catalyze the formation of the DKP peptide bonds. Moreover, several other bacterial proteins, presenting moderate similarity to AlbC, also use aminoacyl-tRNAs to synthesize various cyclodipeptides. Therefore, AlbC and these related proteins belong to a newly defined family of enzymes that we have named cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs).

  4. The study on clinical value of the detection about serum and Unconjugated Bilirubin in diagnosis of neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangzhou; Wang, Jiefei; Huang, Nannan; Yu, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the clinical value of the detection about serum and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in neonatal jaundice was studied to found an effective and rapid method for diagnose of neonatal jaundice. ALB (Serum Albumin), total serum bilirubin (TSB) and UCB were detected by ELISA method among the 100 cases with neonatal jaundice selected for the study. The values of ALB, UCB and TSB in moderate jaundice patients were (42.83±3.87) g/L, (287.35±44.38) μm/L, (304.16±43.40) μm/L, respectively; as for the severe jaundice patients, the values were (38.41±4.82) g/L, (354.38±48.75) μm/L, (375.20±47.51) μm/L. The results showed significant differences with the p< 0.05 between moderate and severe jaundice patients. The level of ALB, UCB, TSB in hemolytic jaundice, obstructive jaundice and jaundice caused by other infections also had significant differences, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The detection of ALB and UCB provides a useful method for the diagnosis and assessment of neonatal jaundice.

  5. [The Changing World of Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changing Education: A Journal for Teachers and Administrators, 1997

    1997-01-01

    "Changing Education" is targeted for Australian teachers and administrators. This theme issue, which the editorial defines as about "The Changing World of Continuing Education," contains eight articles and an editorial about recent developments in adult literacy and basic education (ALBE), vocational education and training, and…

  6. [Suppression of activity of Candida albicans proteinases by cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kutyreva, M P; Mukhametzianova, A R; Ulakhovich, N A

    2012-01-01

    Influence of cobalt (II) chloride on the system of Candida albicans proteinase (SAP C. alb.) (both in solution and immobilized on a surface of nitrocellulose membranes) has been investigated. In solution cobalt chloride inactivated inducible but not constitute enzyme. In the heterogenous sytem proteolitical effect of the cobalt ion on inductible proteinase was also observed.

  7. Combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: I-impact of wolbachia infection on the fitness of triple- and double-infected strains of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background ("Guangzhou City, China") and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China.

  8. Potential Applications of Multiple Instrument Approach Concepts at 101 U.S. Airports,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    34 -. -. -. -.-." " .’ .’ . -. .. ,- -. " - -.". . . . .. .. . . -. "- " ., - "- . ,, - , . % . . , - - , . 0 0 ’, - ~~~~~~~~.. .... . ,_...,..... ....... . .•-, -. ,.-’,-,%,,.,................., -INTRODUCTION 1._1 Backgroun " The Federal Aviation...B ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF AIRPORTS FOR APPENDIX A _ Page AKRON CANTON, OH (CAK) A-25 ALBANY (ALB) A-15 .’.." ALBUQUERQUE (ABQ) A-52 - ANCHORAGE ( ANC ) A

  9. A New Type of Debate for Global Warming and Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautier, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Expanding on some ideas introduced in the paper by Albe and Gombert (2012) "Students' communication, argumentation and knowledge in a citizen' conference on global warming", I explore two issues relevant to their work: global warming (GW) as a socioscientific controversy and scientific literacy in regards to climate change science. For the first…

  10. A Perspective on Knowing about Global Warming and a Critical Comment about Schools and Curriculum in Relation to Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this response to Virginie Albe and Marie-Jose Gombert's (2011) article on a research study of students' school science conference on global warming is to develop some thoughts on covert assumptions which underpin any such conference. My comments refer to the politics behind the production of scientific knowledge of climate change and…

  11. 78 FR 50022 - Environmental Impact Statement; Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... room, which is located in room 1141 of the USDA South Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW... other wood packing material accompanying cargo shipments from Asia. ALB was first discovered in the... of control alternatives available to the Agency, including a no action alternative. It will be...

  12. STEM Policy and Science Education: Scientistic Curriculum and Sociopolitical Silences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This essay responds to the contribution of Volny Fages and Virginia Albe, in this volume, to the field of research in science education, and places it in the context of the plethora of government and industry policy documents calling for more Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education in schools and universities and the…

  13. Receptor mediated disruption of retinal pigment epithelium function in acute glycated-albumin exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dahrouj, Mohammad; Desjardins, Danielle M.; Liu, Yueying; Crosson, Craig E.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a major cause of visual impairment. Although DME is generally believed to be a microvascular disease, dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can also contribute to its development. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are thought to be one of the key factors involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes in the eye, and we have previously demonstrated a rapid breakdown of RPE function following glycated-albumin (Glyc-alb, a common AGE mimetic) administration in monolayer cultures of fetal human RPE cells. Here we present new evidence that this response is attributed to apically oriented AGE receptors (RAGE). Moreover, time-lapse optical coherence tomography in Dutch-belted rabbits 48 hours post intravitreal Glyc-alb injections demonstrated a significant decrease in RPE-mediated fluid resorption in vivo. In both the animal and tissue culture models, the response to Glyc-alb was blocked by the relatively selective RAGE antagonist, FPS-ZM1 and was also inhibited by ZM323881, a relatively selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) antagonist. Our data establish that the Glyc-alb-induced breakdown of RPE function is mediated via specific RAGE and VEGF-R2 signaling both in vitro and in vivo. These results are consistent with the notion that the RPE is a key player in the pathogenesis of DME. PMID:26070987

  14. Applications of Simulator Freeze to Carrier Glideslope Tracking Instruction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    University College Philadelphia, PA 19103 of Arts & Sciences Geneseo, NY 14454 Academic Library 2 ATZI -AG-ALB U.S. Army Transportation School Bldg 400...uS Army Institute of Administration 1 Department of Defense (Navy Office) Attn: ATZI -DCO-EA Camberra ACT 2600 Ft Benjamin Harrison, IN 46216 AUSTRALIA

  15. PEG-albumin supraplasma expansion is due to increased vessel wall shear stress induced by blood viscosity shear thinning.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishna; Tsai, Amy G; Cabrales, Pedro; Meng, Fantao; Acharya, Seetharama A; Tartakovsky, Daniel M; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2012-06-15

    We studied the extreme hemodilution to a hematocrit of 11% induced by three plasma expanders: polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated albumin (PEG-Alb), 6% 70-kDa dextran, and 6% 500-kDa dextran. The experimental component of our study relied on microelectrodes and cardiac output to measure both the rheological properties of plasma-expander blood mixtures and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in vessel walls. The modeling component consisted of an analysis of the distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) in the microvessels. Our experiments demonstrated that plasma expansion with PEG-Alb caused a state of supraperfusion with cardiac output 40% above baseline, significantly increased NO vessel wall bioavailability, and lowered peripheral vascular resistance. We attributed this behavior to the shear thinning nature of blood and PEG-Alb mixtures. To substantiate this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of non-Newtonian blood flow in a vessel. Our model used the Quemada rheological constitutive relationship to express blood viscosity in terms of both hematocrit and shear rate. The model revealed that the net effect of the hemodilution induced by relatively low-viscosity shear thinning PEG-Alb plasma expanders is to reduce overall blood viscosity and to increase the WSS, thus intensifying endothelial NO production. These changes act synergistically, significantly increasing cardiac output and perfusion due to lowered overall peripheral vascular resistance.

  16. Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Min; Tan, Wei-Min; Deng, Wei-Xiong; Zhuang, Si-Min; Luo, Jian-Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of albumin (ALB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-four HCC patients with cirrhosis who underwent hepatectomy were studied. ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied. At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control. RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:16015705

  17. Responses of Mastomys coucha, that have been infected with Brugia malayi and treated with diethylcarbamazine or albendazole, to re-exposure to infection.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Gaur, R L; Dixit, S; Saleemuddin, M; Murthy, P K

    2004-12-01

    The responses of Mastomys coucha to re-exposure to infection with homologous infective larvae (L(3)) of Brugia malayi were investigated, after initial infections with the nematode had been treated subcutaneously for 5 days with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 150 mg citrate/kg. day) or albendazole (ALB; 50 mg/kg. day). The parasite burdens, serum concentrations of IgG reacting with a soluble somatic extract of adult B. malayi (BmAS), and cytokine and lymphocyte-proliferative responses to filarial antigen (BmAS) or mitogen (concanavilin A or lipopolysaccharide) were studied. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that re-infection with L(3) was only successful in the DEC-treated animals, not the ALB-treated ones. When the ALB-treated animals were re-exposed, interferon-gamma production decreased, lymphocyte-proliferative responses either remained the same (with concanavilin A) or decreased (with BmAS), and concentrations of specific IgG decreased. When the DEC-treated animals were re-exposed, microfilaraemias re-appeared and, although production of interferon-gamma decreased, there were no detectable lymphocyte proliferative responses, and concentrations of specific IgG remained unchanged. Taken together, the results indicate that, at least in the M. coucha model of human filariasis, ALB but not DEC treatment may help to prevent the development of re-infections.

  18. Children and adolescents infected with Wuchereria bancrofti in Greater Recife, Brazil: a randomized, year-long clinical trial of single treatments with diethylcarbamazine or diethylcarbamazine-albendazole.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, J A; Belo, C; Lins, R; Dreyer, G

    2007-07-01

    In filariasis-endemic areas beyond sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organization's recommended strategy for interrupting transmission of the causative parasites is annual, single-dose, mass treatment with a combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC; given at 6 mg/kg) and albendazole (ALB; given at 400 mg) for 4-6 years (the minimum estimated life-span of the adult parasites). In an open, hospital-based, randomized and controlled trial, with a blinded evaluation of outcome, 82 children and adolescents from Recife, all with Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemias, were given either DEC alone (6 mg/kg) or the same dose of DEC combined with ALB (at 400 mg/patient). Every 90 days for 1 year after the single treatment, each patient was checked for microfilaraemia by the filtration of up to 5 ml of venous blood collected at night. One year post-treatment, 16 (39%) of the 41 patients given DEC alone and 20 (49%) of the 41 given DEC-ALB were found microfilaraemic (relative risk=0.8, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.49-1.31) and the corresponding geometric mean levels of microfilaraemia were 2.0% and 1.8% of the levels recorded immediately pre-treatment, respectively (P>0.05). In terms of the prevalences and intensities of microfilaraemia, therefore, the addition of ALB to the DEC appeared to offer no significant benefit.

  19. Wolbachia Density and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: Concerns with Using Artificial Wolbachia Infection as a Vector Suppression Tool

    PubMed Central

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Marini, Francesca; Desiderio, Angiola; Puggioli, Arianna; Moretti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP) females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers) and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20). Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%–50% depending on the site and period). ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However, crosses between wild males having low wAlbA density and ARwP females may be partially fertile. In the case of local establishment of the transinfected mosquito line, this occurrence may favor the replacement of the wild-type mosquitoes with the ARwP line, thus reducing the long-term efficacy of incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus. PMID:25812130

  20. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

    PubMed

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Marini, Francesca; Desiderio, Angiola; Puggioli, Arianna; Moretti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP) females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers) and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20). Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%-50% depending on the site and period). ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However, crosses between wild males having low wAlbA density and ARwP females may be partially fertile. In the case of local establishment of the transinfected mosquito line, this occurrence may favor the replacement of the wild-type mosquitoes with the ARwP line, thus reducing the long-term efficacy of incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus.

  1. Role of plasma S-nitrosothiols in regulation of blood pressure in anesthetized rabbits with special references to hypotensive effects of acetylcholine and nitrovasodilators.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Takaharu; Miwa, Tomoko; Nishizawa, Naoki; Shinkawa, Ikumi; Yoshida, Junko; Kawada, Tomie; Nishio, Matomo

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory role of plasma nitrosothiols (R-SNOs) under steady-state conditions and their possible contribution to pharmacological vasodilation were systematically examined in anesthetized rabbits. Nitrosocystein (Cys-NO), S-nitrosoglutathione (G-SNO), and S-nitrosoalbumin (Alb-SNO) were determined by HPLC-Saville's method with respective sensitivities of 1, 1, and 5 nM. These R-SNOs were not detected under steady-state conditions even in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide, a thiol protective agent used to prevent transnitrosation of R-SNOs. Development of plasma Alb-SNO below 300 nM was observed after intravenous injection (i.v.) of nitric oxide (NO) solution (0.1 to 3 ml/g), NOC7 (an NO releasing agent, above 1 µg/kg), and a low dose of Alb-SNO (10 nmol/kg). However, blood pressure was not significantly reduced by NO solution or Alb-SNO. Intravenous injection of a high dose of Alb-SNO (300 nmol/kg) significantly reduced blood pressure with the appearance not only Alb-SNO in micromolar level in plasma, but also G-SNO in lesser degree. Conversely, the hypotensive effect of Cys-NO (300 nmol/kg, i.v.) and G-SNO (300 nmol/kg, i.v.) accompanied development of Alb-SNO (micromolar level), but not Cys-NO or G-SNO in plasma. R-SNOs were not found in plasma during profound hypotension induced by acetylcholine (10 and 30 µg/kg/min, continuous i.v.), glyceryl trinitrate (100 µg/kg, i.v.), sodium nitroprusside (100 µg/kg, i.v.), and isosorbide dinitrate (300 µg/kg, i.v.). These results indicate that R-SNOs do not play an important role under unstimulated condition. In addition, plasma R-SNOs may not be involved in pharmacological vasodilation where contributions of NO or R-SNOs are suggested.

  2. [ASSOCIATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN AND SUBJECTIVE GLOBAL ASSESSMENT ON INCIDENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Yanowsky-Escatell, Francisco Gerardo; Pazarín-Villaseñor, Leonardo; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge; Zambrano-Velarde, Miguel Angel; Preciado-Figueroa, Francisco Martin; Santana-Arciniega, Christian Jesús; Galeno-Sánchez, Rogelio Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la albúmina sérica es el biomarcador más frecuentemente utilizado como uno de los tres criterios bioquímicos para el diagnóstico del desgaste proteico energético (DPE). Sin embargo, como parámetro nutricional es poco fiable en la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). La valoración global subjetiva (VGS) ha sido recomendada para la evaluación nutricional y del DPE en ERC. Objetivo: determinar la asociación de los niveles de albúmina sérica y la VGS en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal (IRCT) que iniciaron diálisis peritoneal (DP). Métodos: estudio transversal analítico en pacientes con IRCT que fueron evaluados previo a iniciar DP. Se determinaron niveles de albúmina sérica y se realizó una evaluación nutricional mediante la VGS. Resultados: 69 pacientes, 46 (67%) hombres y 23 (33%) mujeres, con una media de edad de 39,97 ± 18,30 años, albúmina sérica 2,75 ± 0,65 g/dl, creatinina 18,91 ± 10,98 mg/dl, urea 314,80 ± 152,74 mg/dl e IMC 23,37 ± 3,79 kg/m2, la mediana de TFG 3 (1-12) mL/min/1,73m2. La VGS mostró que el 34,8% estaba bien nutrido, el 40,6% tenía riesgo de DPE o moderado y el 24,6% presentaba un DPE severo. No existió asociación (p = ns) entre los niveles de albúmina sérica y la VGS. Conclusión: el presente estudio muestra que la hipoalbuminemia y el DPE son muy frecuentes. La identificación de los niveles de albúmina sérica y la VGS al iniciar DP en nuestra población pudieran ser predictores de mortalidad. La albúmina sérica no es una herramienta útil para la evaluación nutricional en pacientes con IRCT que iniciarán DP.

  3. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  4. Optical Aptamer Probes of Fluorescent Imaging to Rapid Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cell

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Sang Tae; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Kyunggon; Han, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence detecting of exogenous EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) or muc1 (mucin1) expression correlated to cancer metastasis using nanoparticles provides pivotal information on CTC (circulating tumor cell) occurrence in a noninvasive tool. In this study, we study a new skill to detect extracellular EpCAM/muc1 using quantum dot-based aptamer beacon (QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB (aptamer linker beacon). The QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB was designed using QDs (quantum dots) and probe. The EpCAM/muc1-targeting aptamer contains a Ep-CAM/muc1 binding sequence and BHQ1 (black hole quencher 1) or BHQ2 (black hole quencher2). In the absence of target EpCAM/muc1, the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB forms a partial duplex loop-like aptamer beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1/2 quenches the fluorescence signal-on of the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB. The binding of EpCAM/muc1 of CTC to the EpCAM/muc1 binding aptamer sequence of the EpCAM/muc1-targeting oligonucleotide triggered the dissociation of the BHQ1/2 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a green/red fluorescence signal. Furthermore, acute inflammation was stimulated by trigger such as caerulein in vivo, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the cy5.5-EpCAM/muc1 ALB during cancer metastasis due to exogenous expression of EpCAM/muc1 in Panc02-implanted mouse model. PMID:27886058

  5. Albumin Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Safety Analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Moy, Claudia S.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Jones, Elizabeth B.; Weisman, David; Pettigrew, Creed; Ginsberg, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. Methods Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18–83 and a baseline NIHSS ≥ 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. Results Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01–5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3–26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). Conclusions ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495 PMID:26325387

  6. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Sunish, I. P.; Rajendran, R.; Munirathinam, A.; Kalimuthu, M.; Kumar, V. Ashok; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: One third of the world's population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu State Health Department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns. PMID:25963494

  7. Preventing phosphorylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1a by MAP-kinases protects mice from fatty liver and visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Kotzka, Jorg; Knebel, Birgit; Haas, Jutta; Kremer, Lorena; Jacob, Sylvia; Hartwig, Sonja; Nitzgen, Ulrike; Muller-Wieland, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1a plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. Using the SREBP-1a expressing human hepatoma cell line HepG2 we have shown previously that human SREBP-1a is phosphorylated at serine 117 by ERK-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Using a combination of cell biology and protein chemistry approach we show that SREBP-1a is also target of other MAPK-families, i.e. c-JUN N-terminal protein kinases (JNK) or p38 stress activated MAP kinases. Serine 117 is also the major phosphorylation site in SREBP-1a for JNK. In contrast to that the major phosphorylation sites of p38 MAPK family are serine 63 and threonine 426. Functional analyses reveal that phosphorylation of SREBP-1a does not alter protein/DNA interaction. The identified phosphorylation sites are specific for both kinase families also in cellular context. To provide direct evidence that phosphorylation of SREBP-1a is a regulatory principle of biological and clinical relevance, we generated transgenic mice expressing mature transcriptionally active N-terminal domain of human SREBP-1a variant lacking all identified phosphorylaton sites designed as alb-SREBP-1aΔP and wild type SREBP-1a designed as alb-SREBP-1a liver specific under control of the albumin promoter and a liver specific enhancer. In contrast to alb-SREBP-1a mice the phosphorylation-deficient mice develop no enlarged fatty livers under normocaloric conditions. Phenotypical examination reveales a massive accumulation of adipose tissue in alb-SREBP-1a but not in the phosphorylation deficient alb-SREBP-1aΔP mice. Moreover, preventing phosphorylation of SREBP-1a protects mice also from dyslipidemia. In conclusion, phosphorylation of SREBP-1a by ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK-families resembles a biological principle and plays a significant role, in vivo.

  8. Copper transport from mother to fetus, at the end of gestation, in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Madani, N.; Linder, M.C. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have followed the fate of {sup 67}Cu in pregnant rats, from 1-4 days before the end of gestation, after its intravenous infusion in the form of in vivo labeled ceruloplasmin (Cp) or {sup 67}Cu(II)-treated rat serum. One and 4 hours after administration, radioactivity administered as Cp was still with Cp in the maternal circulation and that of ionic copper was still associated with transcuprein and albumin (Tc and Alb). On the basis of % dose, Cp appeared to be more effective than Tc + Alb as a source of copper for the placenta and fetus. In contrast, maternal liver took up less {sup 67}Cu from Cp than from Tc + Alb. Four hours after administration, about 8% of the {sup 67}Cu administered as Cp had been taken up by the placenta and fetuses compared with about 2% in the case of {sup 67}Cu from Tc + Alb. The amounts of {sup 67}Cu in fetuses and fetal liver increased with time. Initial trials indicated that Cu administered as Cp became attached mainly to Tc in the fetal circulation, but was also associated with Alb and with Cp, at least by 4 hours. mRNA for ceruloplasmin was detected in maternal liver, placenta, and fetal liver, where it was present primarily on ER-bound (rather than free) polyribosomes. They conclude that normally ceruloplasmin is probably the main source of copper for the fetus, at least in the rat, although transcuprein and albumin can substitute as sources; and after entering the placenta, copper from ceruloplasmin may be transferred to transcuprein and albumin in the fetal circulation, from whence it enters the liver for storage and incorporation into fetal ceruloplasmin.

  9. Cyclodipeptide synthases, a family of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like enzymes involved in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Moutiez, Mireille; Li, Yan; Belin, Pascal; Seguin, Jérôme; Le Du, Marie-Hélène; Thai, Robert; Masson, Cédric; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Gondry, Muriel

    2011-05-01

    Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) belong to a newly defined family of enzymes that use aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) as substrates to synthesize the two peptide bonds of various cyclodipeptides, which are the precursors of many natural products with noteworthy biological activities. Here, we describe the crystal structure of AlbC, a CDPS from Streptomyces noursei. The AlbC structure consists of a monomer containing a Rossmann-fold domain. Strikingly, it is highly similar to the catalytic domain of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), especially class-Ic TyrRSs and TrpRSs. AlbC contains a deep pocket, highly conserved among CDPSs. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that this pocket accommodates the aminoacyl moiety of the aa-tRNA substrate in a way similar to that used by TyrRSs to recognize their tyrosine substrates. These studies also suggest that the tRNA moiety of the aa-tRNA interacts with AlbC via at least one patch of basic residues, which is conserved among CDPSs but not present in class-Ic aaRSs. AlbC catalyses its two-substrate reaction via a ping-pong mechanism with a covalent intermediate in which L-Phe is shown to be transferred from Phe-tRNA(Phe) to an active serine. These findings provide insight into the molecular bases of the interactions between CDPSs and their aa-tRNAs substrates, and the catalytic mechanism used by CDPSs to achieve the non-ribosomal synthesis of cyclodipeptides.

  10. Cyclodipeptide synthases, a family of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like enzymes involved in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Moutiez, Mireille; Li, Yan; Belin, Pascal; Seguin, Jérôme; Le Du, Marie-Hélène; Thai, Robert; Masson, Cédric; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Gondry, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) belong to a newly defined family of enzymes that use aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) as substrates to synthesize the two peptide bonds of various cyclodipeptides, which are the precursors of many natural products with noteworthy biological activities. Here, we describe the crystal structure of AlbC, a CDPS from Streptomyces noursei. The AlbC structure consists of a monomer containing a Rossmann-fold domain. Strikingly, it is highly similar to the catalytic domain of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), especially class-Ic TyrRSs and TrpRSs. AlbC contains a deep pocket, highly conserved among CDPSs. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that this pocket accommodates the aminoacyl moiety of the aa-tRNA substrate in a way similar to that used by TyrRSs to recognize their tyrosine substrates. These studies also suggest that the tRNA moiety of the aa-tRNA interacts with AlbC via at least one patch of basic residues, which is conserved among CDPSs but not present in class-Ic aaRSs. AlbC catalyses its two-substrate reaction via a ping-pong mechanism with a covalent intermediate in which l-Phe is shown to be transferred from Phe-tRNAPhe to an active serine. These findings provide insight into the molecular bases of the interactions between CDPSs and their aa-tRNAs substrates, and the catalytic mechanism used by CDPSs to achieve the non-ribosomal synthesis of cyclodipeptides. PMID:21296757

  11. Postoperative Albumin Drop Is a Marker for Surgical Stress and a Predictor for Clinical Outcome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Martin; Mantziari, Styliani; Demartines, Nicolas; Pralong, François; Coti-Bertrand, Pauline; Schäfer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical stress during major surgery may be related to adverse clinical outcomes and early quantification of stress response would be useful to allow prompt interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute phase protein albumin in the context of the postoperative stress response. Methods. This prospective pilot study included 70 patients undergoing frequent abdominal procedures of different magnitude. Albumin (Alb) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured once daily starting the day before surgery until postoperative day (POD) 5. Maximal Alb decrease (Alb Δ min) was correlated with clinical parameters of surgical stress, postoperative complications, and length of stay. Results. Albumin values dropped immediately after surgery by about 10 g/L (42.2 ± 4.5 g/L preoperatively versus 33.8 ± 5.3 g/L at day 1, P < 0.001). Alb Δ min was correlated with operation length (Pearson ρ = 0.470, P < 0.001), estimated blood loss (ρ = 0.605, P < 0.001), and maximal CRP values (ρ = 0.391, P = 0.002). Alb Δ min levels were significantly higher in patients having complications (10.0 ± 5.4 versus 6.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.005) and a longer hospital stay (ρ = 0.285, P < 0.020). Conclusion. Early postoperative albumin drop appeared to reflect the magnitude of surgical trauma and was correlated with adverse clinical outcomes. Its promising role as early marker for stress response deserves further prospective evaluation. PMID:26880899

  12. Rosiglitazone is a superior bronchodilator compared to chloroquine and β-adrenoceptor agonists in mouse lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current therapy for relieving bronchoconstriction may be ineffective in severe asthma, particularly in the small airways. The aim of this study was to further characterise responses to the recently identified novel bronchodilators rosiglitazone (RGZ) and chloroquine (CQ) under conditions where β-adrenoceptor agonist efficacy was limited or impaired in mouse small airways within lung slices. Methods Relaxation to RGZ and CQ was assessed following submaximal methacholine (MCh) pre-contraction, in slices treated overnight with either RGZ, CQ or albuterol (ALB) (to induce β-adrenoceptor desensitization), and in slices treated with caffeine/ryanodine in which contraction is associated with increases in Ca2+ sensitivity in the absence of contractile agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations. Furthermore, the effects of RGZ, CQ, ALB and isoproterenol (ISO) on the initiation and development of methacholine-induced contraction were also compared. Results RGZ and CQ, but not ALB or ISO, elicited complete relaxation with increasing MCh pre-contraction and maintained their potency and efficacy following β-adrenoceptor desensitization. RGZ, CQ and ALB maintained efficacy following overnight incubation with RGZ or CQ. Relaxation responses to all dilators were generally maintained but delayed after caffeine/ryanodine. Pre-treatment with RGZ, but not CQ, ALB or ISO, reduced MCh potency. Conclusions This study demonstrates the superior effectiveness of RGZ in comparison to CQ and β-adrenoceptor agonists as a dilator of mouse small airways. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying the relatively greater efficacy of RGZ under these conditions are warranted and should be extended to include studies in human asthmatic airways. PMID:24621080

  13. Native Wolbachia from Aedes albopictus Blocks Chikungunya Virus Infection In Cellulo.

    PubMed

    Raquin, Vincent; Valiente Moro, Claire; Saucereau, Yoann; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of terrestrial arthropods, can protect its host against viral and parasitic infections, a phenotype called "pathogen blocking". However, in some cases Wolbachia may have no effect or even enhance pathogen infection, depending on the host-Wolbachia-pathogen combination. The tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbA and wAlbB, and is a competent vector for different arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Interestingly, it was shown in some cases that Ae. albopictus native Wolbachia strains are able to inhibit DENV transmission by limiting viral replication in salivary glands, but no such impact was measured on CHIKV replication in vivo. To better understand the Wolbachia/CHIKV/Ae. albopictus interaction, we generated a cellular model using Ae. albopictus derived C6/36 cells that we infected with the wAlbB strain. Our results indicate that CHIKV infection is negatively impacted at both RNA replication and virus assembly/secretion steps in presence of wAlbB. Using FISH, we observed CHIKV and wAlbB in the same mosquito cells, indicating that the virus is still able to enter the cell in the presence of the bacterium. Further work is needed to decipher molecular pathways involved in Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction at the cellular level, but this cellular model can be a useful tool to study the mechanism behind virus blocking phenotype induced by Wolbachia. More broadly, this put into question the ecological role of Wolbachia symbiont in Ae. albopictus, but also the ability of the CHIKV to counteract Wolbachia's antiviral potential in vivo.

  14. Questioning collectives and agencies: a commentary on curricular choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jenny

    2015-06-01

    This commentary explores theoretical alternatives for viewing the problem identified by Volny Fages and Virginie Albe in their article entitled Social issues in nanoscience and nanotechnology Master's degrees: The socio-political stakes of curricular choices. An approach to social research is suggested that would render visible the associations maintaining the states of affairs depicted by Fages and Albe. In their research, Fages and Albe identified conceptions of the relationship between scientific endeavour and social concerns to be at the root of "choices" made by coordinators of Masters programs in nano science and technology in universities selected for their study. Albe and Fages, insiders in the sense that they take responsibility for a particular program within one such course, convey their belief that, "future scientists need to identify, accept and take on board the social responsibilities linked to their own practice of science, and to work collectively for a more democratic division of power regarding socio-technical choices". However, many of the Master's programs reviewed in their research were reported as providing limited opportunities for their students to critically engage with social aspects of scientific work. This commentary questions the notion of "choices" used in their research and proposes Actor-Network Theory as a theoretical framework open to the existence of various human and non-human agencies at work when a "choice" is made. The aim of the commentary is to further Fages and Albe's agenda by calling for understanding and ultimately a reassembling of the state of affairs in a way that would be acceptable to those invested.

  15. Development of a liver-specific Tet-on inducible system for AAV vectors and its application in the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Vanrell, Lucia; Di Scala, Marianna; Blanco, Laura; Otano, Itziar; Gil-Farina, Irene; Baldim, Victor; Paneda, Astrid; Berraondo, Pedro; Beattie, Stuart G; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Lilianne; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2011-07-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are effective gene delivery vehicles that can mediate long-lasting transgene expression. However, tight regulation and tissue-specific transgene expression is required for certain therapeutic applications. For regulatable expression from the liver we designed a hepatospecific bidirectional and autoregulatory tetracycline (Tet)-On system (Tet(bidir)Alb) flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We characterized the inducible hepatospecific system in comparison with an inducible ubiquitous expression system (Tet(bidir)CMV) using luciferase (luc). Although the ubiquitous system led to luc expression throughout the mouse, luc expression derived from the hepatospecific system was restricted to the liver. Interestingly, the induction rate of the Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly higher than that of Tet(bidir)CMV, whereas leakage of Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly lower. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this vector, an AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) was tested in a murine model for hepatic colorectal metastasis. The vector induced dose-dependent levels of IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), showing no significant toxicity. AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-IL-12 was highly efficient in preventing establishment of metastasis in the liver and induced an efficient T-cell memory response to tumor cells. Thus, we have demonstrated persistent, and inducible in vivo expression of a gene from a liver-specific Tet-On inducible construct delivered via an AAV vector and proved to be an efficient tool for treating liver cancer.

  16. Hepatocellular autophagy modulates the unfolded protein response and fasting-induced steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kwanten, Wilhelmus J; Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Martinet, Wim; De Winter, Benedicte Y; Michielsen, Peter P; Van Hoof, Viviane O; Driessen, Ann; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Bedossa, Pierre; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Francque, Sven M

    2016-10-01

    Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are key cellular homeostatic mechanisms and are both involved in liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although increasing but conflicting results link these mechanisms to lipid metabolism, their role and potential cross talk herein have been poorly investigated. Therefore, we assessed the effects of hepatocyte-specific autophagy deficiency on liver parenchyma, the UPR, and lipid metabolism. Adult hepatocellular-specific autophagy-deficient mice (Atg7(F/F)Alb-Cre(+)) were compared with their autophagy-competent littermates (Atg7(+/+)Alb-Cre(+)). Livers were analyzed by electron microscopy, histology, real-time qPCR, and Western blotting. Atg7(F/F)Alb-Cre(+) mice developed hepatomegaly with significant parenchymal injury, as shown by inflammatory infiltrates, hepatocellular apoptosis, pericellular fibrosis, and a pronounced ductular reaction. Surprisingly, the UPR exhibited a pathway-selective pattern upon autophagy deficiency. The activity of the adaptive activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) pathway was abolished, whereas the proapoptotic protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase pathway was increased compared with Atg7(+/+)Alb-Cre(+) mice. The inositol-requiring enzyme-1α signal was unaltered. Fasting-induced steatosis was absent in Atg7(F/F)Alb-Cre(+) mice. Remarkably, some isolated islands of fat-containing and autophagy-competent cells were observed in these livers. Hepatocellular autophagy is essential for parenchymal integrity in mice. Moreover, in the case of autophagy deficiency, the three different UPR branches are pathway selectively modulated. Attenuation of the ATF6 pathway might explain the observed impairment of fasting-induced steatosis. Finally, autophagy and lipid droplets are directly linked to each other.

  17. [Extraction and characterization of soluble protein fractions from Phaseolus lunatus L seeds].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Tintoré, Santiago; Pacheco Aguirre, Jessé; Betancur Ancona, David; Chel Guerrero, Luis

    2004-03-01

    Legume proteins as a potential source of valuable nutrients, are the object of several studies in order to obtain the best use. A basic knowledge becomes more important for those proteins from species not wholly utilized, before using them as food ingredients. The objective of this work was to determine several structural and nutritional characteristics of the protein fractions from Phaseolus lunatus, separated in different solvents. The relative amount of extraction for the albumins (ALB), globulins (GLB), prolamines (PRL), and glutelins (GLT) was 62.3, 34.8, 1.4 and 1.5%, respectively. The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic profile of both ALB and GLB, showed seven common bands in intervals from 10 to 95 kDa, and 14 to 99 kDa, respectively; the amino acids profile showed that PRL was the rich fraction in sulfurated amino acids (11.5 g/100 g protein); the content of lysine in the fraction of ALB was smaller than expected but the requirement of the FAO in the fractions of GLB and GLT was covered. In general, the fraction of GLB had the best balance of amino acids and digestibility (80%); however, it had a relationship of calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of 0.11, smaller than the ratio in ALB (0.97). The calorimetric analysis showed denatured temperatures around 90 degrees C for the ALB, GLB, and GLU fractions. The PRL fraction probably did not present a thermal transition because the proteins were denaturalized by the extraction conditions.

  18. Fluorescence dilution technique for measurement of albumin reflection coefficient in isolated glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Chen, Chun Cheng Andy; Zhang, Jin; Schreck, Carlos M. N.; Williams, Jan M.; Hirata, Takashi; Sharma, Mukut; Beard, Daniel A.; Savin, Virginia J.; Roman, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a high-throughput fluorescence dilution technique to measure the albumin reflection coefficient (σAlb) of isolated glomeruli. Rats were injected with FITC-dextran 250 (75 mg/kg), and the glomeruli were isolated in a 6% BSA solution. Changes in the fluorescence of the glomerulus due to water influx in response to an imposed oncotic gradient was used to determine σAlb. Adjustment of the albumin concentration of the bath from 6 to 5, 4, 3, and 2% produced a 10, 25, 35, and 50% decrease in the fluorescence of the glomeruli. Pretreatment of glomeruli with protamine sulfate (2 mg/ml) or TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) decreased σAlb from 1 to 0.54 and 0.48, respectively. Water and solute movement were modeled using Kedem-Katchalsky equations, and the measured responses closely fit the predicted behavior, indicating that loss of albumin by solvent drag or diffusion is negligible compared with the movement of water. We also found that σAlb was reduced by 17% in fawn hooded hypertensive rats, 33% in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, 26% in streptozotocin-treated diabetic Dahl SS rats, and 21% in 6-mo old type II diabetic nephropathy rats relative to control Sprague-Dawley rats. The changes in glomerular permeability to albumin were correlated with the degree of proteinuria in these strains. These findings indicate that the fluorescence dilution technique can be used to measure σAlb in populations of isolated glomeruli and provides a means to assess the development of glomerular injury in hypertensive and diabetic models. PMID:26447220

  19. Parameters associated with significant liver histological changes in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Xian, Jianchun; Li, Yang; Geng, Aiwen; Yang, Xiuzhen; Han, Libin; Xu, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with significant liver histological changes. Liver biopsies from 157 CHB patients were retrospectively analyzed. Only ALB was significantly correlated with advanced liver necroinflammatory (P = 0.001). Age, ALB, GLOB, AST, PLT, and PT were independent predictors of significant fibrosis (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.048, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, resp.). AST, WBC, and HBV DNA were significantly correlated with advanced fibrosis in normal ALT patients (P < 0.001, P = 0.041, and P = 0.012, resp.) and age, ALB, GLOB, PLT, and PT in patients with abnormal ALT (P = 0.003, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002, resp.). Age, AST, GGT, PLT, and PT were significantly associated with advanced fibrosis in HBeAg+ patients (P = 0.01, P = 0.016, P = 0.027, P = 0.016, and P = 0.009, resp.) and ALB, GLOB, WBC, PLT, and PT in HBeAg- patients (P < 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.005, P < 0.001, and P = 0.035, resp.). PLT was an excellent predictor for cirrhosis (P < 0.001 and AUROC = 0.805). ALT was not predictive of advanced fibrosis for patients with HBeAg+ or HBeAg- (P = 0.273 and P = 0.599, resp.). PLT was an excellent predictor for cirrhosis in CHB patients. Liver histopathology can be recommended for chronic HBV carriers of older age, with normal ALT, lower PLT, and lower ALB.

