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  1. Volcanic flow development at Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattermole, P.

    1990-02-01

    On the Alba Patera volcanic shield of Mars, a Hesperian flood-lava phase was followed by the extrusion of sheet lavas and tube-fed lavas emerging in many cases from the flanking fissures of rising domes. These events were followed by the eruption of additional sheet and tube-fed lavas from linear vents which formed complex flow fields. Later, Amazonian volcanism at Alba involved long, narrow flows from two complex summit calderas; the thermal energy outflow for some individual flows would have been substantially greater than the annual heat loss of the earth through volcanism, implying that the process of patera-building represented substantial Martian geological heat-loss during the planet's early volcanic-centralization stages.

  2. Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

    1991-02-01

    Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

  3. Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

  4. Lava Tube Flow Models at Alba Patera, Mars: Topographic Constraints on Eruption Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. J.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Bradley, B. A.; DeWet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Alba Patera has some of the longest lava tubes over some of the shallowest slopes on Mars. We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography to model eruption rates for several Alba Patera lava tubes and compare them within Alba and with flows from other martian volcanic regions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a

  6. Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a

  7. Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Hare, T.M.; Baker, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess their evolutional histories by focusing on their extent of deformation in space and time through stratigraphic, paleotectonic, topographic, and geomorphologic analyses. Though there are similarities among the two prominent features, there are several distinct differences, including timing deformational extent, and tectonic intensity of formation. Whereas Alba Patera displays a major pulse of activity during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian, Syria Planum is a long-lived center that displays a more uniform distribution of simple graben densities ranging from the Noachian to the Amazonian, many of which occur at greater distances away from the primary center of activity. The histories of the two features presented here are representative of the complex, long-lived evolutional history of Tharsis. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.

    The Alba Patera volcano is located in the middle of an almost 3000 km long fossae grabe zone radial to the Tharsis bulge. Alba Patera construction is wide, but only 7 km high. It has the appearance of a large, central-vent shield volcano with very low slope angle. Huge volumes of lavas have erupted from its center and flank vents to build it. The viscosity of the lavas must have been relatively low allowing them to flow hundreds of kilometers along the gentle downslopes. Lava tubes and flows radiate from central Alba Patera, where complex calderas can be seen. The composition of the lava flows may be indicative to the Martian internal development. A deep magma generation has to be considered as a possible cause for low-viscous lavas.

  9. Alba Patera Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located northeast of Olympus Mons and southwest of Alba Patera. The lava flows the windstreaks occur on most likely originated from Alba Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.3, Longitude 235.1 East (124.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  11. Fluvial valleys on Alba Patera, Mars, viewed by HRSC/MEx camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.; Masson, P. L.; Neukum, G.

    2009-12-01

    Alba Patera is the northernmost shield volcano of the Tharsis bulge, on which valley networks have been identified in Viking images. Valleys are mainly distributed on the northern side of volcano, with a parallel to dendritic pattern associated with a very high drainage density of 2.3 km-1, comparable to those observed on Hawaiian volcanoes (Gulick and Baker, Nature 341, 1989; and JGR 95, 1990). They are older than sets of normal faults cutting Alba Patera, and dated of the Amazonian Period, but the age of the volcano itself (Late Hesperian-Early Amazonian) implies an age for valleys younger than that of classical valley networks formed during early Mars. These valley networks have been revisited by the HRSC stereo camera enable to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with a spatial gridding of <100 m and a height accuracy of < 20 m. The depth of the deepest valleys detected in the HRSC DEM is around 30 m, whereas most of them are much shallower. Although these valley networks are relatively young in the Mars History, their original morphology is partially smoothened by a dust mantle in high resolution images, but this mantling does not seem to have filled these valleys significantly. Images also confirm that valleys located to the north are likely the result of hydrologic erosion in volcanic ash as proposed previously by Gulick and Baker (1990). Previously unrecognized valley networks have been observed on the eastern and southeastern sides of Alba Patera, where volcanic flows are well developed and less blanketed by dust or ash deposits. They are shallower than northern ones, and some prints of seepage at the front of lava flows have been identified indicating that liquid water percolation was an active process in this lithology. In summary, 3D characteristics of valleys on Alba Patera do not suggest a sustained fluvial activity unlike what could be derived by their 2D properties such as the high drainage density. Episodic snowmelt following snow deposition

  12. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  13. Shallow Fluvial valleys on Alba Patera, Mars from HRSC/MEX analysis: Limited snowmelt episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.

    2011-10-01

    The distribution of valley networks on whole Alba Patera and their pattern suggest that they formed by runoff controlled by topographic slope and lithology. However, 3D characteristics of valleys do not suggest a sustained fluvial activity unlike what we could derive by their 2D properties such as the high drainage density. Episodic snowmelt following snow deposition could be at the origin of these shallow valleys. Melting can be due either to the volcano geothermal activity (valleys possibly formed coevally to volcanic activity), or to transient climatic episodes during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian periods that may have been recorded in other locations on Mars. Relationships with ice-rich mantling and age of valleys are not consistent with a melting of this mantling deposited during periods of high obliquity [7] in the recent history of Mars [8]. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 6, EPSC-DPS2011-1742, 2011 EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011 c Author(s) 2011

  14. Emplacement of lava flow fields: Application of terrestrial studies to Alba Patera, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, R.M.C. ); Kilburn, C.R.J. )

    1990-08-30

    Morphological data are at present the major source of information for extraterrestrial lavas. Effusion conditions must therefore be inferred from the final shapes of flow fields, generally using terrestrial lavas as analogues and so presupposing similar emplacement regimes on Earth and other planets. Studies of terrestrial lavas suggest that the overall development of flow fields is systematic and that a general, normalized relation can be established linking the final dimensions of a flow field (specifically, average thickness and the ratio of maximum width to maximum length) to underlying slope and eruption duration, independent of explicit knowledge of discharge rate, gravitational acceleration, lava density, and rheology. This relation is applied to lavas on the Martian volcano Alba Patera, on which two distinct planimetric types of lava flow fields are identified, and eruption durations, average discharge rates, and average velocities are obtained. Imposing the constraint of a terrestrial emplacement regime, the model yields internally consistent results for subliquidus lavas and suggests that, at least for basaltic-basaltic andesitic compositions, the essential conditions of eruption may have been similar to those currently observed on Earth.

  15. Modeling volcanic deformation in a regional stress field: Implications for the formation of graben structures on Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, Beatrice; Walter, Thomas R.; Janle, Peter; Hauber, Ernst

    2003-12-01

    Abundant grabens transect the volcano Alba Patera. Their complex geometry and formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Tectonic processes and magmatic intrusions are responsible for these long surface features. Cross-cutting relationships of the grabens show radial fractures that were formed during early stages and were progressively overprinted by concentric fractures on the mid and upper flanks of the volcano. Two modeling methods are used to understand the formation of the observed structures and to evaluate their implications for hidden subvolcanic processes. Surface deformation and fault arrangements predicted in finite element models are compared to the graben systems observed in Viking images. The orientation and position of the concentric grabens are found to be best reproduced by local crustal subsidence, superimposed on a regional NW-SE oriented extension with decreasing magnitude from south to north. In analogue sandbox models we also simulate surface structures of arrangements that almost perfectly mimic the observed lineaments on Alba Patera. Formation of the grabens spans a period on the order of a billion years, suggesting long-term geodynamic processes to be responsible for the subsidence of the central Alba Patera area. The progressive change toward higher concentricity is likely resultant from an increase in density in the crust by accumulation of intrusive material and cooling, thus causing subsidence of the region above this volcanic root.