  20. Variation of plasma protein parameters in four free-ranging reindeer herds and in captive reindeer under defined feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Säkkinen, H; Tverdal, A; Eloranta, E; Dahl, E; Holand, Ø; Saarela, S; Ropstad, E

    2005-12-01

    Plasma total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLOB) concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) were analysed from blood samples collected from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) herds at varying times of year. The same parameters were followed in nine captive reindeer with varying protein and energy intake. Variation in the blood constituents of free-ranging reindeer was analysed in relation to different extrinsic and intrinsic factors and compared to findings from captive animals, allowing the analysis of effects of protein and energy intake. There was large overall variation in TP, ALB, GLOB and A/G ratio in the free-ranging animals, ranging between 36-110 g/L, 18-59 g/L, 17-59 g/L and 0.5-2.1. The variation between months and years was significant for all variables except the A/G ratio, where no year effect was noted. Increase in live body mass was associated with a small significant increase and pregnancy with a small significant decrease in all dependent variables, except for the A/G ratio. Age did not have a significant effect on any of the blood constituents when body mass was included in the same model. In captive animals, feeding lichens with low protein content was related to a significant decline in TP, ALB and GLOB, but not in the A/G ratio, whereas feeding commercial ration increased plasma TP, ALB and GLOB significantly. Extrinsic factors such as season and year explained majority of variation in the blood constituents of free-ranging reindeer, whereas body mass, pregnancy and age had only a minor influence. It is concluded that plasma TP and ALB, and to a lesser extent GLOB and A/G ratio may serve as nutritional biomarkers of reindeer.

  1. Fluorescence in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

  2. Semiquantification of circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, I. H.; Leung, T.; Ho, S.; Lau, W. Y.; Chan, M.; Johnson, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and rapidly fatal malignancies worldwide. Treatment options are severely limited by the frequent presence of metastases. If hepatocyte-specific mRNAs are detected in the circulation, it is possible to infer the presence of circulating, presumably malignant, liver cells. If these can be quantified, it is possible to predict the likelihood of haematogenous metastasis. In this investigation, we have attempted to gain an index of the mass of circulating HCC cells (with reference to the number of hepatoblastoma cells) by measuring the amounts of PCR products for albumin (alb) mRNA and alpha-fetoprotein (afp) mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis. For calibration, total RNA from 1-10(6) HepG2 cells was mixed with total RNA from 10(6) normal peripheral mononuclear cells. A linear relationship was demonstrated between the amount of alb- or afp PCR product and the level of HepG2 total RNA spiked. The assay is sensitive down to a detection level of one HepG2 cell. Alb mRNA was detected in 50% of 18 normal subjects and afp mRNA in only two normal subjects. The alb mRNA cut-off level for the normal was exceeded by seven normal subjects and 34 out of 64 HCC patients, and that for afp mRNA was exceeded by six HCC patients but none of the normal subjects. The level of alb mRNA detected was not linearly proportional to the amount of afp mRNA detected in peripheral blood of the same patients, suggesting heterogeneous expression of alb and afp genes in different circulating tumour cells. In addition, no significant linear association between the levels of afp mRNA and serum AFP was observed. Semiquantification of both mRNA markers for HCC cell detection may prove useful in prediction of metastases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9303362

  3. Overexpression of miR-155 in the liver of transgenic mice alters the expression profiling of hepatic genes associated with lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolin; Jia, Junshuang; Du, Tao; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wei, Jieqiong; Lin, Xia; Zeng, Hui; Yao, Longping; Chen, Xuebing; Zhuang, Jingshen; Weng, Jie; Liu, Yu; Lin, Jihong; Wu, Qinghong; Wang, Wanshan; Yao, Kaitai; Xu, Kang; Xiao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic expression profiling has revealed miRNA changes in liver diseases, while hepatic miR-155 expression was increased in murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting that miR-155 might regulate the biological process of lipid metabolism. To illustrate the effects of miR-155 gain of function in transgenic mouse liver on lipid metabolism, transgenic mice (i.e., Rm155LG mice) for the conditional overexpression of mouse miR-155 transgene mediated by Cre/lox P system were firstly generated around the world in this study. Rm155LG mice were further crossed to Alb-Cre mice to realize the liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre double transgenic mice which showed the unaltered body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat pad weight and gross morphology and appearance of liver. Furthermore, liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene resulted in significantly reduced levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as remarkably decreased contents of hepatic lipid, TG, HDL and free fatty acid in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre transgenic mice. More importantly, microarray data revealed a general downward trend in the expression profile of hepatic genes with functions typically associated with fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism, which is likely at least partially responsible for serum cholesterol and triglyceride lowering observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic overexpression of miR-155 alleviated nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Additionally, carboxylesterase 3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) was identified as a direct miR-155 target gene that is potentially responsible for the partial liver phenotypes observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. Taken together, these data from miR-155 gain of function study suggest, for what we believe is the first time, the altered lipid metabolism and provide new insights into the metabolic

  4. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  5. Overexpression of miR-155 in the Liver of Transgenic Mice Alters the Expression Profiling of Hepatic Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wei, Jieqiong; Lin, Xia; Zeng, Hui; Yao, Longping; Chen, Xuebing; Zhuang, Jingshen; Weng, Jie; Liu, Yu; Lin, Jihong; Wu, Qinghong; Wang, Wanshan; Yao, Kaitai; Xu, Kang; Xiao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic expression profiling has revealed miRNA changes in liver diseases, while hepatic miR-155 expression was increased in murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting that miR-155 might regulate the biological process of lipid metabolism. To illustrate the effects of miR-155 gain of function in transgenic mouse liver on lipid metabolism, transgenic mice (i.e., Rm155LG mice) for the conditional overexpression of mouse miR-155 transgene mediated by Cre/lox P system were firstly generated around the world in this study. Rm155LG mice were further crossed to Alb-Cre mice to realize the liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre double transgenic mice which showed the unaltered body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat pad weight and gross morphology and appearance of liver. Furthermore, liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene resulted in significantly reduced levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as remarkably decreased contents of hepatic lipid, TG, HDL and free fatty acid in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre transgenic mice. More importantly, microarray data revealed a general downward trend in the expression profile of hepatic genes with functions typically associated with fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism, which is likely at least partially responsible for serum cholesterol and triglyceride lowering observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic overexpression of miR-155 alleviated nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Additionally, carboxylesterase 3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) was identified as a direct miR-155 target gene that is potentially responsible for the partial liver phenotypes observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. Taken together, these data from miR-155 gain of function study suggest, for what we believe is the first time, the altered lipid metabolism and provide new insights into the metabolic

  6. Lung function and symptom improvement with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol and ipratropium bromide/albuterol in COPD: response by beta-agonist reversibility.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Eugene R; Emmett, Amanda; Crater, Glenn; Knobil, Katharine; Kalberg, Christopher

    2008-08-01

    This retrospective analysis of data from two multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies compared the efficacy of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FSC) 250/50 mcg twice daily with ipratropium bromide/albuterol (IB/ALB) 36/206 mcg four times daily in albuterol-reversible (n=320 [44%]) and non-reversible (n=399 [56%]) patients with COPD. In reversible and non-reversible patients, both treatments significantly increased FEV(1)AUC(0-6h) from baseline and the magnitude of improvement was larger in reversible patients. FSC increased FEV(1)AUC(0-6h) by 1.46+/-0.08 and 1.98+/-0.13 l-h at Day 1 and Week 8, respectively, in reversible patients, compared with 0.71+/-0.06 and 0.94+/-0.10 l-h in non-reversible patients (p<0.001). With IB/ALB, increases were 1.46+/-0.08 and 1.19+/-0.11 l-h at Day 1 in reversible patients and Week 8, respectively, and 0.89+/-0.06 and 0.74+/-0.09 l-h (p < or = 0.041) in non-reversible patients. After 8 weeks, in both the reversible and non-reversible populations, the FEV(1) AUC(0-6h) significantly increased with FSC treatment (p < or = 0.002) and significantly decreased with IB/ALB (p < or = 0.010). In both reversibility groups, improvement in Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) scores, overall daytime diary symptom scores and nocturnal symptom measures were significantly greater with FSC treatment compared with IB/ALB (p < or = 0.044). Reversibility status was not predictive of the magnitude of reduction in symptom scores. We conclude that both reversible and non-reversible patients receive greater clinical benefit with FSC compared with IB/ALB and acute bronchodilator reversibility is not useful for differentiating patients based on symptomatic responses to FSC compared with IB/ALB.

  7. Mechanism of ZrB2 Formation in Molten Al-V-Zr Alloy During Boron Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Rhamdhani, Muhammad Akbar; Brooks, Geoffrey A.; Grandfield, John

    2016-02-01

    Smelter-grade aluminum cannot be used for electrical conductor applications without the removal of transition metal impurities including zirconium (Zr) and vanadium (V). These impurities are removed by treating molten aluminum with boron bearing substances in the casthouse. Such procedures are called boron treatment. Transition metal impurities form their borides and settle at bottom of the furnace. Industrially, Al-B (AlB2/AlB12) master alloys are used for this process. Literature review showed that ZrB2 are more stable compared to VB2 and AlB2 in the temperatures ranging from 948 K to 1173 K (675 °C to 900 °C). As a result, ZrB2 will form preferentially in molten aluminum during boron treatment process. In this study, a systematic investigation on formation of the ZrB2 and VB2 borides in Al-V-Zr-B alloys was carried out at 1023 K (750 °C). Experiments showed that the mechanism of ZrB2 and VB2 borides formation in molten aluminum is complex. It involves the possible phenomenon of chemical reactions, mass transfer in liquid phase, diffusion through borides layers, and the dissolution of Al3Zr, AlB2/AlB12 in the molten aluminum. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray, and electron backscattered diffraction analyses revealed the preferential formation of ZrB2 in the Al-Zr-V-B alloys at 1023 K (750 °C). Moreover, ICP-AES analysis showed the higher rate of Zr removal compared to V from Al-Zr-V-B alloys. Overall it was suggested that the kinetics of Zr removal was controlled by the mass transfer of Zr through liquid phase. The calculated mass transfer coefficient ( k m) for Zr was 1.15 × 10-3 m/s which is within the range of those values reported in the literature.

  8. Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

    2009-12-01

    Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field

  9. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los pacientes con cáncer de cabeza o cuello alimentados por gastrostomía tienen a menudo una deterio - ración en la capacidad de hablar. Con frecuencia para la evaluación nutricional se usan parámetros bioquímicos y antropométricos. Objetivos: Evaluación Global Subjetiva – Generada por el Paciente (EGS-GP): (1) aplicabilidad; (2) el estado nutricional del paciente; (3) la asociación con los valores de albúmina y transferrina séricas. Métodos: Evaluación nutricional (EGS-GP), albúmina y transferrina en pacientes ambulatorios adultos con cáncer, sometidos a alimentación prolongada (> 1 mes) por gastrostomía. Valoración realizada en la misma consulta. Resultados: La EGS-GP fue fácilmente factible en 42 pacientes, incluso en pacientes con dificultades en hablar. Veinticinco estaban con desnutrición moderada/severa (EGSGP/ B+C). En 41 la EGS-GP fue ≥2, demostrando la necesidad de intervención nutricional/farmacológica. La albúmina estaba por debajo de lo normal en 13 pacientes. La transferrina en 19 pacientes. La media de albúmina y transferrina de los pacientes moderadamente/severamente desnutridos (EGS-GP/B+C) fue significativamente más baja, en comparación con los bien nutridos (EGS-GP/A). Se ha hallado asociación entre la EGSGP, la albúmina y transferrina. Conclusiones: En los pacientes con cáncer de cabeza o cuello alimentados por gastrostomía, la EGS-GP fue viable y útil, incluso en los pacientes con dificultades de comunicación. La mayoría muestran desnutrición moderada/severa (EGSGP/ B+C). La EGS-GP ha calificado 41 pacientes como requiriendo de intervención nutricional/farmacológica. La EGS-GP debe incluirse sistemáticamente en la valoración de estos pacientes. En estos, la albúmina y transferrina mostraron una relación con la EGS-GP y deben ser consideradas como biomarcadores nutricionales.

  10. Structural stability and surface activity of sunflower 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Berecz, Bernadett; Mills, E N Clare; Tamás, László; Láng, Ferenc; Shewry, Peter R; Mackie, Alan R

    2010-05-26

    The structural and interfacial properties of five different fractions of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) seed storage proteins were studied. The fractions comprised lipid transfer protein (LTP), the methionine-rich 2S albumin SFA8 (sunflower albumin 8), and three mixtures of non-methionine-rich 2S albumins called Alb1 and Alb2 proteins (sunflower albumins 1 and 2). Heating affected all of the proteins studied, with SFA8 and LTP becoming more surface active than the native proteins after heating and cooling. LTP appeared to be less thermostable than homologous LTPs from other plant species. SFA8 generated the greatest elastic modulus and formed the most stable emulsions, whereas LTP showed poorer emulsification properties. The mixed 2S albumin fractions showed moderate levels of surface activity but had the poorest emulsification properties among the proteins studied.

  11. Stability of sunflower 2S albumins and LTP to physiologically relevant in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Berecz, Bernadett; Clare Mills, E N; Parádi, István; Láng, Ferenc; Tamás, László; Shewry, Peter R; Mackie, Alan R

    2013-06-15

    In order for a protein to elicit a systemic allergic response it must reach the circulatory system through the intestinal mucosa as a sufficiently large fragment with adequate structural integrity. Sunflower LTP and 2S albumins (SFA8 and three mixed fractions of Alb1 and Alb2) were digested in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for 2h and the conditions were then changed to mimic the intestinal environment for a further 2h digestion. The effects of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and emulsification on the digestibility of the proteins were investigated. PC protected all of the proteins studied against both gastric and intestinal digestive enzymes but to different extents. Emulsification of SFA8 resulted in strong protection against digestion, which was further enhanced by the presence of PC in the SGF. These results highlight the importance of considering real food structures such as emulsified systems and also the gastrointestinal environment that proteins are exposed to once consumed when assessing allergenicity.

  12. Protective effects of Flos lonicera extract on acute liver injury by dimethylnitrosamine-induced in rats.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yang; Sun, Chang Hai; Li, Guangzhi; Sun, Guangchen; Nomachi, Yui; Yokota, Junko; Yoshioka, Saburo; Gang, Jinbo; Jiao, Shuqing; Zhang, Yu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate effects of Flos lonicera extract (FLE) on acute liver injury model rats which induced by 35 mg/kg dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Model rats were divided into hepatic injury control group (administrated with water), FLE group (administrated with FLE) and silymarin group (administrated with silymarin which is hepatotherapeutic drug) as positive control. They were examined including ALT, AST, ALP, gamma-GT, ALB and TP levels in serum, and MDA, GPx levels in liver tissue. In addition, pathologic changes, particularly fibrosis, were examined by Azan staining. The results revealed that the ALT, AST, ALP, gamma-GT, MDA GPx and liver fibrosis degree in the LJE group were lower than the silymarin group and control group, ALB and TP were higher than the silymarin group and control group. These results suggested that LJE may help in inhibiting of acute liver injury greater than silymarin.

  13. Cross-talk among structural domains of human DBP upon binding 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Arjun; Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) is structurally very similar to serum albumin (ALB); both have three distinct structural domains and high cysteine-content. Yet, functionally they are very different. DBP possesses high affinity for vitamin D metabolites and G-actin, but ALB does not. It has been suggested that there may be cross-talk among the domains so that binding of one ligand may influence the binding of others. In this study we have employed 2-p-toluidinyl-6-sulphonate (TNS), a reporter molecule that fluoresces upon binding to hydrophobic pockets of DBP. We observed that recombinant domain III possesses strong binding for TNS, which is not influenced by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3), yet TNS-fluorescence of the whole protein is quenched by 25-OH-D3. These results provide a direct evidence of cross-talk among the structural domains of DBP. PMID:18035050

  14. A tracer study with systemically and locally administered dinitrophenylated osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Nanci, Antonio; Wazen, Rima M; Zalzal, Sylvia F; Fortin, Micheline; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K; Ghitescu, Dorin-Lucian

    2004-12-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a major non-collagenous matrix protein of bone, is also found in tissue fluids and in the circulation. It is still not clear whether circulating OPN contributes to bone formation. To elucidate this question, rat OPN was tagged with dinitrophenol groups and administered to rats either intravenously or by infusion with an osmotic minipump through a "surgical window" in the bone of the hemimandible. Dinitrophenylated rat albumin (ALB) was used as a control. The presence and distribution of tagged proteins were revealed by immunogold labeling on sections of tibia and alveolar bone. Tagged molecules of OPN were found in mineralization foci, surfaces and interfaces, and matrix accumulations among calcified collagen fibrils. Even though dinitrophenylated ALB was administered at several-fold higher concentrations, it did not accumulate in these sites. These results show that circulating OPN can be incorporated into specific compartments of forming bone and suggest that such molecules may play a more important role than previously suspected.

  15. Detection of Wolbachia in Aedes albopictus and Their Effects on Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Noor Afizah; Vythilingam, Indra; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Zabari, Nur Zatil Aqmar M.; Lee, Han Lim

    2017-01-01

    Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia–mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus. The effects of Wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemination of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was also studied. The prevalence of Wolbachia-infected field-collected Ae. albopictus was estimated to be 98.6% (N = 142) for females and 95.1% (N = 102) for males in the population studied. The Ae. albopictus were naturally infected with both wAlbA and wAlbB strains. We also found that the native Wolbachia has no impact on CHIKV infection and minimal effect on CHIKV dissemination to secondary organs. PMID:27920393

  16. High-pressure, high-temperature sintering of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride with improved thermostability and mechanical properties for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xian

    Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) is one of the few materials suitable for friction stir welding (FSW) of hardened steels, which demands tool materials to possess high temperature strength, toughness, abrasion resistance, thermal and chemical stabilities. In FSW process at temperatures higher than 980°C PCBN consisting of AlB2, as one of the major reaction products, underwent a reverse peritectic reaction: AlB2 → Al(l) + AlB 12 and released liquid Al, which was believed to cause inter-cBN granular cracking in the PCBN tool during FSW of hardened steel. In the present research, PCBN starting with decreased Al additive and addition of fine cBN powder, was HP/HT-sintered at higher B:Al ratio and increased available BN surface area for fast in situ reaction with liquid Al in favor of forming AlB12 instead of AlB2. Titanium powder in HP/HT-sintering of PCBN under the same pressure and temperature conditions resulted in cBN, TiN, and TiB2 reaction products but could not achieve the densification comparable to the Al additives. However, using Ti-coated cBN particles with addition of the fine cBN powder led to PCBN with highly packed reaction products of cBN, TiN, and TiB2 and strong mechanical properties. Applying electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) method, the PCBN with 10vol%Al additive was detected to consist of 0.5vol% and finely dispersed AlB2 in addition to AlB12 as the major borides in addition to cBN and AlN. Such PCBN was shown to possess high thermostability measured at 1000°C and measureable increases in flexural strength at temperatures up to 1100°C, while room temperature fracture toughness value was retained up to 1100° C as well. Combine x-ray diffraction (XRD) and EBSD results revealed the increase in high-temperature strength was resultant of high residual compressive-stress on cBN grains applied by thermal expansion of the AlN-AlB 12 grainboundary phase. The PCBN sintered from cBN with 10vo%Al powder, possessing improved

  17. Finite element methods for integrated aerodynamic heating analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report gives a description of the work which has been undertaken during the second year of a three year research program. The objectives of the program are to produce finite element based procedures for the solution of the large scale practical problems which are of interest to the Aerothermal Loads Branch (ALB) at NASA Langley Research Establishment. The problems of interest range from Euler simulations of full three dimensional vehicle configurations to local analyses of three dimensional viscous laminar flow. Adaptive meshes produced for both steady state and transient problems are to be considered. An important feature of the work is the provision of specialized techniques which can be used at ALB for the development of an integrated fluid/thermal/structural modeling capability.

  18. Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species. PMID:26287231

  19. An overview comparing results from two decades of monitoring for pesticides in the Nation’s streams and rivers, 1992-2001 and 2002-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program and National Stream Quality Accounting Network findings for pesticide occurrence in U.S. streams and rivers during 2002–11 and compares them to findings for the previous decade (1992–2001). In addition, pesticide stream concentrations were compared to Human Health Benchmarks (HHBs) and chronic Aquatic Life Benchmarks (ALBs). The comparisons between the decades were intended to be simple and descriptive. Trends over time are being evaluated separately in a series of studies involving rigorous trend analysis. During both decades, one or more pesticides or pesticide degradates were detected more than 90 percent of the time in streams across all types of land uses. For individual pesticides during 2002–11, atrazine (and degradate, deethylatrazine), carbaryl, fipronil (and degradates), metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected in streams more than 50 percent of the time. In contrast, alachlor, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, diazinon, EPTC, Dacthal, and tebuthiuron were detected less frequently in streams during the second decade than during the first decade. During 2002–11, only one stream had an annual mean pesticide concentration that exceeded an HHB. In contrast, 17 percent of agriculture land-use streams and one mixed land-use stream had annual mean pesticide concentrations that exceeded HHBs during 1992–2001. The difference between the first and second decades in terms of percent of streams exceeding HHBs was attributed to regulatory changes. During 2002–11, nearly two-thirds of agriculture land-use streams and nearly one-half of mixed land-use streams exceeded chronic ALBs. For urban land use, 90 percent of the streams exceeded a chronic ALB. Fipronil, metolachlor, malathion, cis-permethrin, and dichlorvos exceeded chronic ALBs for more than 10 percent of the streams. For agriculture and mixed land-use streams, the overall percent of streams that

  20. Hormetic modulation of hepatic insulin sensitivity by advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Nelly T; Thieme, Karina; Silva, Karolline S; Catanozi, Sérgio; Cavaleiro, Ana Mercedes; Pinto, Danilo A C; Okamoto, Maristela M; Morais, Mychel Raony P T; Falquetto, Bárbara; Zorn, Telma M; Machado, Ubiratan F; Passarelli, Marisa; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia

    2017-05-15

    Because of the paucity of information regarding metabolic effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on liver, we evaluated effects of AGEs chronic administration in (1) insulin sensitivity; (2) hepatic expression of genes involved in AGEs, glucose and fat metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation and; (3) hepatic morphology and glycogen content. Rats received intraperitoneally albumin modified (AlbAGE) or not by advanced glycation for 12 weeks. AlbAGE induced whole-body insulin resistance concomitantly with increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, evidenced by activation of AKT, inactivation of GSK3, increased hepatic glycogen content, and decreased expression of gluconeogenesis genes. Additionally there was reduction in hepatic fat content, in expression of lipogenic, pro-inflamatory and pro-oxidative genes and increase in reactive oxygen species and in nuclear expression of NRF2, a transcription factor essential to cytoprotective response. Although considered toxic, AGEs become protective when administered chronically, stimulating AKT signaling, which is involved in cellular defense and insulin sensitivity.

  1. Determination of the main solid-state form of albendazole in bulk drug, employing Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Arias, Juan M; Altabef, Aída Ben; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2016-09-10

    Albendazole (ALB) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which exhibits two solid-state forms (Forms I and II). The Form I is the metastable crystal at room temperature, while Form II is the stable one. Because the drug has poor aqueous solubility and Form II is less soluble than Form I, it is desirable to have a method to assess the solid-state form of the drug employed for manufacturing purposes. Therefore, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was developed for the determination of Form I of ALB in its mixtures with Form II. For model development, both solid-state forms of ALB were prepared and characterized by microscopic (optical and with normal and polarized light), thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, Raman) techniques. Mixtures of solids in different ratios were prepared by weighing and mechanical mixing of the components. Their Raman spectra were acquired, and subjected to peak smoothing, normalization, standard normal variate correction and de-trending, before performing the PLS calculations. The optimal spectral region (1396-1280cm(-1)) and number of latent variables (LV=3) were obtained employing a moving window of variable size strategy. The method was internally validated by means of the leave one out procedure, providing satisfactory statistics (r(2)=0.9729 and RMSD=5.6%) and figures of merit (LOD=9.4% and MDDC=1.4). Furthermore, the method's performance was also evaluated by analysis of two validation sets. Validation set I was used for assessment of linearity and range and Validation set II, to demonstrate accuracy and precision (Recovery=101.4% and RSD=2.8%). Additionally, a third set of spiked commercial samples was evaluated, exhibiting excellent recoveries (94.2±6.4%). The results suggest that the combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could be applied to the assessment of the main crystal form and its quantitation in samples of ALB bulk drug, in the routine quality control laboratory.

  2. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in renal fibrosis promoted by hypochlorite-modified albumin in a remnant kidney model and protective effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Liu, Yan-Jun; Liu, Zong-Rui; Tang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Yi-Hua; Zhou, Ru-Ning; Chen, Si-Qi; Niu, Hong-Xin

    2017-03-18

    Oxidative stress aggravates renal fibrosis, a pathway involved in almost all forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of renal oxidative stress has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we explored the role and mechanism of hypochlorite-modified albumin (HOCl-alb) in mediating oxidative stress and fibrotic response in a remnant-kidney rat model. Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6 NX) was performed on the rats and then the animals were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either vehicle alone, or HOCl-rat serum albumin (RSA) in the presence or absence of SS-31 (administered intraperitoneally). A sham-operation control group was set up concurrently. Compared with the control group, 5/6 NX animals displayed marked mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction, as evidenced by decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP production, mtDNA copy number alterations and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, release of cytochrome C (Cyto C) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal tissues. They also displayed increased levels of HOCl-alb in both plasma and renal tissues. These changes were accompanied by accumulation of extracellular matrix, worsened proteinuria, deteriorated renal function, and a marked increase of macrophage infiltration along with up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression. HOCl-alb challenge further exacerbated the above biological effects in 5/6 NX animals, but these adverse effects were prevented by administration of SS-31, a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant peptide. These data suggest that accumulation of HOCl-alb may promote renal inflammation and fibrosis, probably related to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction and that the mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 might be a novel therapy for renal fibrosis and chronic renal failure

  3. Air Land Sea Bulletin. Issue No. 2012-1, January 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    your subscription of the ALSB, please send an email to alsa_alb@langley.af.mil. ALSA Center Web Sites: The ALSB and MTTP publications are...available at our public web site http://www.alsa.mil and our CAC-enabled web site: https://wwwmil.alsa.mil. For classified ALSA MTTP publications, visit...constraints continue to impact the military, ALSA is doing its best to continue providing a quality product combined with ease of access via the web

  4. Pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria associated with wild tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Minard, Guillaume; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Dubost, Audrey; Tran-Van, Van; Mavingui, Patrick; Moro, Claire Valiente

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya) albopictus is an invasive species that has spread across the world in the last two decades, showing a great capacity to adapt to contrasting climates and environments. While demonstrated in many insects, the contribution of bacterial symbionts in Aedes ecology is a challenging aspect that needs to be investigated. Also some bacterial species have already been identified in Ae. albopictus using classical methods, but a more accurate survey of mosquito-associated bacterial diversity is needed to decipher the potential biological functions of bacterial symbionts in mediating or constraining insect adaptation. We surveyed the bacteria associated with field populations of Ae. albopictus from Madagascar by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Different aspects of amplicon preparation and sequencing depth were tested to optimize the breadth of bacterial diversity identified. The results revealed that all mosquitoes collected from different sites have a bacterial microbiota dominated by a single taxon, Wolbachia pipientis, which accounted for about 99% of all 92,615 sequences obtained. As Ae. albopictus is known to harbor two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB), a quantitative PCR was used to estimate the relative densities, (i.e., the bacteria-to-host gene ratios) of each strains in individual mosquitoes. Relative densities were between 6.25 × 10(0.01) and 5.47 × 10(0.1) for wAlbA and between 2.03 × 10(0.1) and 1.4 × 10(1) for wAlbB. Apart from Wolbachia, a total of 31 bacterial taxa were identified at the genus level using different method variations. Diversity index values were low and probably underestimated the true diversity due to the high abundance of Wolbachia sequences vastly outnumbering sequences from other taxa. Further studies should implement alternative strategies to specifically discard from analysis any sequences from Wolbachia, the dominant endosymbiotic bacterium in Ae. albopictus from this area.

  5. Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, M; Kamali, J

    2017-01-01

    Dual-purpose casks can be utilized for dry interim storage and transportation of the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Criticality safety analysis was carried out using the MCNP code for the cask containing 12, 18, or 19 SFAs. The basket materials of borated stainless steel and Boral (Al-B4C) were investigated, and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined.

  6. [Evaluation of Payne's formula for the correction of calcium: comparison with improved calcium and albumin measurement methods].

    PubMed

    Ohbal, Takashi; Shiraishi, Takeko; Kabaya, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinichiro

    2014-02-01

    The ionized or free fraction of serum calcium is physiologically important for cellular function, but we most often measure total serum calcium. There are a number of correction formulas that can be used to estimate whether low total serum calcium can be attributed simply to low albumin or serum protein. In Japan, Payne's formula has been widely used to correct calcium concentration. However, there are some problems in the measurement methods of total calcium and serum albumin which were used to establish Payne's formula with respect to specificity, calibration curve and stability. Recently, improved measurement methods of calcium and albumin have been adopted at clinical laboratories. Here we evaluated Payne's formula by comparing it with improved measurement methods of total calcium and serum albumin. For the total calcium measurement, o-CPC (o-cresolphthaleincomplexone), CPZ(chlorophosphonazo) III, and enzymatic methods were used. For the serum albumin measurement, BCG (bromocresol green) and improved BCP(bromocresol purple) methods were used. The results of this comparison study suggest that the calcium correction equation is not affected by changes in total calcium concentration, but the assay used for albumin may affect the calcium correction equation. Using multiple linear regression, the following equations were derived: BCG between CPZ III [corrected Ca(mg/dL) = total Ca-0.76ALB + 3.2], and improved BCP between CPZ III [corrected Ca = total Ca-0.7ALB + 2.6]. These formulas are simplified respectively as [corrected Ca = total Ca + 0.8(4-ALB], and [corrected Ca = total Ca + 0.7 (4-ALB)]. We conclude that Payne's formula is valid with the BCG method, but with the improved BCP method, our formula is more suitable for correcting calcium.

  7. Preoperative Albumin to Globulin Ratio (AGR) as Prognostic Factor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaobo; Guo, Shengjie; Chen, Dong; Yang, Guangwei; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Yijun; He, Qiuming; Qin, Zike; Liu, Zhuowei; Xue, Yunfei; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Ruiwu; Zhou, Fangjian; Han, Hui; Yao, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition and systemic inflammatory response are frequently associated with prognosis in patients with several types of cancer, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study is aimed to investigate the ability of preoperative serum albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) to predict the long-term mortality of RCC patients. Methods: The study is a retrospective study of an unselected cohort of 895 RCC patients who underwent a curative radical or partial nephrectomy at the Department of Urology in the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2000 and December 2012 and had documented preoperative serum total protein and albumin (ALB) levels. The preoperative AGR was calculated as the ratio of ALB to (total protein-ALB) and its association with other clinical indices was assessed using survival analysis. Results: Low preoperative AGR was associated with older population, lower hemoglobin, higher total protein, lower ALB, lower body mass index and advanced stage. The univariate and multivariate Cox analyses demonstrated that preoperative AGR was an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43 to 0.93, P=0.022). In addition, patients with low preoperative AGR at pT1-2, pT3-4, pN0, pN1, pM0 and pM1 stages had significantly shorter OS than patients with high preoperative AGR. Conclusion: Preoperative AGR is a proven objective, reproducible, inexpensive survival predictor of RCC patients following surgical resection and should be considered for routine clinical use. PMID:28243330

  8. Long-lasting, selective, anxiogenic effects of feline predator stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Robert; Walling, Sue; Burton, Paul

    2004-12-15

    Lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior (ALB) are produced by brief exposure of rats to a cat [Adamec RE, Shallow T, Lasting effects on rodent anxiety of a single exposure to a cat, Physiol. Behav., 54 (1993) 101-109.]. Mice also respond defensively to natural predator stimuli. Moreover, chronic exposure of mice to rat odor has immediate anxiogenic effects in plus maze and lasting (7 days) and effects on acoustic startle. The present study examined the lasting (7 days) after effects on ALB of a brief unprotected exposure of male CFW mice to a cat. Lasting effects on ALB of exposure to the cat exposure room were also assessed. Effects on behavior were studied in the hole board and elevated plus-maze (EPM). An ethological analysis of behavior revealed that risk assessment in the EPM was increased the most in predator-stressed mice. Mice exposed to the cat exposure room showed increased risk assessment falling between controls and cat exposed mice. Behavior in the hole board was unaffected, as were most other behaviors in the plus maze. Factor analysis revealed independence of risk assessment from other measures of ALB, activity and exploration, consistent with findings in rats. Aspects of the stress experience were highly predictive of later response to the cat. Cat biting and pawing, mouse fleeing and mouse weight measured at the time of cat exposure together accounted for 71% of the variance of risk assessment in cat exposed mice. The significance of these findings for vulnerability to cat predator stress of mice and for the use of predator stress in mice as a model of aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are discussed.

  9. Joint Transformation of Aerial Interdiction by Enhancing Kill Box Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    SHAPE were developing a strategy of Follow on Forces Attack ( FOFA ) “aimed at delaying, disrupting and destroying Warsaw Pact forces from just beyond...and air battle and the between close air support (CAS) and AI.22 The ALB and FOFA concept would change that philosophy. According to Lt Col Donald...February 2006. Available from http://www.army.mil/cmh- pg/brochures/romar/72-20.htm. USAF Assistant Chief of Staff, Studies and Analysis . The

  10. Intranasal administration as a route for drug delivery to the brain: evidence for a unique pathway for albumin.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Joseph A; Salameh, Therese S; Yi, Xiang; Cordy, Benjamin J; Mortell, William G; Kabanov, Alexander V; Banks, William A

    2014-10-01

    A variety of compounds will distribute into the brain when placed at the cribriform plate by intranasal (i.n.) administration. In this study, we investigated the ability of albumin, a protein that can act as a drug carrier but is excluded from brain by the blood-brain barrier, to distribute into the brain after i.n. administration. We labeled bovine serum albumin with [(125)I] ([(125)I]Alb) and studied its uptake into 11 brain regions and its entry into the blood from 5 minutes to 6 hours after i.n. administration. [(125)I]Alb was present throughout the brain at 5 minutes. Several regions showed distinct peaks in uptake that ranged from 5 minutes (parietal cortex) to 60 minutes (midbrain). About 2-4% of the i.n. [(125)I]Alb entered the bloodstream. The highest levels occurred in the olfactory bulb and striatum. Distribution was dose-dependent, with less taken up by whole brain, cortex, and blood at the higher dose of albumin. Uptake was selectively increased into the olfactory bulb and cortex by the fluid-phase stimulator PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), but inhibitors to receptor-mediated transcytosis, caveolae, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase were without effect. Albumin altered the distribution of radioactive leptin given by i.n. administration, decreasing uptake into the blood and by the cerebellum and increasing uptake by the hypothalamus. We conclude that [(125)I]Alb administered i.n. reaches all parts of the brain through a dose-dependent mechanism that may involve fluid-phase transcytosis and, as illustrated by leptin, can affect the delivery of other substances to the brain after their i.n. administration.