  16. Volcanic geology of Tyrrhena Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, R.; Crown, D. A.

    1990-05-01

    Consideration is given to the geology of Tyrrhena Patera, a large low-relief volcano in the southern cratered highlands of Mars. The general geology of Tyrrhena Patera is outlined and models for the formation of the volcano are described. Models derived from studies of terrestrial pyroclastic flows are applied to deposits at Tyrrhena Patera, showing that the characteristics of the deposits are consistent with an origin by the emplacement of gravity-driven ash flows generated by hydromagmatic or magmatic explosive eruptions.

  17. Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauhanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

  18. Candidate Mars Surveyor Landing Sites Near Apollinaris Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    1999-01-01

    Regions near Apollinaris Patera are proposed for consideration as Mars Surveyor landing sites. Gulick (1998) proposed this region at the First Mars Surveyor Landing Site workshop; Bulmer and Gregg (1998) provided additional support. Apollinaris Patera is situated on the highlands/lowlands boundary at 8.5S, 186W. The volcano itself has been mapped as Hesperian in age. The regions surrounding Apollinaris show evidence for volcanism, volcano-ice interactions, and erosion by water. Numerous valleys modified by fluvial processes dissect a large fan structure emanating from the southern flank of the volcano. Sapping valleys have formed along the southern terminus of the fan structure. Regions near Apollinaris Patera provide a unique opportunity to sample outcrop lithologies ranging from highland Noachian basement rocks, to Hesperian aged lava flows, channel and flood plain materials, to Amazonian volcanic, ash and channel deposits.

  19. The Bulk Density of the Tyrrhena Patera Highland Volcano, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grott, M.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Tyrrhena Patera is a low-relief, central-vent volcano located in the southern highlands of Mars, northeast of the Hellas impact basin. The main edifice contains few primary lave flow features and the flanks of the volcano are heavily eroded, indicating that they are composed of friable material which could have been formed by pyroclastic flows. The volcano itself was emplaced in the Noachian, but was subsequently modified during the Hesperian period, with episodes of resurfacing - probably driven by erosion - stretching well into the Amazonian period. Resurfacing of the caldera rille floor and upper shield probably mark the cessation of volcanic activity at Tyrrhena Patera around 800 Ma ago, and the geological evidence suggests that activity at Tyrrhena Patera transitioned from dominantly explosive to dominantly effusive eruptions. In summary, Tyrrhena Patera is generally thought to be predominantly composed of multi-layered, compacted ignimbrite deposits. The Tyrrhena Patera volcano is associated with a well localized positive free-air gravity anomaly and a good correlation exists with the features topography. We have used the latest gravity field model for Mars expanded up to degree and order 110 to model the localized admittance spectrum at Tyrrhena Patera considering surface as well as subsurface loading. We use a spherical cap localization window with a cap diameter of 7 degrees and a spherical harmonic bandwidth of 37. Ignoring the lowest degree terms that may be influenced by the Tharsis signal, we analyze the localized admittance in the degree range 42 to 57. The observed admittance is then compared to a forward model which is localized in the same manner as the data. In this way, we have quantified the range of admissible load densities as well as the admissible magnitude of a potentially present subsurface load. Modelling suggests that load densities need to be between 3290 and 3450 kg/m3 if no subsurface loads are present. If subsurface loads in the form

  20. Geologic Map of the MTM -30262 and -30267 Quadrangles, Hadriaca Patera Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crown, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -30262 and -30267 quadrangles cover the summit region and east margin of Hadriaca Patera, one of the Martian volcanoes designated highland paterae. MTM -30262 quadrangle includes volcanic deposits from Hadriaca Patera and Tyrrhena Patera (summit northeast of map area) and floor deposits associated with the Dao and Niger Valles canyon systems (south of map area). MTM -30267 quadrangle is centered on the caldera of Hadriaca Patera. The highland paterae are among the oldest, central-vent volcanoes on Mars and exhibit evidence for explosive eruptions, which make a detailed study of their geology an important component in understanding the evolution of Martian volcanism. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000-scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements volcanological studies of Hadriaca Patera, geologic investigations of the other highland paterae, and an analysis of the styles and evolution of volcanic activity east of Hellas Planitia in the ancient, cratered highlands of Mars. This photogeologic study is an extension of regional geologic mapping east of Hellas Planitia. The Martian highland paterae are low-relief, areally extensive volcanoes exhibiting central calderas and radial channels and ridges. Four of these volcanoes, Hadriaca, Tyrrhena, Amphitrites, and Peneus Paterae, are located in the ancient cratered terrains surrounding Hellas Planitia and are thought to be located on inferred impact basin rings or related fractures. Based on analyses of Mariner 9 images, Potter (1976), Peterson (1977), and King (1978) suggested that the highland paterae were shield volcanoes formed by eruptions of fluid lavas. Later studies noted morphologic similarities between the paterae and terrestrial ash shields and the lack of primary lava flow features on the flanks of the volcanoes. The degraded appearances of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae and the apparently easily eroded materials composing their low, broad shields further

  1. Volcanic geology of Hadriaca Patera and the eastern Hellas region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Greeley, R.

    1993-02-01

    A detailed examination of the geomorphology of Hadriaca Patera, a low-relief volcano in the southern highlands of Mars northeast of the Hellas basin, is presented, and the surrounding eastern Hellas region is considered in order to assess whether the volcanic geology of Hadriaca Patera is consistent with previous characterizations and highland paterae. The morphologic characteristics of the channels suggest erosion by groundwater sapping and surface runoff. The erosional morphology of the volcano, the lack of lava flow features, and the friable nature of the flank materials indicate that Hadriaca Patera consists predominantly of pyroclastic deposits. From the predominance of hydrovolcanic eruptions in the development of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena patera, it is inferred that the transition in volcanic eruption style can be attributed to a volatile depletion of the crust, whereas magmatic eruptions at the paterae would be indicative of temporal changes in Martian magmas.

  2. Physical properties of lava flows on the southwest flank of Tyrrhena Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, David A.; Porter, Tracy K.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Tyrrhena Patera (TP) (22 degrees S, 253.5 degrees W), a large, low-relief volcano located in the ancient southern highlands of Mars, is one of four highland paterae thought to be structurally associated with the Hellas basin. The highland paterae are Hesperian in age and among the oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars. The morphology and distribution of units in the eroded shield of TP are consistent with the emplacement of pyroclastic flows. A large flank unit extending from TP to the SW contains well-defined lava flow lobes and leveed channels. This flank unit is the first definitive evidence of effusive volcanic activity associated with the highland paterae and may include the best preserved lava flows observed in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars. Flank flow unit averages, channelized flow, flow thickness, and yield strength estimates are discussed. Analysis suggests the temporal evolution of Martian magmas.