  11. A perspective on knowing about global warming and a critical comment about schools and curriculum in relation to socio-scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    The focus of this response to Virginie Albe and Marie-José Gombert's (2011) article on a research study of students' school science conference on global warming is to develop some thoughts on covert assumptions which underpin any such conference. My comments refer to the politics behind the production of scientific knowledge of climate change and the institutional barriers to action on socio-scientific issues presented by schools working predominantly on neoliberal agendas.

  12. Microwave Landing System (MLS). Phase III (Basic Narrow and Small Community Configurations). Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    lenses consist of a number of closely spaced probes along the focal arc. The [ probes are spaced closely enough that exciting several simul- taneously...curvature and minimized the internal reflections (see Figure A-lb). This value of g was used in the Basic Narrow and Small Community lenses . The...the antenna size without any "backward bending" of the lens surface (see Figure A-2b). The Basic Narrow and Small Community lenses have a focal length

  13. Effect of composition on properties of reactive Al·B·I2 powders prepared by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Ani; Obamedo, John; Schoenitz, Mirko; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2015-08-01

    Metal-based fuels producing halogen-containing combustion products are being developed to enable rapid inactivation of harmful aerosolized spores and bacteria. Ternary reactive materials containing aluminum, boron, and iodine were prepared by mechanical milling with systematically varied Al:B ratio. The aluminum mass fraction varied from 0% to 70%, and most materials included 20 wt% of iodine. Prepared powders were inspected by electron microscopy; particle size distributions were measured using low angle laser light scattering. Stability of materials was studied using thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. As-prepared as well as pre-heated and quenched samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Iodine was released upon heating in several stages. Low-temperature iodine release was relatively small. It overlapped with decomposition of B(OH)3 releasing water. The most significant amounts of iodine were released when the samples were heated to 400-500 °C, when AlB2 formed. Both AlB2 formation and iodine release were further accelerated by melting of aluminum. For the boron-rich samples, in which boron remained after all aluminum was used to form AlB2, an additional, high-temperature iodine release stage was observed near 900 °C. The results show that both boron and aluminum are capable of stabilizing substantial quantities of iodine in the metal matrix. The iodine is released at temperatures much greater than its boiling point. The mechanism by which iodine is retained in boron and aluminum remains unclear.

  14. Development of a method for fabricating metallic matrix composite shapes by a continuous mechanical process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts made to develop processes capable of producing metal composites in structural shapes and sizes suitable for space applications are described. The processes must be continuous and promise to lower fabrication costs. Special attention was given to the aluminum boride (Al/b) composite system. Results show that despite adequate temperature control, the consolidation characteristics did not improve as expected. Inadequate binder removal was identified as the cause responsible. An Al/c (aluminum-graphite) composite was also examined.

  15. A Compilation Catalog in the Direction of the Galactic Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-18

    and Argelander 1890) 3) Catalogo de Zonas Estrellas (GA; Gould 1884a, b) 4) Catalogue of 12441 Stars for the Epoch 1880 (Cp 80; Stone 1881) 2 5... Catalogo General Argentino (Gou; Gould 1886) 6) Catalogo de 15200 Estrellas (Cord B; Perrine 1914) 7) Albany Zone Catalogue of 8276 Stars Between -200 and...410 for the Epoch 1900 (Alb00 ; Boss 1918) 8) San Luis Catalogue of 15333 Stars for the Epcoh 1910 (SL; Tucker, Roy, and Varnum 1928) 9) Catalogo

  16. Personnel Service Support (PSS) in Army Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-20

    UNCLASSIFIED N ACN 73765 PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT (PSS) IN ARMY MODELS FINAL REPORT DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY TRAINING...Analysis 4-7 A-6 10 Theater Strategic Operational (TSO) Depths B-3 11 Constructing Interval Scales from Ordinal Data E-4 vii GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS ACN Army...Control Number AI Artificial Intelligence AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ALB Airland Battle AMSAA Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency ANSI

  17. [Variations in plasma protein components during extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    De Luca, R; Renzulli, A; Di Donna, V; Sicuranza, A; Sellitto, C; Mangano, P; Iovino, L

    1984-04-30

    In this research we have determined the behaviour of proteic plasmatic pattern and some enzymes during extracorporeal circulation and we noted a constant increase of albumin and of the ratio Alb/Glob. We observed also variations of some enzymes. Our opinion according other AA. is that this changes are determined principally by the large dose of heparin necessary during the C.E.C.

  18. Hepatic precursors derived from murine embryonic stem cells contribute to regeneration of injured liver.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jeonghoon; Factor, Valentina M; Uren, Tania; Takahama, Yasushi; Lee, Ju-Seog; Major, Marian; Feinstone, Stephen M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2006-12-01

    We established an efficient system for differentiation, expansion and isolation of hepatic progenitor cells from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and evaluated their capacity to repopulate injured liver. Using mouse ES cells transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene regulated by albumin (ALB) enhancer/promoter, we found that a serum-free chemically defined medium supports formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) and differentiation of hepatic lineage cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors or feeder cell layers. The first GFP+ cells expressing ALB were detected in close proximity to "beating" myocytes after 7 days of EB cultures. GFP+ cells increased in number, acquired hepatocyte-like morphology and hepatocyte-specific markers (i.e., ALB, AAT, TO, and G6P), and by 28 days represented more than 30% of cells isolated from EB outgrowths. The FACS-purified GFP+ cells developed into functional hepatocytes without evidence of cell fusion and participated in the repairing of diseased liver when transplanted into MUP-uPA/SCID mice. The ES cell-derived hepatocytes were responsive to normal growth regulation and proliferated at the same rate as the host hepatocytes after an additional growth stimulus from CCl(4)-induced liver injury. The transplanted GFP+ cells also differentiated into biliary epithelial cells. In conclusion, a highly enriched population of committed hepatocyte precursors can be generated from ES cells in vitro for effective cell replacement therapy.

  19. The role of initial spore adhesion in pellet and biofilm formation in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Wargenau, Andreas; Brandt, Ulrike; Rohde, Manfred; Dietrich, Sylvia; Kwade, Arno; Krull, Rainer; Fleissner, André

    2012-01-01

    Fungi grow on a great variety of organic and inorganic materials. Colony establishment and growth on solid surfaces require adhesion of spores and hyphae to the substrate, while cell-to-cell interactions among spores and/or hyphae are a prerequisite for the development of three-dimensional mycelial structures such as pellets or biofilms. Surface adherence has been described as a two-step process, comprised of the initial attachment of ungerminated conidia followed by further adhesion of the forming germ tubes and growing hyphae. In the present study, we analyzed the contribution of adhesion of ungerminated spores to pellet and biofilm formation in Aspergillus niger. Mutants deficient in melanin biosynthesis were constructed by the deletion of the alb1 gene, encoding a polyketide synthase essential for pigment biosynthesis. Δalb1 conidia have an altered surface structure and changed physicochemical surface properties. Spore aggregation in liquid culture as well as spore surface attachment differ between the wild type and the mutant in a pH-dependent manner. In liquid culture further pellet formation is unaffected by altered spore-spore interactions, indicating that germ tube and hyphal adherence can compensate for deficiencies in the initial step of spore attachment. In contrast, under conditions promoting adhesion of Δalb1 conidia to polymer surfaces the mutant forms more stable biofilms than the wild type, suggesting that initial spore adhesion supports sessile growth.

  20. Effects of culturing media on hepatocytes differentiation using Volvox sphere as co-culturing vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun Lieh; Chang, Siou Han; Manousakas, Ioannis; Huang, Han Hsiang; Teong, Benjamin; Chuang, Chin Wen; Kuo, Shyh Ming

    2015-03-13

    Volvox sphere is a unique design to mimic natural volvox consists of a large outer-sphere that contains smaller inner-spheres, which provide three-dimensional (3D) environment to culture cells. The purpose of this study is to co-culture mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and AML12 liver cells in Volvox spheres and to evaluate the effects of two media, DMEM and DMEM/F12 on the cultured cells. The results of this study shows that the 3D Volvox sphere can successfully be applied for co-culture of MSCs and AML12 liver cells, and the MSCs are able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells expressing hepatocyte-specific markers including albumin (ALB), alpha feto-protein (AFP) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) mRNA expressions and producing CK18 and ALB proteins. Interestingly, the MSCs expressed higher ALB, AFP and CK18 mRNA expression at the initial 7-day culture by using DMEM, whereas, the MSCs expressed more mRNA expressions from 7-day to 14-day by the usage of DMEM/F12. The result demonstrated that DMEM and DMEM/F12 media could affect MSCs behaviors during a 14-day culture.

  1. Serum liver enzymes serve as prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenyue; Wang, Haiyong; Ning, Zhouyu; Xu, Litao; Zhuang, Liping; Wang, Peng; Meng, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Liver functions, reflective of the overall status of the host, have been reported to be important factors affecting the prognosis in many types of cancers. In this study, we explored the influences of liver enzymes albumin (ALB), globulin (GELO), total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on the overall survival (OS) in a number of 173 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients and methods Between 2011 and 2015, we enrolled patients with pathologically proven locally advanced or metastatic ICC. The impact of ALB, GELO, TP, ALP, ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, GGT, and LDH on OS were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Next, the associations between these liver enzymes and OS were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Finally, the role of these enzymes in OS was evaluated in the subgroups. Results Elevated liver enzymes were linked with OS. We revealed that independent prognostic factors of poor outcome were ALP, TBIL, DBIL, and GGT, whereas ALB is a protective factor in ICC patients. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that these liver enzymes may serve as valuable predictive markers in ICC patients. PMID:28331337

  2. Characterization of process-related impurities including forced degradation products of alogliptin benzoate and the development of the corresponding reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, YuXia; Zhou, WenTao; Sun, LiLi; Zou, QiaoGen; Wei, Ping; OuYang, PingKai

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of process-related impurities and forced degradants of alogliptin benzoate (Alb) in bulk drugs and a stability-indicating HPLC method for the separation and quantification of all the impurities were investigated. Alb was found to be unstable under acid and alkali stress conditions and two major degradation products (Imp-F and Imp-G) were observed. The optimum separation was achieved on Kromasil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using 0.1% perchloric acid (pH adjusted to 3.0 with triethylamine) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in gradient mode. The proposed method was found to be stability indicating, precise, linear (0.10-75.0 μg/mL), accurate, sensitive, and robust for the quantitation of Alb and its process-related substances and degradation products. The structures of 11 impurities were characterized and confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and IR spectroscopy, and the most probable formation mechanisms of all impurities were proposed according to the synthesis route.

  3. The influence of protein adsorption on interactions of cultured human endothelial cells with polymers.

    PubMed

    van Wachem, P B; Vreriks, C M; Beugeling, T; Feijen, J; Bantjes, A; Detmers, J P; van Aken, W G

    1987-06-01

    A systematic study of the effects of polymer surface properties on the interaction with human endothelial cells (HEC) may lead to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts. HEC, suspended in culture medium containing 20% serum adhered and spread onto moderately wettable polymers such as TCPS (tissue culture polystyrene). Reduced or no adhesion of HEC was observed upon the hydrophobic polymers PETP (polyethyleneterephthalate, Dacron) and FEP (fluoroethylenepropylene copolymer, Teflon). Polymers precoated with the proteins albumin (Alb), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) inhibited the adhesion of HEC, whereas fibronectin (Fn) coatings promoted cell adhesion. Endothelialization of PETP and FEP only occurred after precoating of these materials with Fn. The adsorption of Fn, Alb, HDL, and IgG from solutions of different serum concentrations onto TCPS, PETP, and FEP was related to the adhesion of HEC. Serum Fn only adsorbed onto TCPS, with the maximum at 0.1% serum concentration. Maximal cell adhesion onto TCPS was also observed after pretreatment with a solution containing 0.1% serum. The cell adhesion inhibiting proteins Alb and HDL preferentially adsorbed at higher serum concentrations. Desorption of these proteins and exchange for, e.g., cellular Fn may result in cell spreading and proliferation of HEC upon TCPS.

  4. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  5. [Study of serum albumin and BMI as nutritional markers in hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Quero Alfonso, Angel I; Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Gomez Jimenez, Francisco Javier

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: La malnutrición proteíco calorica asi como la inflamación sistémica y metabólica son trastornos frecuentes entre los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica sometidos a tratamiento renal sustitutivo (Hemodiálisis), lo que contribuye a su morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el estado nutricional de los pacientes de una unidad de hemodiálisis mediante la valoración de parámetros bioquímicos nutricionales como la albúmina, y parámetros antropométricos de índice de masa corporal durante diez años de seguimiento. Métodos: En este trabajo se ha seguido a 90 pacientes de ambos sexos con insuficiencia renal crónica que fueron tratados con hemodiálisis periódicamente en nuestra unidad durante diez años. A todos los pacientes se le realizaron mediciones trimestrales de albúmina plasmática (Alb), y otras determinaciones bioquimicas, y se les efectuaron mediciones antropométricas de peso, altura e índice de masa corporal calculado mediante la formula peso/talla², agrupada enIMC < 23 kg/m2 y niveles de albumina.

  6. The chemical species distribution and transformation of polyaluminum silicate chloride coagulant.

    PubMed

    Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Bingjian

    2002-02-01

    The chemical species distributions of polyaluminum silicate chloride (PASC) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) determined by Al-Ferron complexation timed spectrophotometric and 27Al-NMR methods, respectively, have been compared and analyzed. The experimental results show that the species distribution and transformation of PASC are different from those of PACl, due to the interaction of polysilicic acid and hydrolyzed aluminum species. At the same basicity (B), the contents of, Al(b), Al13 and the monomer species Almono (also determined by 27Al-NMR) in PASC are lower than those in PACl, while the contents of Al(c) and the Alother determined by 27Al-NMR in PASC are higher than those in PACl. The differences between PASC and PACl with respect to these species enlarge as the molar ratio of Al/Si in PASC decreases. Further, in PACl the ratio of Al13 to Al(b) closes to 1.0, indicating that the amount of the two fractions are similar. In PASC, however, such an agreement does not exist at the lower B values and Al/Si molar ratios. When the B value and Al/Si molar ratios increase, however, the amount of Al13 and Al(b) species tends to close. The study findings indicate that polysilicic acid can react with hydrolyzed aluminum species to form an aluminum silicate polymer composite and result in the change in species distribution of PASC.

  7. Serum creatinine and albumin decline predict the contraction of nosocomial aspiration pneumonia in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Inamoto, Hajime; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Aspiration pneumonia (AP) is prevalent in older adults and the hemodialysis (HD) population has been getting older. Therefore, it is speculated that increasing number of HD patients would suffer from AP. However, the clinical aspects of AP in HD patients have not been elucidated. Consecutive HD patients with nosocomial AP hospitalized in our university hospital from April 2007 to December 2008 were recruited. Their clinical characteristics, risk factors for contraction, and the fatality of AP and treatment options were described. Nineteen out of 356 hospitalized HD patients had AP and 8 out of 19 AP patients died, indicating the incidence rate and fatality rate were 5.34% and 42.1%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for contracting AP included age, body mass index, serum creatinine levels (Cre) and the monthly decline rate of Cre. It also revealed that serum albumin (Alb) and basal total cholesterol levels, the decline rate of Alb and Cre levels, and the duration of AP were independent risk factors for fatality. Survivors were most often treated with tube feeding. Both contraction rate and fatality of nosocomial AP were high among HD patients. Both the malnutrition as well as the decline rate for nutrition and muscle volume indicated by falls in Alb and Cre, respectively, had clinical relevance in AP. Maintaining nutritional state by tube feeding and muscle volume seems to be the mainstay for the prevention and the treatment of AP in HD patients.

  8. Metal borohydride formation from aluminium boride and metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Møller, Kasper T; Fogh, Alexander S; Paskevicius, Mark; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-10-05

    Metal borides are often decomposition products from metal borohydrides and thus play a role in the reverse reaction where hydrogen is absorbed. In this work, aluminium boride, AlB2, has been investigated as a boron source for the formation of borohydrides under hydrogen pressures of p(H2) = 100 or 600 bar at elevated temperatures (350 or 400 °C). The systems AlB2-MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) have been investigated, producing LiBH4, NaBH4 and Ca(BH4)2, whereas the formation of Mg(BH4)2 was not observed at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar. The formation of the metal borohydrides is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy and the fraction of boron in AlB2 and M(BH4)x is determined quantitatively by (11)B MAS NMR. Hydrogenation for 12 h at T = 350-400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar leads to the formation of substantial amounts of LiBH4 (38.6 mol%), NaBH4 (83.0 mol%) and Ca(BH4)2 (43.6 mol%).

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Squeezed Cast Aluminum Matrix Composites Containing Boride Reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaya-Luengas, L.; Estremera-Pérez, E.; Muñoz, L.; Suárez, O. M.

    2010-12-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 2 and 4 wt.% copper reinforced with aluminum dodecaborides were successfully fabricated by squeeze casting employing pressures up to 62 MPa. The distribution of reinforcements throughout the composites was quantified, whereas the effect of pressure on the composites density and hardness was determined. In addition, the reinforcement chemical stability was examined using high-temperature x-ray diffraction which permitted to confirm the formation of AlB2 phase a result of AlB12 decomposition. The pressure effect on the squeezed composites was investigated by optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness testing, superficial Rockwell hardness testing, and differential thermal analysis. At the highest applied pressures, the castings density increased when the shrinkage porosity was practically eliminated. The composite superficial hardness improved by increasing the applied squeeze. The indirect squeeze cast technique caused Al2Cu phase segregation to upper regions of the specimens, while conversely, the AlB12 reinforcements segregated preferentially at lower regions of the casting.

  10. Removal of Vanadium from Molten Aluminum-Part I. Analysis of VB2 Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Rhamdhani, Muhammad Akbar; Brooks, Geoffrey A.; Grandfield, John F.

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum has been used as an alternative to copper for electrical conductor applications. However, the presence of certain impurities in aluminum, such as V, Ti, Zr, Cr, and Fe, has detrimental effect on its electrical conductivity. These impurities can be removed by the addition of an Al-B master alloy containing AlB2 or AlB12 phase, known as boron treatment. The detailed mechanism of borides formation, however, is not well understood. In the current study, a systematic investigation of vanadium diborides (VB2) formation in the Al-V-B alloys was carried out. The study comprised thermodynamic assessment and experimental investigation on the Al-V-B system under typical industrial processing conditions. It was predicted from thermodynamic analysis that VB2 are stable borides of V and do not dissolve readily in the temperatures ranging from 948 K to 1173 K (675 °C to 900 °C). The experimental investigation showed that the mechanism of VB2 formation and V removal in an Al-V-B system is complex as it involves a number of steps such as chemical reaction, mass transfers in bulk liquid and inside the VB2 ring, and diffusions of B and V through the VB2 layer. Comparative analysis of thermodynamic and experimental results showed that the aluminum alloys were far from equilibrium and that the overall process was limited by the kinetics of B diffusion through the VB2 ring.

  11. Notch-Nrf2 Axis: Regulation of Nrf2 Gene Expression and Cytoprotection by Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Skoko, John J.; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V.; Kimura, Shoko; Slocum, Stephen L.; Noda, Kentaro; Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Fujimuro, Masahiro; Boley, Patricia A.; Tanaka, Yugo; Shigemura, Norihisa; Biswal, Shyam; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway enables regulation and control of development, differentiation, and homeostasis through cell-cell communication. Our investigation shows that Notch signaling directly activates the Nrf2 stress adaptive response pathway through recruitment of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) transcriptosome to a conserved Rbpjκ site in the promoter of Nrf2. Stimulation of Notch signaling through Notch ligand expression in cells and by overexpression of the NICD in RosaNICD/−::AlbCre mice in vivo induces expression of Nrf2 and its target genes. Continuous and transient NICD expression in the liver produces a Notch-dependent cytoprotective response through direct transcriptional activation of Nrf2 signaling to rescue mice from acute acetaminophen toxicity. This response can be reversed upon genetic disruption of Nrf2. Morphological studies showed that the characteristic phenotype of high-density intrahepatic bile ducts and enlarged liver in RosaNICD/−::AlbCre mice could be at least partially reversed after Nrf2 disruption. Furthermore, the liver and bile duct phenotypes could be recapitulated with constitutive activation of Nrf2 signaling in Keap1F/F::AlbCre mice. It appears that Notch-to-Nrf2 signaling is another important determinant in liver development and function and promotes cell-cell cytoprotective signaling responses. PMID:24298019

  12. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  13. Elemental Analysis of Whole and Protein Separated Blood Serum of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Csilla Noémi; Baranyai, Edina; Csípő, István; Tarr, Tünde; Zeher, Margit; Posta, József; Fábián, István

    2017-01-26

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are systemic autoimmune diseases with complex symptoms and pathogenesis that are still not completely understood. Several studies showed that the trace element homeostasis and also the levels of antioxidant plasma proteins are changed in autoimmune disorders; however, these results are controversial. In this study, the potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations of the serum and proteins-immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferrin (Trf), albumin (Alb), and ceruloplasmin (Cp)-separated from serum samples by affinity chromatography were determined in patients with SLE and SS. Ca and K levels were found to be decreased in the case of both disorders compared to the control group, and the competitive antagonism of Cu and Zn was also observed: elevated Cu concentration together with a lower Zn concentration was measured in the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. After fractionation, the trace element concentration of protein containing fractions altered to that of the control group. In case of the autoimmune disorders, the highest Cu concentration was determined in the Alb-containing protein fractions while the Zn level decreased in the Alb and increased in the Cp as well as in the IgG- and Trf-containing fractions compared to the healthy samples. Changes have also been found in the level and distribution of K and Ca.

  14. A double-blind study on the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on plasma protein exudation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Nocker, R E; Weller, F R; Out, T A; de Riemer, M J; Jansen, H M; van der Zee, J S

    1999-05-01

    Plasma protein exudation into the airways is an important pathophysiological event in asthma. The effect of 12 wk of treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP; 250 microgram twice a day) or salbutamol (Sb; 400 microgram twice a day) on plasma protein leakage was compared in a double-blind, randomized parallel-group study of 30 patients with asthma. Primary outcomes were plasma protein leakage and size selectivity of the blood-airway lumen barrier, cell differentials in BAL fluid, and bronchial responsiveness to histamine (PC20histamine). Two independent procedures to account for the effect of variable dilution of BAL on the levels of albumin (Alb) and alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) in BAL fluid consisted of correction based on urea levels and on the application of the relative coefficient of excretion [RCE = ([A2M] in BAL fluid/[A2M] in serum)/([Alb] in BAL fluid/[Alb] in serum)]. In the FP group a significant decrease was found in the A2M level and the RCE, and in the percentage of eosinophils in BAL fluid. The PC20histamine increased significantly (mean increase, 2.4 doubling doses), whereas PC20histamine decreased in the Sb group. Differences between groups were significant except for the decrease in eosinophils. We conclude that 12 wk of FP (250 microgram twice a day) decreased the permeability of the blood-airway lumen barrier, in particular for high molecular weight proteins.

  15. Improved Survival and Initiation of Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Hepatocyte-Like Cells upon Culture in William’s E Medium followed by Hepatocyte Differentiation Inducer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte differentiation inducer (HDI) lacks both glucose and arginine, but is supplemented with galactose and ornithine, and is added together with other reagents such as apoptosis inhibitor and oncostatin M. Although human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells initiate hepatocyte differentiation, most die within 7 days. In this study, we investigated both HDI and conventional media for their potential to improve cell survival. Materials and Methods 201B7 iPS cells were cultured in conventional media. This consisted of three cycles of 5-day culture in William’s E (WE) medium, followed by a 2-day culture in HDI. Results Expression levels of α-feto protein (AFP) were higher in cells cultured in WE and in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium/Nutrient F-12 Ham (DF12). 201B7 cells expressed the highest AFP and albumin (ALB) when cultured in HDI for 2 days following 7-day culture in WE. After three cycles of 5-day culture in WE followed by 2 days in HDI, 201B7 cells expressed AFP and ALB 54 ± 2.3 (average ± standard deviation) and 73 ± 15.1 times higher, respectively, than those cultured in ReproFF (feeder-free condition). Conclusion 201B7 cells survived culture in WE for 7 days followed HDI for 2 days. After three cycles of culture under these conditions, hepatocyte differentiation was enhanced, as evidenced by increased AFP and ALB expression. PMID:27073925

  16. Characterization of a polyketide synthase in Aspergillus niger whose product is a precursor for both dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin and naphtho-γ-pyrone.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Yi Ming; Meyer, Kristen M; Praseuth, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Bruno, Kenneth S; Wang, Clay C

    2010-12-06

    The genome sequencing of the fungus Aspergillus niger, an industrial workhorse, uncovered a large cache of genes encoding enzymes thought to be involved in the production of secondary metabolites yet to be identified. Identification and structural characterization of many of these predicted secondary metabolites are hampered by their low concentration relative to the known A. niger metabolites such as the naphtho-γ-pyrone family of polyketides. We deleted a nonreducing PKS gene in A. niger strain ATCC 11414, a daughter strain of A. niger ATCC strain 1015 whose genome was sequenced by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. This PKS encoding gene is a predicted ortholog of alb1 from Aspergillus fumigatus which is responsible for production of YWA1, a precursor of fungal DHN melanin. Our results show that the A. niger alb1 PKS is responsible for the production of the polyketide precursor for DHN melanin biosynthesis. Deletion of alb1 elimnates the production of major metabolites, naphtho-γ-pyrones. The generation of an A. niger strain devoid of naphtho-γ-pyrones will greatly facilitate the elucidation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways in this organism.

  17. Effects of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole treatment of bancroftian filariasis on parasite uptake and development in Culex pipiens L.

    PubMed

    Farid, Hoda A; Hammad, Ragaa E; Hassan, Marah M; Ramzy, Reda M R; El Setouhy, Maged; Weil, Gary J

    2005-07-01

    We studied effects of combined diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) treatment on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria (MF) uptake and development of infective larvae (L3) in Culex pipiens. Consenting Egyptian adults with microfilaremia (MF > 300/mL) were treated with one or seven daily doses of DEC/ALB. Laboratory-reared mosquitoes were fed on subjects before and after treatment. MF uptake and infectivity (assessed by mosquito dissection) were reduced by 89.6% and 82.9%, respectively, 12 months after single-dose treatment and by 96.2% and 99.7%, respectively, after multi-dose treatment. The L3:mosquito ratio decreased by 88% to 0.082 after single-dose treatment and by 99.8% to 0.001 after multi-dose treatment. If high coverage rates can be achieved for several annual cycles, mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC/ALB has the potential to decrease transmission to unsustainable levels and eliminate filariasis in populations. Multi-dose MDA (especially in the first year) might interrupt transmission with fewer cycles than single-dose treatment.

  18. Distribution of albumin and alpha-fetoprotein mRNAs in normal, hyperplastic, and preneoplastic rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Alpini, G.; Aragona, E.; Dabeva, M.; Salvi, R.; Shafritz, D. A.; Tavoloni, N.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of bile duct-like (oval) cells proliferating during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis has been controversial. To investigate this issue further, the authors compared the hepatic distribution of albumin (ALB) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNAs in rats in which oval cell proliferation was induced by feeding a choline-devoid diet containing 0.1% ethionine (CDE, a hepatocarcinogenic diet) with that in normal rats and in rats in which biliary epithelial cell hyperplasia was induced by either bile duct ligation or feeding alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). Northern blot analysis in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells isolated from these animals demonstrated that ALB mRNA was present in the hepatocytes of both control and experimental animals, whereas this transcript was detected in nonparenchymal epithelial cells only in CDE-fed rats. Alpha-fetoprotein mRNA was not seen in either parenchymal or nonparenchymal cells isolated from normal or hyperplastic livers induced by bile duct ligation or ANIT feeding. In CDE-fed rats, however, both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cell populations displayed AFP message. In situ hybridization directly demonstrated nonparenchymal cell expression of both ALB and AFP transcripts in CDE-fed rats. Most surprisingly, ALB and AFP mRNAs were also detected by in situ hybridization in occasional nonparenchymal cells located in portal tracts near the limiting plate in normal liver, as well as under conditions associated with bile duct hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical studies of intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin 19 (a marker of glandular epithelia), vimentin (a marker of mesenchymal lineage), and desmin (a marker of muscle cell differentiation) demonstrated that oval cells, as well as normal and hyperplastic bile duct cells, were positive for cytokeratin 19 and negative for both vimentin and desmin. Cytokeratin-positive oval cells formed duct profiles and were connected to preexisting ductules and ducts. These results are

  19. Feasibility of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to ICP-MS for the characterization of wear metal particles and metalloproteins in biofluids from hip replacement patients.

    PubMed

    Loeschner, Katrin; Harrington, Chris F; Kearney, Jacque-Lucca; Langton, David J; Larsen, Erik H

    2015-06-01

    Hip replacements are used to improve the quality of life of people with orthopaedic conditions, but the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) arthroplasty has led to poor outcomes for some patients. These problems are related to the generation of micro- to nanosized metal wear particles containing Cr, Co or other elements, but the current analytical methods used to investigate the processes involved do not provide sufficient information to understand the size or composition of the wear particles generated in vivo. In this qualitative feasibility study, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate metal protein binding and the size and composition of wear metal particles present in serum and hip aspirates from MoM hip replacement patients. A well-established HPLC anion exchange chromatography (AEC) separation system coupled to ICP-MS was used to confirm the metal-protein associations in the serum samples. Off-line single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) analysis was used to confirm the approximate size distribution indicated by AF(4) of the wear particles in hip aspirates. In the serum samples, AF(4) -ICP-MS suggested that Cr was associated with transferrin (Tf) and Co with albumin (Alb) and an unidentified species; AEC-ICP-MS confirmed these associations and also indicated an association of Cr with Alb. In the hip aspirate sample, AF(4)-ICP-MS suggested that Cr was associated with Alb and Tf and that Co was associated with Alb and two unidentified compounds; AEC analysis confirmed the Cr results and the association of Co with Alb and a second compound. Enzymatic digestion of the hip aspirate sample, followed by separation using AF(4) with detection by UV absorption (280 nm), multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS, suggested that the sizes of the Cr-, Co- and Mo-containing wear particles in a hip aspirate sample were in the range 40-150 nm. Off-line spICP-MS was used to confirm these

  20. Determination of Event-Dependent Depth of Closure for the South Florida Atlantic Coast Using Airborne Laser Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W.; Zhang, K.; Finkl, C.; Whitman, D.

    2007-12-01

    Depth of closure (DOC) is an important concept in coastal engineering that defines the seaward limit of significant net sediment transport along a wave-dominated sandy beach profile. Few surveys measured the DOC over large areas because traditional methods for measuring DOC are time consuming and cost prohibitive. With a dramatic increase in airborne laser bathymetric data in recent years, it has become possible to measure DOC over many kilometers. Reported here is a new method that identifies the DOC using airborne laser bathymetric (ALB) data. The horizontal location of the DOC was determined by differencing 2004 pre- and post-hurricane airborne laser data sets along Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties. Noise in the ALB data were approximately +/- 0.3 m, thus bathymetric variations greater than +/- 0.3 m were considered significant change. The seaward depth where change was less than +/- 0.3 m was interpreted as the DOC. The measured DOC was compared horizontally and vertically to DOC positions that were calculated based on wave data and to geomorphic units at 1046 locations spaced 100 m along the coastline. Calculated DOC values were on average within 2.8 m vertically to the measured DOC in the northern end of the study area. In the southern segment of the study area, however, the calculated DOC was on average deeper than the measured DOC. Small horizontal differences (90 m, on average) between geomorphic boundaries (rock outcrop, hardgrounds) and measured DOC suggest geologic control south of Hillsboro Inlet. Diabathic channel fields match the measured DOC to the north, with a vertical difference of 0.3 m and a horizontal difference of 161 m, on average. Because diabathic channels are hydrodynamically formed (hydromorphodynamic forms), the northern study area appears to be hydrodynamically controlled. Given the ALB data represent a before and after surface for the 2004 hurricane season, the DOC extracted from ALB data in this study is event

  1. A Novel Inflammation-Based Stage (I Stage) Predicts Overall Survival of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Pei; Chen, Shu-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Min; He, Xia; Xing, Shan; Liu, Yi-Jun; Lin, Yue-Hao; Liu, Wan-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that inflammation-based prognostic scores, such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), modified GPS (mGPS) and C-reactive protein/Albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio, platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), have been reported to have prognostic value in patients with many types of cancer, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based stage, named I stage, for patients with NPC. A retrospective study of 409 newly-diagnosed cases of NPC was conducted. The prognostic factors (GPS, mGPS, CRP/Alb ratios, PLR, and NLR) were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Then, according to the results of the multivariate analyses, we proposed a I stage combination of independent risk factors (CRP/Alb ratio and PLR). The I stage was calculated as follows: patients with high levels of CRP/Alb ratio (>0.03) and PLR (>146.2) were defined as I2; patients with one or no abnormal values were defined as I1 or I0, respectively. The relationships between the I stage and clinicopathological variables and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. In addition, the discriminatory ability of the I stage with other inflammation-based prognostic scores was assessed using the AUCs (areas under the curves) analyzed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. A total of 409 patients with NPC were enrolled in this study. Multivariate analyses revealed that only the CRP/Alb ratio (Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.093; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.222–3.587; p = 0.007) and PLR (HR: 2.003; 95% CI: 1.177–3.410; p = 0.010) were independent prognostic factors in patients with NPC. The five-year overall survival rates for patients with I0, I1, and I2 were 92.1% ± 2.9%, 83.3% ± 2.6%, and 63.1% ± 4.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). The I stage had a higher area under the curve value (0.670) compared with other systemic inflammation

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Adriana; Fonseca, Jorge; Carolino, Elisabete; Lopes, Teresa; Sousa Guerreiro, António

    2016-03-25

    Introducción y objetivos: el cobre (Cu) es un oligoelemento muy estudiado, pero poco se sabe de su evolución en los pacientes alimentados por gastrostomía endoscópica (GEP). Pretendemos evaluar la evolución del Cu sérico desde la gastrostomía hasta 12 semanas después de la intervención en estos pacientes alimentados con preparaciones domésticas.  Métodos: realizamos un estudio observacional prospectivo para evaluar el Cu sérico, la albúmina, la transferrina y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) en el momento de la GEP, tras 4 semanas y 12 semanas después de la intervención. Los datos incluyen edad, género, NRS 2002 y enfermedad subyacente: cánceres de cabeza y cuello (CCC) y disfagia neurológica (DN). Después de la intervención, estos pacientes fueron alimentados conpreparaciones domésticas. Resultados: 146 enfermos (89 hombres), entre 21-95 años: CCC-56, DN-90. Valores de Cu entre 42-160 μg/dl (normal: 70-140 μg/dl); normales 89% (n = 130); bajos 11% (n = 16), albúmina baja: 53% (n = 77), transferrina baja: 65% (n = 94), IMC bajo: 53% (n = 78). Después de 4 semanas: valores normales de Cu en 93% y bajos en 7%, albúmina baja en 34%, transferrina baja en 52%. Tras 12 semanas: valores normales de Cu en 95% y bajos en 5%, albúmina baja en 25%, transferrina baja en 32%. No encontramos diferencias significativas en el Cusérico cuando se compara edad, género, enfermedad subyacente, IMC, albúmina y transferrina. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los enfermos presentan Cu sérico normal en el momento de la gastrostomía. Para los enfermos con Cu sérico bajo antes del procedimiento, la alimentación con preparaciones domésticas parece suficiente para su normalización progresiva.