  3. Timing and formation of wrinkle ridges in the Tyrrhena Patera Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Tracy K.; Crown, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges are distinctive linear to curvilinear arches topped by crenulated ridges and have been identified on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars. The presence of wrinkle ridges on other planetary surfaces has been used as a criterion for identifying volcanic plains. Recently, due to the presence of lava flow lobes and leveed channels, Greeley and Crown identified an area within Hesperia Planum as a flank flow unit associated with Tyrrhena Patera. Hesperia Planum surrounds Tyrrhena Patera and embays the eroded shield of the volcano to the north and south. The Tyrrhena Patera flank flow unit extends approx. 1000 km from the summit caldera to the southwest. More than 55 wrinkle ridges have been identified on this flank flow unit. The relationships between the lava flows and wrinkle ridges within the flank flow unit allow relative ages to be determined. Wrinkle ridges are classified as post flow if flow lobes appear to arch over the rises undeformed, with no evidence of flow ponding on the upstream side of the ridge, or of flows breaching the rises. Wrinkle ridges within Hesperia Planum and Tyrrhena Patera flank flow unit that trend NW-SE appear younger than the flank flow unit.

  4. Mafic pyroclastic flows at Tyrrhena Patera, Mars: Constraints from observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Farley, Melissa A.

    2006-07-01

    Tyrrhena Patera (22°S, 104°E), Mars, is a low-relief (1800 m maximum relief), central-vent volcano whose flanks are dissected with broad (˜5 km wide), flat-floored channels. The easily eroded nature of the shield materials, combined with extremely low flank slopes (≤ 2.0°), suggest that Tyrrhena Patera is composed of pyroclastic materials. These shield deposits are observed to crop out ≥ 600 km from the volcano's summit with measured thicknesses of 100 150 m at these distances. Such dimensions strongly suggest emplacement via pyroclastic flows. Currently available data indicate that these deposits have a mafic composition. Application of models derived for terrestrial pyroclastic flow emplacement reveals that, aside from environmental parameters (atmospheric density, gravity), if all else is held equal, a pyroclastic flow should travel a factor of 3 to 4 times farther on Mars than on Earth. The observed Tyrrhena Patera deposits extend even farther, suggesting that some emplacement mechanism may be enhancing pyroclastic flow runout distances on Mars.

  5. The Martian highland paterae: Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    The Martian surface exhibits numerous volcanic landforms displaying great diversity in size, age, and morphology. Most research regarding Martian volcanology has centered around effusive basaltic volcanism, including analyses of individual lava flows, extensive lava plains, and large shield volcanoes. These studies were hindered by a lack of definitive morphologic criteria for the remote identification of ash deposits. Knowledge of the abundances, ages, and geologic settings of explosive volcanic deposits on Mars is essential to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of the Martian surface, with implications for the evolution of the lithosphere and atmosphere as well as the histories of specific volcanic centers and provinces.

  6. Deep Basalt Aquifers in Orcus Patera, Elysium Basin Mars: Perspectives for Exobiology Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    Direct indicators of shorelines, spillways, and terraces allowed to determine the extent of the Elysium Paleolake between the contour-lines 1000 and 500 m below the Martian datum. The Elysium Paleolake is bordered north by Orcus Patera (14N/181W), which lies west of the Tartarus Montes and Tartarus Colles. The Orcus Patera displays an ellipse-shaped collapsed caldera of 360-km long and 100-km wide. Viking topographic data show that the bottom of the caldera is located at 2500 below the Martian datum, and surrounded by a steep-walled ram art which crest is located at about 0 m elevation. Considering the localization of Orcus Patera in the Elysium paleolake, its altimetry, and the magmatic origin of this caldera, we propose the existence of a paleolake in Orcus Patera generated (a) by juvenile water from magma during the Noachian period, and (b) by intermittent influx of the Elysium Basin from Hesperian to Amazonian. Results are encouraging to consider this site as a potential high-energy source environment for microbial communities. are circumscribed by a 50-km wide lava field mapped as Noachian material. The structure of Orcus Patera represents the record of material erupted from a magmatic reservoir. The caldera is enclosed by steep inner walls (25% measured from topographic data), values which could be in agreement with the presence of a deep magmatic reservoir, as suggested by the typology of Crumpler et.al. The depth of the caldera might be due to the collapse of the magma reservoir, and the release of gases accompanying the magma thermal evolution. Origins of water for the paleolake(s): The water that generated a paleolake in Orcus Patera may have come from two origins: (1) Juvenile water: Plescia and Crips estimated a magma H20 content by weight between 0.5% and 1.5% using for the first value a comparison with terrestrial basalt, and for the second values from a Martian meteorite. The amount of H20 can be estimated by the volume of erupted lava, and the lava

  7. Apollinaris Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the Apollinaris Patera Region of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the 80-km-wide central caldera of Apollinaris, a plume of young flows extending south down the flank of the volcano, a cliff and chaotic terrain west of the volcano, and the surrounding younger deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation (north and east). A patera (Latin for shallow dish or saucer) is a volcano of broad areal extent with little vertical relief. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 12 degrees S. to 6 degrees S. and from longitude 182 degrees to 189 degrees; Mercator projection. Apollinaris Patera is an isolated volcano (about 400 km across) lying on the Martian highlands just north of Gusev impact crater and the termination of Ma'adim Vallis. After the main edifice was built, eruption continued on the volcano's southern flank to form a broad ridge overlapping the original shield. Breakdown of ice-rich materials formed chaos on its western edge. Finally the friable materials (possible ash?) of the Medusae Fossae Fm were deposited.

  8. Areal Distribution of Potential Felsic Material in Nili Patera at Syrtis Major, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, G. L.; Wray, J. J.; Dufek, J.

    2015-12-01

    For decades, studies of the exposed igneous Martian crust via remote sensing and landed observation have concluded that it is predominantly basaltic. However, new analyses of meteorites and mission data indicate a wider range of primary rock composition. Nili Patera in the Syrtis Major region provides one of the best exposures of evolved compositions. Recently, Wray et al. (2013) identified a new unit in the caldera with very high feldspar abundance but unusually low mafic abundance and interpreted it as a felsic unit (as opposed to spectrally similar anorthosite) based on its proximity to a dacite unit. We investigate the summit calderas of Syrtis Major by defining and mapping distinct compositional units using mineralogies inferred from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The study focuses on the areal extent of potential felsic material, identified based on a broad absorption feature centered at ~1.25-1.3 μm, a unique feature of feldspars attributed to minor Fe2+ substitution. These mapping efforts are put in geologic context using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instrument on MRO and existing mapping efforts in the area, as well as spectral context using laboratory generated spectra of feldspar and mafic mixtures. While further work understanding this potential felsic unit is warranted, if it is truly felsic it implies a more complicated Martian magmatic history than previously thought. As the diversity of known geologic materials on Mars grows, it is necessary that we understand how to recognize and characterize those materials using the instruments available on current and upcoming missions, such as MRO or the Mars 2020 Rover. Through modeling and data analysis, our ongoing work seeks to understand the geophysical and petrologic context in which the potential felsic materials were generated, and thus to infer their implications for Martian