  3. Safety, tolerability, efficacy and plasma concentrations of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole co-administration in a field study in an area endemic for lymphatic filariasis in India.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, N A; Gogtay, N J; Garg, B S; Deshmukh, P R; Rajgor, D D; Kadam, V S; Kirodian, B G; Ingole, N S; Mehendale, A M; Fleckenstein, L; Karbwang, J; Lazdins-Helds, J K

    2004-04-01

    Filariasis control programmes are moving towards a strategy of repeated single-dose mass treatment of endemic populations. Using a combination, such as albendazole (ALB) to diethylcarbamazine (DEC) gives both macrofilaricidal and anti-helmintic activity. However, the safety of the combination versus DEC alone should be established in field studies in large populations prior to incorporation into national programmes. The present study compared the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of single doses of DEC 6 mg/kg + ALB placebo with DEC 6 mg/kg + ALB 400 mg in populations living in two filariasis endemic villages in the district of Wardha in western India. The study was double blind, parallel group, and randomized. Safety and tolerability study were studied in males and females older than 5 years. Safety was assessed by monitoring if adverse events (AEs) over 5 days affected daily acivities. Subjects in the 2 treatment groups experienced insignificantly different effects on daily activities and the combination was shown to be safe. Efficacy was evaluated by microfilaraemia (Mf), immunochromatographic test (ICT) and ultrasonography (USG) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow up. The efficacy study enrolled 103 male patients (aged 18-50 years) in microfilariae positive, clinical disease and asymptomatic, amicrofilaremic groups. There was no significant difference in efficacy between groups at 12 months. Within the Mf positive group, significant differences were seen in microfilaraemia (P < 0.001) with both treatments, and in USG (P < 0.001 and P < 0.004 respectively), at 12 months. The present field study has shown the combination of DEC + ALB to be as safe as the single drug DEC and thus the combination can be put in use in the national filariasis control programmes. Both drugs were adequately absorbed. The study at present does not provide evidence for the greater efficacy of the combination at 12 months follow up. While the safety of the combination has been

  4. Precise mapping of annual river bed changes based on airborne laser bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Steinbacher, Frank; Aufleger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Airborne Laser Bathymtery (ALB) is a method for capturing relatively shallow water bodies from the air using a pulsed green laser (wavelength=532nm). While this technique was first used for mapping coastal waters only, recent progress in sensor technology has opened the field to apply ALB to running inland waters. Especially for alpine rivers the precise mapping of the channel topography is a challenging task as the flow velocities are often high and the area is difficult and/or dangerous to access by boat or by feet. Traditional mapping techniques like tachymetry or echo sounding fail in such situations while ALB provides, both, high spot position accuracy in the cm range and high spatial resolution in the dm range. Furthermore, state-of-the-art ALB systems allow simultaneous mapping of the river bed and the riparian area and, therefore, represent a comprehensive and efficient technology for mapping the entire floodplain area. The maximum penetration depth depends on, both, water turbidity and bottom reflectivity. Consequently, ALB provides the highest accuracy and resolution over bright gravel rivers with relatively clear water. We demonstrate the capability of ALB for precise mapping of river bed changes based on three flight campaigns in April, May and October 2013 at the River Pielach (Lower Austria) carried out with Riegl's VQ-820-G topo-bathymetric laser scanner. Operated at a flight height of 600m above ground with a pulse repetition rate of 510kHz (effective measurement rate 200kHz) this yielded a mean point spacing within the river bed of 20cm (i.e. point density: 25 points/m2). The positioning accuracy of the river bed points is approx. 2-5cm and depends on the overall ranging precision (20mm), the quality of the water surface model (derived from the ALB point cloud), and the signal intensity (decreasing with water depth). All in all, the obtained point cloud allowed the derivation of a dense grid model of the channel topography (0.25m cell size) for all

  5. Too old to have children? Lessons from natural fertility populations

    PubMed Central

    Eijkemans, Marinus J.C.; van Poppel, Frans; Habbema, Dik F.; Smith, Ken R.; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to construct an age curve denoting the ages above which women are biologically too old to reproduce? SUMMARY ANSWER We constructed a curve based on the distribution of female age at last birth in natural fertility populations reflecting the ages above which women have become biologically too old to have children. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The median age at last birth (ALB) for females is ∼40–41 years of age across a range of natural fertility populations. This suggests that there is a fairly universal pattern of age-related fertility decline. However, little is known about the distribution of female ALB and in the present era of modern birth control, it is impossible to assess the age-specific distribution of ALB. Reliable information is lacking that could benefit couples who envisage delaying childbearing. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study is a review of high-quality historical data sets of natural fertility populations in which the distributions of female age at last birth were analysed. The studies selected used a retrospective cohort design where women were followed as they age through their reproductive years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Using a common set of eligibility criteria, large data files of natural fertility populations were prepared such that the analysis could be performed in parallel across all populations. Data on the ALB and confounding variables are presented as box and whisker plots denoting the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th percentile distribution of the age at last birth for each population. The analysis includes the estimation of Kaplan–Meier curves for age at last birth of each population. The hazard curve for ALB was obtained by plotting the smoothed hazard curve of each population and taking the lowest hazard within a time period of at least 5 years. This lowest hazard curve was then transformed into a cumulative distribution function representing the composite curve of the end of

  6. Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    PubMed Central

    Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL-1, respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (α1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (α2-glu), beta globulin (β-glu) and gamma globulin (γ-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, α1-glu and β-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of α2-glu and γ-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, α1-glu and β-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

  7. Scoring of Prognostic Parameters in Patients with Unresectable Advanced or Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ikeguchi, Masahide; Shimoda, Ryugo; Yamamoto, Manabu; Maeta, Yoshihiko; Ashida, Keigo; Saito, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Suitable chemotherapy is needed to prolong the survival of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. We scored the periodical changes of several prognostic markers during chemotherapy in patients with this type of cancer to discern the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer were enrolled. All patients underwent combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and serum albumin (ALB) were compared between the two periods (before chemotherapy and 3 months after it was started) in each patient. The scoring system was as follows: points are added when a patient shows a decrease of NLR, CRP and CEA and an increase of ALB at 3 months after the start of chemotherapy with a possible final score of +4. On the other hand, points are reduced if a patient shows an elevation of NLR, CRP and CEA and a decrease of ALB at 3 months after the start of chemotherapy with a possible final score of −4. Results At 3 months after the start of first line chemotherapy, 13 patients showed positive scores but 7 patients showed zero or minus scores. According to our scoring system, we found the mean survival time (MST) of the 13 patients with plus scores was 34 months and this was significantly better than that of the 7 patients who showed zero or minus scores (P = 0.0008). Conclusion Our new scoring system is useful but when we find that first line chemotherapy is ineffective, we need to change it to second line chemotherapy as soon as possible. That may be the best treatment for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:24179314

  8. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin among Tanzanian children as determined using biomarkers of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shirima, Candida P.; Kimanya, Martin E.; Kinabo, Joyce L.; Routledge, Michael N.; Srey, Chou; Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-01-01

    Scope The study aims to evaluate the status of dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin in young Tanzanian children, using previously validated biomarkers of exposure. Methods and results A total of 148 children aged 12 to 22 months, were recruited from three geographically distant villages in Tanzania; Nyabula, Kigwa and Kikelelwa. Plasma aflatoxin-albumin adducts (AF-alb) and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) were measured by ELISA and LC-MS, respectively. AF-alb was detectable in 84% of children, was highest in fully weaned children (p<0.01) with higher levels being associated with higher maize intake (p<0.05). AF-alb geometric mean (95% CI) was 43.2 (28.7–65.0), 19.9 (13.5–29.2) and 3.6 (2.8–4.7) pg/mg albumin in children from Kigwa, Nyabula and Kikelelwa, respectively. UFB1 was detectable in 96% of children and the level was highest in children who had been fully weaned (p<0.01). The geometric UFB1 mean (95% CI) was 327.2 (217.1–493.0), 211.7 (161.1–278.1) and 82.8 (58.3–117.7) pg/ml in Kigwa, Nyabula and Kikelelwa, respectively. About 82% of all the children were exposed to both mycotoxins. Conclusion Young children in Tanzania are chronically exposed to both aflatoxin and fumonisin through contaminated diet, although the level of exposure varies markedly between the three villages studied. PMID:23776058

  9. Risk Factors for New-Onset Cardiac Valve Calcification in Patients on Maintenance Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yunhuan; Feng, Sheng; Zhan, Zhoubing; Lu, Ying; Wang, Yancai; Jiang, Shan; Song, Kai; Shen, Huaying

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with end-stage renal disease are susceptible to cardiac valve calcification (CVC) due to mineral metabolism disorders and other factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for new-onset CVC in patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods This study included patients who underwent PD catheter insertion from January 2006 to June 2013 in our Peritoneal Dialysis Center. Clinical data were collected on CVC status during echocardiography evaluations (twice) at an interval of >6 months. The data collected included intact parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum phosphorus (P), serum calcium (Ca), albumin (Alb), prealbumin and the use of five types of antihypertensive drugs, statins, active vitamin D3 and Ca tablets. Results In total, 194 patients — 105 (54.1%) men, average age 60.5 ± 13.0 years — were included. CVC was present in 50 (25.8%) patients during PD catheter placement. After an average PD duration of 20.9 ± 10.4 months, CVC was detected in 97 patients (50.0%). New-onset CVC was found in 62 patients (32.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only serum P levels (p = 0.01, OR = 2.569), Alb levels (p = 0.04, OR = 0.935), dialysis duration (p = 0.03, OR = 1.039) and CRP levels (p = 0.02, OR = 1.031) were associated with CVC. Conclusion Serum P, Alb and CRP levels as well as dialysis duration are independent risk factors for CVC. PMID:26989400

  10. Dose-response relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Dan; Zhang, Wangzhen; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Kun; Guan, Lei; Hu, Die; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2013-07-02

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, but the dose-response relationships between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress levels have not been established. In this study, we recruited 1333 male coke oven workers, monitored the levels of environmental PAHs, and measured internal PAH exposure biomarkers including 12 urinary PAH metabolites and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts, as well as the two oxidative biomarkers urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). We found that the total concentration of urinary PAH metabolites and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were both significantly associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α in both smokers and nonsmokers (all p < 0.05). This exposure-response effect was also observed for most PAH metabolites (all p(trend) < 0.01), except for 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 8-OHdG (p(trend) = 0.108). Furthermore, it was shown that only urinary 1-hydroxypyrene has a significant positive association with both 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α after a Bonferroni correction (p < 0.005). Our results indicated that urinary ΣOH-PAHs and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts can result in significant dose-related increases in oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Furthermore, when a multianalyte method is unavailable, our findings demonstrate that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful biomarker for evaluating total PAHs exposure and assessing oxidative damage in coke oven workers.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-associated microRNAs and their interactions with the environment: influences on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Guo, Huan; Huang, Suli; Kuang, Dan; Feng, Jing; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Wangzhen; Huang, Kun; Hu, Die; Deng, Huaxin; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2014-04-01

    We previously identified five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and found they were associated with chromosome damage. As oxidative damage is the common contributory cause of various PAHs-related diseases, we further investigated the influences of these miRNAs and their interactions with environmental factors on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. We measured PAHs internal exposure biomarkers [urinary monohydroxy-PAHs (OH-PAHs) and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts], the expression levels of PAHs-associated plasma miRNAs (miR-24-3p, miR-27a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-28-5p, and miR-150-5p), and urinary biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage [8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)] and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α)] in 365 healthy male coke oven workers. These miRNAs were associated with a dose-response increase in 8-OH-dG (β > 0), and with a dose-response decrease in 8-iso-PGF2α (β < 0), especially in workers with lower PAHs exposure levels, in nonsmokers, and in nondrinkers. These miRNAs interacted antagonistically with ΣOH-PAHs and BPDE-Alb adducts (βinteraction < 0) and synergistically with drinking status (βinteraction > 0) to influence 8-OH-dG, while they interacted synergistically with BPDE-Alb adducts (βinteraction > 0) and antagonistically with smoking status (βinteraction < 0) to influence 8-iso-PGF2α. Our results suggested that miRNAs and their interactions with environmental factors might be novel mechanisms mediating the effects of PAHs exposure on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  12. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  13. Housing environment modulates physiological and behavioral responses to anxiogenic stimuli in trait anxiety male rats.

    PubMed

    Ravenelle, R; Santolucito, H B; Byrnes, E M; Byrnes, J J; Donaldson, S T

    2014-06-13

    Environmental enrichment can modulate mild and chronic stress, responses to anxiogenic stimuli as well as drug vulnerability in a number of animal models. The current study was designed to examine the impact of postnatal environmental enrichment on selectively bred 4th generation high- (HAn) and low-anxiety (LAn) male rats. After weaning, animals were placed in isolated (IE), social (SE) and enriched environments (EE) (e.g., toys, wheels, ropes, changed weekly). We measured anxiety-like behavior (ALB) on the elevated plus maze (EPM; trial 1 at postnatal day (PND) 46, trial 2 at PND 63), amphetamine (AMPH) (0.5mg/kg, IP)-induced locomotor behavior, basal and post anxiogenic stimuli changes in (1) plasma corticosterone, (2) blood pressure and (3) core body temperature. Initially, animals showed consistent trait differences on EPM with HAn showing more ALB but after 40 days in select housing, HAn rats reared in an EE showed less ALB and diminished AMPH-induced activity compared to HAn animals housed in IE and SE. In the physiological tests, animals housed in EE showed elevated adrenocortical responses to forced novel object exposure but decreased body temperature and blood pressure changes after an air puff stressor. All animals reared in EE and SE had elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-positive cells in the central amygdala (CeA), CA1 and CA2 hippocampal regions and the caudate putamen, but these differences were most pronounced in HAn rats for CeA, CA1 and CA2. Overall, these findings suggest that environmental enrichment offers benefits for trait anxiety rats including a reduction in behavioral and physiological responses to anxiogenic stimuli and AMPH sensitivity, and these responses correlate with changes in BDNF expression in the central amygdala, hippocampus and the caudate putamen.

  14. Potential impact of U.S. biofuels on regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2009-11-01

    Recent work has shown that current bio-energy policy directives may have harmful, indirect consequences, affecting both food security and the global climate system. An additional unintended but direct effect of large-scale biofuel production is the impact on local and regional climate resulting from changes in the energy and moisture balance of the surface upon conversion to biofuel crops. Using the latest version of the WRF modeling system we conducted twenty-four, midsummer, continental-wide, sensitivity experiments by imposing realistic biophysical parameter limits appropriate for bio-energy crops in the Corn Belt of the United States. In the absence of strain/crop-specific parameterizations, a primary goal of this work was to isolate the maximum regional climate impact, for a trio of individual July months, due to land-use change resulting from bio-energy crops and to identify the relative importance of each biophysical parameter in terms of its individual effect. Maximum, local changes in 2 m temperature of the order of 1°C occur for the full breadth of albedo (ALB), minimum canopy resistance (RCMIN), and rooting depth (ROOT) specifications, while the regionally (105°W-75°W and 35°N-50°N) and monthly averaged response of 2 m temperature was most pronounced for the ALB and RCMIN experiments, exceeding 0.2°C. The full range of albedo variability associated with biofuel crops may be sufficient to drive regional changes in summertime rainfall. Individual parameter effects on 2 m temperature are additive, highlight the cooling contribution of higher leaf area index (LAI) and ROOT for perennial grasses (e.g., Miscanthus) versus annual crops (e.g., maize), and underscore the necessity of improving location- and vegetation-specific representation of RCMIN and ALB.

  15. Differentiation of human foreskin fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Zhao, Ping; Wan, Zhihong; Jin, Xueyuan; Cheng, Yongqian; Yan, Tao; Qing, Song; Ding, Ning; Xin, Shaojie

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation potential of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). The iPSCs were firstly induced by transduction of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC into HFFs using retrovirus. Afterwards, expressions of pluripotency factors were identified by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining, and karyotype, embryoid, and teratoma were observed by microscope. Then, iPSCs were gradually differentiated into endoderm cells, hepatic progenitor cells, and mature HLCs by special culture medium. During this process, differentiation efficiency into each kind of cells was evaluated by detecting SOX17, HNF4a, and ALB using flow cytometry, respectively. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to detect the secretion of ALB in iPSC-induced HLCs and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of hepatocyte-specific genes. The iPSCs were successfully induced by HFFs, which exhibited typical embryonic stem cells morphology, positive alkaline phosphatase staining, normal diploid karyotype, and positive expression of various pluripotency factors. Meanwhile, spherical embryoid and teratoma with 3 germ layers were formed by iPSCs. The iPSCs were consecutively induced into endoderm cells, hepatic progenitor cells and mature HLCs, and the differentiation efficiency was 55.7 ± 2.9%, 45.7 ± 4.8%, and 35.0 ± 3.9%, respectively. Besides, the secretion of ALB and expression of various hepatocyte-specific genes was highly detected in iPSC-induced HLCs. The iPSCs were successfully derived from HFFs and then differentiated into HLCs, which proved a new source for hepatocyte transplantation.

  16. Perinatal deiodinase 2 expression in hepatocytes defines epigenetic susceptibility to liver steatosis and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bocco, Barbara M. L. C.; Abdalla, Sherine M.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Mohácsik, Petra; Fekete, Csaba; Li, Daofeng; Xing, Xiaoyun; Wang, Ting; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone binds to nuclear receptors and regulates gene transcription. Here we report that in mice, at around the first day of life, there is a transient surge in hepatocyte type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates the prohormone thyroxine to the active hormone triiodothyronine, modifying the expression of ∼165 genes involved in broad aspects of hepatocyte function, including lipid metabolism. Hepatocyte-specific D2 inactivation (ALB-D2KO) is followed by a delay in neonatal expression of key lipid-related genes and a persistent reduction in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression. Notably, the absence of a neonatal D2 peak significantly modifies the baseline and long-term hepatic transcriptional response to a high-fat diet (HFD). Overall, changes in the expression of approximately 400 genes represent the HFD response in control animals toward the synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides, whereas in ALB-D2KO animals, the response is limited to a very different set of only approximately 200 genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and lipase activity. A whole genome methylation profile coupled to multiple analytical platforms indicate that 10–20% of these differences can be related to the presence of differentially methylated local regions mapped to sites of active/suppressed chromatin, thus qualifying as epigenetic modifications occurring as a result of neonatal D2 inactivation. The resulting phenotype of the adult ALB-D2KO mouse is dramatic, with greatly reduced susceptibility to diet-induced steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity. PMID:26508642

  17. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) Contributes to Non-thyroidal Illness Syndrome (NTIS) Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)*

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Robertson, Chadia L.; Gredler, Rachel; Siddiq, Ayesha; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Akiel, Maaged A.; Emdad, Luni; Mas, Valeria; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Fisher, Paul B.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), characterized by low serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) with normal l-thyroxine (T4) levels, is associated with malignancy. Decreased activity of type I 5′-deiodinase (DIO1), which converts T4 to T3, contributes to NTIS. T3 binds to thyroid hormone receptor, which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and regulates transcription of target genes, such as DIO1. NF-κB activation by inflammatory cytokines inhibits DIO1 expression. The oncogene astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) inhibits RXR-dependent transcription and activates NF-κB. Here, we interrogated the role of AEG-1 in NTIS in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). T3-mediated gene regulation was analyzed in human HCC cells, with overexpression or knockdown of AEG-1, and primary hepatocytes from AEG-1 transgenic (Alb/AEG-1) and AEG-1 knock-out (AEG-1KO) mice. Serum T3 and T4 levels were checked in Alb/AEG-1 mice and human HCC patients. AEG-1 and DIO1 levels in human HCC samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. AEG-1 inhibited T3-mediated gene regulation in human HCC cells and mouse hepatocytes. AEG-1 overexpression repressed and AEG-1 knockdown induced DIO1 expression. An inverse correlation was observed between AEG-1 and DIO1 levels in human HCC patients. Low T3 with normal T4 was observed in the sera of HCC patients and Alb/AEG-1 mice. Inhibition of co-activator recruitment to RXR and activation of NF-κB were identified to play a role in AEG-1-mediated down-regulation of DIO1. AEG-1 thus might play a role in NTIS associated with HCC and other cancers. PMID:25944909

  18. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) Contributes to Non-thyroidal Illness Syndrome (NTIS) Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Robertson, Chadia L; Gredler, Rachel; Siddiq, Ayesha; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Akiel, Maaged A; Emdad, Luni; Mas, Valeria; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-06-19

    Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), characterized by low serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) with normal l-thyroxine (T4) levels, is associated with malignancy. Decreased activity of type I 5'-deiodinase (DIO1), which converts T4 to T3, contributes to NTIS. T3 binds to thyroid hormone receptor, which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and regulates transcription of target genes, such as DIO1. NF-κB activation by inflammatory cytokines inhibits DIO1 expression. The oncogene astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) inhibits RXR-dependent transcription and activates NF-κB. Here, we interrogated the role of AEG-1 in NTIS in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). T3-mediated gene regulation was analyzed in human HCC cells, with overexpression or knockdown of AEG-1, and primary hepatocytes from AEG-1 transgenic (Alb/AEG-1) and AEG-1 knock-out (AEG-1KO) mice. Serum T3 and T4 levels were checked in Alb/AEG-1 mice and human HCC patients. AEG-1 and DIO1 levels in human HCC samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. AEG-1 inhibited T3-mediated gene regulation in human HCC cells and mouse hepatocytes. AEG-1 overexpression repressed and AEG-1 knockdown induced DIO1 expression. An inverse correlation was observed between AEG-1 and DIO1 levels in human HCC patients. Low T3 with normal T4 was observed in the sera of HCC patients and Alb/AEG-1 mice. Inhibition of co-activator recruitment to RXR and activation of NF-κB were identified to play a role in AEG-1-mediated down-regulation of DIO1. AEG-1 thus might play a role in NTIS associated with HCC and other cancers.

  19. Identification of Putative Substrates of SEC2, a Chloroplast Inner Envelope Translocase1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Most chloroplast proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into chloroplasts. Many imported proteins are further targeted to the thylakoid membrane and lumen by the SEC1, TAT, or SRP/ALB3 translocases. Others are targeted to the inner chloroplast envelope membrane by undescribed translocases. Recently, a second SEC system (SEC2) consisting of SCY2, SECE2, and SECA2 was found in the chloroplast envelope. Null mutants of SCY2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exhibit a severe embryo-lethal phenotype. To investigate the function of the SEC2 system in plants, we used inducible RNA interference to knock down SCY2 in Arabidopsis. Seedlings cultured with inducer were chlorotic with aberrant chloroplasts and undeveloped thylakoids, indicating an essential role for SCY2 in chloroplast biogenesis beyond embryo development. In SCY2 down-regulated seedlings, several thylakoid membrane proteins, including SCY1, ALB3, and TATC, and inner envelope membrane proteins, including TIC40, TIC110, and FTSH12, were reduced substantially, suggesting that they may be SEC2 substrates. Additional insight was achieved by the in vitro reconstitution of protein integration into chloroplast membranes. The results show that SCY1 and ALB3 target directly to the thylakoid membrane and are likely independent of SEC2. FTSH12 was integrated into the envelope membrane in a coupled import-integration reaction that was impaired by the SECA inhibitor sodium azide. The stromal intermediate of TIC40 integrated into the envelope in a reaction that was largely inhibited when antibodies against epitope-tagged SCY2 or SECE2 were applied. These data demonstrate that the SEC2 translocase likely integrates a subset of inner envelope membrane proteins, such as FTSH12 and TIC40. PMID:28213560

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Otostegia persica against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbartabar Toori, Mehdi; Joodi, Behzad; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Jafari, Mehrzad; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Mehraban, Foad; Mostafazadeh, Mostafa; Ghavamizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of Otostegia persica (O. persica) ethanol extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group I served as normal control and was given only olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.). Group II, III, IV, and V were administered CCl4 mixed with olive oil 1:1 (1 ml/kg) i.p., twice a week for 8 weeks. Group II was maintained as CCl4-intoxicated control (hepatotoxic group). Group III, IV, and V received O. persica extract at a dose of 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg for 8 weeks every 48 h orally, respectively. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and lipid peroxidation marker (Malonaldialdehyde, (MDA) were determined in serum. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed, livers dissected out, and evaluated for histomorphological changes. Results: The administration of CCl4 increased AST, ALT, ALP, TB, and MDA in serum but it decreased TP , and ALB compared with normal control. Treatment with O. persica extract at three doses resulted in decreased enzyme markers, bilirubin levels, and lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) and increased TP and ALB compared with CCl4 group. The results of pathological study also support the hepatoprotective effects which were observed at doses of 80 and 120 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that ethanol extract of O. persica may have hepatoprotective effect which is probably due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26101757

  1. Hepatic Stellate Cells Improve Engraftment of Human Primary Hepatocytes: A Preclinical Transplantation Study in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Dusabineza, Ange-Clarisse; Najimi, Mustapha; van Hul, Noémi; Legry, Vanessa; Khuu, Dung Ngoc; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sokal, Etienne; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    Human hepatocytes are used for liver cell therapy, but the small number of engrafting cells limits the benefit of cell transplantation. We tested whether cotransplantation of hepatocytes with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) could improve hepatocyte engraftment in vivo. Human primary hepatocytes were transplanted into SCID mice either alone or in a mixture with HSCs (quiescent or after culture activation) or LX-2 cells (ratio 20:1). Four weeks after transplantation into mouse livers, human albumin-positive (huAlb(+)) hepatocytes were found scattered. When cotransplanted in a mixture with HSCs or LX-2 cells, huAlb(+) hepatocytes formed clusters and were more numerous occupying 2- to 5.9-fold more surface on the tissue section than in livers transplanted with hepatocytes alone. Increased huAlb mRNA expression in livers transplanted with the cell mixtures confirmed those results. The presence of HSCs increased the number of hepatocytes entrapped in the host liver at an early time point posttransplantation but not their proliferation in situ as assessed by cumulative incorporation of BrdU. Importantly, 4 weeks posttransplantation, we found no accumulation of αSMA(+)-activated HSCs or collagen deposition. To follow the fate of transplanted HSCs, HSCs derived from GFP(+) mice were injected into GFP(-) littermates: 17 h posttransplant, GFP(+) HSCs were found in the sinusoids, without proliferating or actively producing ECM; they were undetectable at later time points. Coculture with HSCs improved the number of adherent hepatocytes, with best attachment obtained when hepatocytes were seeded in contact with activated HSCs. In vivo, cotransplantation of hepatocytes with HSCs into a healthy liver recipient does not generate fibrosis, but significantly improves the engraftment of hepatocytes, probably by ameliorating cell homing.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress. PMID:27222831

  3. [Standardization of gastric emptying scintigraphy with egg white labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Contreras, Keren; Villanueva-Pérez, Rosa María; Menez-Díaz, Diana Graciela; Iwasaki-Otake, Laura Elena; González-Díaz, Jorge Iván; Mendoza-Vásquez, Raúl Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico (VG) es el estándar de oro para determinar el porcentaje de VG. La estandarización del método permite la obtención de resultados reproducibles. La dieta estandarizada se compone de un sándwich de albúmina de huevo en polvo reconstituida y marcada con 99mTc sulfuro coloidal (SC). El objetivo fue estandarizar y determinar el porcentaje de vaciamiento gástrico tras la ingesta del sándwich de albúmina de huevo y compararlo con el porcentaje de ingesta de una hamburguesa, ambos marcados con 99mTc sulfuro coloidal. Método: se incluyeron 30 pacientes a los que se les realizó estudio de gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico con las dos dietas propuestas. Resultados: los porcentajes de vaciamiento y retención con ambos tipos de alimentos fueron similares a la hora y a las dos horas; sin embargo, hubo diferencias significativas a las tres horas con un valor de p = 0.26, calculado mediante t de Student para muestras independientes. Conclusiones: los tiempos de vaciamiento gástrico con ambas dietas estuvieron dentro de rangos normales. La dieta estandarizada con albúmina de huevo reconstituida aporta ventajas en cuanto al estudio de las posibles alteraciones de la motilidad gástrica, como sus características organolépticas y de volumen.

  4. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  5. An Investigation of Potential Uses of Animals in Coast Guard Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Navy, Naval. Ocean Systems Center, ALb Hawaii Labor~.Lory / it cl P.O. Box S97 MIPR-Z-70099--9-94823-3iB~ Kailua, Hawaii 96734 ,s ’!’?i 12 Soonsoins...development of promising animal system ’ Animal System Concepts- Anim~al St-nsory Capabilities M~e of Biological PhenomenaI IS. -so".,t cl...f. M* Ibis ;W041...development of promising animal system concepts. APPROACH A summary of the study plan is shown in Figure 1. Coast Guard forecasts were reviewed and

  6. A review of the A400m final assembly line balancing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ríos, J.; Mas, F.; Menéndez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Assembly Line Balancing (ALB) comprises ordering of tasks among workstations to satisfy precedence constraints and objective functions. However, due to the specific features of an aeronautical Final Assembly Line (FAL), such approach is not fully suitable. In a FAL, the number of workstations relates to technological criteria rather than to a calculation aiming to minimize the total number of stations. To improve current practices, a methodological approach was taken to address the conceptual modeling of an assembly line, reviewing state of the art balancing techniques and the methodology used in the AIRBUS A400M FAL.

  7. Developing Tactical Commanders at CGSOC for the Future AirLand Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-04

    and history. Airland BaLtLe Futr (ALB-F), sentor Army leaders and cu|rrent an thors ettIIaI sizL’ w LI tIpo rta|ce of these same c’ommniland cotlpoilets...high and the margin for error will grow smaller .... At a time when technology and electronic devices appear to offer an easy path to overcome the...learn by doing himself. In this case, he normally learns by trial and error (on the job training). The painter can also learn from someone else he

  8. Hepatic Differentiation from Human Ips Cells Using M15 Cells.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kahoko; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a procedure of human iPS cells differentiation into the definitive endoderm, further into albumin-expressing and albumin-secreting hepatocyte, using M15, a mesonephros- derived cell line. Approximately 90 % of human iPS cells differentiated into SOX17-positive definitive endoderm then approximately 50 % of cells became albumin-positive cells, and secreted ALB protein. This M15 feeder system for endoderm and hepatic differentiation is a simple and efficient method, and useful for elucidating molecular mechanisms for hepatic fate decision, and could represent an attractive approach for a surrogate cell source for pharmaceutical studies.

  9. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-Ichiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Report, Utah-Nevada Study Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-03

    Limestone Cove 55 UGS-A55 Pine Valley Vu Latite Ignimbrite 11 80 FIELD OBSERVATIONS _ _____LABORATORY TEST DATA STIIITION OF II - I ATERIAL FINER caTHAN...Wah Su SandstoneValley 155 UGS-B44 Esoalante Vu Ignimbrite Desert [ I+ /, anm... FIELD OBSER VATIONS ______LABORATORY TEST DATA DISTIUIO OF 1ATERI AL...B46 Escalante Vu Ignimbrite Desert 158 UGS-B47 Escalante Vu Rhyolite Desert 159 UGS-B48 Escalante Vu Ignimbrite Desert 160 UGS-B49 Esoalante Aaf Sandy

  11. Advanced Transformer Demonstration and Validation Project Summary Report Based on Experiences at NAS, North Island, San Diego, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    three existing 167 kVA PCB-filled, single phase , polemount transformers that were connected in a three phase bank and replacing them with a single 300...A-18 3.11.1 Insulated Phase Barriers .......................... A-lB 3.11.2 Undercoating ...................................... A-18 3.11.3 Warning...2.1 mezan Na, ý n al S I.and a r, 7nSt *u~e f’-^S. ANSI- C57 12.00 General Requirements for Liquid Immersed Distribution Power and Regulating

  12. Non-LTE line formation in clumpy and turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegmann, M.; Kegel, W. H.

    2000-07-01

    Extending previous work (Albrecht & Kegel \\cite{alb87}, Kegel et al. \\cite{keg93}, Piehler & Kegel \\cite{pie94}), we investigated the formation of interstellar molecular lines in a medium with stochastic density and velocity fluctuations. We solved the full NLTE-problem, i.e. the generalized radiative transfer equation simultaneously with the rate equations, for a 6-level CO molecule and a plane-parallel slab geometry. Our results indicate that accounting for a finite correlation length of both, the density and velocity field, strongly affects the line profile and the line width as well as the intensity ratios of different rotational transitions.

  13. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  14. Two novel CPs with double helical chains based rigid tripodal ligands: Syntheses, crystal structures, magnetic susceptibility and fluorescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Hou, Xiang-Yang; Zhai, Quan-Guo; Hu, Man-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Two three-dimensional coordination polymers (CPs), namely [Cd(bpydb)- (H2bpydb)]n·0.5nH2O (1), and [Cu2(bpydb)2]n (2) (2,6-di-p-carboxyphenyl-4,4'- bipyridine1 = H2bpydb), containing a novel double-helical chains, which have been solvothermal synthesized, characterized, and structure determination. CPs 1-2 reveal the new (3,5)-net and (3,6)-net alb topology, respectively. The fluorescence properties of CPs 1-2 were investigated, and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 has dominating antiferromagnetic couplings between metal ions.

  15. Astronomy at Teotihuacan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    Located 37 km from Mexico City, during the first part of the first millennium AD, Teotihuacan was one of the world's largest and most populated cities. The city controlled the obsidian mines and developed far-reaching economic and political interactions, especially with the Classic Maya dynasties, Monte Albán in the Valley of Oaxaca and the Mexican Gulf Coast. Teotihuacan-made pottery and jewelry along with talud-tablero architectural style and the cult of the Feathered Serpent and Rain gods was spread throughout Mesoamerica.

  16. Nutritional status as a predictive marker for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alfargieny, Randa; Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; El-Fadli, Mustafa; Langhi, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered one of the most serious complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study seeks to analyze the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative nutritional biomarkers for SSI in elective TJA. Methodology: Nutritional markers were gathered retrospectively utilizing patient's records from the orthopedics department at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). The sample spanned cases admitted during the 20-month period between January 2012 and August 2013 and had undergone either elective total hip replacement or total knee replacement. The collected lab results included a complete blood count, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and serum albumin (S. alb.) levels. The patients were then divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an SSI. Results: A total of 135 total knee (81.5%, n = 110/135) and total hip (18.5%, n = 25/135) replacements were performed at BMC during the study period. Among these cases, 57% (n = 78/135) had patient records suitable for statistical analysis. The average preoperative TLC was 2.422 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.8–4.7 ×103 cells/mm3) whereas that number dropped after the surgery to 1.694 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.6–3.8 ×103 cells/mm3). S. alb. levels showed a mean of 3.973 g/dl (range = 2.9–4.7 g/dl) preoperatively and 3.145 g/dl (range = 1.0–4.1 g/dl) postoperatively. The majority of TJA patients did not suffer any complication (67.4%, n = 91/135) while eight cases (5.9%) suffered from a superficial SSI. Conclusion: Preoperative S. alb. was identified as the only significant predictor for SSI (P = 0.011). Being a preventable cause of postoperative morbidity, it is recommended that the nutritional status (especially preoperative S. alb.) of TJA patients be used as a screening agent and appropriate measures be taken to avoid SSI. PMID:26629466

  17. Curcumin-albumin conjugates as an effective anti-cancer agent with immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S R; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an active ingredient in turmeric (Curcuma longa) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization properties. Conjugation of curcumin (Curc) to albumin (Alb) has been found to increase the aqueous solubility of the drug. The current study aimed to prove the safe use of the Curc-Alb conjugate in animals and to demonstrate that it retains drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cell viability was inhibited by the Curc-Alb conjugate in a dose dependent manner in vitro, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Administration of up to 11.4 mg of conjugated curcumin per kg body weight to healthy animals was non-toxic both in terms of lethality and weight loss. Histological analysis of vital organs (kidney, liver and spleen) also did not show toxic effects. Favorable immuno-modulatory activity was observed after continuous administration of sub-acute doses of the conjugate which caused increase in total leukocyte count, platelet count, and viable cell count in bone marrow, and enhanced proliferation of lymphocyte in vitro upon culture. In vivo studies in the DLA tumor model in mice demonstrated that conjugated drug induces tumor reduction and prevention. Significant tumor reduction was observed when the Curc-Alb conjugate was administered intraperitoneally in DLA-induced mice after 1 day (prevention therapy) and 7 days (reduction therapy) of tumor induction. There was significant reduction in both tumor volume and tumor cell numbers in the treated animals as well as a marked increase in their mean survival time and percent increase in life span. The effect was greater when the conjugate was administered soon after inducing the tumor as compared to when treatment was started after allowing tumor to grow for 7 days. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that curcumin albumin conjugate has immunomodulatory and tumor growth inhibition properties. The study postulates

  18. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided.

  19. Redox Nanoparticle Therapeutics for Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of an antioxidative nanoparticle (RNPN) recently developed against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The effects of oral administration of RNPN to APAP-treated mice were assessed for various biochemical liver function parameters: alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, prothrombin time, and serum albumin (ALB) level. The treatment effects were assessed in terms of free radical parameters: malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, % inhibition of superoxide anion (O2−∙), and histopathological examination. The N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated group exhibited an enhanced prothrombin time relative to the control group, while RNPN did not prolong prothrombin time. The RNPN-treated animals exhibited lower levels of ALT, AST, and ALP, while increased ALB levels were measured in these animals compared to those in the other groups. The RNPN-treated animals furthermore exhibited improved MDA levels, GPx activity, and % inhibition of O2−∙, which relate to oxidative damage. Histological staining of liver tissues from RNPN-treated animals did not reveal any microscopic changes relative to the other groups. The findings of this study suggest that RNPN possesses effective hepatoprotective properties and does not exhibit the notable adverse effects associated with NAC treatment. PMID:27073589

  20. Identification of albumin-binding proteins in capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Isolated fat tissue microvessels and lung, whose capillary endothelia express in situ specific binding sites for albumin, were homogenized and subjected to SDS-gel electrophoresis and electroblotting. The nitrocellulose strips were incubated with either albumin-gold (Alb-Au) and directly visualized, or with [125I]albumin (monomeric or polymeric) and autoradiographed. The extracts of both microvascular endothelium and the lung express albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) represented by two pairs of polypeptides with major components of molecular mass 31 and 18 kD. The ABP peptides have pIs 8.05 to 8.75. Rabbit aortic endothelium, used as control, does not express detectable amounts of ABPs. The ABPs subjected to electrophoresis bind specifically and with high affinity (Kd = approximately 60 X 10(-9)M) both monomeric and polymeric albumin: the binding is saturable at approximately 80 nM concentration and 50% inhibition is reached at 5.5 micrograms/ml albumin concentration. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol do not markedly affect the ABPs electrophoretic mobility and binding properties. As indicated by cell surface iodination of isolated capillary endothelium followed by electroblotting, autoradiography, and incubation with Alb-Au, the bands specifically stained by this ligand are also labeled with radioiodine. PMID:2839518

  1. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Components After Oral Administration of a Kampo Medicine, Shakuyakukanzoto, to Healthy Adult Japanese Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sadakane, Chiharu; Watanabe, Junko; Fukutake, Miwako; Nisimura, Hiroaki; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio; Kono, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been used by patients with muscle cramps and abdominal pains. In this trial, we analyzed plasma concentrations of active components after SKT was administered as a single oral dose of 2.5 or 5.0 g/day per person. The study was a randomized, open-label, two-arm, two-period, crossover trial conducted in healthy Japanese volunteers. Albiflorin (ALB), paeoniflorin (PAE), glycycoumarin (GCM), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), and glycyrrhetic acid-3-O-monoglucuronide were targeted, and the plasma concentration of each component was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the linearity was assessed. All targeted components were detected in the plasma after oral administration of SKT. ALB, PAE, GCM, and ILG were detected at an early stage. The linearity was observed for the maximum plasma concentration of GCM, ILG, and GA and for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of GA. In this trial, we demonstrated for the first time in humans that these components were absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SKT. The results of this pharmacokinetic trial in humans are also important and useful for understanding the mechanism of action of SKT, verifying the active components predicted in basic research, and conducting pharmacokinetics and safety studies in the future.

  2. Ex Vivo Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1-Mediated Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Hepatocytes Is Enhanced by Chinese Medicine Yiguanjian Drug-Containing Serum

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Linlin; Pang, Bingyao; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Ling; Leng, Aijing; Chen, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Yiguanjian is administered in traditional Chinese medicine for liver diseases and has been demonstrated to reduce liver fibrosis. This study investigated the effect of Yiguanjian drug-containing serum (YGJ) with Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) on the differentiation of murine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BM-MSCs) into hepatocytes in vitro. Adherent MSCs were isolated from murine bone marrow. Differentiation was induced by 20 ng/mL HGF, 50 ng/mL SDF-1, and 20% Yiguanjian drug-containing serum for 7 to 28 days, and mature hepatocytes' marker albumin (ALB) and cholangiocytes' marker cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) were assessed by immunocytochemistry and western blot. BM-MSCs exhibited homogeneous spindle shape growth after subculture and stained positive for CD90 and negative for CD34. After induction with HGF + normal serum or YGJ for 14 days, HGF + SDF-1 + normal serum for 7 days, or HGF + SDF-1 + YGJ for 5 days, MSCs' morphology changed gradually and begun to resemble hepatocyte-like cells. Cultures supplemented with HGF + SDF-1 + YGJ contained significantly higher proportions of ALB and CK-18 positive cells than cultures supplemented with HGF + SDF-1 + normal serum at day 7. These observations corroborated the results of western blot. In conclusion, Yiguanjian drug-containing serum could facilitate the differentiation of murine BM-MSCs into hepatocytes in vitro and has a synergistic effect with SDF-1 and HGF. PMID:27190538

  3. Liver-specific deletion of Ppp2cα enhances glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Xian, Li; Hou, Siyuan; Huang, Zan; Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Wang, Qinghua; Song, Anying; Jiang, Shujun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Guo, Shiying; Gao, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Previous study showed that, in the liver, the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac) is closely associated with insulin resistance syndrome, which is characterized by glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Here we studied the role of liver PP2Ac in glucose metabolism and evaluated whether PP2Ac is a suitable therapeutic target for treating insulin resistance syndrome. Liver-specific Ppp2cα knockout mice (Ppp2cα(loxp/loxp): Alb) exhibited improved glucose homeostasis compared with littermate controls in both normal and high-fat diet conditions, despite no significant changes in body weight and liver weight under chow diet. Ppp2cα(loxp/loxp): Alb mice showed enhanced glycogen deposition, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein, activated insulin signaling, decreased expressions of gluconeogenic genes G6P and PEPCK, and lower liver triglyceride. Liver-specific Ppp2cα knockout mice showed enhanced glucose homeostasis and increased insulin sensitivity by activation of insulin signaling through Akt. These findings suggest that inhibition of hepatic Ppp2cα may be a useful strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance syndrome.

  4. Wolbachia Infections in Aedes aegypti Differ Markedly in Their Response to Cyclical Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; White, Vanessa L.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria are currently being released for arbovirus suppression around the world. Their potential to invade populations and persist will depend on interactions with environmental conditions, particularly as larvae are often exposed to fluctuating and extreme temperatures in the field. We reared Ae. aegypti larvae infected with different types of Wolbachia (wMel, wAlbB and wMelPop-CLA) under diurnal cyclical temperatures. Rearing wMel and wMelPop-CLA-infected larvae at 26–37°C reduced the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility, a reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia. We also observed a sharp reduction in the density of Wolbachia in adults. Furthermore, the wMel and wMelPop-CLA infections were not transmitted to the next generation when mosquitoes were exposed to 26–37°C across all life stages. In contrast, the wAlbB infection was maintained at a high density, exhibited complete cytoplasmic incompatibility, and was transmitted from mother to offspring with a high fidelity under this temperature cycle. These findings have implications for the potential success of Wolbachia interventions across different environments and highlight the importance of temperature control in rearing. PMID:28056065

  5. Crystal chemical characterization of mullite-type aluminum borate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, K.; Hooper, T. J. N.; Zhao, H.; Kolb, U.; Murshed, M. M.; Fischer, M.; Lührs, H.; Nénert, G.; Kudějová, P.; Senyshyn, A.; Schneider, H.; Hanna, J. V.; Gesing, Th. M.; Fischer, R. X.

    2017-03-01

    Al-rich aluminum borates were prepared by different synthesis routes using various Al/B ratios, characterized by diffraction methods, spectroscopy and prompt gamma activation analysis. The 11B NMR data show a small amount of BO4 species in all samples. The chemical analysis indicates a trend in the Al/B ratio instead of a fixed composition. Both methods indicate a solid solution Al5-xB1+xO9 where Al is substituted by B in the range of 1-3%. The structure of B-rich Al4B2O9 (C2/m, a=1488 pm, b=553 pm, c=1502 pm, ß=90.6°), was re-investigated by electron diffraction methods, showing that structural details vary within a crystallite. In most of the domains the atoms are orderly distributed, showing no signal for the postulated channel oxygen atom O5. The absence of O5 is supported by density functional theory calculations. Other domains show a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10, indicated by diffuse scattering along the b direction.

  6. Wolbachia Infections in Aedes aegypti Differ Markedly in Their Response to Cyclical Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Ross, Perran A; Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Axford, Jason K; White, Vanessa L; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria are currently being released for arbovirus suppression around the world. Their potential to invade populations and persist will depend on interactions with environmental conditions, particularly as larvae are often exposed to fluctuating and extreme temperatures in the field. We reared Ae. aegypti larvae infected with different types of Wolbachia (wMel, wAlbB and wMelPop-CLA) under diurnal cyclical temperatures. Rearing wMel and wMelPop-CLA-infected larvae at 26-37°C reduced the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility, a reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia. We also observed a sharp reduction in the density of Wolbachia in adults. Furthermore, the wMel and wMelPop-CLA infections were not transmitted to the next generation when mosquitoes were exposed to 26-37°C across all life stages. In contrast, the wAlbB infection was maintained at a high density, exhibited complete cytoplasmic incompatibility, and was transmitted from mother to offspring with a high fidelity under this temperature cycle. These findings have implications for the potential success of Wolbachia interventions across different environments and highlight the importance of temperature control in rearing.

  7. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  8. Chimeric Protein Template-Induced Shape Control of Bone Mineral Nanoparticles and Its Impact on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Du, Yinying; Liu, Haoming; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-mediated molecular self-assembly has become a powerful strategy to fabricate biomimetic biomaterials with controlled shapes. Here we designed a novel chimeric molecular template made of two proteins, silk fibroin (SF) and albumin (ALB), which serve as a promoter and an inhibitor for hydroxyapatite (HA) formation, respectively, to synthesize HA nanoparticles with controlled shapes. HA nanospheres were produced by the chimeric ALB-SF template, whereas HA nanorods were generated by the SF template alone. The success in controlling the shape of HA nanoparticles allowed us to further study the effect of the shape of HA nanoparticles on the fate of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We found that the nanoparticle shape had a crucial impact on the cellular uptake and HA nanospheres were internalized in MSCs at a faster rate. Both HA nanospheres and nanorods showed no significant influence on cell proliferation and migration. However, HA nanospheres significantly promoted the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs in comparison to HA nanorods. Our work suggests that a chimeric combination of promoter and inhibitor proteins is a promising approach to tuning the shape of nanoparticles. It also sheds new light into the role of the shape of the HA nanoparticles in directing stem cell fate. PMID:26079683

  9. Effect of pH with different purified aluminum species on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in coagulation/ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lijuan; Zhao, Shuang; Sun, Shenglei; Wang, Wenyu; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-12-30

    The influences of solution pH on coagulation/ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were investigated by using three purified Al species of polyaluminium chloride (PACl). A series of online-simulation experiments were developed to assess the coagulation removal efficiencies (turbidity, UV254), floc properties and membrane fouling in this paper. The results showed that change of pH had a significant impact on coagulation efficiencies, floc properties, membrane flux as well as the whole process. Under acidic condition, the hydrolysis action of aluminum salts was restrained which is bad for charge neutralization. While under alkaline region, absorption was the dominant mechanism to combine HA-Kaolin. Meanwhile, HA is apt to soluble by deprotonating under alkaline region which is hard to remove. These common effects made the experiment results complex. HA removal efficiency of Ala and Alb were higher than that of Alc, but the turbidity removal by Alc was slightly higher under the same pH condition. Flocs generated by Ala at pH 6 had advantages such as larger size and the most loosely structure which contributed the most to alleviating membrane fouling. Membrane fouling with Alb and Alc in alkaline range was more serious than that in acidic range.

  10. Clinical analysis of patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B superinfected with other hepadnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jia; Guo, Dan; Gao, Dandan; Huang, Wenxiang; Li, Ziqiong; Jia, Bei

    2016-06-01

    To compare the clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and prognoses of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who were superinfected with hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), or hepatitis E virus (HEV). Two hundred and eleven patients with confirmed CHB in our hospital, a tertiary teaching hospital in China, between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 211 patients with CHB, 35 were superinfected with HAV, 31 were superinfected with HCV, 22 were superinfected with HDV, and 53 were superinfected with HEV. We analyzed and compared the clinical features of the five groups. The tested biochemical indices and markers of liver function included serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil), prothrombin activity (PTA), serum albumin (Alb), and the serum levels of HBV DNA. The peak values of ALT, AST, and TBil were significantly higher in all of the superinfected groups. Lower peak Alb concentration and PTA were also observed in the superinfected patients, with the exception of patients in the CHB + HAV group. The CHB + HCV, and CHB + HEV groups had higher death rates than the CHB monoinfected group, and the difference was statistically significant. Further analysis of the liver failure groups showed that the level of HBV DNA was not correlated with prognosis. The comparison of clinical outcomes revealed that CHB patients superinfected with HCV, HDV, and HEV compared with CHB monoinfection had statistically greater incidences of exacerbation of the condition and poor prognosis, whereas the patients superinfected with HAV generally had better outcomes.

  11. Enhanced coagulation with polyaluminum chlorides: role of pH/alkalinity and speciation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Yu, Jianfeng; Ni, Jinren; Edwards, Marc; Qu, Jiuhui

    2008-04-01

    Enhanced coagulation is considered to be among the best available techniques (BAT) for disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor removal in water treatment. Improving existing understanding requires further consideration of nuances of chemical speciation relative to source water chemistry. In this paper, the effect of alkalinity/pH and speciation on inorganic polymer flocculants, polyaluminum chlorides (PACls) for enhanced particle and natural organic matter (NOM) removal was investigated. Three kinds of well-characterized typical source waters in China with low, moderate, and high alkalinity were selected. Performance of coagulants is controlled not only by preformed species but also by those formed in situ. At neutral and basic pH values, PACls with higher basicity (ratio of OH(-)/Al), which have more stable preformed Alb (the rapid reacted species as in ferron assay), are more efficient for turbidity and NOM removal. At slightly acidic pH, PACls with lower basicity are more efficient since more Alb can be formed in situ. Optimal NOM removal was achieved at pH 5.5-6.5 for all PACls. Basicity, speciation, and dosage of coagulant should be optimized based on raw water alkalinity to enhance the removal efficiency of NOM.

  12. Modelling submerged coastal environments: Remote sensing technologies, techniques, and comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Chris

    Built upon remote sensing and GIS littoral zone characterization methodologies of the past decade, a series of loosely coupled models aimed to test, compare and synthesize multi-beam SONAR (MBES), Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry (ALB), and satellite based optical data sets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, eco-region. Bathymetry and relative intensity metrics for the MBES and ALB data sets were run through a quantitative and qualitative comparison, which included outputs from the Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM) tool. Substrate classification based on relative intensities of respective data sets and textural indices generated using grey level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were investigated. A spatial modelling framework built in ArcGIS(TM) for the derivation of bathymetric data sets from optical satellite imagery was also tested for proof of concept and validation. Where possible, efficiencies and semi-automation for repeatable testing was achieved using ArcGIS(TM) ModelBuilder. The findings from this study could assist future decision makers in the field of coastal management and hydrographic studies. Keywords: Seafloor terrain characterization, Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM), Multi-beam SONAR, Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry, Satellite Derived Bathymetry, ArcGISTM ModelBuilder, Textural analysis, Substrate classification.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of apple polyphenols against concanavalin A-induced immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Xue, Yang; Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Fang; Sun, Ying; Li, Ting; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-10-25

    Apple polyphenols (AP), a polyphenol extracted from the unripe apple, has been reported to improve acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice due to its significant antioxidant activity. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of AP against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced immunological liver injury in mice was investigated. Mice were treated with AP daily for seven days prior to a single intravenous administration of Con A. The serum levels of AST, ALT, TP, Alb and histopathological changes were determined and the A/G ratio was calculated. Potential mechanisms were further explored by measuring TNF-α and IFN-γ levels, NO content as well as changes in the levels of endogenous oxidants and antioxidants. AP significantly improved the abnormal levels of ALT, AST, TP and Alb, and the A/G ratio. AP was also associated with improvement of liver histopathological changes after Con A-induced liver injury. Moreover, AP reduced serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, decreased serum NO content, inhibited oxidative DNA single-strand breaks, and improved the abnormalities of MDA content, SOD activity and GSH level. These results suggest that AP exerts a protective effect against Con A-induced immunological liver injury through suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and activating the antioxidant system.

  14. Overactivation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-antioxidant response element pathway in hepatocytes decreases hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lung-Yi; Harberg, Calvin; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Cook, Shelly; Roenneburg, Drew; Werner, Sabine; Johnson, Jeffrey; Foley, David P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a critical component of hepatic surgery. Oxidative stress has long been implicated as a key player in IRI. In this study, we examine the cell-specific role of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element pathway in warm hepatic IRI. Nrf2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) animals and novel transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (caNrf2) mutant in hepatocytes (AlbCre+/caNrf2+) and their littermate controls underwent partial hepatic ischemia or sham surgery. The animals were killed 6 hours after reperfusion, and their serum and tissue were collected for analysis. As compared to WT animals after ischemia/reperfusion (IR), Nrf2 KO mice had increased hepatocellular injury with increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, Suzuki score, apoptosis, an increased inflammatory infiltrate, and enhanced inflammatory cytokine expression. On the other hand, AlbCre+/caNrf2+ that underwent IR had significantly reduced serum transaminases, less necrosis on histology, and a less pronounced inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory cytokine expression as compared to the littermate controls. However, there were no differences in apoptosis. Taken together, Nrf2 plays a critical role in our murine model of warm hepatic IRI, with Nrf2 deficiency exacerbating hepatic IRI and hepatocyte-specific Nrf2 overactivation providing protection against warm hepatic IRI.

  15. Liver specific expression of Cu/ZnSOD extends the lifespan of Sod1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Liu, Yuhong; Walsh, Michael; Bokov, Alex; Ikeno, Yuji; Jang, Young C; Perez, Viviana I; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2016-03-01

    Genetic ablation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) in mice (Sod1(-/-) mice) leads to shortened lifespan with a dramatic increase in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerated aging phenotypes, including early onset sarcopenia. To study the tissue specific effects of oxidative stress in the Sod1(-/-) mice, we generated mice that only express the human SOD1 gene specifically in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice (Sod1(-/-)/hSOD1(alb) mice). Expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice improved liver function, reduced oxidative damage in liver, and partially restored the expression of several genes involved in tumorigenesis, which are abnormally expressed in the livers of the Sod1(-/-) mice. However, liver specific expression of hSOD1 did not prevent the loss of body weight and muscle mass and alterations in the structure of neuromuscular junctions. The expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice significantly improved the lifespan of Sod1(-/-) mice; however, the lifespan of the Sod1(-/-)/hSOD1(alb) mice was still significantly shorter than wild type mice.

  16. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  17. How and where to perform biomonitoring studies: different levels of toxic metal pollution are detected in the Alagados Reservoir in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Doria, Halina Binde; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Campos, Sandro Xavier; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira

    2017-04-05

    The Alagados Reservoir located in the Brazilian city of Ponta Grossa is used to supply water for human consumption but is impacted by toxic metals. The current study combined chemical, biochemical, and multivariate analyses to determine the bioavailability of toxic metals at three sites (AL-A, AL-B, and AL-C) within the Alagados Reservoir. Metal bioaccumulation was analyzed in the liver, gills, and muscle tissue of a native fish species (Geophagus brasiliensis), and neurotoxicity, xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidative stress were evaluated using biochemical biomarkers. Additionally, histopathological studies were performed on the gills and the liver using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy (LM), respectively. Overall, the bioaccumulation of metals, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and melanomacrophage counts indicate that the AL-C and the AL-A sites are the most and least affected by metals, respectively. The AL-B site presented the lowest acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, a finding which was probably associated with the agricultural activities around this area of the reservoir. The biomarkers clearly revealed that toxic metals negatively affect all three sites studied herein and that human activity is the major source of pollutants. Despite the existence of different pollution levels within the Alagados Reservoir, it is still used as a human water supply.

  18. Social harassment induces anxiety-like behaviour in crayfish

    PubMed Central

    Bacqué-Cazenave, Julien; Cattaert, Daniel; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Fossat, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions leading to dominance hierarchies often elicit psychological disorders in mammals including harassment and anxiety. Here, we demonstrate that this sequence also occurs in an invertebrate, the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. When placed in the restricted space of an aquarium, crayfish dyads generally fight until one of the opponents suddenly escapes, thereafter clearly expressing a submissive behaviour. Nevertheless, the winner frequently keeps on displaying excessive aggressive acts, having deleterious consequences in losers and interpreted as harassment behaviour. We indeed observed that, contrary to winners, losers expressed anxiety-like behaviour (ALB) in correlation with the stress intensity they suffered during the harassment period mainly. Injections of an anxiolytic abolished ALB, confirming its homology with anxiety. A serotonin (5-HT) antagonist had the same effect, suggesting a role for 5-HT, whose brain concentrations increased much more in losers than in winners. Our findings suggest that the bases of harassment and of its anxiogenic consequences have emerged very early during evolution, and emphasize crayfish as an unexpected but potentially fruitful model for the study of these social disorders. PMID:28045136

  19. Bioimaging of DsRed fluorescence in the transgenic rat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arao, Yukitomo; Hakamata, Yoji; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    We developed the Alb-DsRed2 transgenic (Tg) rat designed with liver-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein, DsRed2. Herein, we report high expression of DsRed2 in neonate liver of both sexes, although they were sexually dimorphic and exhibited a male-specific pattern in adult rats. In an effort to examine the expression in each animal under development, we employed an in vivo Bio-imaging system to quantitatively estimate hepatic DsRed2 expression levels. The temporal profiles pertaining to DsRed expression were similar in male and female Tg rats until 28 days old. The levels in both sexes decreased gradually following birth, and were not detectable at 21 days. Subsequently, expression in males increased again at 35 days and was maintained at a persistently high level thereafter. On the other hand, expression in females disappeared steadily. Although hepatic DsRed expression levels in gonadectomized Tg rats was not significantly different, DsRed expression in hypophysectomized female Tg rats appeared dramatically 72 hr following operation. Hepatocytes were collected from adult Tg rats and cultured in conditioning medium. DsRed expression in female hepatocytes could be detected 72 hr following culturing. These results suggest that hepatic DsRed expression in female rats is regulated in vivo by the pituitary. This report is shows use of Alb-DsRed2 Tg rats in conjunction with a novel bio-imaging system represents a powerful experimental system.

  20. Distribution and dynamics of Wolbachia infection in Malaysian Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Joanne, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Yugavathy, Nava; Leong, Cherng-Shii; Wong, Meng-Li; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria found in most arthropods and nematodes, but little is known about their distribution and reproductive dynamics in the Malaysian dengue vector Aedes albopictus. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of Wolbachia from field collected Ae. albopictus from various parts of the country using wsp specific primers. Ae. albopictus had Wolbachia infection ranging from 60 to 100%. No sequence diversity of wsp gene was found within all wAlbA and wAlbB sequences. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia infection amongst the Malaysian Ae. albopictus were not homogenously distributed in all districts in Malaysia. The presence of Wolbachia in different organs of Ae. albopictus was also determined. Wolbachia were only found in the ovaries and midguts of the mosquitoes, while absent in the salivary glands. The effects of Wolbachia on Ae. albopictus fecundity, longevity and egg viability were studied using infected and uninfected colonies. The removal of Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus resulted in reduced fecundity, longevity and egg viability, thus. Wolbachia seem to play a vital role in Ae. albopictus reproductive system.

  1. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  2. DGDFT: A massively parallel method for large scale density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wei Yang, Chao; Lin, Lin

    2015-09-28

    We describe a massively parallel implementation of the recently developed discontinuous Galerkin density functional theory (DGDFT) method, for efficient large-scale Kohn-Sham DFT based electronic structure calculations. The DGDFT method uses adaptive local basis (ALB) functions generated on-the-fly during the self-consistent field iteration to represent the solution to the Kohn-Sham equations. The use of the ALB set provides a systematic way to improve the accuracy of the approximation. By using the pole expansion and selected inversion technique to compute electron density, energy, and atomic forces, we can make the computational complexity of DGDFT scale at most quadratically with respect to the number of electrons for both insulating and metallic systems. We show that for the two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene systems studied here, using 37 basis functions per atom allows us to reach an accuracy level of 1.3 × 10{sup −4} Hartree/atom in terms of the error of energy and 6.2 × 10{sup −4} Hartree/bohr in terms of the error of atomic force, respectively. DGDFT can achieve 80% parallel efficiency on 128,000 high performance computing cores when it is used to study the electronic structure of 2D phosphorene systems with 3500-14 000 atoms. This high parallel efficiency results from a two-level parallelization scheme that we will describe in detail.

  3. DGDFT: A massively parallel method for large scale density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao

    2015-09-28

    We describe a massively parallel implementation of the recently developed discontinuous Galerkin density functional theory (DGDFT) method, for efficient large-scale Kohn-Sham DFT based electronic structure calculations. The DGDFT method uses adaptive local basis (ALB) functions generated on-the-fly during the self-consistent field iteration to represent the solution to the Kohn-Sham equations. The use of the ALB set provides a systematic way to improve the accuracy of the approximation. By using the pole expansion and selected inversion technique to compute electron density, energy, and atomic forces, we can make the computational complexity of DGDFT scale at most quadratically with respect to the number of electrons for both insulating and metallic systems. We show that for the two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene systems studied here, using 37 basis functions per atom allows us to reach an accuracy level of 1.3 × 10(-4) Hartree/atom in terms of the error of energy and 6.2 × 10(-4) Hartree/bohr in terms of the error of atomic force, respectively. DGDFT can achieve 80% parallel efficiency on 128,000 high performance computing cores when it is used to study the electronic structure of 2D phosphorene systems with 3500-14 000 atoms. This high parallel efficiency results from a two-level parallelization scheme that we will describe in detail.

  4. Analysis of protein-protein interaction network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y P; Shi, Y H; Gu, W C

    2014-10-31

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The purpose of our study was to uncover biomarkers and explore its pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level. The gene expression profiles of COPD samples and normal controls were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Matlab was used for data preprocessing and SAM4.0 was applied to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by mapping the DEGs into PPI data, and functional analysis of the network was conducted with BiNGO. A total of 348 DEGs and 765 interactive genes were identified. The hub genes were mainly involved in metabolic processes and ribosome biogenesis. Several genes related to COPD in the PPI network were found, including CAMK1D, ALB, KIT, and DDX3Y. In conclusion, CAMK1D, ALB, KIT, and DDX3Y were chosen as candidate genes, which have the potential to be biomarkers or candidate target molecules to apply in clinical diagnosis and treatment of COPD.

  5. Molecular characterization and taxonomy of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7.

    PubMed

    Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Mikona, Cord; Turturo, Camilla; Navarro, Beatriz; Rott, Mike E; Menzel, Wulf; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Minafra, Angelantonio; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2012-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Albanian isolate of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 (GLRaV-7-Alb) was determined. The viral genome consists of 16,404 nucleotides and has nine open reading frames (ORFs) that potentially encode proteins, most of which are typical for members of the family Closteroviridae. Only the 25-kDa (ORF8) and 27-kDa (ORF9) proteins had no apparent similarity to other viral proteins in the sequence databases. The genome structure of GLRaV-7-Alb closely resembles that of little cherry virus 1 and cordyline virus 1. In phylogenetic trees constructed with HSP70h sequences, these three viruses cluster together in a clade next to that comprising members of the genus Crinivirus, to which they are more closely related than to the clostero- and ampeloviruses. The molecular properties of these three viruses differ sufficiently from those of members of the three extant genera of the family Closteroviridae to warrant their classification in a novel genus.

  6. Wolbachia modulates Chikungunya replication in Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Mousson, L; Martin, E; Zouache, K; Madec, Y; Mavingui, P; Failloux, A B

    2010-05-01

    The Aedes albopictus mosquito has been involved as the principal vector of recent major outbreaks due to the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The species is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia (wAlbA and wAlbB). Wolbachia infections are thought to have spread by manipulating the reproduction of their hosts; cytoplasmic incompatibility is the mechanism used by Wolbachia to invade natural populations of many insects including Ae. albopictus. Here, we report a study on the effects of removing Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus on CHIKV replication and examine the consequences of CHIKV infection on some life-history traits (survival and reproduction) of Wolbachia-free Ae. albopictus. We found that Wolbachia-free mosquitoes maintained a highly heterogeneous CHIKV replication compared to Wolbachia-infected individuals. In Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus, the regular increase of CHIKV followed by a steady viral load from day 4 post-infection onwards was concomitant with a decline in Wolbachia density. This profile was also detected when examining the two key organs for viral transmission, the midgut and the salivary glands. Moreover, Wolbachia-free Ae. albopictus was not altered in life-history traits such as survival, oviposition and hatching characteristics whether infected or not with CHIKV. We found that Wolbachia is not essential for viral replication, its presence could lead to optimize replication from day 4 post-infection onwards, coinciding with a decrease in Wolbachia density. Wolbachia may regulate viral replication in Ae. albopictus, with consequences on survival and reproduction.

  7. Impact of two annual single-dose mass drug administrations with diethylcarbamazine alone or in combination with albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in south India.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Sunish, I P; Mani, T R; Munirathinam, A; Abdullah, S Md; Arunachalam, N; Satyanarayana, K

    2004-03-01

    A two-arm community-based lymphatic filariasis elimination trial is being carried out in Tamil Nadu state, India to assess the effect of 2 annual single-dose mass drug administrations of diethylcarbamazine + albendazole (DEC + ALB) on microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in one arm, and diethylcarbamazine(DEC) alone in the other arm. In a cross-sectional survey at each time-point, 450-650 subjects in childhood (2-9 years old) and young adulthood (10-25 years old) were screened from each treatment arm. After 2 annual mass drug administrations, microfilaraemia prevalence in the 2-drug arm was reduced by 54% and 62% in the 2-9 year old and 10-25 year old groups respectively; and corresponding figures for the single-drug arm were 26% and 37%. Though higher reductions were recorded for geometric mean intensity of microfilaraemia in the 2-9 year old groups for both treatment arms, reduction was more pronounced in the 2-drug arm than the single drug arm (74% vs. 24%) in the 10-25 year old group. The reduction in the antigenaemia prevalence in the 2-9 year old group was evident in both treatment arms, but in the 10-25 year old group the reduction was only 16.8% in the 2-drug arm. Our results suggest that the annual, single-dose combination (DEC + ALB) mass treatment regimen has an enhanced effect against bancroftian filariasis compared to single-drug therapy.

  8. A mathematical model for long-term effect of diethylcarbamazine-albendazole mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasman, H.; Supali, T.; Supriatna, A. K.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis disease. The human population is divided into susceptible, latent, acute and chronic subpopulations. Treatment is carried out within the scheme of mass drug administration (MDA) by giving the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) to all individuals. In the model, we assume that the treatments have direct killing effect to microfilariae, increase of immune-mediated effect. The treated individuals are assumed to remain susceptible to the disease. This is due to the fact that the treatment is only partially effective against macrofilaria. Simulations of the model reveals that DEC-ALB treatment does give significant reduction of acute and chronic compartments at the end of the treatment period and slow down the growth after the treatment before eventually tend to the endemic state. It showed that repeated treatment during MDA is effective to decrease the transmission. This suggests that terminating MDA program after a long period of its application may still effective in controlling the disease.

  9. Plasma protein handling in the rat kidney: micropuncture experiments in the acute heterologous phase of anti-GBM-nephritis.

    PubMed

    Galaske, R G; Baldamus, C A; Stolte, H

    1978-08-01

    Glomerular filtration and tubular uptake of plasma proteins have been studied in the rat using micropuncture techniques. 1. Under control conditions the glomerular capillary wall is an effective barrier, only 7.6 microgram/min x 100 g BW albumin have been measured as filtered load. Four to twelve hours after i.v. injection of anti-glomerular-basement membrane serum (anti-GBM-serum sieving coefficient phi and filtered load increased in a dose-dependent manner (phi albumin in controls = 0.27 x 10(-3), after injection of 0.5 ml Antiserum phi = 0.28 x 10(-3) and 1.0 ml Antiserum phi = 2.32 x 10(-3)). 2. The tubular reabsorption capacity is almost reached under control conditions and amounts to 5.6--10.7 microgram/min x 100 g BW for albumin. Only reduced GFR (0.36 +/- 0.07 ml/min x 100 g BW) and reduced tubular flow lead to increased tubular uptake under overload conditions (10.7 vs. 99.0 microgram albumin/min x 100 g BW). 3. Tubular reabsorption of so-called high-molecular-weight proteins seems to be a nonselective mechanism. The ratio Alb/Alb + Glob (89.9--93.1%) did not differ significantly at the individual puncture sites and in the final urine.

  10. The effects of forced molt treatment on blood biochemicals in hens.

    PubMed

    Gildersleeve, R P; Satterlee, D G; Johnson, W A; Scott, T R

    1983-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of an environmentally induced force molt treatment on concentrations and daily variations of selected serum biochemicals during early molt. Laying hens were placed into two environmental control chambers. In one chamber, control (Con) laying hens were maintained on long photoperiods of 19 hr of light daily to maintain egg production. In the other chamber, early molt (EM) hens were exposed to short photoperiods of 6 hr of light daily to decrease egg production. After 2 weeks in the chambers, feed was withdrawn from EM hens for 2 days to initiate molt. Three days after feed was restored, hens from both groups were blood sampled every 2 hr for 2 days for selected serum biochemical analyses. Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (P), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and albumin (Alb) were depressed in EM hens. Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (Alk P), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glucose (Glu), cholesterol (Chol), and globulin (Glob) were elevated in EM hens. Daily temporal rhythms of Ca, Glu, total protein (TP), and Alb were found in both hen groups. These temporal changes were independent of force molt treatment. Serum GOT was positively correlated with nuclei free liver corticosteroids (LCS) and negatively associated with plasma corticosterone in Con hens. Serum GOT was positively correlated with nuclei free LCS in EM hens.