  9. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  10. Hadriaca Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 17 May 2002) The Science Although the largest volcanoes on Mars (and the solar system) are located in the geologically young Tharsis region, there are many other martian volcanoes that display equally interesting features, such as Hadriaca Patera, shown in this image. Hadriaca Patera is located to the northeast of the Hellas Planitia impact basin in the southern hemisphere. Unlike the Tharsis volcanoes, Hadriaca Patera has very low relief, standing only about 1-2 km above the surrounding plains. Many scientists believe that Hadriaca Patera and other patera volcanoes (e.g., Tyrrhena) had significant interaction with subsurface water that produced mostly explosive ash deposits (pyroclastic flows), rather than just lava flows. Nearby sources of water might have included Dao Vallis on the southern flank of the volcano. The upper portion of this image shows relatively smooth terrain located in the central caldera, which has been nearly filled in with late-stage lava flows. The lower half of the image shows lobate flows as well as furrows in the ash deposits that make up the volcano's southern flank; these erosional furrows may have formed by surface runoff or sapping by groundwater. Just below the center of the image, a few small sinuous troughs are visible, and may be collapsed lava tubes or collapse features related to subsurface water. The number of impact craters on a planetary surface is commonly used as a proxy for the age of the surface -- an old surface has had time to accumulate more craters than a young surface. The relatively small number of large craters in the image indicates that the surface in this area is younger than the nearby heavily cratered ancient terrains outside the Hellas basin, but there are more craters on this surface than would be found on the average volcanic surface in Tharsis (there are some very large old craters on the volcano's flank to the southeast of this image). Paterae in general are older than the Tharsis volcanoes. At

  11. Scalloped terrains in the Peneus and Amphitrites Paterae region of Mars as observed by HiRISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, A.; Russell, P. S.; Thomas, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Peneus and Amphitrites Paterae region of Mars displays large areas of smooth, geologically young terrains overlying a rougher and older topography. These terrains may be remnants of the mid-latitude mantle deposit, which is thought to be composed of ice-rich material originating from airfall deposition during a high-obliquity period less than 5 Ma ago. Within these terrains, there are several types of potentially periglacial features. In particular, there are networks of polygonal cracks and scalloped-shaped depressions, which are similar to features found in Utopia Planitia in the northern hemisphere. This area also displays knobby terrain similar to the so-called "basketball terrains" of the mid and high martian latitudes. We use recent high resolution images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) along with data from previous Mars missions to study the small-scale morphology of the scalloped terrains, and associated polygon network and knobby terrains. We compare these with the features observed in Utopia Planitia and attempt to determine their formation process. While the two sites share many general features, scallops in Peneus/Amphitrites Paterae lack the diverse polygon network (i.e. there is little variation in the polygon sizes and shapes) and large curvilinear ridges observed in Utopia Planitia. This points to a more homogeneous ice content within the substrate in the Peneus/Amphitrites Paterae region and implies that scallop formation is independent of polygon formation. This work shows that, as in Utopia Planitia, sublimation of interstitial ice is a likely process explaining the formation of the scalloped depressions in the region of Peneus/Amphitrites Paterae. Therefore, we provide a simplified scallop formation model based on sublimation of interstitial ice as proposed for Utopia Planitia. We also show that the differences in scallop morphologies between the two regions may be explained by differences in near-surface ice

  12. Apollinaris Patera Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    18 September 2004 Apollinaris Patera is an ancient volcano located northwest of Gusev Crater, the landing site of the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. Apollinaris Patera, being rather old, is covered with craters, mantles of dust, and a wind-scoured covering of indurated, fine material. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small portion of the Apollinaris Patera volcano, revealing the exhumation of older surfaces from beneath a relatively thin, wind-scoured material. This view is located on the upper south slope of the volcano, near 9.5oS, 186.4oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  13. Deep Basalt Aquifers in Orcus Patera, Elysium Basin Mars: Perspectives for Exobiology Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    Direct indicators of shorelines, spillways, and terraces allowed to determine the extent of the Elysium Paleolake between the contour-lines 1000 and 500 m below the Martian datum. The Elysium Paleolake is bordered north by Orcus Patera (14N/181W), which lies west of the Tartarus Montes and Tartarus Colles. The Orcus Patera displays an ellipse-shaped collapsed caldera of 360-km long and 100-km wide. Viking topographic data show that the bottom of the caldera is located at 2500 below the Martian datum, and surrounded by a steep-walled ram art which crest is located at about 0 m elevation. Considering the localization of Orcus Patera in the Elysium paleolake, its altimetry, and the magmatic origin of this caldera, we propose the existence of a paleolake in Orcus Patera generated (a) by juvenile water from magma during the Noachian period, and (b) by intermittent influx of the Elysium Basin from Hesperian to Amazonian. Results are encouraging to consider this site as a potential high-energy source environment for microbial communities. are circumscribed by a 50-km wide lava field mapped as Noachian material. The structure of Orcus Patera represents the record of material erupted from a magmatic reservoir. The caldera is enclosed by steep inner walls (25% measured from topographic data), values which could be in agreement with the presence of a deep magmatic reservoir, as suggested by the typology of Crumpler et.al. The depth of the caldera might be due to the collapse of the magma reservoir, and the release of gases accompanying the magma thermal evolution. Origins of water for the paleolake(s): The water that generated a paleolake in Orcus Patera may have come from two origins: (1) Juvenile water: Plescia and Crips estimated a magma H20 content by weight between 0.5% and 1.5% using for the first value a comparison with terrestrial basalt, and for the second values from a Martian meteorite. The amount of H20 can be estimated by the volume of erupted lava, and the lava

  14. Ulysses Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 18 July 2002) It is helpful to look at the context for this THEMIS image, which covers a large area over the summit of Ulysses Patera. Ulysses Patera is one of the many volcanoes that make up the giant Tharsis volcanic province, although Ulysses itself is fairly small in comparison to the other volcanoes in this area. In the context image, there are 3 circular features near the top of the volcano. The large, central feature is called a 'caldera', and is the result of volcanic activity at Ulysses. The other two circular features are impact craters. The THEMIS image primarily spans across the central caldera, but also covers a portion of the northernmost impact crater. We know that the large central caldera must have formed earlier than the two craters, because its circular form has been cut by the smaller crater rims. In the THEMIS image, there are stair-stepping plateaus in the northern portion of the image. These are part of the rim of the northern crater, and are caused by collapse or subsidence after the impact event. Just to the south of this crater, 'rayed' patterns can be seen on part of the caldera floor. The rayed pattern is most likely due to a landslide of material down the crater rim slope. Another possibility is that the impact that formed the northern crater caused material to be ejected radially, and then parts of the ejecta have either been buried or eroded away. Other signs of mass movement events in this image are dark streaks, caused by dust avalanches, visible in the caldera's northern wall. In the central portion of the image, there are two lobe-shaped features-one overlaps the other-that appear to have flowed westward. It is likely that these features are ejecta lobes, because they are located adjacent to the southeastern crater (see context image). The fluidized appearance of these ejecta lobes is probably due to a significant amount of ice or water being present in the soil at the time

  15. Inversion of Gravity and Magnetic Field Data for Tyrrhena Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milbury, C.; Schubert, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrrhena Patera is located to the southeast/northeast of the Isidis/Hellas impact basin. It was geologically active into the Late Amazonian, although the main edifice was formed in the Noachian(approximately 3.7-4.0 Ga). Tyrrhena Patera and the surrounding area contain gravity and magnetic anomalies that appear to be correlated. The results presented here are for the anomalies 1a and 1b (closest to Tyrrhena Patera), however other anomalies in this region have been modeled and will be presented at the conference.The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) free-air gravity signature of Tyrrhena Patera has been studied by Kiefer, who inferred the existence of an extinct magma chamber below it. The magnetic signature has been mapped by Lillis R. J. et al., who compared electron reflectometer data, analogous to the total magnetic field, for Syrtis Major and Tyrrhena Patera and argued for demagnetization of both volcanoes.

  16. Apollinaris Patera: An Early Martian Mantle Plume?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Apollinaris Patera is one of the largest volcanos on Mars outside of the Tharsis volcanic province (summit relief 5.4 km, volume 7.3x1013 m3). The mapped crater densities on Apollinaris indicate that volcanic activity ended 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago. Apollinaris is located on the northern (lowland) side of the martian hemispheric dichotomy. Because it is an isolated, relatively point-like source of volcanism, it is plausibly interpreted as an early example of a martian mantle plume. Plume structure and conditions in the mantle can be constrained using finite element mantle convection simulations combined with a variety of petrological, geophysical, and geologic observations. (1) Basalts studied by the MER Spirit rover in nearby Gusev crater are similar in age and possibly physically connected to Apollinaris Patera. Petrologic modeling of the Gusev crater basalt compositions indicates that the thermal lithosphere was about 100 km thick with a mantle potential temperature of 1480-1530 °C. This requires a mantle thermal Rayleigh number of about 2x108 at the time of volcanism, based on the volume-averaged mantle viscosity. (2) Pyroclastic deposits at Apollinaris indicate that at least a portion of the volcanism occurred in the presence of a high concentration of water or other volatiles. This lowers the solidus temperature and increases the magma production rate but has only a limited effect on the minimum depth of melting. (3) There is a localized magnetic anomaly beneath Apollinaris that indicates that the martian core dynamo persisted until at least the earliest stage of Apollinaris volcanism, which in turn sets a lower bound on the core heat flux of 5-10 mW m-2. Preservation of the magnetic field may be the result of formation of magnetic minerals such as magnetite due to volcanically-driven hydrothermal alteration of crustal rocks beneath Apollinaris.

  17. The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Sjogren, W L; Tyler, G L; Balmino, G; Lemoine, F G; Konopliv, A S

    1999-10-01

    Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.

  18. Assessment of antipodal-impact terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The regions anitpodal to Mars' three largest impact basins, Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre, were assessed for evidence of impact-induced disrupted terrains. Photogeology and computer modeling using the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (SALE) finite element code suggest that such terrains could have been found by the Hellas impact. Maximum antipodal pressures are 1100 MPa for Hellas, 520 MPa for Isidis, and 150 MPa for Argyre. The results suggest that if antipodal fracturing were associated with later volcanism, then Alba Patera may be related to the Hellas event, as proposed by Peterson (1978). Alba Patera is a unique volcano in the solar system, being a shield volcano which emitted large volume lava flows. This volcanism could be the result of the focusing of seismic energy which created a fractured region that served as a volcanic conduit for the future release of large volumes of magma. No disrupted terrain features are observed antipodal to the Isidis or Argyre basins, although some of the old fractures in Noctis Labyrinthus could have originated in response to the Isidis impact, and later have been reactivated by the Tharsis tectonics assumed to have produced Noctis. If the lower calculated antipodal pressures for Argyre were capable of producing disrupted terrains, then the terrains have been covered subsequently by volcanic or aeolian material, or modified beyond recognition.

  19. A model for depolarized radar echoes from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Moore, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The depolarized radar echoes from Mars are modeled using a combination of remote-sensing observations. The model reproduces the variations of the total radar cross-sections with longitude observed by Goldstone (1986) along 7 S, yields larger magnitudes of total radar cross-sections along 22 N than those along 7 S, and produces depolarized echo spectra that broadly match those observed by the Arecibo radar in 1980 and 1982. The model indicates that volcanoes and lava plains of the Tharsis-Alba Patera, Elysium, and Amazonia regions have the strongest depolarized echoes from the entire planet. Rock populations for the moon and Mars are estimated assuming depolarized radar echoes result from rocks with radii between 1.3 and three times the wavelength.

  20. Rheological analyses of lava flows on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Davis, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers obtained 183 profiles of lava flows on Mars using photoclinometry. These photoclinometric profiles were leveled by adjusting them until the levee crests or bases had the same elevations (depending on the situation). Here, researchers report some of the results of their analysis of 27 flows on the flanks of Alba Patera (3 flows), near the summit of Ascraeus Mons (6 flows), the flanks of Arsia Mons (3 flows), and the flanks of Olympus Mons (15 flows). Results suggest that the flows examined to date are not felsic or ultramafic; rather, they probably range from basalts to basaltic andesites. Thus, the suggestion that flows on Olympus Mons and elsewhere may be more silicic than Hawaiian basalts is supported by the researchers' results. These suggestions are testable with suitable measurements of silica contents of the flows.

  1. Temperature and variability of Pillan, Wayland Patera, and Loki Patera on Io from Cassini ISS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel R.; Radebaugh, Jani; Stephens, Denise C.

    2013-09-01

    Cassini spacecraft images of Io obtained during its flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 and early 2001 were used to determine the lava composition and eruption style of three faint hot spots, Pillan, Wayland Patera, and Loki Patera. We found a maximum color temperature of 1130 ± 289 K for Pillan and maximum color temperatures of 1297 ± 289 K and 1387 ± 287 K for Wayland Patera and Loki Patera, respectively. These temperatures are suggestive of basaltic lava but an ultramafic composition cannot be ruled out. The temperatures with the best signal-to-noise ratios also suggested basaltic lava and were found to be 780 ± 189 K, 1116 ± 250 K, and 1017 ± 177 K for Pillan, Wayland Patera, and Loki Patera, respectively. Pillan showed constant thermal output within error over three days of observations. The data also suggest Pillan may be surrounded by topography that blocked emission in the middle of the observation and caused a more dramatic decrease in emission. Wayland Patera’s intensity decreased over the three eclipse observations, consistent with a cooling lava flow or decreasing effusion rate. Intensities at Loki Patera over the course of the observations varied, consistent with previous determinations that Loki Patera is an often quiescent lava lake with periods of overturning, fountaining, and crustal foundering.