  11. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    SciTech Connect

    Barregard, Lars; Bergström, Göran; Fagerberg, Björn

    2014-11-15

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  12. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  13. A Prospective Study of Growth and Biomarkers of Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin during Early Childhood in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shirima, Candida P.; Kimanya, Martin E.; Routledge, Michael N.; Srey, Chou; Kinabo, Joyce L.; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Wild, Christopher P.; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin and fumonisin are toxic food contaminants. Knowledge about effects of their exposure and coexposure on child growth is inadequate. Objective: We investigated the association between child growth and aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Tanzania. Methods: A total of 166 children were recruited at 6–14 months of age and studied at recruitment, and at the 6th and 12th month following recruitment. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed for plasma aflatoxin–albumin adducts (AF-alb) using ELISA, and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and growth index z-scores were computed. Results: AF-alb geometric mean concentrations (95% CIs) were 4.7 (3.9, 5.6), 12.9 (9.9, 16.7), and 23.5 (19.9, 27.7) pg/mg albumin at recruitment, 6 months, and 12 months from recruitment, respectively. At these respective sampling times, geometric mean UFB1 concentrations (95% CI) were 313.9 (257.4, 382.9), 167.3 (135.4, 206.7), and 569.5 (464.5, 698.2) pg/mL urine, and the prevalence of stunted children was 44%, 55%, and 56%, respectively. UFB1 concentrations at recruitment were negatively associated with length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) at 6 months (p = 0.016) and at 12 months from recruitment (p = 0.014). The mean UFB1 of the three sampling times (at recruitment and at 6 and 12 months from recruitment) in each child was negatively associated with LAZ (p < 0.001) and length velocity (p = 0.004) at 12 months from recruitment. The negative association between AF-alb and child growth did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Exposure to fumonisin alone or coexposure with aflatoxins may contribute to child growth impairment. Citation: Shirima CP, Kimanya ME, Routledge MN, Srey C, Kinabo JL, Humpf HU, Wild CP, Tu YK, Gong YY. 2015. A prospective study of growth and biomarkers of exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin during early childhood in Tanzania. Environ Health

  14. Synthesis, structure and properties of zinc(II) coordination polymers with 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Xiu-Chun; Xi, Fu-Gui; Wang, Kun; Su, Zhao; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-10-15

    From a new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (2,7-H{sub 2}CDC), three Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were synthesized in the absence or presence of ditopic N-donor ligands. They are formulated as [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 4}(DEF){sub 2}] (1) (DEF=N,N-diethylformamide), [Zn{sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 2}(DABCO)(H{sub 2}O)]·5DMF·H{sub 2}O (2) (DABCO=1-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), and [Zn{sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 2}(bpea)]·3DMA·2 H{sub 2}O (3) (bpea=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylane, DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide). Compounds 1 and 3 display the 3D pcu frameworks. In 1 the unusual pentanuclear [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(COO){sub 8}] secondary building units (SBUs) are linked by dicarboxylate ligands. Differently, in 3 the well-known paddle–wheel [Zn{sub 2}(COO){sub 4}] SBUs are linked by dicarboxylate and dipyridyl ligands. Compound 2 shows the rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net topology based on the dinuclear paddle–wheel SBU and a mononuclear unit. The stability and fluorescent properties of the compounds have been studied. - Graphical abstract: A new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid, was used to construct Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks, including a novel self-catenated network with the rare 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net and two pcu-type networks based on an unprecedented pentanuclear clusters and the common paddle–wheel units. The compounds show blue fluorescent properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MOFs with a new carbazole-based dicarboxylate ligand. • New pentanuclear [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(COO){sub 8}] secondary building unit. • The rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net.

  15. Impact of two rounds of mass drug administration using diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia timori and of intestinal helminths on Alor Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Oqueka, Tim; Supali, Taniawati; Ismid, Is Suhariah; Purnomo; Rückert, Paul; Bradley, Mark; Fischer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Annual mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamizine (DEC, 6 mg/kg) combined with albendazole (alb, 400 mg) is recommended by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). This strategy has been shown to be efficient in the of control bancroftian filariasis, but data on brugian filariasis as well as on the positive side effects on intestinal helminths are lacking. Methods The effect of one selective treatment and two rounds of MDA using DEC and alb on the prevalence and intensity of Brugia timori infection were studied on Alor island using a cross-sectional and a cohort approach. Before the campaign and ten months after each treatment cycle microfilariae (mf) were assessed by filtration of night blood. Before and ten months after MDA, stool samples were collected and the prevalence of intestinal helminths were determined. Results In all, the mf-rate dropped from 26.8% before any treatment to 3.8% following the second MDA. Almost all mf-positive, treated individuals showed very low mf densities. The crude prevalence of hookworm dropped from 25.3% to 5.9%. The reduction of prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides (32.3% to 27.6%) and Trichuris trichiura (9.4% to 8.9%) was less pronounced. Within a cohort of 226 individuals, which was examined annually, the prevalence of A. lumbricoides dropped from 43.8% to 26.5% and of T. trichiura from 12.8% to 6.6%. The results indicate that this MDA approach reduces not only the mf prevalence of B. timori but also the prevalence of hookworm and to a lesser extent also of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Conclusion The MDA using DEC and alb as recommended by GPELF is extremely effective for areas with brugian filariasis. The beneficial effect of MDA on intestinal helminths may strengthen the national programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia and may set resources free which are otherwise used for deworming campaigns of schoolchildren. PMID:16014169

  16. Compositional and structural studies of nanoscale boron-doped nickel aluminide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulcer, Jarvis Dwayne

    This thesis presents a detailed investigation of the composition and microstructure of boron-doped nickel aluminide thin films fabricated via ion beam sputtering. Findings are related to film growth mode, fabrication conditions, and mechanical properties. Results from the characterization of the composition and structure of Ni3Al:B films having thicknesses ranging from ˜300 to ˜2600 A deposited on substrates of plastic, NaCl and Si at a temperature of ˜300 K by Kaufman-type ion beam sputtering of a Ni3Al:B compound target are reported. The bulk composition of the films was investigated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). It was determined by INAA and RBS that the bulk Ni/Al atomic ratio of the target can be replicated in films fabricated on single crystal NaCl substrates. However, results from the measurement of the local composition by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveal that the local Ni/Al atomic ratio is higher. This is the result of preferential sputtering of Ni due to recoil implantation of Al in the compound Ni3Al:B target. The spatial distribution of boron in the films was determined via neutron depth profiling (NDP). Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies reveal that films grown on Si and NaCl are polycrystalline and show the (111) crystallographic plane. The absence of superlattice peaks at (100), (110), (210) and (211) in the diffraction spectra indicate that the films are also in a state of disorder. It was determined from annular dark field images produced via STEM of 300, 560 A, and 600 A thin films that the average size of grains was 30 +/- 3 A. This cluster size is characteristic of films that have a very fine-grain microstructure and yield stresses of hundreds of MPa since the yield stress increases with decreasing grain size. The coalescence of clusters as observed via BF and

  17. Quality of Medicines Commonly Used in the Treatment of Soil Transmitted Helminths and Giardia in Ethiopia: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Sultan; Zeleke, Gemechu; Deti, Habtewold; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Duchateau, Luc; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of poor quality medicines in the market is a global threat on public health, especially in developing countries. Therefore, we assessed the quality of two commonly used anthelminthic drugs [mebendazole (MEB) and albendazole (ALB)] and one antiprotozoal drug [tinidazole (TNZ)] in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings A multilevel stratified random sampling, with as strata the different levels of supply chain system in Ethiopia, geographic areas and government/privately owned medicines outlets, was used to collect the drug samples using mystery shoppers. The three drugs (106 samples) were collected from 38 drug outlets (government/privately owned) in 7 major cities in Ethiopia between January and March 2012. All samples underwent visual and physical inspection for labeling and packaging before physico-chemical quality testing and evaluated based on individual monographs in Pharmacopoeias for identification, assay/content, dosage uniformity, dissolution, disintegration and friability. In addition, quality risk was analyzed using failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and a risk priority number (RPN) was assigned to each quality attribute. A clinically rationalized desirability function was applied in quantification of the overall quality of each medicine. Overall, 45.3% (48/106) of the tested samples were substandard, i.e. not meeting the pharmacopoeial quality specifications claimed by their manufacturers. Assay was the quality attribute most often out-of-specification, with 29.2% (31/106) failure of the total samples. The highest failure was observed for MEB (19/42, 45.2%), followed by TNZ (10/39, 25.6%) and ALB (2/25, 8.0%). The risk analysis showed that assay (RPN = 512) is the most critical quality attribute, followed by dissolution (RPN = 336). Based on Derringer's desirability function, samples were classified into excellent (14/106,13%), good (24/106, 23%), acceptable (38/106, 36%%), low (29/106, 27%) and bad (1/106,1%) quality

  18. Immunobiochemical status of sheep exposed to periods of experimental protein deficit and realimentation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, A; Pattanaik, A K; Goswami, T K

    2009-08-01

    Immunobiochemical status of sheep exposed to periods of experimental protein deficit and realimentation was studied in 12 sheep (15 mo) randomly distributed into 2 equal groups and fed individually 2 different concentrate supplements along with wheat straw to provide 100% (normal protein, NP) or 50% (low protein, LP) of CP requirements. The study was comprised of 3 periods; during period 1 (0 to 13 wk) and 2 (14 to 26 wk) animals in the 2 groups were fed NP and LP diets, respectively; during period 3 (27 to 44 wk), animals in the LP group were switched over to NP diet to allow realimentation, whereas animals in the NP group remained on the same NP diet. Blood was collected from all groups at end of each period, and serum glucose, total protein, albumin (sAlb), globulin (sGlb), urea (sU), creatinine (sCr), cholesterol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentrations were determined. During the same periods, the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was measured by a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay and in vitro nitrite production by lymphocytes. At the end of periods 2 and 3, humoral immune response (HIR) was measured by sensitizing the sheep with Brucella abortus S99 antigen and measuring antibody titers on 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinoculation by ELISA. Feed intake decreased with prolonged protein deficit and showed recovery during period 3. Blood chemistry revealed reduced sAlb concentration in the LP group resulting in narrow sAlb:sGlb ratio, increased sCr concentrations (P = 0.008) accompanying a decreased (P = 0.004) sU:sCr ratio, and decreased glucose concentrations (P = 0.05). Other variables did not change significantly between the NP and LP groups. The DTH response at the end of period 1 and 2 showed marked (P = 0.008) effect of protein restriction on CMI. Nitrite production, basal and after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, was greater (P = 0.04) in the NP group. The HIR was less (P = 0.04) in the LP group during period 3. Realimentation of protein

  19. An improved method for retrospective quantification of sulfur mustard exposure by detection of its albumin adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChangCai; Liang, LongHui; Xiang, Yu; Yu, HuiLan; Zhou, ShiKun; Xi, HaiLing; Liu, ShiLei; Liu, JingQuan

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) adduct to human serum albumin (ALB) at Cys-34 residue has become an important and long-term retrospective biomarker of HD exposure. Here, a novel, sensitive, and convenient approach for retrospective quantification of HD concentration exposed to plasma was established by detection of the HD-ALB adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with a novel non-isotope internal standard (IS). The HD-ALB adduct was isolated from HD-exposed plasma with blue Sepharose. The adduct was digested with proteinase K to form sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl ([S-HETE])-Cys-Pro-Phe tripeptide biomarker. The tripeptide adduct could be directly analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS without an additional solid phase extraction (SPE), which was considered as a critical procedure in previous methods. The easily available 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES) as HD surrogate was first reported to be used as IS in place of traditional d8-HD for quantification of HD exposure. Furthermore, 2-CEES was also confirmed to be a good IS alternative for quantification of HD exposure by investigation of product ion spectra for their corresponding tripeptide adducts which exhibited identical MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. The method was found to be linear between 1.00 and 250 ng•mL(-1) HD exposure (R(2)>0.9989) with precision of <4.50% relative standard deviation (%RSD), accuracy range between 96.5% and 114%, and a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.532 ng•mL(-1). The lowest reportable limit (LRL) is 1.00 ng•mL(-1), over seven times lower than that of the previous method. The entire method required only 0.1 mL of plasma sample and took under 7 h without special sample preparation equipment. It is proven to be a sensitive, simple, and rugged method, which is easily applied in international laboratories to improve the capabilities for the analysis of biomedical samples related to verification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC).

  20. Nutritional assessment in hepatic cirrhosis; clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and hematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Patricia M; De-Souza, Daurea A; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Desde la malnutrición es común en pacientes con cirrosis hepática (CH) es necesario investigar la interferencia de los cambios fisiopatológicos de hígado en los métodos de diagnóstico del estado nutricional. Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de desnutrición en los pacientes con CH ambulatoria, utilizando diferentes métodos de evaluación del estado nutricional. Métodos: El estado nutricional se determinó mediante la valoración global subjetiva (VGS), índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de peso corporal ideal (% PCI), el pliegue del tríceps (% PT), circunferencia del brazo (% CB) y de la ideales mediados de circunferencia muscular del brazo (% CMB), albúmina de suero (ALB) y recuento total de linfocitos (RTL). Resultados: Setenta y ocho pacientes fueron evaluados, el 56,4% eran varones y la edad media fue 53,0 ± 7,7 años. La etiología fue alcohólica CH en el 56,4% de los casos. De acuerdo con la clasificación de Child-Pugh, el 48,7% eran A, el 26,9% fueron el B y el 24,4% fueron C. Grados variables de desnutrición fueron diagnosticados en un 61,5% (VGS), 16,7% (IMC), 17,9% (% PCI), 93,6% (% PT), 62,8% (% CB) y 38,5% (CMB%) de los pacientes. Los niveles de ALB y RTL fueron compatibles con el diagnóstico de la desnutrición en 43,6% y 69,2% de los pacientes, respectivamente. La frecuencia de diagnóstico de la malnutrición aumenta de acuerdo con la gravedad de CH y también aumentó en los pacientes con etiología alcohólica. Una disminución mayor de tejido adiposo en las mujeres y de tejido muscular en los hombres fue demostrada. Conclusiones: La frecuencia de diagnóstico de la malnutrición en ambulatorio de pacientes tratados varía de acuerdo con el método de evaluación nutricional utilizado. La prevalencia de desnutrición es mayor en las etapas más avanzadas de la CH y de etiología alcohólica.

  1. Estimation of high resolution shallow water bathymetry via two-media-photogrammetry - a case study at the Pielach River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Michael; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Ressl, Camillo; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    In our contribution, a photogrammetric approach for water depth estimation of a shallow water body is developed and applied to a gravel-bed river in order to evaluate the possibilities of passive optical remote sensing for high resolution bathymetry. While 2-media (air and water) photogrammetry has been described before, it was concentrated on reconstruction of individual points. Here, we take a different approach and aim at a dense surface description of the river bed as seen from the aerial image through the water column. In a first step, the influence of light refraction at the boundary between two media for photogrammetric point retrieval is assessed. The effect is theoretically investigated under varying conditions, i.e. the 3D point displacement caused by refraction is related to parameters such as water depth, image geometry et cetera. Especially the assumption of a plain, horizontal water surface does not hold in practice. Therefore, also the limitations of the theoretical model are determined by investigating, how water surface waves and the corresponding deviation of the surface normal vectors from vertical direction distort the results. In the second, practical part of the work, a refraction correction procedure is derived from the prior investigations and is embedded into the photogrammetric workflow. A full photogrammetric processing chain is applied to a set of aerial images of the pre-Alpine Pielach River in Lower Austria. The RGB images were taken simultaneously to an Airborne Laser Bathymetry (ALB) campaign providing high resolution reference data. Based on these images, a Digital Terrain Model is derived for the open as well as the submerged areas. Running through the procedure gives important insights about the possibilities of influencing the processing pipeline of commercial photogrammetric software packages in order to apply the developed refraction correction. Especially, the deviation from the epipolar constraint caused by refraction and the

  2. [VALIDATION OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR DETECTION OF MALNUTRITION HOSPITAL AND ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL COSTS].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús; García Larios, José Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: uno de los métodos de diagnóstico de la desnutrición es la albúmina sérica, por la sencillez de su determinación y bajo coste. Objetivos: el objetivo principal es validar e implementar un programa informático, basado en la determinación de albúmina sérica, que permita detectar y tratar precozmente a los pacientes desnutridos o en riesgo de desnutrición, siendo otro objetivo la evaluación de costes por grupos relacionados por el diagnóstico. Métodos: el diseño del estudio es de tipo cohorte, dinámico y prospectivo, en el que se han incluido las altas hospitalarias desde noviembre del año 2012 hasta marzo del año 2014, siendo la población de estudio los pacientes mayores de 14 años que ingresen en los diversos servicios de un Hospital Médico Quirúrgico del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, cuyas cifras de albúmina sérica sean menores de 3,5 g/dL, siendo el total de 307 pacientes. Resultados: de los 307 pacientes, 141 presentan desnutrición (sensibilidad del programa: 45,9%). El 54,7% de los pacientes son hombres y el 45,3% mujeres. La edad media es de 65,68 años. La mediana de la estancia es de 16 días. El 13,4% de los pacientes han fallecido. El coste medio de los GRD es de 5.958,30 € y dicho coste medio después de detectar la desnutrición es de 11.376,48 €. Conclusiones: el algoritmo que implementa el programa informático identifica a casi la mitad de los pacientes hospitalizados desnutridos. Es fundamental registrar el diagnóstico de desnutrición.

  3. High-resolution gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis on urine samples for qualitative analysis of proteinuria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Giori, Luca; Tricomi, Flavia Marcella; Zatelli, Andrea; Roura, Xavier; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2011-07-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess whether sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE) and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) can identify dogs with a urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC ratio) >0.2 and whether HRE can provide preliminary information about the type of proteinuria, using SDS-AGE as a reference method. HRE and SDS-AGE were conducted on 87 urine samples classified according to the International Renal Interest Society as non-proteinuric (NP; UPC ratio: <0.20; 32/87), borderline proteinuric (BP; UPC ratio: 0.21-0.50; 15/87), or proteinuric (P; UPC ratio: >0.51; 40/87). SDS-AGE and HRE were positive in 14 out of 32 and 3 out of 32 NP samples and in 52 out of 55 and 40 out of 55 samples with a UPC ratio >0.20, respectively. The concordance between HRE or SDS and UPC ratio was comparable (κ = 0.59; κ = 0.55). However, specificity (90%) and positive likelihood ratio (7.76) were higher for HRE than for SDS-AGE (56% and 2.16) while sensitivity was lower (73% vs. 94%). The analysis of HRE results revealed that a percentage of albumin >41.4% and an albumin/α(1)-globulin ratio (alb/α(1) ratio) >1.46 can identify samples classified by SDS-AGE as affected by glomerular proteinuria while a percentage of α(1)-globulin >40.8% and an alb/α(1) ratio <0.84 can identify samples classified by SDS-AGE as affected by tubular proteinuria. In conclusion, both SDS-AGE and HRE could misclassify samples with a UPC ratio higher or lower than 0.20. Therefore, UPC ratio must always be determined before conducting these tests. The percentage of albumin and α(1)-globulin or the alb/α(1) ratio determined by HRE can provide preliminary information about the origin of proteinuria.

  4. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Janusz; S Lefarska-Wasilewska, Marta; Kłek, Stanisław

    2016-02-16

    Objetivo: la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad crónica, neurodegenerativa que genera malnutrición. El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la malnutrición en el curso de la enfermedad y la sobrevida a largo plazo.Materiales y métodos: se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de 48 pacientes (22 mujeres [45.83%] y 26 hombres [54.17%], con un promedio de edad de 66,2 [43-83]) del 2008 al 2014. El análisis del estado nutricional inicial se midió utilizando el índice de  masa corporal (IMC), el estado nutricional de acuerdo al NRS 2002, la valoración global subjetiva (VGS) y la concentración sérica de albúmina. Los pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos, dependiendo del estado nutricional en el que se encontraban: bien nutridos o malnutridos. Los grupos se crearon por  separado, lo que permitió un análisis comparativo adicional de las técnicas utilizadas para la evaluación del estado nutricional.Resultados: un estado nutricional adecuado se relaciona con mayor sobreviva a largo plazo (456 vs. 679 días, NRS 312 vs. 659 vs. 835 días, IMC respectivamente: 41, 541, 631 días, resultados estadísticamente significativos para NRS e IMC). Las concentraciones de albúmina no fueron un factor pronóstico, pero se observó mayor sobrevida si las concentraciones de albúmina incrementaban durante el tratamiento nutricional.Conclusiones: el estado nutricional inicial y la respuesta positiva a la alimentación enteral están asociados a mayor sobrevida en pacientes con ELA, razón por la cual, la terapia nutricional debe de iniciarse lo antes posible.

  5. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Cardiac and Hepatic Injury in Doxorubicin Rat Model by Inhibiting Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) remains the most effective anticancer agent which is widely used in several adult and pediatric cancers, but its application is limited for its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for many diseases. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline (H2 saline) ameliorated the mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and histopathological changes caused by DOX in rats. Meanwhile, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also attenuated after H2 saline treatment. What is more, we further demonstrated that H2 saline treatment could inhibit cardiac and hepatic inflammation and apoptosis relative proteins expressions by western blotting test. In conclusion, our results revealed a protective effect of H2 saline on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:28104928

  6. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  7. Fatigue damage mechanisms in boron-aluminium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between fatigue and shakedown in metal matrix composites is investigated theoretically and experimentally for unidirectional and laminated 6061 Al-B materials. It is shown that no fatigue damage takes place if the applied stress range is such that the material remains elastic, or shakes down, i.e., resumes elastic cyclic straining after a small number of plastic strain cycles. Fatigue damage occurs only in specimens subjected to stress ranges which cause sustained cyclic plastic straining in the aluminum matrix. If the applied stress range is smaller than that required for fatigue failure, after about 10 to the 6th cycles a saturation damage state is reached which remains essentially unchanged with increasing number of cycles.

  8. Pressure induced structural and magnetic phase transition in magnesium nitrides MgNx (x = 1, 2, 3): A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Sudhapriyanga, G.; Cinthia, A. Jemmy; Santhosh, M.; Murugan, A.

    2014-04-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of magnesium nitrides are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using Vienna ab-initio simulation package. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl to CsCl in MgN, CaF2 to AlB2 in MgN2 and LaF3 to BiF3 phase in MgN3 is observed. At ambient condition MgN and MgN3 are stable in the ferromagnetic state. On further increasing the pressure, a ferromagnetic to non magnetic transition is observed in MgN.

  9. Magnetic superlattices and their nanoscale phase transition effects.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jinwoo; Park, Jong-Il; Choi, Jin-sil; Jun, Young-wook; Kim, Sehun; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Youn Joong

    2006-02-28

    The systematic assembly of nanoscale constituents into highly ordered superlattices is of significant interest because of the potential of their multifunctionalities and the discovery of new collective properties. However, successful observations of such superlattice-associated nanoscale phenomena are still elusive. Here, we present magnetic superlattices of Co and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with multidimensional symmetry of either AB (NaCl) or AB(2) (AlB(2)). The discovery of significant enhancement (approximately 25 times) of ferrimagnetism is further revealed by forming previously undescribed superlattices of magnetically soft-hard Fe(3)O(4)@CoFe(2)O(4) through the confined geometrical effect of thermally driven intrasuperlattice phase transition between the nanoparticulate components.

  10. Magnetic superlattices and their nanoscale phase transition effects

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jinwoo; Park, Jong-Il; Choi, Jin-sil; Jun, Young-wook; Kim, Sehun; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Youn Joong

    2006-01-01

    The systematic assembly of nanoscale constituents into highly ordered superlattices is of significant interest because of the potential of their multifunctionalities and the discovery of new collective properties. However, successful observations of such superlattice-associated nanoscale phenomena are still elusive. Here, we present magnetic superlattices of Co and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with multidimensional symmetry of either AB (NaCl) or AB2 (AlB2). The discovery of significant enhancement (≈25 times) of ferrimagnetism is further revealed by forming previously undescribed superlattices of magnetically soft–hard Fe3O4@CoFe2O4 through the confined geometrical effect of thermally driven intrasuperlattice phase transition between the nanoparticulate components. PMID:16492783

  11. Effect of different types of commercial feed meal on the growth forms of Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Lampam) in Chini Lake, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Omran; Idris, Mushrifah; Das, Simon Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out at Tasik Chini where the effects of different feeds on growth form of B. schwanenfeldii were calculated using length weight relationship analysis (W = aLb). The results denotes that feeding high protein diet (32% protein) fish represent positive allometric growth (b > 3) while feeding lower protein diet (23 and 28% protein) fish represent negative allometric (b < 3) growth. The calculated condition factor values also denotes similar trends, feeding high protein diet fish represent better condition (K=51) compared to fed on lower protein diet. The data obtained from this study suggests to culture B. schwanenfeldii with high protein diet (32%) which will facilitate better growth form and condition consequently optimize the production of this commercially important fish species.

  12. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  13. Multiband behavior signature in Hf0.97V0.03B2 superconductor compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renosto, Sergio; Cigarroa, Orlando; Grant, Ted; Dos Santos, Carlos A. Moreira; Aguiar, J. Albino; Fisk, Zachary; Machado, A. Jefferson

    2014-03-01

    Isostructural MgB2 compounds which crystallizes in AlB2 prototype structure have been received much attention due to its potential for exhibit multiband behavior. Although there are many MB2 compounds (M - refractory metal) superconductivity it is too hard of find in the MB2 compounds. However, previous studies have been shown that Zr1-xVxB2 exhibit superconducting behavior with signature of multiband. Within this context, in this work, we are showing preliminary results of the partial substitution of Hf for V in the Hf1-xVxB2 with bulk superconductivity. Hall effect, magnetization, specific heat and resistivity measurements strongly suggest that this new compound represents a new example of multiband behavior.

  14. Superconductivity In Y2Pd(Ge1-xSix)3 (x = 0-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Katsunori; Koshi, Yasunobu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko

    2006-09-01

    The electrical resistivity (2 - 300K), magnetization (2 - 10 K), and specific heat (0.5 - 10 K) were measured in Y2Pd(Ge1-xSix)3, which is of AlB2-type structure as the same as MgB2. The superconducting critical temperature showed a maximum of Tc = 3.48 K near x = 0.05 and monotonically decreased with x increasing up to x = 0.7 in Si substitution. The variation of Tc with Si concentration is related to the electron-phonon coupling constant λ, which was calculated by use of the McMillan's equation. The variation of λ also exhibited a maximum near x = 0.05, and it monotonically decreased with x increasing up to x = 0.7 in Si substitution.

  15. Galactosylated collagen matrix enhanced in vitro maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ghodsizadeh, Arefeh; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Piryaei, Abbas; Pournasr, Behshad; Najarasl, Mostafa; Hiraoka, Yosuke; Baharvand, Hossein

    2014-05-01

    Due to their important biomedical applications, functional human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hESC-HLCs) are an attractive topic in the field of stem cell differentiation. Here, we have initially differentiated hESCs into functional hepatic endoderm (HE) and continued the differentiation by replating them onto galactosylated collagen (GC) and collagen matrices. The differentiation of hESC-HE cells into HLCs on GC substrate showed significant up-regulation of hepatic-specific genes such as ALB, HNF4α, CYP3A4, G6P, and ASGR1. There was more albumin secretion and urea synthesis, as well as more cytochrome p450 activity, in differentiated HLCs on GC compared to the collagen-coated substrate. These results suggested that GC substrate has the potential to be used for in vitro maturation of hESC-HLCs.

  16. Strong p-magnetism in carbon suboxide C2O devised from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Weihrich, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Within carbon suboxide C2O devised from ab initio in ground state two-dimensional structure, finite spin polarization is demonstrated, leading to a stable ferromagnetic order confirmed for simple and superstructure cells. Specifically structural relaxation of C2O in 2D AlB2-type structure shows that the hexagonal crystal symmetry is maintained with a large c/a ratio letting magnetization develop on oxygen p valence states. Band-like O-px,y and localized-like O-pz spin projected density of states show striking resemblance with Cr-d in well known room temperature CrO2 ferromagnet with band gap opening in majority spin states leading to an integer magnetic moment of 2 μB and a strongly ferromagnetic behavior in the ground state.

  17. Topological and functional analysis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through protein interaction mapping

    PubMed Central

    Asadzadeh-Aghdaee, Hamid; Mansouri, Vahid; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Okhovatian, Farshad; Lahmi, Farhad; Vafaee, Reza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The corresponding proteins are important for network mapping since the interaction analysis can provide a new interpretation about disease underlying mechanisms as the aim of this study. Backgroud: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the main causes of liver disease in the world. It has been known with many susceptible proteins that play essential role in its pathogenesis. Methods: In this paper, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of fatty liver disease retrieved from STRING db by the application of Cytoscape Software. ClueGO analyzed the associated pathways for the selected top proteins. Results: INS, PPARA, LEP, SREBF1, and ALB are the introduced biomarker panel for fatty liver disease. Conclusion: It seems that pathways related to insulin have a prominent role in fatty liver disease. Therefore, investigation in this case is required to confirm the possible linkage of introduced panel and involvement of insulin pathway in the disease. PMID:28224024

  18. Modelling in situ enzyme potential of soils: a tool to predict soil respiration from agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz Ali, Rana; Poll, Christian; Demyan, Scott; Nkwain Funkuin, Yvonne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Kandeler, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting future climate and terrestrial ecosystem functions. Extra-cellular enzymes, produced by microorganisms, perform the very first step in SOC degradation and serve as key components in global carbon cycling. Very little information is available about the seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil enzymes. Here we aim to model in situ enzyme potentials involved in the degradation of either labile or recalcitrant organic compounds to understand the temporal variability of degradation processes. To identify the similarities in seasonal patterns of soil respiration and in situ enzyme potentials, we compared the modelled in situ enzyme activities with weekly measured soil CO2 emissions. Arable soil samples from two different treatments (4 years fallow and currently vegetated plots; treatments represent range of carbon input into soil) were collected every month from April, 2012 to April, 2013, from two different study regions (Kraichgau and Swabian Alb) in Southwest Germany. The vegetation plots were under crop rotation in both study areas. We measured activities of three enzymes including β-glucosidase, xylanase and phenoloxidase at five different temperatures. We also measured soil microbial biomass in form of microbial carbon (Cmic). Land-use and area had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the microbial biomass; fallow plots having less Cmic than vegetation plots. Potential activities of β-glucosidase (P < 0.001) and xylanase (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the vegetation plots of the Swabian Alb region than in the Kraichgau region. In both study areas, enzyme activities were higher during vegetation period and lower during winter which points to the importance of carbon input and/or temperature and soil moisture. We calculated the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of enzyme activities based on laboratory measurements of enzyme activities at a range of incubation

  19. AERUS-GEO: A newly available satellite-derived aerosol optical depth product over Europe and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrer, D.; Ceamanos, X.; Six, B.; Roujean, J.-L.

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a new aerosol optical depth (AOD) product delivered in near real time by the ICARE Data and Services Center to the scientific community. The AERUS-GEO (Aerosol and surface albEdo Retrieval Using a directional Splitting method-application to GEOstationary data) product is derived from observations from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite covering Europe, Africa, and part of Asia and South America. The retrieval method exploits the directional information contained in the series of 96 MSG observations per day of the Earth's disk to derive a daily averaged AOD. The performances of this product are similar to those of other widely used satellite-derived AOD. This article illustrates the advantages of the spatial (3 km at best) and temporal (daily) resolution of the AERUS-GEO product to monitor particular aerosol activity (e.g., volcanic eruptions) or to study given phenomena (e.g., the impact of topography on aerosol loading).

  20. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  1. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. H.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2008-10-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ~ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  2. Nanosecond discharge in sulfur hexafluoride and the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2008-06-01

    A discharge in the presence of a nonuniform electric field and the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam (UAEB) are studied in the insulating gas SF6 at the pressures 0.01 2.50 atm. High-voltage nanosecond pulses (about 150 and 250 kV) and the voltage pulses with an amplitude of 25 kV and a duration of tens of nanoseconds are applied across the gap. An electron beam is obtained behind the AlBe foil with a thickness of 45 μm at a sulfur hexafluoride pressure in a gas-filled diode of up to 2 atm. It is demonstrated that, at relatively high pressures (greater than 1 atm) and in the presence of high-voltage nanosecond pulses across the gap, the UAEB pulse FWHM increases. The spectra of the diffuse and contracted discharges in sulfur hexafluoride are measured.

  3. Subchronic toxicity study of ulvan from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huimin; Liu, Xiaolei; Wang, Kai; Liu, Dongmei; Huang, Liye; Liu, Shunmei; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-12-01

    Ulvan extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) is a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharide, for simplicity, the sulfated polysaccharide is referred to as ulvan in this paper. To our knowledge, there is no detailed report investigating the toxicity of ulvan. In this study, the subchronic (6 months) toxicity of varying levels of ulvan extracted from U. pertusa was investigated in Wistar rats after oral administration. ALT, ALB, ALP, WBC, PLT, and liver relative organ weigh of female rats showed significantly difference at 3000 mg/kg body weight per day, compared with control group. On the other hand, TG, T-CHO concentrations of female rats (6 months) were significantly decreased at 600, 1200 and 3000 mg/kg body weight per day. This result proved that ulvan had antihyperlipidemic activity. Beside, ulvan showed anticoagulant activity in this study. Overall, our findings indicated that ulvan had affected specific hematology, serum biochemistry parameters and liver, and had great differences between males and females rats.

  4. Crystalline structures and misfit strain inside Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on Si(001) substrates.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Wu, Yueqin; Song, Junqiang; Li, Juan; Huang, Han; Zou, Jin; Cai, Qun

    2011-06-17

    The morphology and crystalline structure of Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on the Si(001) substrate were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the nanowires and nanorods formed at 630 °C has dominant hexagonal AlB(2)-type structure, while inside the nanoislands self-organized at 800 °C the tetragonal ThSi(2)-type structure is prevalent. The lattice analysis via cross-sectional high-resolution TEM demonstrated that internal misfit strain plays an important role in controlling the growth of nanocrystals. With the relaxation of strain, the nanoislands could evolve from a pyramid-like shape into a truncated-hut-like shape.

  5. Strength and toughness of composite materials based on nickel aluminide matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigney, J. D.; Khadkikar, P. S.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Vedula, K.

    1989-01-01

    Several nickel aluminide matrix composites were prepared using vacuum hot pressing techniques. The matrix compositions, based on Ni3Al, Ni3Al+B, and NiAl, were reinforced with 10 vol pct TiB2 particles. Both smooth- and notched-bend tests were conducted at room temperature on the monolithic as well as the reinforced materials in order to determine the effects of TiB2 reinforcement on both the smooth-bend and notched-bend properties. TiB2 additions were shown to improve the smooth-bend strengths regardless of the matrix composition, while notched-bend tests, conducted to provide estimates of fracture toughness, revealed somewhat lower values for the composites in comparison to the monolithic materials. Fractographic analyses and in situ fracture observations of the composites revealed that preferential fracture in regions of clustered TiB2 particles may significantly affect the measured toughnesses.

  6. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells by herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Ta; Chen, Xiao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the exfoliated human deciduous incisor that can differentiate into a many cell types. In this study, we evaluated the effect of liquorice or angelica extracts on the hepatic differentiation potential of SHEDs cells. SHEDs cells cultured in medium containing liquorice extracts were analyzed for 1) changes in cellular morphology, 2) changes in hepatic gene expression, AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein) and ALB (Albumin), and 3) albumin secretion and urea synthesis activity. Our data show that the hepatic differentiation potential of SHEDs cells is enhanced by the presence of liquorice or angelica extracts in the culture medium. Our findings present new therapeutic possibilities for liver damage repair.

  7. Silicon carbide sintered body manufactured from silicon carbide powder containing boron, silicon and carbonaceous additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Hidehiko

    1987-01-01

    A silicon carbide powder of a 5-micron grain size is mixed with 0.15 to 0.60 wt% mixture of a boron compound, i.e., boric acid, boron carbide (B4C), silicon boride (SiB4 or SiB6), aluminum boride, etc., and an aluminum compound, i.e., aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum carbide, etc., or aluminum boride (AlB2) alone, in such a proportion that the boron/aluminum atomic ratio in the sintered body becomes 0.05 to 0.25 wt% and 0.05 to 0.40 wt%, respectively, together with a carbonaceous additive to supply enough carbon to convert oxygen accompanying raw materials and additives into carbon monoxide.

  8. Elastic properties of various boron-nitride structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Eun-Suok

    2011-02-01

    The stress-deformation behaviors derived from the continuum-lattice thermodynamic approach were applied to estimate the elastic properties of various boron-nitride crystals, such as boron-nitride sheets and nanotubes as well as cubic boron-nitride. The Tersoff and Tersoff-like potentials were used to describe the interatomic bond potential for the boron-nitride crystals. In this study, three sets of the Tersoff potential parameters and two sets of the Tersoff-like potential parameters from the literature were employed. Both the Tersoff potential parameters proposed by Matsunaga et al. and the Tersoff-like potential parameters proposed by Oh were best for estimating the elastic properties of boron-nitride nanotubes, including a sheet. Meanwhile, the elastic constants of c-BN calculated by the Tersoff potential parameters proposed by Sekkal et al. and the Tersofflike potential parameters proposed by Albe and Moller were in good agreement with experimental and other quantumistic calculation results.

  9. Spin-polarized structural, electronic and magnetic properties of intermetallic Dy 2Ni 2Pb from computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbouche, Omar; Azzaz, Yahia; Bendaoud, Hanifi; Belgoumène, Berrzoug; Driz, Mohamed; Abid, Hamza

    2012-03-01

    We report a first-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ternary plumbides (rare earth-transition metal-Plumb) Dy 2Ni 2Pb crystallizes with the orthorhombic structure of the Mn 2AlB 2 type (space group Cmmm), were studied by means of the full-relativistic version of the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, total densities of states and magnetic properties. The calculated total magnetic moment is found to be equal to 9.52 μB.