  2. Venus - Sag Caldera 'Sachs Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This image of Sachs Patera on Venus is centered at 49 degrees north, 334 degrees east. Defined as a sag-caldera, Sachs is an elliptical depression 130 meters (81 feet) in depth, spanning 40 kilometers (25 miles) in width along its longest axis. The morphology implies that a chamber of molten material drained and collapsed, forming a depression surrounded by concentric scarps spaced 2-to-5 kilometers (1.2- to-3 miles) apart. The arc-shaped set of scarps, extending out to the north from the prominent ellipse, is evidence for a separate episode of withdrawal; the small lobe-shaped extension to the southwest may represent an additional event. Solidified lava flows 10-to-25 kilometers (6-to-16 miles) long, give the caldera its flower-like appearance. The flows are a lighter tone of gray in the radar data because the lava is blockier in texture and consequently returns more radar waves. Much of the lava, which was evacuated from the chamber, probably traveled to other locations underground, while some of it may have surfaced further south. This is unlike calderas on Earth, where a rim of lava builds up in the immediate vicinity of the caldera.

  3. Topography of Apollinaris Patera and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Digital elevation models of the northern part of Ma'adim Vallis (603a41 607m/pix, 639a91 721m/pix), and Apollinaris Patera (603a42 612m/pix, 639a92 717m/pix), covering the area between 180 degrees to 190 degrees long and -2 degrees to -20 degrees lat. were obtained using a method described here. The results for the Ma'adim Vallis area show broad agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map of the area with a channel depth of 1 to 2 km. A detailed study of the variations in the channel depth along its course and calculations of its discharge rate from channel cross section and slope are currently being undertaken. Results for Apollinaris Patera have been obtained, although the absolute heights relative to the Mars datum are not well constrained. However, the relative heights are sufficient for some analysis. Again, the topographic map is in reasonable agreement with the USGS map of the area, although there are significant differences.

  4. The Seasonal Behavior of Water Ice Clouds in the Tharsis and Valles Marineris Regions of Mars: Mars Orbiter Camera Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. L.; Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Shan, K. J.; Cantor, B. A.; Caplinger, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) was used to obtain global maps of the Martian surface. The maps used were acquired between March 15, 1999 (LS = 110 ) and July 31, 2001 (L(sub s) = 110), corresponding to approximately one and a quarter martian years. In this work we focused on water ice clouds associated with the surface features of Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons, Alba Patera, and the Valles Marineris canyon system. Using these data, we have made three types of quantitative measurements to characterize the cloud activity: 1) cloud area and location, 2) cloud height, and 3) cloud optical depth. We have also searched for short period variations in the cloud areas.

  5. Venus - A Large Elongated Caldera 'Sacajawea Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image reveals Sacajawea Patera, a large, elongate caldera located in Western Ishtar Terra on the smooth plateau of Lakshmi Planum. The image is centered at 64.5 degrees North latitude and 337 degrees East longitude. It is approximately 420 kilometers (252 miles) wide at the base. Sacajawea is a depression approximately 1-2 kilometers (0.6-1.2 miles) deep and 120 x 215 kilometers (74 x 133 miles) in diameter; it is elongate in a southwest-northeast direction. The depression is bounded by a zone of circumferential curvilinear structures interpreted to be graben and fault scarps. These structures are spaced 0.5-4 kilometers (0.3-2.5 miles) apart, are 0.6-4.0 kilometers (0.4-2.5 miles) in width and up to 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length. Extending up to approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) in length from the southeast of the patera is a system of linear structures thought to represent a flanking rift zone along which the lateral injection and eruption of magma may have occurred. A shield edifice 12 kilometers (7 miles) in diameter with a prominent central pit lies along the trend of one of these features. The impact crater Zlata, approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter is located within the zone of graben to the northwest of the patera. Few flow features are observed in association with Sacajawea, possibly due to age and state of degradation of the flows. Mottled bright deposits 4-20 kilometers (2.5-12 miles) in width are located near the periphery and in the center of the patera floor within local topographic lows. Diffuse patches of dark material approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) in width are observed southwest of the patera, superposed on portions of the surrounding graben. The formation of Sacajawea is thought to be related to the drainage and collapse of a large magma chamber. Gravitational relaxation may have caused the resultant caldera to sag, producing the numerous faults and graben that circumscribe the patera. Regions of

  6. Io: Loki Patera as a Magma Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Castillo, Julie C.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a physical model for Loki Patera as a magma sea. We calculate the total volume of magma moving through the Loki Patera volcanic system every resurfacing cycle (approx.540 days) and the resulting variation in thermal emission. The rate of magma solidification at times reaches 3 x 10(exp 6) kg per second, with a total solidified volume averaging 100 cu km per year. A simulation of gas physical chemistry evolution yields the crust porosity profile and the timescale when it will become dense enough to founder in a manner consistent with observations. The Loki Patera surface temperature distribution shows that different areas are at different life cycle stages. On a regional scale, however, there can be coordinated activity, indicated by the wave of thermal change which progresses from Loki Patera's SW quadrant toward the NE at a rate of approx.1 km per day. Using the observed surface temperature distribution, we test several mechanisms for resurfacing Loki Patera, finding that resurfacing with lava flows is not realistic. Only the crustal foundering process is consistent with observations. These tests also discovered that sinking crust has a 'heat deficit' which promotes the solidification of additional magma onto the sinking plate ("bulking up"). In the limiting case, the mass of sinking material can increase to a mass of approx.3 times that of the foundering plate. With all this solid matter sinking, there is a compensating upward motion in the liquid magma. This can be in excess of 2 m per year. In this manner, solid-liquid convection is occurring in the sea.

  7. Mars - Thickness of the lithosphere from the tectonic response to volcanic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, R. P.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1985-02-01

    The response to loading of the elastic lithosphere of Mars by seven large volcanic features is estimated based on the hypothesis of a flexural origin for a definable set of load-concentric graben. From the locations of such graben, or from their absence, the lithospheric thickness and flexural rigidity are inferred. For the Tharsis montes, Alba Patera, and Elysium Mons, elastic lithospheric thicknesses at the time of loading range from 20 to 50 km, assuming a Young's modulus of a trillion dyn/sq cm. The thickness exceeded 120 km beneath Olympus Mons and Isidis Planitia. The corresponding ranges in flexural rigidity are approximately 10 to the 30th to 31st dyn cm and greater than 10 to the 32nd dyn cm, respectively. These results indicate a local thinning of the lithosphere beneath portions of the central regions of the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces at the time of loading-induced fracturing.

  8. Maps of Mars Global Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Maps of Mars' global topography. The projections are Mercator to 70o latitude and stereographic at the poles with the south pole at left and north pole at right. Note the elevation difference between the northern and southern hemispheres. The Tharsis volcano-tectonic province is centered near the equator in the longitude range 220o E to 300o E and contains the vast east-west trending Valles Marineris canyon system and several major volcanic shields including Olympus Mons (18o N, 225o E), Alba Patera (42o N, 252o E), Ascraeus Mons (12o N, 248o E), Pavonis Mons (0o, 247o E), and Arsia Mons (9o S, 239o E). Regions and structures discussed in the text include Solis Planum (25o S, 270o E), Lunae Planum (10o N, 290o E), and Claritas Fossae (30o S, 255o E). Major impact basins include Hellas (45o S, 70o E), Argyre (50o S, 320o E), Isidis (12o N, 88o E), and Utopia (45o N, 110o E). This analysis uses an areocentric coordinate convention with east longitude positive.