  10. Multiple magnetic transitions in Er2Ni2Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchure, Aravind D.; Muñoz-Sandoval, E.; Mydosh, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    We have fabricated single-phase samples and measured the bulk properties for one (Er) of a series of ternary, heavy rare-earth, 221 ``plumbide'' intermetallic compounds R2Ni2Pb (R=rare earths). These materials form in the orthorhombic (space group Cmmm) structure which is isostructural to Mn2AlB2 compounds. Our results of susceptibility, magnetization, heat capacity, and (magneto) resistivity on Er2Ni2Pb show (sharp) multiple antiferromagnetic transitions and strong field dependences in all bulk properties for the temperature range 2-10 K. We relate this magnetic behavior to the unusual R symmetry (partially frustrated) of the highly anisotropic plumbide crystal structure.

  11. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone.

  12. Franz Selety (1893-1933?). His cosmological investigations and the correspondence with Einstein (German Title: Franz Selety (1893-1933?). Seine kosmologischen Arbeiten und der Briefwechsel mit Einstein)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Tobias

    In 1922, Franz Selety, university-bred philosopher and self-educated physicist and cosmologist, developed a molecular hierarchical, spatially infinite, Newtonian cosmological model. His considerations were based on his earlier philosophical work published in 1914 as well as on the early correspondence with Einstein in 1917. Historically, the roots of hierarchical models can be seen in 18th century investigations by Thomas Wright of Durham, Immanuel Kant and Johann Heinrich Lambert. Those investigations were taken up by Edmund Fournier d'Albe and Carl Charlier at the beginning of the 20th century. Selety's cosmological model was criticized by Einstein mainly due to its spatial infiniteness which in Einstein's opinion seemed to contradict Mach's principle. This criticism sheds light on Einstein's conviction that with his first cosmological model, namely the static, spatially infinite, though unbounded Einstein Universe of 1917, the appropriate cosmological theory already had been established.

  13. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  14. While passing through.

    PubMed

    Kea, S

    1987-01-01

    Salaria Kea (O'Reilly) was one of 48 nurses who went to Spain with the medical units of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, the American part of the International Brigades which fought with the Spanish people against Franco's forces. The Medical Bureau to Aid Spanish Democracy, in addition to organizing the ALB medical units, raised money to purchase and send to the Spanish Loyalists 70 ambulances and large quantities of medicines and medical supplies. Salaria Kea was the only black woman in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. She was cited for courage and efficiency several times in Spanish Loyalist dispatches. These excerpts are from her unpublished memoirs. The entire memoirs will be published by the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health's History Center.

  15. Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard and Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Neri, A.; Newhall, C. G.; Papale, P.

    2007-08-01

    Quantifying Long- and Short-Term Volcanic Hazard: Building Up a Common Strategy for Italian Volcanoes, Erice Italy, 8 November 2006 The term ``hazard'' can lead to some misunderstanding. In English, hazard has the generic meaning ``potential source of danger,'' but for more than 30 years [e.g., Fournier d'Albe, 1979], hazard has been also used in a more quantitative way, that reads, ``the probability of a certain hazardous event in a specific time-space window.'' However, many volcanologists still use ``hazard'' and ``volcanic hazard'' in purely descriptive and subjective ways. A recent meeting held in November 2006 at Erice, Italy, entitled ``Quantifying Long- and Short-Term Volcanic Hazard: Building up a Common Strategy for Italian Volcanoes'' (http://www.bo.ingv.it/erice2006) concluded that a more suitable term for the estimation of quantitative hazard is ``probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment'' (PVHA).

  16. Growth of bi- and tri-layered graphene on silicon carbide substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with simulated annealing method is used to study the growth process of bi- and tri-layered graphene on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulation. Tersoff-Albe-Erhart (TEA) potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the atoms in the system. The formation temperature, averaged carbon-carbon bond length, pair correlation function, binding energy and the distance between the graphene formed and the SiC substrate are quantified. The growth mechanism, graphitization of graphene on the SiC substrate and characteristics of the surface morphology of the graphene sheet obtained in our MD simulation compare well to that observed in epitaxially grown graphene experiments and other simulation works.

  17. Hydraulic linkage of a storm water tank to a karst spring (Gallusquelle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranter, Morgan; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Scheytt, Traugott

    2017-03-01

    A significant proportion of the global water supply is ensured by karst aquifers. However, these are often highly vulnerable to contamination. A storm water tank located in the rural karst catchment area of the Gallusquelle spring (Swabian Alb, southwest Germany) about 9.1 km away was identified as a potential source of contamination. A tracer experiment was carried out in order to evaluate this hydraulic connection. For this, 2.5 kg of the fluorescence dye sulforhodamine G was injected directly at the spillway location. The proposed hydraulic connectivity of the storm water tank to the Gallusquelle spring has been confirmed with this experiment. The maximum tracer velocity of 149 m h-1 highlights rapid groundwater flow through karst conduits. The low tracer mass recovery rate of 14.1% is an indication of a retention capacity along the flow path. This was confirmed by a release of withheld tracer triggered by a heavy storm event 16 days after the injection.

  18. Comparison study between fasting total serum bile acid and post prandial bile acid in hepatic diseases: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boonyapisit, S; Lekhakula, S; Amornkittichareon, B; Shumnumsirivath, D

    1994-01-01

    Fasting bile acid, two-hour post prandial bile acid and other liver function tests (Bili, AST, ALT, ALB, Glob, ALP) were measured in 22 normal and 28 liver diseased patients. In normal volunteers, the mean value of fasting total serum bile acid (FTBA) and postprandial serum bile acid (PTBA) were 3.08 mumole/L (S.D. 1.65) range 0.21-6.26 mumol/L, and 8.07 mumole/L (S.D. 2.99) range 4.06-15.65 mumole/L. Comparison between FTBA, PTBA and other liver function tests in various liver diseases from this study the PTBA was not statistically significant superior to FTBA. Therefore, it is not necessary to do the PTBA at this time until more data is available.

  19. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.

  20. Biodegradation of the herbicide Diuron in a packed bed channel and a double biobarrier with distribution of oxygenated liquid by airlift devices: influence of oxygen limitation.

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, J Humberto; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Rocha-Martínez, Lizeth; Peña-Partida, José Carlos; Marrón-Montiel, Erick; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata

    2016-01-25

    From agricultural soils, where the herbicide Diuron has been frequently applied, a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline was obtained. The volumetric rates and degradation efficiencies of Diuron and 3,4-DCA were evaluated in two distinct biofilm reactors, which differ in their operating conditions. One is a horizontal fixed bed reactor; plug-flow operated (PF-PBC) with severe limitation of oxygen. In this reactor, the air was supplied to an equalizer reservoir at the start of the PF-PBC reactor. The other is a compartmentalized aerobic biobarrier with internal recirculation of liquid aerated through airlift devices (ALB), continuously or intermittently operated. Both reactors were inoculated with a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron, isolated from a sugarcane field. In the oxygen-limited PF-PBC reactor, 3,4-DCA accumulation was detected, mainly in the middle zone of the packed channel. On the contrary, in the fully aerobic ALB reactor, minimal accumulation of catabolic byproducts was detected, and high Diuron removal efficiencies and removal rates were obtained when it was continuously operated in steady-state conditions. Additionally, the influence of oxygen limitation on the kinetic behavior of the PF-PBC reactor was determined, and a method to estimate the local removal rates of Diuron RV,CD along the plug-flow channel is described. It was observed that the local values of the instantaneous removal rate of Diuron dCD/dt are high in the aerobic region of the PF-PBC reactor; but, suddenly decay in the reactor zones limited by dissolved oxygen.

  1. [Study of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Quero Alfonso, Angel I; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Gomez Jimenez, Francisco Javier; García Rios, María Del Carmen; García García, Inmaculada

    2014-10-23

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico (SM) esta formado por un conjunto de alteraciones clínicas y bioquímicas es muy comun entre los pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica y representa la principal causa de mortalidad en estos pacientes, 44% del total de pacientes sometidos a diálisis. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la prevalencia del Sindrome Metabolico y factores de riesgo asociados a su desarrollo, asi como la prevalencia de la obesidad en pacientes en HD. Métodos: En este trabajo se ha seguido a 90 pacientes de ambos sexos con IRC que fueron tratados con hemodiálisis periódicamente en nuestra unidad durante diez años. A todos los pacientes se le realizaron mediciones trimestrales de albúmina plasmática (Alb), y otras determinaciones bioquimicas, y se les efectuaron mediciones antropométricas de peso, altura e índice de masa corporal calculado mediante la formula peso/talla2, agrupada en valores IMC según la OMS, se recogieron datos acerca de hipertensión, glucosa. Resultados: La prevalencia de SM fue del 25º% y de la obesidad fue, 45% sobrepeso tipo I; 30,8% de pacientes con sobrepeso tipo II y 12 ,2% obesas. Como factores de riesgo estadísticamente significativos se obtuvieron el IMC, sobrepeso, triglicéridos, colesterol total y colesterol HDL así como la hipertensión y niveles elevados de glucosa. Conclusiones: El SM compromete la supervivencia del paciente hemodiálisis pudiendo apreciarse una alta prevalecia del mismo. Los factores de riesgo fundamenteles en el SM son la vigilancia del peso, IMC, trigliceridos y colesterol HDL, hipertension y la diabetes.

  2. Effects of heat and pH treatments and in vitro digestion on the biological activity of protein hydrolysates of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. grain.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, J; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Pedroza-Islas, R; de la Peña-Díaz, A; Soriano-Santos, J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of temperature (T), time (t) and pH treatments and an in vitro digestion on the stability of the angiotensin I-converting-enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACEIA) and antithrombotic activity (ATA; assessed as inhibition of platelet aggregation) of selected protein hydrolysates of amaranth named Alb1H103 and GloH88 and GluH24 with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity (DPPIVIA). Heat treatment (40-100 °C) for 1 h showed no significant differences among ACEIA, DPPIVIA and ATA of the heated hydrolysates at pH 4 and 7. There was no statistically significant loss of any bioactivity under heat treatment for 3 h at pH 4.0. Alb1H103 and GluH24 maintained the inhibitory activity of ACE and ATA at pH 7.0 for 3 h, whereas GloH88 maintained ACEIA and ATA for 2.0 h at pH 7.0. The pH effect on hydrolysates bioactivity was assessed in the range of 2.0-12.0. This was negligible on ACEIA, ATA and DPPIVIA. The in vitro digestion was performed using pepsin, trypsin (T) and α-chymotrypsin (C). A previous treatment of hydrolysates with pepsin improved the proteolytic activities of T and C. The hydrolysates kept at 100 °C for 1 h at pH 4.0, showed a significant increase in bioactivity. Conversely, a treatment at pH 7.0 showed no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hydrolysates bioactivities after their digestion. Thus, biological activity of hydrolysates may be preserved or enhanced, depending on their processing conditions.

  3. Establishment of a Wolbachia Superinfection in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes as a Potential Approach for Future Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Jyotika Taneja; Kien, Duong Hue T.; Hoang, Nhat Le Thanh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Simmons, Cameron P.; O’Neill, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium estimated to chronically infect between 40–75% of all arthropod species. Aedes aegypti, the principle mosquito vector of dengue virus (DENV), is not a natural host of Wolbachia. The transinfection of Wolbachia strains such as wAlbB, wMel and wMelPop-CLA into Ae. aegypti has been shown to significantly reduce the vector competence of this mosquito for a range of human pathogens in the laboratory. This has led to wMel-transinfected Ae. aegypti currently being released in five countries to evaluate its effectiveness to control dengue disease in human populations. Here we describe the generation of a superinfected Ae. aegypti mosquito line simultaneously infected with two avirulent Wolbachia strains, wMel and wAlbB. The line carries a high overall Wolbachia density and tissue localisation of the individual strains is very similar to each respective single infected parental line. The superinfected line induces unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when crossed to each single infected parental line, suggesting that the superinfection would have the capacity to replace either of the single constituent infections already present in a mosquito population. No significant differences in fitness parameters were observed between the superinfected line and the parental lines under the experimental conditions tested. Finally, the superinfected line blocks DENV replication more efficiently than the single wMel strain when challenged with blood meals from viremic dengue patients. These results suggest that the deployment of superinfections could be used to replace single infections and may represent an effective strategy to help manage potential resistance by DENV to field deployments of single infected strains. PMID:26891349

  4. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be

  5. A proteomic study of the differential protein expression in MDBK cells after bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection (BHV-1) strain treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Yang, Yanling; Liu, Linna; Liao, Peng; Wen, Yongjun; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    Different BHV-1 strains, such as the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strains and the attenuated vaccine strain IBRV LNM, produces different clinical immune responses; however, the study of the differential protein expression in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells after BHV-1-infection still remains unclear. Here, we applied a comparative proteomic strategy, based on 2D and MALDI-TOF/MS platforms, to examine the differential expression of proteins in MDBK cells that were treated and not treated with virulent IBRV LN01/08 and attenuated IBRV LNM strains. A total of eight differential proteins, including pyruvate kinase, heat shock protein (HSP) 90 (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1), annexin A, albumin (ALB), scinderin (SCIN), tubulin (alpha 1a) and vimentin (VIM), were identified. Among these proteins, pyruvate kinase, and HSP90 (HSP90AB1), tubulin and vimentin were identified in the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strain group, but were not identified in the attenuated IBRV LNM group. These results play an important role in tumor formation and development, cell migration, tumor cell line apoptosis, cell invasion and viral infection. The HSP90 (HSP90AA1) protein was identified in the control group and the attenuated IBRV LNM-infected group. Most studies have shown that HSP90 proteins were more of a cancer gene target, and inhibiting its function would result to oncogene degradation during cancer treatment. On the other hand, ALB is associated to cell differentiation, apoptosis, necrosis, cell death, viral infection, autophagy, interstitial tissue inflammation, and cell survival. These results provide a theoretical basis for the systematic understanding of BHV-1-infection mechanisms and BHV-1-induced immune responses. PMID:26064331

  6. In situ simultaneous protein-polysaccharide bioconjugation and hydrogelation using horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinji; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Hirose, Keisuke; Kawakami, Koei

    2010-05-10

    We propose the peroxidase-catalyzed simultaneous conjugation and hydrogelation of polysaccharide and protein derivatives, each possessing phenolic hydroxyl (Ph) moieties, as a novel route for obtaining protein-polysaccharide conjugate hydrogels. We used alginate, gelatin, and albumin derivatives bearing Ph moieties (Alg-Ph, Gela-Ph, and Alb-Ph) to demonstrate the feasibility. The gelation time of conjugate gels decreased with decreasing H(2)O(2) concentration and with increasing horseradish peroxidase concentration. Gelation time was controllable from a few seconds to 6 min. The repulsion force detected at 40% compression of a conjugate gel obtained from a mixture of Alg-Ph and Gela-Ph at 1.0% (w/v), respectively, was more than 2.8 times larger than that detected for gels produced from 3.0% (w/v) Gela-Ph or 2.0% (w/v) Alg-Ph alone. Cell adhesiveness of gels was tunable by changing the type of protein derivative. A gel from Gela-Ph and Alg-Ph showed higher cell adhesiveness than Alg-Ph gel, but a gel produced from Alb-Ph and Alg-Ph showed a lower cell adhesiveness than Alg-Ph gel. The conjugate gel was degradable by degrading alginate molecules using the nonproteolytic enzyme alginate lyase. The tunable gelation, mechanical properties, and cell adhesiveness of polysaccharide-protein conjugate hydrogels obtained through peroxidase-catalyzed gelation indicates great potential for a wide range of applications, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering and carriers for drug delivery system.

  7. A Murine Inhalation Model to Characterize Pulmonary Exposure to Dry Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia

    PubMed Central

    Buskirk, Amanda D.; Green, Brett J.; Lemons, Angela R.; Nayak, Ajay P.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Kashon, Michael L.; Anderson, Stacey E.; Hettick, Justin M.; Templeton, Steven P.; Germolec, Dori R.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Most murine models of fungal exposure are based on the delivery of uncharacterized extracts or liquid conidia suspensions using aspiration or intranasal approaches. Studies that model exposure to dry fungal aerosols using whole body inhalation have only recently been described. In this study, we aimed to characterize pulmonary immune responses following repeated inhalation of conidia utilizing an acoustical generator to deliver dry fungal aerosols to mice housed in a nose only exposure chamber. Immunocompetent female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to conidia derived from Aspergillus fumigatus wild-type (WT) or a melanin-deficient (Δalb1) strain. Conidia were aerosolized and delivered to mice at an estimated deposition dose of 1×105 twice a week for 4 weeks (8 total). Histopathological and immunological endpoints were assessed 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the final exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that conidia derived from both strains induced lung inflammation, especially at 24 and 48 hour time points. Immunological endpoints evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the mediastinal lymph nodes showed that exposure to WT conidia led to elevated numbers of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. Importantly, CD8+ IL17+ (Tc17) cells were significantly higher in BALF and positively correlated with germination of A. fumigatus WT spores. Germination was associated with specific IgG to intracellular proteins while Δalb1 spores elicited antibodies to cell wall hydrophobin. These data suggest that inhalation exposures may provide a more representative analysis of immune responses following exposures to environmentally and occupationally prevalent fungal contaminants. PMID:25340353

  8. Usefulness of Levocarnitine and/or Branched-Chain Amino Acids during Invasive Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Motoh; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Sekoguchi-Fujikawa, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are effective treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the extent of treatment depends on hepatic functional reserve. L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like substance and several reports have described the usefulness of L-carnitine supplementation in cases of cirrhosis, with confirmed effectiveness against refractory hepatic encephalopathy. On the other hand, we have previously reported that in patients who underwent TACE or RFA, administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) pre-intervention significantly reduced inflammatory reactions. We first determined serum levels of total, free, and acyl-carnitine before and at 7 d after performing TACE in 10 HCC patients. We administered levocarnitine (L-carnitine chloride, a biologically active form of carnitine) at 900 mg/d to 69 consecutive HCC patients hospitalized to undergo TACE and/or RFA, and compared changes in blood test values with those in 119 consecutive patients not administered this drug. Sixty-seven patients had a history of using BCAAs at the time of admission. We found that after 7 d of TACE, serum levels of total and acyl-carnitine are significantly decreased. On comparing the four groups, the carnitine+BCAA, carnitine-alone, and BCAA-alone groups showed significantly higher values for changes in NH3 when compared with the non-dosed group. The decrease in albumin (Alb) was significantly suppressed in the carnitine+BCAA and BCAA-alone groups. We also conducted the same examinations in a subset of patients classified as Child-Pugh class A, and noted the same trends. Administration of levocarnitine and/or BCAAs during invasive treatments reduced blood NH3 concentrations and suppressed decreases in Alb.

  9. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control.

  10. Concentrations of total proteins and albumins, and AST, AP, CK and GGT activities in the blood serum Boer and Saanen goats during puerperium.

    PubMed

    Djuricic, D; Dobranic, T; Grizelj, J; Gracner, D; Harapin, I; Stanin, D; Folnozic, I; Getz, I; Cvitkovic, D; Samardzija, M

    2011-08-01

    The metabolism of proteins in the blood serum in Boer and Saanen goats was investigated during puerperium. Twenty Boer goats (10 primiparous and 10 pluriparous) and 10 Saanen goats (five primiparous and five pluriparous) between 2 and 5 years of age were used in this research. Blood for analysis was taken every fourth day from day 3 until day 40 post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture. In the obtained blood serum, the concentration of total proteins (PT) and albumin (ALB), and the activity of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [the Enzyme Commission number (EC number) 2. 6. 1. 1.], gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (EC 2. 3. 2. 2.), creatine kinase (CK) (EC 2. 7. 3. 2.) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC 3. 1. 3. 1.) were determined by spectrophotometry. These parameters were in physiological ranges in Boer goats and in Saanen goats, without significant differences according to number of kids per doe. According to the research results of the blood serum in goats during puerperium, there were no significant differences in the concentration of ALB. Boer goats had significant higher (p < 0.05) concentration of PT and enzyme activity of AP, CK and GGT. Saanen goats had only enzyme activity of AST significantly higher (p < 0.05). Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was significant higher (p < 0.05) in pluriparous goats in both breeds than in primiparous. The obtained results may represent a contribution to a better understanding of protein metabolism during puerperium in dairy and meat goats and for diagnostic purposes.

  11. Defining the role of albumin infusion in cirrhosis-associated hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minhtri K; Ornekian, Vahram; Kao, Liyo; Butch, Anthony W; Kurtz, Ira

    2014-07-15

    The presence of negatively charged, impermeant proteins in the plasma space alters the distribution of diffusible ions in the plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) compartments to preserve electroneutrality and is known as Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. In patients with hypoalbuminemia due to underlying cirrhosis, the decrease in the plasma water albumin concentration ([Alb-]pw) would be expected to result in a decrease in the plasma water sodium concentration ([Na+]pw) due to an alteration in the distribution of Na+ between the plasma and ISF. In addition, cirrhosis-associated hyponatremia may be due to the renal diluting defect resulting from the intravascular volume depletion due to gastrointestinal losses and overdiuresis and/or decreased effective circulatory volume secondary to splanchnic vasodilatation. Therefore, albumin infusion may result in correction of the hyponatremia in cirrhotic patients either by modulating the Gibbs-Donnan effect due to hypoalbuminemia or by restoring intravascular volume in patients with intravascular volume depletion due to gastrointestinal losses and overdiuresis. However, the differential role of albumin infusion in modulating the [Na+]pw in these patients has not previously been analyzed quantitatively. In the present study, we developed an in vitro assay system to examine for the first time the quantitative effect of changes in albumin concentration on the distribution of Na+ between two compartments separated by a membrane that allows the free diffusion of Na+. Our findings demonstrated that changes in [Alb-]pw are linearly related to changes in [Na+]pw as predicted by Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. However, based on our findings, we predict that the improvement in cirrhosis-associated hyponatremia due to intravascular volume depletion results predominantly from the restoration of intravascular volume rather than alterations in Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  12. Hypoalbuminemia and oxidative stress in patients on renal hemodialysis program.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Laís Lima; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Garcez, Anderson Mendes; Pacheco, James Frederico Rocha; Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Moita Neto, José Machado; de Freitas, Manoela Carine Lima; de Melo Cunha, Luan Arnon

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La albumina se considera una molecula antioxidante extracelular importante. La hipoalbuminemia es un predictor fuerte e independiente de mortalidad en pacientes en hemodialisis. El presente estudio evaluo la relacion entre hipoalbuminemia y el estres oxidativo mediante la comparacion de la actividad de la superoxido dismutasa, la peroxidacion lipidica y el consumo de micronutrientes antioxidantes en pacientes con insuficiencia renal cronica. Métodos: Este estudio de casos y controles se llevo a cabo con 64 pacientes de ambos sexos de 18 a 59 anos. Los pacientes con hipoalbuminemia (ALB < 3,5 g / dL) se definieron como los casos (n = 26) y el grupo control (n = 38) aquellos con ALB ≥ 3,5 g/dL. Fueran realizadas determinaciones de la actividad de la superoxido dismutasa en los eritrocitos, la produccion de oxido nitrico por la contraccion de nitrito e concentracion de malondialdehido (MDA) en plasma, el perfil de lipidos en plasma, la ingesta de proteinas y micronutrientes antioxidantes se realizaron. Para las comparaciones entre grupos, se utilizo la prueba t de Student. Posibles asociaciones entre variables se analizaron mediante el test de correlacion lineal y Pearson y en la prueba de chi-cuadrado. Resultados: El consumo de cobre fue significativamente menor (p < 0,05) para el grupo con hipoalbuminemia. Correlaciones entres las concentraciones de albumina y el uso de cobre (r = 0,280). Se encontro correlacion negativa entre las concentraciones de albumina y MDA. Conclusión: La hipoalbuminemia se asocia con aumento de la peroxidacion lipidica, y puede contribuir al estres oxidativo en pacientes con insuficiencia renal cronica. Ademas, los pacientes con enfermedad renal cronica sometidos a hemodialisis evaluados en este estudio habian reducido el consumo de cobre.

  13. Inactivation of Sirt1 in mouse livers protects against endotoxemic liver injury by acetylating and activating NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaolan; Chen, Qian; Dong, Zhen; Xu, Longmei; Lu, Tianfei; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Jiangjun; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a deacetylase that regulates many cellular processes in the liver, and so far its role in endotoxemic liver injury is elusive. So we conditionally inactivate Sirt1 in murine hepatocytes to determine its role in d-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver damage, which is a well-established experimental model mimicking septic liver injury and fulminant hepatitis. Ablation of Sirt1 shows remarkable protection against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury, which is a result of enhanced NF-κB response because knockdown of RelA/p65 negates the protective effect of Sirt1 knockout. Mechanistically, NF-κB p65 is maintained in a hyperacetylated, DNA-binding competent state in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-challenged albumin-Cre+ (AlbCre+) hepatocytes. Transfection of hepatocytes with a recombinant acetylated p65 expression construct replicates the protection afforded by Sirt1 knockout. Transfection of AlbCre+ hepatocytes with a recombinant wild-type Sirt1 construct, rather than a deacetylase-defective one, compromises NF-κB activation and resensitizes hepatocytes to TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sirt1 deacetylates p65 and compromises NF-κB activity in hepatocytes when confronted with LPS/TNF-α stimulation, leading to increased susceptibility to endotoxemic injury. These findings identify a possible protein effector to maneuver the hepatic NF-κB signaling pathway under inflammatory circumstances and a feasible way to increase hepatocellular resistance to endotoxin/TNF-α toxicity. PMID:27711079

  14. Evaluation of the New Chromogenic Medium Candida ID 2 for Isolation and Identification of Candida albicans and Other Medically Important Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Eraso, Elena; Moragues, María D.; Villar-Vidal, María; Sahand, Ismail H.; González-Gómez, Nagore; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    The usefulness of Candida ID 2 (CAID2) reformulated medium (bioMérieux, France) has been compared with that of the former Candida ID (CAID; bioMérieux), Albicans ID 2 (ALB2; bioMérieux), and CHROMagar Candida (CAC; Chromagar, France) chromogenic media for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically relevant yeasts. Three hundred forty-five stock strains from culture collections, and 103 fresh isolates from different clinical specimens were evaluated. CAID2 permitted differentiation based on colony color between Candida albicans (cobalt blue; sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 97.2%) and Candida dubliniensis (turquoise blue; sensitivity, 97.9%; specificity, 96.6%). Candida tropicalis gave distinguishable pink-bluish colonies in 97.4% of the strains in CAID2 (sensitivity, 97.4%; specificity, 100%); the same proportion was reached in CAC, where colonies were blue-gray (sensitivity, 97.4%; specificity, 98.7%). CAC and CAID2 showed 100% sensitivity values for the identification of Candida krusei. However, with CAID2, experience is required to differentiate the downy aspect of the white colonies of C. krusei from other white-colony-forming species. The new CAID2 medium is a good candidate to replace CAID and ALB2, and it compares well to CAC for culture and presumptive identification of clinically relevant Candida species. CAID2 showed better results than CAC in some aspects, such as quicker growth and color development of colonies from clinical specimens, detection of mixed cultures, and presumptive differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. PMID:16954270

  15. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Janey; Mujahid, Md; Badruddeen; Jahan, Yasmeen; Bagga, Paramdeep; Rahman, Md Azizur

    2017-01-01

    Many traditional systems of medicines employ herbal drugs for the hepatoprotection. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of 'ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha ( Chen Xiang) leaves' (AAE) against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats. Group I animals were treated with 1% CMC for 8 days. Group II, III, IV and V animals were first treated with '1% CMC' 1 ml/kg/day, AAE 200 mg/kg/day, AAE 400 mg/kg/day and silymarin 100 mg/kg/day respectively for 7 days and then, orally administered with PCM 3 g/kg b. wt. on 8th day in a single dose. 24 h after the last dosing by PCM, the blood was obtained through the retro-orbital plexus under light anesthesia and the animals were sacrificed. Hepatoprotective potential was assessed by various biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, bilirubin, cholesterol, TP and ALB. Group IV rats showed significant (p < 0.01) decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, cholesterol, bilirubin, liver wt. and relative liver wt. levels while significant (p < 0.01) increase in final b. wt., TP and ALB levels as compared to group II rats. Hepatoprotective potential of AAE 400 mg/kg/day was comparable to that of standard drug silymarin 100 mg/kg/day. Results of the study were well supported by the histopathological observations. This study confirms that AAE possesses hepatoprotective potential comparable to that of standard drug silymarin as it exhibited comparable protective potential against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

  16. Albuminoid Genes: Evolving at the Interface of Dispensability and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The albuminoid gene family comprises vitamin D-binding protein (GC), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), afamin (AFM), and albumin (ALB). Albumin is the most abundant human serum protein, and, as the other family members, acts as a transporter of endogenous and exogenous substances including thyroxine, fatty acids, and drugs. Instead, the major cargo of GC is 25-hydroxyvitamin D. We performed an evolutionary study of albuminoid genes and we show that ALB evolved adaptively in mammals. Most positively selected sites are located within albumin-binding sites for fatty acids and thyroxine, as well as at the contact surface with neonatal Fc receptor. Positive selection was also detected for residues forming the prostaglandin-binding pocket. Adaptation to hibernation/torpor might explain the signatures of episodic positive selection we detected for few mammalian lineages. Application of a population genetics–phylogenetics approach showed that purifying selection represented a major force acting on albuminoid genes in both humans and chimpanzees, with the strongest constraint observed for human GC. Population genetic analysis revealed that GC was also the target of locally exerted selective pressure, which drove the frequency increase of different haplotypes in distinct human populations. A search for known variants that modulate GC and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations revealed linkage disequilibrium with positively selected variants, although European and Asian major GC haplotypes carry alleles with reported opposite effect on GC concentration. Data herein indicate that albumin, an extremely abundant housekeeping protein, was the target of pervasive and episodic selection in mammals, whereas GC represented a selection target during the recent evolution of human populations. PMID:25349266

  17. Oxidative Stress and Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as Markers of Progression in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Camilla, Roberta; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Daprà, Valentina; Loiacono, Elisa; Peruzzi, Licia; Amore, Alessandro; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Mazzucco, Gianna; Scolari, Francesco; Gharavi, Ali G.; Appel, Gerald B.; Troyanov, Stéphan; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives We assessed the activation of the oxidative stress pathway in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), while evaluating the classic marker of the disease (galactose-deficient serum IgA1). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Sera from 292 patients and 69 healthy controls from Italy and the United States were assayed for advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), free sulfhydryl groups on albumin (SH-Alb), and IgA1 with galactose-deficient hinge-region O-glycans (Gd-IgA1). Gd-IgA1 was detected by binding to Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and expressed as total Gd-IgA1 or as degree of galactose deficiency relative to a standard Gd-IgA1 myeloma protein (%HAA). Results Sera from IgAN patients showed higher levels of Gd-IgA1, %HAA, and AOPPs, but lower levels of SH-Alb in comparison to that from healthy controls. Serum levels of AOPPs significantly correlated with serum Gd-IgA1 and %HAA. The relationship between these biomarkers and clinical features at sampling and during follow-up was assessed in 62 patients with long-term follow-up. AOPPs and %HAA correlated with proteinuria at sampling and independently associated with subsequent proteinuria. Levels of AOPPs correlated with rate of decline in renal function after sampling. The combination of a high level of AOPPs and a high level of %HAA associated with decline in estimated GFR. Conclusions Serum levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 are elevated and oxidative stress pathways are activated in patients with IgAN; the intensity of the stress correlated with expression and progression of the disease. We speculate that oxidative stress may modulate the nephrotoxicity of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN. PMID:21784819

  18. Secondary elements of blood pH variation can influence the effort effectiveness based on adaptive changes within a group of elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARTIN, ŞTEFAN ADRIAN; TOMESCU, VALERIU; VOIDĂZAN, SEPTIMIU

    2016-01-01

    Aim pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. Method We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart. Determinations were aimed at adapting the reported biochemical parameters depending on the effort performed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, HCO3, pCO2, pO2, BE, SBE, SBC, Ca++, Mg++, LDH, GPT, T-Pro, and Alb. Results The mean value of pH found in athletes was 7.41±0.024. The value obtained was significantly correlated to biochemical parameters such as BE (2.32±1.79), SBC (1.67±1.45), SBE (2.70±1.75). However, bicarbonate (HCO3) was statistically significantly related with SBE, SBC, SBE, and pO2, but did not present a strong association with the pH value (p=0.094). However, values such as Alb, Ca++, LDH, BE, SBC are related to pH value as a result of variations in the data submitted. Conclusions The processed data evidence the fact that blood pH, in this case, is significantly influenced by a number of indices that correlate energy system activity, individual adaptation to effort, and the recovery process. The parameters under investigation (SBE, SBC, SBE, CPK, LDH) are associated with pH changes that could confirm the recovery efficiency of the athlete, along with a possible metabolic acidosis/alkalosis. PMID:27857520

  19. Simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in plasma and serum by dual size exclusion-affinity chromatography with online isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma has been developed based on in series two-dimensional size exclusion and affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (2D/SE-AF-HPLC), using two columns of each type, and hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-(quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The method allows the quantitative determination of selenoprotein P (SeP), extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx), selenoalbumin (SeAlb), and selenometabolites in mouse plasma using species-unspecific isotope dilution (SUID). The 2D chromatographic separation is proposed to remove typical spectral interferences in plasma from chloride and bromide on (77)Se ((40)Ar(37)Cl) and (82)Se ((81)Br(1)H). In addition, the approach increases chromatographic resolution allowing the separation of eGPx from Se metabolites of low molecular mass. The method is robust, reliable, and fast with a typical chromatographic runtime less than 20 min. Precision in terms of relative standard deviation (n = 5) is in the order of 4 %, and detection limits are in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 ng Se g(-1). Method accuracy for determination of total protein bound to Se was assessed by analyzing human serum reference material (BCR-637) certified for total Se content, and latterly applied to mouse plasma (Mus musculus). In summary, a reliable speciation method for the analysis of eGPx, selenometabolites, SeP, and SeAlb in plasma/serum samples is proposed for the first time and is applicable to the evaluation of Se status in human in clinical studies and other mammals for environmental or toxicological assessment.

  20. Production of anti-neurotoxin antibody is enhanced by two subcomponents, HA1 and HA3b, of Clostridium botulinum type B 16S toxin-haemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Yokota, Kenji; Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Cui, Jinhua; Takeshi, Kouichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Oguma, Keiji

    2005-11-01

    Clostridium botulinum type B strain produces two forms of progenitor toxin, 16S and 12S. The 12S toxin is formed by association of a neurotoxin (NTX) and a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH), and the 16S toxin is formed by conjugation of the 12S toxin with a haemagglutinin (HA). HA consists of four subcomponents designated HA1, HA2, HA3a and HA3b. When mice were immunized with formalin-detoxified NTX, 12S or 16S, a significantly greater amount of anti-NTX antibody (Ab) was produced in the mice injected with 16S than in NTX- or 12S-injected mice. Immunization with NTX mixed with HA1 and/or HA3b also increased the anti-NTX Ab production, whereas NTX mixed with HA2 did not, indicating that HA1 and HA3b have adjuvant activity. This was further confirmed by immunizing mice with human albumin (Alb) alone or Alb mixed with either HA1 or HA3b. When mouse-spleen cells were stimulated with NTX, 16S or different HA subcomponents, 16S, HA1, HA3b and the mixture of HA1 and HA3 significantly increased interleukin 6 (IL6) production compared with NTX alone. Transcription of IL6 mRNA was low after stimulation with NTX alone, but increased to 16S-stimulation levels when NTX was mixed with HA1 or HA3b. In flow cytometry using labelled Abs against CD3 and CD19, the percentage of CD19 cells was higher following stimulation with 16S or NTX mixed with HA1 or HA3b compared with stimulation with NTX. The percentage of CD3 cells remained unchanged. These results suggest strongly that HA1 and HA3b demonstrate adjuvant activity via increasing IL6 production.

  1. Evaluation of the new chromogenic medium Candida ID 2 for isolation and identification of Candida albicans and other medically important Candida species.

    PubMed

    Eraso, Elena; Moragues, María D; Villar-Vidal, María; Sahand, Ismail H; González-Gómez, Nagore; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

    2006-09-01

    The usefulness of Candida ID 2 (CAID2) reformulated medium (bioMérieux, France) has been compared with that of the former Candida ID (CAID; bioMérieux), Albicans ID 2 (ALB2; bioMérieux), and CHROMagar Candida (CAC; Chromagar, France) chromogenic media for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically relevant yeasts. Three hundred forty-five stock strains from culture collections, and 103 fresh isolates from different clinical specimens were evaluated. CAID2 permitted differentiation based on colony color between Candida albicans (cobalt blue; sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 97.2%) and Candida dubliniensis (turquoise blue; sensitivity, 97.9%; specificity, 96.6%). Candida tropicalis gave distinguishable pink-bluish colonies in 97.4% of the strains in CAID2 (sensitivity, 97.4%; specificity, 100%); the same proportion was reached in CAC, where colonies were blue-gray (sensitivity, 97.4%; specificity, 98.7%). CAC and CAID2 showed 100% sensitivity values for the identification of Candida krusei. However, with CAID2, experience is required to differentiate the downy aspect of the white colonies of C. krusei from other white-colony-forming species. The new CAID2 medium is a good candidate to replace CAID and ALB2, and it compares well to CAC for culture and presumptive identification of clinically relevant Candida species. CAID2 showed better results than CAC in some aspects, such as quicker growth and color development of colonies from clinical specimens, detection of mixed cultures, and presumptive differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  2. Breakage and re-growth of flocs: effect of additional doses of coagulant species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Gregory, John; Campos, Luiza C

    2011-12-15

    Several polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants were prepared, with different OH/Al ratios (B values), and characterized by Ferron assay. These were used in studies of floc formation, breakage and re-growth with kaolin suspensions under controlled shear conditions, using a continuous optical monitoring method. Particular attention was paid to the effect of small additional coagulant dosages, added during the floc breakage period, on the re-growth of broken flocs. The results showed that the re-growth ability was greatly dependent on the nature of the PACl species added as second coagulant. The re-growth ability of broken flocs was greatest when the second coagulant was PACl(0) (i.e. AlCl(3), with B = 0) and least with PACl(25) (B = 2.5). In the latter case there was no effect on floc re-growth, irrespective of the initial coagulant used. PACls with intermediate B values gave some improvement in floc re-growth, but less than that with PACl(0). Additional dosage of PACl(0) gave re-grown flocs about the same size or even larger than those before breakage. The re-growth of broken flocs is significantly correlated with the species Al(a) (monomeric) and Al(b) (polymeric), as determined by Ferron assay. The amorphous hydroxide precipitate formed from PACl(0), (mainly Al(a)) can greatly improve the adhesion between broken flocs and give complete re-growth. However, for PACl(25), mostly composed of Al(b), the nature of the precipitate is different and there is no effect on floc re-growth.

  3. Characterization of Ferroptosis in Murine Models of Hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; An, Peng; Xie, Enjun; Wu, Qian; Fang, Xuexian; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Li, Yuzhu; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Jiaying; Li, Guoli; Yang, Lei; Liu, Wei; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi

    2017-02-13

    Ferroptosis is a recently identified iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death implicated in brain, kidney, and heart pathology. However, the biological roles of iron and iron metabolism in ferroptosis remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the functional role of iron and iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of ferroptosis. We found that ferric citrate potently induces ferroptosis in murine primary hepatocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Next, we screened for ferroptosis in mice fed a high-iron diet and in mouse models of hereditary hemochromatosis with iron overload. We found that ferroptosis occurred in mice fed a high-iron diet and in two knockout mouse lines that develop severe iron overload (Hjv(-/-) and Smad4(Alb/Alb) mice), but not in a third line that develops only mild iron overload (Hfe(-/-) mice). Moreover, we found that iron overload-induced liver damage was rescued by the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1. To identify the genes involved in iron-induced ferroptosis, we performed microarray analyses of iron-treated BMDMs. Interestingly, Slc7a11, a known ferroptosis-related gene, was significantly upregulated in iron-treated cells compared with untreated cells. However, genetically deleting Slc7a11 expression was not sufficient to induce ferroptosis in mice. Next, we studied iron-treated hepatocytes and BMDMs isolated from Slc7a11(-/-) mice fed a high-iron diet. We found that iron treatment induced ferroptosis in Slc7a11(-/-) cells, indicating that deleting Slc7a11 facilitates the onset of ferroptosis specifically under high-iron conditions. These results provide compelling evidence that iron plays a key role in triggering Slc7a11-mediated ferroptosis. These results also suggest that ferroptosis may be a promising target for treating hemochromatosis-related tissue damage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Aluminum Doped Boron Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Li; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Anionic boron clusters have been shown to be planar or quasi-planar up to B21- from a series of combined photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. All these boron clusters consist of a peripheral ring characterized by strong two-center-two-electron (2c-2e) B-B bonds and one or more interior atoms. The propensity for planarity is due to σ - and π -electron delocalizations throughout the molecular plane, giving rise to concepts of σ - and π -aromaticity. The quasi-planarity, on the other hand, can be mechanical in nature - the circumference of the cluster is too small to fit the inner atoms - even for doubly aromatic clusters. Two questions arise: firstly, can isoelectronic substitution by a single aluminum atom on the outer ring enhance the planarity of quasi-planar structures, and, secondly, can the interior boron atoms be replaced by aluminum? A series of aluminum isoelectronic substitution of boron clusters have been investigated ranging from B7- to B12-. Aluminum turns out to avoid the central position in the all these clusters and enhance the planarity of AlB6- and AlB11- clusters by expanding the peripheral ring. References: [1] C. Romanescu, A. P. Sergeeva, W. L. Li, A. I. Boldyrev and L. S. Wang, {J. Am. Chem. Soc}. {133} (22), 8646-8653 (2011) [2] T. R. Galeev, C. Romanescu, W. L. Li, L. S. Wang and A. I. Boldyrev, {J. Chem. Phys.} {135}, (8) 104301 (2011) [3] W. L. Li, C. Romanescu, T. R. Galeev, L. S. Wang and A. I. Boldyrev, {J. Phys. Chem. A} {115} (38), 10391-10397 (2011)

  5. Evaluation of snake envenomation-induced renal dysfunction in dogs using early urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hrovat, A; Schoeman, J P; de Laat, B; Meyer, E; Smets, P; Goddard, A; Nagel, S; Daminet, S

    2013-10-01

    Renal dysfunction in dogs envenomed by poisonous snakes is currently detected using traditional serum and urinary biomarkers such as creatinine and proteinuria. However, these markers lack sensitivity at the early stages of renal dysfunction and their diagnostic accuracy is affected by pre-analytical factors commonly occurring in these dogs, such as haemolysis and haemoglobinuria. Early detection of renal dysfunction would allow for the identification of dogs requiring intensive treatment and monitoring and may help inform prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of several novel urinary biomarkers of glomerular dysfunction, namely, urinary albumin (uAlb), immunoglobulin G (uIgG) and C-reactive protein (uCRP) and of proximal tubular dysfunction (urinary retinol binding protein (uRBP)) compared to traditional end points in dogs with renal damage caused by snake envenomation. Biomarker results were compared between 19 dogs bitten by snakes producing either neurotoxins or cytotoxins and 10 clinically healthy controls. uAlb, uIgG, and uRBP were significantly increased in snake-envenomed dogs at presentation compared to controls, whereas only uIgG and uCRP were significantly elevated 24h post-envenomation. The urinary protein:creatinine ratio was also increased in envenomed dogs compared to controls, but because of the presence of haematuria and haemoglobinuria, differentiation between pre-renal and renal proteinuria was not possible. The results showed that these novel urinary biomarkers may assist in better detecting renal dysfunction in dogs envenomed by poisonous snakes at the acute disease stage compared to traditional laboratory endpoints.

  6. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, Swati; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Hayes, C. Nelson; Akamatsu, Sakura; Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S.; Pohl, Ralf T.; Persiani, Stefano; Uprichard, Susan L.; Tateno, Chise; Dahari, Harel; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-06-08

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. In this paper, to elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and human albumin (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. Finally, the results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes.

  7. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy

    DOE PAGES

    DebRoy, Swati; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; ...

    2016-06-08

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. In this paper, to elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and human albuminmore » (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. Finally, the results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes.« less

  8. Hepatogenic differentiation from human adipose-derived stem cells and application for mouse acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, De-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Liang-Kun; Pan, Le-Yu; Zhu, Qian; Yuan, Yu-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Su

    2017-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) derived from adipose tissue have the capacity to differentiate into endodermal, mesoderm, and ectodermal cell lineages in vitro, which are an ideal engraft in tissue-engineered repair. In this study, human ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous fat. The markers of ADSCs, CD13, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, CYP3A4, and ALB were detected by immunofluorescence assays. Human ADSCs were cultured in a specific hepatogenesis differentiation medium containing HGF, bFGF, nicotinamide, ITS, and oncostatin M for hepatogenic differentiation. The hepatocyte markers were analyzed using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR after dramatic changes in morphology. Hepatocytes derived from ADSCs or ADSCs were transplanted into the mice of liver injury for observation cells colonization and therapy in liver tissue. The result demonstrated that human ADSCs were positive for the CD13, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166 but negative for hepatocyte markers, ALB and CYP3A4. After hepatogenic differentiation, the hepatocytes were positive for liver special markers, gene expression level showed a time-lapse increase with induction time. Human ADSCs or ADSCs-derived hepatocyte injected into the vein could improve liver function repair and functionally rescue the CCl4-treated mice with liver injury, but the ADSCs transplantation was better than ADSCs-derived hepatocyte transplantation. In conclusion, our research shows that a population of hepatocyte can be specifically generated from human ADSCs and that cells may allow for participation in tissue-repair.

  9. A double-blind crossover study comparing the safety and efficacy of three weeks of Flu/Sal 250/50 bid plus albuterol 180 ug prn q4 hours to Flu/Sal 250/50 bid plus albuterol/Ipratropium bromide 2 puffs prn q4 hours in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Ron; Make, Barry

    2008-08-01

    The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Fluticasone 250 microg/Salmeterol 50 microg 1 puff bid for maintenance therapy in patients with COPD associated with chronic bronchitis. Short-acting beta agonists (SABA) have been the recommended rescue medication; however, previous studies have shown that combination short-acting Albuterol (alb) /Ipratropium bromide (IB) has superior bronchodilator properties to albuterol alone in patients with COPD. The safety and efficacy of Albuterol compared to Albuterol/Ipratropium bromide as rescue medications for COPD patients on maintenance combination therapy of ICS/LABA has not been evaluated. Double-blind randomized crossover trial with COPD subjects receiving Fluticasone/ Salmeterol 500 microg/50 microg (Flu/Sal) 1 puff twice daily and 2 puffs of Albuterol Sulfate (90 microg micrograms per inhalation) or 2 puffs of Albuterol (90 microg/puff and Ipratropium Bromide 18 microg/puff. Either Albuterol Sulfate (90 micrograms/puff) or Alb (90 micrograms/puff)/IB used prn for 3 weeks before crossing over to the other rescue formulation. This is a non-inferiority study where safety and efficacy outcomes were serially assessed, including adverse events, Baseline (BDI)/Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), SF36, diary cards, 24-hour cardiac monitoring, potassium and glucose levels and other adverse events. Twenty subjects completed the study. The mean age was 62.5 (+/- 14.5); 12 were males. The mean baseline FEV(1) (range) was 1.12 L (0.56-1.67) or 40.6 (21-65)% predicted. There were no statistically significant differences between either rescue inhaler formulation with regard to measures neither of lung function or dyspnea nor in terms of safety parameters of cardiac monitoring, glucose and potassium levels and other adverse events. SABA and combination SABA/Ipratropium bromide are equally safe and efficacious as rescue inhalers for patients on combination Fluticasone 500 microg

  10. Evaluation of microalbuminuria in relation to asymptomatic bacteruria in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Iwalokun, B A; Iwalokun, S O; Hodonu, S O; Aina, O A; Agomo, P U

    2012-11-01

    Studies have identified microalbuminuria (MA) and asymptomatic bacteruria (ASB) as co-morbid factors in sickle cell anemia (SCA). However, the relationship between these comorbid factors remains unclear and data are lacking for Nigerian patients. This study determined the prevalence of MA and ASB in a cohort of patients with SCA in a steady state, in Lagos, Nigeria. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile bottles from 103 patients comprising 48 males and 55 females with a mean age of 10.4 years. Aerobic culture and colony count of organisms was done using conventional methods. Serum creatinine and hematological indices, including irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), were also assayed. Of the 103 urine samples screened, 23 (22.3%) had albuminuria (ALB), and consisted of nine males and 14 females (P > 0.05); 16.5% of the cases had MA (P <0.05). Age at onset of MA was seven years, and children accounted for 23.5% of all cases with ALB (P >0.05). The prevalence of confirmed ASB was 14.6%, with females accounting for 14 of 19 probable ASB cases (P <0.05). Univariate regression analysis demonstrated a significant (P <0.05) association between age at onset of MA, hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, ISC and occurrence of ASB, but with only ISC evolving as an independent predictor. Twenty-eight bacterial isolates predominated by Escherichia coli (39.3%; P <0.05), of whom 89.3% were multi-drug resistant, were recovered from the ASB urine samples. In conclusion, both MA and ASB are common in Nigerian SCA patients, with the former occurring from the first decade of life.

  11. Force Fluctuations in a 2D Granular Drag Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Junfei; Behringer, R. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study fluctuations in the drag force experienced by an object slowly moving through a 2D granular material consisting of bidisperse disks. Slow drag experiments provide a useful way to understand the nature of stress propagation, fluctuations, and slow dynamics in granular materials. Unlike in a liquid, the drag force in a granular material is largely due to the resistance of inhomogeneous and anisotropic ``force chains'', and thus exhibits strong fluctuations. Experiments were carried out in an apparatus similar in spirit to the one by Albert et al.(R. Albert, M.A. Pfeifer, A.L. Barabasi and P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82), 205 (1999). and we varied the rotation rate (ω=6.3× 10-6 ˜ 8.7× 10-4Hz), the object size (0.744, 0.876, 1.250,1.610,1.930 cm), and the packing fraction of the system. We observed a weak dependence of the mean force on the medium velocity, a rate-invariant power spectrum decaying as ω-2 for large ω (a remarkable resemblance to results by Miller et al.(B. Miller, C. O'Hern and R.P. Behringer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 3110 (1996).), an exponential distribution of avalanche sizes, and a well defined ``Stress Chain Force Constant''. We also show that a simple model adapted after Kahng. et al.(B. Kahng, I. Albert, P. Schiffer and A.L. Barabasi, Phys. Rev. E. 64), 051303 (2001). reproduces many of experimental observations.

  12. Fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stromal cells augment engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Meghnad; Patil, Pradeep B.; He, Zhong; Holgersson, Jan; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Background aims One important problem commonly encountered after hepatocyte transplantation is the low numbers of transplanted cells found in the graft. If hepatocyte transplantation is to be a viable therapeutic approach, significant liver parenchyma repopulation is required. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) produce high levels of various growth factors, cytokines and metalloproteinases, and have immunomodulatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that co-transplantation of MSC with human fetal hepatocytes (hFH) could augment in vivo expansion after transplantation. We investigated the ability of human fetal liver MSC (hFLMSC) to augment expansion of phenotypically and functionally well-characterized hFH. Methods Two million hFH (passage 6) were either transplanted alone or together (1:1 ratio) with green fluorescence protein-expressing hFLMSC into the spleen of C57BL/6 nude mice with retrorsine-induced liver injury. Results After 4 weeks, engraftment of cells was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human-specific DNA probe. Significantly higher numbers of cells expressing human cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, CK19, Cysteine-rich MNNG HOS Transforming gene (c-Met), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human nuclear antigen, mitochondrial antigen, hepatocyte-specific antigen and albumin (ALB) were present in the livers of recipient animals co-transplanted with hFLMSC compared with those without. Furthermore, expression of human hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and HNF-1β, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A7 mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these animals. In addition, significantly increased amounts of human ALB were detected. Importantly, hFLMSC did not transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. Conclusions Our study reports the use of a novel strategy for enhanced liver repopulation and thereby advances this experimental procedure closer to clinical liver cell therapy. PMID:22424216

  13. Cell Therapy for Liver Disease Using Bioimaging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Junko; Enosawa, Shin; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Advances in stem cell research suggest that cell therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The use of individualized and minimally invasive cell therapy is desirable to avoid rejection and reduce patient burden. While allo-hepatocyte transplantation has been performed for metabolic hepatic disease, auto-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has shifted toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for liver cirrhosis. In this article, an overview of cell transplantation research for liver disease is provided through our recent rat studies. We have developed various kinds of rat imaging models and have evaluated the effect of cell therapy for liver disease. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) of the Alb-DsRed2 rat were transplanted via the portal vein (PV) in acute and chronic liver damage models. The number of Alb-DsRed2+ albumin-producing cells increased, and the size of the cells increased in the chronic liver damage model as well as in the acute liver damage model. Luciferase transgenic (luc-Tg) rat hepatocytes were transplanted into the hepatectomized LEW rat via the PV. Luminescence intensity lasted for 2 months in the hepatectomized rat. BMCs obtained from green fluorescent protein (GFP) Tg rats were transplanted repeatedly via the PV using an implanted catheter with a port. Repeated BMT via the PV reduced the liver fibrosis. Adipocyte-derived MSCs from the luc-Tg rat were transplanted into the hepatectomized rat model via the PV after ischemic reperfusion. MSCs inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis and promoted liver regeneration. Transplanting the optimal number of cells by an effective and safe way is important for clinical application. Bioimaging rats are a powerful tool for cell transplantation research because it makes observation of the in vivo kinetics of transplanted cells possible. Cell transplantation research using bioimaging rats contributes greatly to evaluating effective methods of cell therapy. PMID:28174669

  14. [New reliable methods for the diagnose of protein-energy wasting in hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Castellano-Gasch, Sandra; Palomares-Sancho, Inés; Molina-Núñez, Manuel; Ramos-Sánchez, Rosa; Merello-Godino, José I; Maduell, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La depleción proteico-calórica (protein- energy wasting, PEW) definida como pérdida de masa muscular y grasa del organismo, supone un importante factor de riesgo cardiovascular en los pacientes en diálisis. Para su diagnóstico se requiere de la presencia de tres características: bioquímicas (albúmina, prealbúmina o colesterol bajos), descenso de masa corporal (índice de masa corporal, pérdida de peso o de grasa) y reducción de masa muscular (evaluada mediante creatinina o área muscular del brazo). El Objetivo del presente estudio es demostrar que el índice de tejido magro (LTI) obtenido por bioimpedancia espectroscópica (BIS) es un parámetro válido para el diagnóstico de depleción proteico- calórica. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 1369 pacientes con dos mediciones de BCM entre las que transcurren seis meses, en los que analizamos parámetros analíticos y de bioimpedancia espectroscópica . Resultados: El índice de tejido magro aportado por el BCM (Body Composition Monitor) cuantifica la masa magra del paciente y se correlaciona con parámetros tradicionales (albúmina plasmática) y no-tradicionales (IRE y PCR) de depleción proteico-calórica sin verse alterado por la situación hídrica del paciente. Conclusiones: El LTI es un parámetro de masa magra fácil de obtener cuyo seguimiento y monitorización nos puede ayudar a diagnosticar situaciones de riesgo para nuestros pacientes como la depleción proteico-calórica.

  15. Chebyshev polynomial filtered subspace iteration in the discontinuous Galerkin method for large-scale electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amartya S; Lin, Lin; Hu, Wei; Yang, Chao; Pask, John E

    2016-10-21

    The Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) electronic structure method employs an adaptive local basis (ALB) set to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of density functional theory in a discontinuous Galerkin framework. The adaptive local basis is generated on-the-fly to capture the local material physics and can systematically attain chemical accuracy with only a few tens of degrees of freedom per atom. A central issue for large-scale calculations, however, is the computation of the electron density (and subsequently, ground state properties) from the discretized Hamiltonian in an efficient and scalable manner. We show in this work how Chebyshev polynomial filtered subspace iteration (CheFSI) can be used to address this issue and push the envelope in large-scale materials simulations in a discontinuous Galerkin framework. We describe how the subspace filtering steps can be performed in an efficient and scalable manner using a two-dimensional parallelization scheme, thanks to the orthogonality of the DG basis set and block-sparse structure of the DG Hamiltonian matrix. The on-the-fly nature of the ALB functions requires additional care in carrying out the subspace iterations. We demonstrate the parallel scalability of the DG-CheFSI approach in calculations of large-scale two-dimensional graphene sheets and bulk three-dimensional lithium-ion electrolyte systems. Employing 55 296 computational cores, the time per self-consistent field iteration for a sample of the bulk 3D electrolyte containing 8586 atoms is 90 s, and the time for a graphene sheet containing 11 520 atoms is 75 s.

  16. Preventative effects of prostaglandin E1 in combination with iodized olive oil on liver fibrosis after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in a rabbit model of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shuqiang; Cao, Haili; Wang, Kaibing; Li, Ying; Bai, Bin

    2015-06-01

    To explore the preventative effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on a rabbit model of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), we generated a rabbit model of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by treatment with 40% CCl4 in iodized olive oil for 16 weeks. Body mass and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), albumin:globulin ratio (A:G), total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were measured. After TACE, the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen III (PC III), laminin (LN), and collagen IV (IV-C) were measured, and the severity of liver fibrosis as well as the morphology of liver tissues were determined. Body mass in the model group was significantly decreased from 10 to 16 weeks, and the serum levels of ALT, AST, TP, TBIL, and DBIL levels were significantly increased while the model was being generated; the levels of ALB and A:G were significantly decreased. After TACE, serum levels of HA, PC III, and LN in the group injected with 1.0 mL iodized olive oil (Group B) were higher than in the group that were injected with 1.0 mL iodized olive oil + 0.2 mL PGE1 (Group C), whereas the serum levels of IV-C were lower. The severity of liver fibrosis was ameliorated in Group C. The combination of PGE1 and iodized olive oil prevented the development of liver fibrosis following TACE.

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor incorporated chitosan nanoparticles augment the differentiation of stem cell into hepatocytes for the recovery of liver cirrhosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Short half-life and low levels of growth factors in the niche of injured microenvironment necessitates the exogenous and sustainable delivery of growth factors along with stem cells to augment the regeneration of injured tissues. Methods Here, recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) by ionic gelation method and studied for its morphological and physiological characteristics. Cirrhotic mice received either hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or mesenchymal stemcells (MSC) with or without HGF incorporated chitosan nanoparticles (HGF-CNP) and saline as control. Biochemical, histological, immunostaining and gene expression assays were carried out using serum and liver tissue samples. One way analysis of variance was used for statics application Results Serum levels of selected liver protein and enzymes were significantly increased in the combination of MSC and HGF-CNP (MSC+HGF-CNP) treated group. Immunopositive staining for albumin (Alb) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Alb, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), CK18, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) ascertained that MSC-HGF-CNP treatment could be an effective combination to repopulate liver parenchymal cells in the liver cirrhosis. Zymogram and western blotting for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) revealed that MMP2 actively involved in the fibrolysis of cirrhotic tissue. Immunostaining for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and type I collagen showed decreased expression in the MSC+HGF-CNP treatment. These results indicated that HGF-CNP enhanced the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes and supported the reversal of fibrolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM). Conclusion Bone marrow stem cells were isolated, characterized and transplanted in mice model. Biodegradable biopolymeric nanoparticles were prepared with the pleotrophic protein molecule and it worked well for the differentiation of stem

  18. [Nutritional status in patients first hospital admissions service hematology National Cancer Institute].

    PubMed

    Baltazar Luna, E; Omaña Guzmán, L I; Ortiz Hernández, L; Ñamendis-Silva, S A; De Nicola Delfin, L

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar el estado de nutrición de los pacientes que ingresan por primera vez a hospitalización del servicio de hematología y que no han recibido tratamiento oncológico, conocer si el estado de nutrición evaluado por medio de la EGS-GP y por concentración sérica de Albúmina se relaciona con la mortalidad de los pacientes. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, prospectivo, analítico. Por medio de EGS-GP se evaluó el estado nutricional de los pacientes, Se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS 19.0 para el análisis de datos. Resultados: Se evaluaron 119 pacientes, 52,1% mujeres y 47,9% hombres. El diagnóstico más común fue Linfoma no Hodgkin en el 43,7%. De acuerdo a la EGSGP el 50,4% de los pacientes presentaba algún grado de desnutrición o estaba en riesgo de padecerla de los cuales: el 31,1% tenía desnutrición moderada y el 19,3% presentaba desnutrición severa. El 49,6% de los pacientes presentaba un adecuado estado nutricio. Del 30,3% de los pacientes que fallecieron el 37% tenía desnutrición severa y el 50% disminución severa de la concentración de albúmina. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de desnutrición en los pacientes hematológicos atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de México que aún no reciben tratamiento médico fue elevada. Existe una asociación entre el Estado Nutricio y la mortalidad de éste grupo de pacientes.

  19. Chebyshev polynomial filtered subspace iteration in the discontinuous Galerkin method for large-scale electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Lin, Lin; Hu, Wei; Yang, Chao; Pask, John E.

    2016-10-01

    The Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) electronic structure method employs an adaptive local basis (ALB) set to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of density functional theory in a discontinuous Galerkin framework. The adaptive local basis is generated on-the-fly to capture the local material physics and can systematically attain chemical accuracy with only a few tens of degrees of freedom per atom. A central issue for large-scale calculations, however, is the computation of the electron density (and subsequently, ground state properties) from the discretized Hamiltonian in an efficient and scalable manner. We show in this work how Chebyshev polynomial filtered subspace iteration (CheFSI) can be used to address this issue and push the envelope in large-scale materials simulations in a discontinuous Galerkin framework. We describe how the subspace filtering steps can be performed in an efficient and scalable manner using a two-dimensional parallelization scheme, thanks to the orthogonality of the DG basis set and block-sparse structure of the DG Hamiltonian matrix. The on-the-fly nature of the ALB functions requires additional care in carrying out the subspace iterations. We demonstrate the parallel scalability of the DG-CheFSI approach in calculations of large-scale two-dimensional graphene sheets and bulk three-dimensional lithium-ion electrolyte systems. Employing 55 296 computational cores, the time per self-consistent field iteration for a sample of the bulk 3D electrolyte containing 8586 atoms is 90 s, and the time for a graphene sheet containing 11 520 atoms is 75 s.

  20. Effect of annual mass administration of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in five villages in south India.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, K D; Vanamail, P; Yuvaraj, J; Das, P K

    2011-08-01

    Annual mass drug administration (MDA) is the recommended strategy for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination. We assessed the effect of six rounds of mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) on microfilaria (Mf) prevalence and intensity and vector infection and infectivity rates and circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) in a group of five villages in south India, endemic for Culex-transmitted bancroftian filariasis. During different rounds of MDA, 60-70% of the eligible population (>15 kg body weight) was treated. The MDA reduced the Mf prevalence from 8.10% (CI 6.18-10.01) to 1.01% (CI 0.31-1.71) (P<0.05) and geometric mean intensity of Mf from 0.31 (CI 0.22-0.40) to 0.02 (CI 0.00-0.04) (P<0.05), equivalent to a fall of 86% and 94% respectively. The vector infection and infectivity rates declined from 13.11% (CI 11.52-14.70) to 0.78% (CI 0.16-1.40) (P<0.05) and 1.04% (CI 0.56-1.52) to 0.13% (CI 0.00-0.39) (P<0.05), respectively. Four out of the five villages recorded <0.5% Mf prevalence and 0% vector infection rate. Circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) fell by 86% in the total population and 100% in 1-10 year old children. One of the five villages, which showed the highest baseline vector infection rate, showed >1.0% Mf rate. The results suggest that six rounds of mass administration of DEC and ALB, with 60-70% treatment coverage, is likely to achieve total interruption of transmission and elimination of LF in the majority of villages.

  1. Proteasomal Processing of Albumin by Renal Dendritic Cells Generates Antigenic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Macconi, Daniela; Chiabrando, Chiara; Schiarea, Silvia; Aiello, Sistiana; Cassis, Linda; Gagliardini, Elena; Noris, Marina; Buelli, Simona; Zoja, Carla; Corna, Daniela; Mele, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2009-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DC) that accumulate in the renal parenchyma of non–immune-mediated proteinuric nephropathies is not well understood. Under certain circumstances, DC capture immunologically ignored antigens, including self-antigens, and present them within MHC class I, initiating an autoimmune response. We studied whether DC could generate antigenic peptides from the self-protein albumin. Exposure of rat proximal tubular cells to autologous albumin resulted in its proteolytic cleavage to form an N-terminal 24–amino acid peptide (ALB1-24). This peptide was further processed by the DC proteasome into antigenic peptides that had binding motifs for MHC class I and were capable of activating syngeneic CD8+ T cells. In vivo, the rat five-sixths nephrectomy model allowed the localization and activation of renal DC. Accumulation of DC in the renal parenchyma peaked 1 wk after surgery and decreased at 4 wk, concomitant with their appearance in the renal draining lymph nodes. DC from renal lymph nodes, loaded with ALB1-24, activated syngeneic CD8+ T cells in primary culture. The response of CD8+ T cells of five-sixths nephrectomized rats was amplified with secondary stimulation. In contrast, DC from renal lymph nodes of five-sixths nephrectomized rats treated with the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib lost their capacity to stimulate CD8+ T cells in primary and secondary cultures. These data suggest that albumin can be a source of potentially antigenic peptides upon renal injury and that renal DC play a role in processing self-proteins through a proteasome-dependent pathway. PMID:19092126

  2. Simulating crop growth with Expert-N-GECROS under different site conditions in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Demyan, Scott; Gayler, Sebastian; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    When feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere are investigated by Atmosphere-Land surface-Crop-Models (ALCM) it is fundamental to accurately simulate crop growth dynamics as plants directly influence the energy partitioning at the plant-atmosphere interface. To study both the response and the effect of intensive agricultural crop production systems on regional climate change in Southwest Germany, the crop growth model GECROS (YIN & VAN LAAR, 2005) was calibrated based on multi-year field data from typical crop rotations in the Kraichgau and Swabian Alb regions. Additionally, the SOC (soil organic carbon) model DAISY (MÜLLER et al., 1998) was implemented in the Expert-N model tool (ENGEL & PRIESACK, 1993) and combined with GECROS. The model was calibrated based on a set of plant (BBCH, LAI, plant height, aboveground biomass, N content of biomass) and weather data for the years 2010 - 2013 and validated with the data of 2014. As GECROS adjusts the root-shoot partitioning in response to external conditions (water, nitrogen, CO2), it is suitable to simulate crop growth dynamics under changing climate conditions and potentially more frequent stress situations. As C and N pools and turnover rates in soil as well as preceding crop effects were expected to considerably influence crop growth, the model was run in a multi-year, dynamic way. Crop residues and soil mineral N (nitrate, ammonium) available for the subsequent crop were accounted for. The model simulates growth dynamics of winter wheat, winter rape, silage maize and summer barley at the Kraichgau and Swabian Alb sites well. The Expert-N-GECROS model is currently parameterized for crops with potentially increasing shares in future crop rotations. First results will be shown.

  3. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  4. Efficacy of co-administration of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine against geohelminthiases: a study from South India.

    PubMed

    Mani, T R; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Sunish, I P; Md Abdullah, S; Augustin, D J; Satyanarayana, K

    2002-06-01

    The efficacy of single-dose combination drug therapy with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus albendazole (ALB), and single-drug therapy with DEC alone against geohelminths was compared as part of a mass drug administration (MDA) for elimination of filariasis. This study was conducted in two blocks of Villupuram District of Tamil Nadu State, India, covering a population of 321 000 including about 100 000 children 1-15 years of age. Prevalence and intensity of geohelminth infection were determined by the Kato-Katz technique immediately before and 3 weeks after the MDA. A pre-treatment cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 18 statistically selected villages out of 204 villages, including 646 school children. About 60% were infected with one or more geohelminths. The overall prevalence rates were 53.9%, 12.4% and 5.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Combination therapy (DEC + ALB) produced a cure rate of 74.3% and an egg reduction rate of 97.3% for geohelminths, which were higher than the corresponding rates (30.4% and 79.0%) observed in the single drug therapy arm with DEC alone. The odds of cure with combination therapy were significantly higher for roundworm (5.3 times) and hookworms (3.5 times), then odds of cure with DEC alone. Both therapies were equally effective against trichuriasis, recording cure rates >77% and egg reduction rates >83%. In combination therapy, 53.5% of the children noticed expulsion of worms after MDA, while in single drug therapy only 20.9% did. Our study indicated that MDA of combination therapy was operationally feasible at the community level, and it may secure higher community compliance because of its perceived benefits and enhanced efficacy against geohelminths than single-drug therapy.

  5. Thyroid hormone: a "prime suspect" in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) patients?

    PubMed

    Amadi, K; Sabo, A M; Ogunkeye, O O; Oluwole, F S

    2008-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final and most serious stage of the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus. The Immune system is the target of AIDS. We investigate presently any possible involvement of thyroid hormone, the deficiency of which gives rise to oedema and susceptibility to nonspecific infections; with a view to finding the primary factor seeding the disease. It has been reported that circumcision reduced the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection. Beyond circumcision however there might be some constitutional factor that comprises HIV infection to clinical AIDS. It is against this background that our research team turned to possible dyshormonopoisis and to thyroid hormone as a prime suspect among other possible factors that cause clinical AIDS. Moreover the hormone has been reported to be crucial for optimum immune function. A population of 200 seropositive AIDS patients were investigated against a control of 50 subjects made up of 25 healthy circumcised males and 25 healthy females; all of who were seronegative for the disease. The parameters investigated include thyrotropin (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Total protein (TP), Albumin (Alb), Globulin (Glob), Immune complex (IC3) and Bence Jones proteins (BJP) levels in serum or urine. All seropositive clinically HIV/AIDS patients were hypothyroid. Seronegatives had significantly higher T4, TP, and Alb levels at P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for Glob than seropositives. Seropositive females exhibited significant (P < 0.001) higher levels of IC3 than seronegative males. The globulin levels of all HIV patients were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than control. BJP was also isolated in the urine of patients. The findings suggest that thyroid hormone deficiency is a primary culprit for the other inert or dormant factors to be activated.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of bentonite from the south of Argentina to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, C A; Miazzo, R; Magnoli, C; Salvano, M; Chiacchiera, S M; Ferrero, S; Saenz, M; Carvalho, E C; Dalcero, A

    2001-02-01

    In vitro studies indicated that a sodium bentonite (SB) from southern Argentina had a high ability to sorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from aqueous solution. We evaluated this compound for its ability to reduce the effects of total aflatoxins (AF; 5 mg AFB1/kg) in the diet of growing broiler chickens from 30 to 52 d of age. The diets were amended with 0.3% Argentinean SB to determine the effect of this compound during aflatoxicosis. When compared with the controls, BW gains were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for broilers fed diets containing AF alone (1,865 vs. 1,552 g). No differences were found between the BW gains of broiler chickens fed diets without AF (1,785 g) and those of chickens fed AF + SB (1,809 g). These results suggest that effects of AF treatment were ameliorated when SB was used in the broiler chick diets. The AF significantly (P < 0.05) decreased feed efficiency. Liver, kidney, and pancreas relative weights increased in chickens fed the diet containing AF alone. Alterations in the levels of serum total protein, albumin (ALB), and globulins (GLOB) were observed for AF diets, and moderate protection was provided by the sorbent. The ALB:GLOB ratio decreased in both groups of birds fed with the AF-contaminated diet, and we observed a moderate increase in this ratio by 0.3% addition of SB. The histopathological findings in liver sections of broiler fed diets with AF + SB indicated a nonprotective effect of this adsorbent, because a moderate hepatic steatosis was observed.