  9. Loki Patera: A Magma Sea Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Rathbun, A. G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider Loki Patera on Io as the surface expression of a large uniform body of magma. Our model of the Loki magma sea is some 200 km across; larger than a lake but smaller than an ocean. The depth of the magma sea is unknown, but assumed to be deep enough that bottom effects can be ignored. Edge effects at the shore line can be ignored to first order for most of the interior area. In particular, we take the dark material within Loki Patera as a thin solidified lava crust whose hydrostatic shape follows Io's isostatic surface (approx. 1815 km radius of curvature). The dark surface of Loki appears to be very smooth on both regional and local (subresolution) scales. The thermal contrast between the low and high albedo areas within Loki is consistent with the observed global correlation. The composition of the model magma sea is basaltic and saturated with dissolved SO2 at depth. Its average, almost isothermal, temperature is at the liquidus for basalt. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Tharsis Binucleus-Type Vortex Structure (TBVS) on Mars: Implications for Differential Rotation of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z.; Birnbaum, S.; Zhu, M.; Xie, H.; Liu, L.; Yang, W.

    2006-12-01

    Large, arcuate faults in the Tharsis region of Mars are here interpreted to be a Giant Binucleus-Type Vortex Structure. Centered in Tharsis Montes (247.4°E, 0.9°N) with a radius of ~3500 km, and here named the Tharsis Binucleus-Type Vortex Structure (TBVS), it extends into both the southern and northern hemispheres of Mars. The pattern of the major extensional faults related to the TBVS includes a northern portion and a southern portion and is characterized by a sigmoid structure. In the northern portion adjacent to the Alba Patera summit cone (Tantalus Fossae), extensional faults trend northeast or north-east-north while faults found south of Alba Patera (Ceraunius Fossae) trend north-south. The extensional faults sited south to southwest of Tharsis Montes mainly trend to the southwest. As a typical feature the faults located south-east-south of Tharsis Montes (Claritas Fossae) show an obvious curved shape: the northern part trends northwest and north- west-north while the southern part trends north-east-north and northeast. Turbine-like extensional faults around Tharsis Montes are distinguished. Five examples of binucleus-type vortex structures on Earth were found and researched by Zuoxun Zeng and Lilin Liu (1990, 1992 and 1993). The TBVS is similar to the Yegezikala binucleus-type vortex structure (Zuoxun Zeng, 1990) in terms of the nuclear column: two cores linking together as one magma body. Physical modeling and numerical modeling using finite-element analysis indicate that the formation of the TBVS is related to torsional shear around the center of Tharsis Montes. The torsional shear is possibly a result of the twist of the Martian crust about its axis due to differential rotation between the two hemispheres. The earlier twist of the Martian crust controlled the northeast-trending fractures, magma bodies and volcano chains. The cooled and fixed northeast-trending magma bodies in the Tharsis area played the role of nuclear columns during the formation of

  11. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  12. Two New Brightening Events at Io's Loki Patera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.

    2015-12-01

    Loki Patera is one of the most dramatically time-variable volcanic features on Io, exhibiting periodic brightening events every 1-2 years that constitute over 15% of Io's global heat flow when active. We obtained new near-infrared (2-5 μm) observations of Loki Patera on 37 nights during and after two such brightening events using adaptive optics at the Keck and Gemini North telescopes in 2013-2015. We modify the Matson et al. (2006) model for Loki Patera as an overturning basaltic magma sea to model our observations, and find an overturn front propagation velocity of 0.85-0.95 km/day. The 445±45 day interval between the two events is 100 days shorter than the 540-day period calculated by Rathbun et al. (2002) for events prior to 2001. The overturn front appears to propagate around the patera in the clockwise direction, opposite to what has been inferred for these past brightening events, and may include irregular propagation patterns and multiple simultaneous fronts. Based on the anomalously-low intensities when Loki Patera is viewed at high emission angle, we find evidence for a topographic barrier to the west of the patera, which may be a raised region or the edge of a depression in which the magma sea resides.

  13. An Impact Genesis for Loki Patera?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorsos, I. E.; Davies, A. G.

    2005-01-01

    What happens when a large impact event takes place on a satellite with a thin crust and lithosphere? In the early Solar System impact cratering and volcanism were the dominate processes shaping the surfaces of the terrestrial planets. Impact events may have triggered additional volcanism by uplifting partially molten mantle material to the surface, where it melts due to pressure release. Subsequently, the shattered crust may have provided pathways for magma to reach the surface creating a longer term hot spot. As the crusts of the terrestrial planets thickened, the ability of impacts to trigger volcanism diminished [1]. However, the highly-volcanic jovian satellite Io is located in a "high-impact" area of the Solar System [2], a victim of material attracted by Jupiter s gravitational field. In 1994 huge impacts were observed when fragments of comet Shoemaker- Levy 9 impacted Jupiter. The large icy satellites of Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) are pockmarked with many impact craters. Yet no impact features have been found on Io [3]. This is because of rapid resurfacing of Io due to volcanism, estimated at approx.1 cm/year [4] which over short geological time erases evidence of impacts. Io, however, has a lithosphere over a molten or partially-molten mantle [e.g., 5], and the effects of a sufficiently large impact may extend far beyond the evolution of the impact crater alone. At least one example of impact-triggered volcanism may exist in the Solar System today: the Loki Patera complex on Io.

  14. Dielectric properties of lava flows west of Ascraeus Mons, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.M.; Campbell, B.A.; Holt, J.W.; Phillips, R.J.; Putzig, N.E.; Mattei, S.; Seu, R.; Okubo, C.H.; Egan, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    The SHARAD instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detects subsurface interfaces beneath lava flow fields northwest of Ascraeus Mons. The interfaces occur in two locations; a northern flow that originates south of Alba Patera, and a southern flow that originates at the rift zone between Ascraeus and Pavonis Montes. The northern flow has permittivity values, estimated from the time delay of echoes from the basal interface, between 6.2 and 17.3, with an average of 12.2. The southern flow has permittivity values of 7.0 to 14.0, with an average of 9.8. The average permittivity values for the northern and southern flows imply densities of 3.7 and 3.4 g cm-3, respectively. Loss tangent values for both flows range from 0.01 to 0.03. The measured bulk permittivity and loss tangent values are consistent with those of terrestrial and lunar basalts, and represent the first measurement of these properties for dense rock on Mars. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H. (Editor); Jakosky, Bruce M. (Editor); Snyder, Conway W. (Editor); Matthews, Mildred S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on Mars discusses visual, photographic and polarimetric telescopic observations, spacecraft exploration of Mars, the origin and thermal evolution of Mars, and the bulk composition, mineralogy, and internal structure of the planet. Attention is given to Martian gravity and topography, stress and tectonics on Mars, long-term orbital and spin dynamics of Mars, and Martian geodesy and cartography. Topics addressed include the physical volcanology of Mars, the canyon system on planet, Martian channels and valley networks, and ice in the Martian regolith. Also discussed are Martian aeolian processes, sediments, and features, polar deposits of Mars, dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, and the seasonal behavior of water on Mars.

  16. Ionian Paterae: New Insights from Observations, Numerical Modeling and Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.; Black, S. M.; Lougen, J.

    2006-12-01

    To constrain the behavior of Ionian volcanic paterae in general, and Loki Patera in particular, we have used the following techniques in concert: 1) geologic mapping and analyses; 2) laboratory simulations; and 3) mathematical modeling. Here, we present preliminary results from the synthesis of these data. Loki Patera (310°W, 12°°N) is significantly different from the rest of the Ionian paterae for the following reasons: 1) its surface area falls 6 s outside the range for other Ionian paterae; 2) it is the only patera containing a bright "island" that is cut by dark lineaments; 3) at times of a thermal brightening event, it emits up to 15% of Io's global heat flux. Debate continues over whether Loki Paterae is an overturning lava lake, or a depression whose floor is periodically resurfaced by lava flows. Laboratory simulations, in which corn syrup or polyethylene glycol wax (PEG) were extruded into a square tank through 1 or 2 floor vents at a constant rate, were conducted to provide insight into Loki Patera's behavior. Results from both sets of experiments suggest that a single convection cell would be difficult to establish at Loki Patera. Crustal foundering of a lava lake may be possible under special conditions. Given the unique nature of Loki Patera and its island, we propose that the island may be similar to a resurgent dome in a terrestrial caldera complex composed primarily of evolved lavas, such as Long Valley Caldera, California. We examined other paterae that contain bright "islands" on their floors in an effort to constrain their origins. Geologic mapping, and shape analyses of the paterae and the islands they contain, suggest that most paterae islands are patches of cooled lava on the paterae floor. Only about 8% of paterae islands have morphologies and geologic relations that are consistent with a tectonic origin.

  17. Seeking Signs of Life in Nili Patera with Icelandic Sinter Field Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skok, J. R.; Farmer, J. D.; Parente, M.; Gaskin, J.; Kaasalainen, H.; Tobler, D.; Jerman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade of Martian orbital and surface exploration has made it clear that the planet could have supported life as we know it in many places throughout much of it's history. The next step in exploration will be to find the evidence for and characterize any preserved Martian life. The jump from confirming habitability to finding life will be difficult and likely require a systemic surface exploration of multiple, specific sites. One site, the sinter mounds of the Nili Patera caldera, provides the ideal combination of hot, neutral to alkaline waters that can develop or support life and the sinter precipitation to preserve it. Nili Patera also provides deposits that are well mapped from orbit allowing a mission to pinpoint the target rocks. With this target known, we can develop the mission, the payload and the science to fit the goals. Several sinter field sites in Iceland were selected for mission testing. They were selected to provide diversity in scale, chemistry and complexity. At each site, we asked the same questions that would drive a mission to Mars. Was there life? What are its preserved properties? What are the environmental history of the sinters and the volcanic history of the local terrain? These questions were investigated with spectral, compositional and morphological analysis. By investigating these questions in Iceland, we will determine which observations, in terms of terrain access and instrument selection are required for mission success on Mars. We report the results from the August 2015 expedition, the first of two planned field seasons. This summer was focused on finalizing the field locations, acquiring mapping data and an initial sampling campaign to determine expected composition and calibrate instruments for year two. With this information, we will determine an investigation plan consistent with a range of mission types from robotic lander to sample return to human exploration. We will also determine the instruments required by the

  18. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (Patera Foot) in Immigrants, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Ángel-Moreno, Alfonso; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodriguez, Cristina; Calderín-Ortega, Antonio; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2009-01-01

    An unusual skin and soft tissue infection of the lower limbs has been observed in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa who cross the Atlantic Ocean crowded on small fishing boats (pateras). Response to conventional treatment is usually poor. Extreme extrinsic factors (including new pathogens) may contribute to the etiology of the infection and its pathogenesis. PMID:19331742

  19. Cleopatra Patera on Venus: Venera 15/16 evidence for a volcanic origin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Kozak, R.C.; Masursky, H.

    1987-01-01

    The non-concentric nature, anomalous depth, and terraced morphology of the nested craters that compose Cleopatra Patera are more closely analogous to volcanic craters (calderas) than multi-ring impact structures. Associated deposits northeast and downslope of the Patera first recognized on Venera 15/16 radar images are interpreted as volcanic plains related to, and perhaps cogenetic with, Cleopatra. A volcanic origin not only is easily reconciled with the tectonic setting of the Patera, it is almost required by the correlation between the Patera and regional structural trend. -from Authors

  20. Geologic map of the Sappho Patera Quadrangle (V-20), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGill, George E.

    2000-01-01

    The Sappho Patera quadrangle (V–20) of Venus is bounded by 0° and 30° East longitude, 0° and 25° North latitude. It is one of 62 quadrangles covering the entire planet at a scale of 1:5,000,000. The quadrangle derives its name from Sappho Patera, a large rimmed depression (diameter about 225 km) lying on top of a shield-shaped mountain named Irnini Mons. Sappho, a noted Greek poet born about 612 B.C., spent most of her life on the island of Lesbos. All of her works were burned in 1073 by order of ecclesiastical authorities in Rome and Constantinople. What little survives was discovered in 1897 as parts of papier mâché coffins in the Fayum (Durant, 1939). The Sappho Patera quadrangle includes the central portion of Eistla Regio, an elongated, moderately elevated (relief ~1 km) region extending for about 7,500 km west-northwestward from the west end of Aphrodite Terra. It is generally interpreted to be the surface manifestation of one or more mantle plumes (Phillips and Malin, 1983; Stofan and Saunders, 1990; Kiefer and Hager, 1991; Senske and others, 1992; Grimm and Phillips, 1992; Solomon and others, 1992). Eistla Regio is dominated by several large volcanic features. All or parts of four of these occur within the Sappho Patera quadrangle: the eastern flank of Gula Mons, Irnini Mons, Anala Mons, and Kali Mons. The quadrangle also includes eight named coronae: Nehalennia, Sunrta, Libera, Belet-Ili, Gaia, Asomama, Rabzhima, and Changko. A major rift extends from Gula Mons in the northwestern corner of the quadrangle to Libera Corona near the east border. East of Irnini and Anala Montes this rift is named Guor Linea; west of the montes it is named Virtus Linea. In addition to these major features, the Sappho Patera quadrangle includes numerous smaller volcanic flows and constructs, several unnamed coronae and corona-like features, a complex array of faults, fractures, and wrinkle ridges, and extensive plains that are continuous with the regional plains that

  1. Martian Hot Springs? Silica deposits in the Nili Patera Caldera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skok, J. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    detected just west of the cone center near it's apex and appears to be exposed outcrop. The remaining detections are quasi-circular mounds on the caldera floor. One isolated large deposit is at the southern edge of the cone while the majority of deposits are in an 8,000 km2 field directly southwest of the cone that contains dozens of deposits of varying sizes. Recently confirmed deposits are also located in the far field, 10 km to the southwest of the cone but still confined to the dacite lava flow. These show that the deposits are more widespread than the immediate vicinity of the volcanic cone. This volcanically driven hydrothermal system and the resulting hot spring environments on Mars has significance for our understanding of Martian volcanic systems and for the search for habitability. Terrestrial hot springs are known to be ideal locations for microbial activity and for the sequestration and long-term preservation of biosignatures . Hot spring silica sinter deposits are among the best materials for preserving signs of habitability making the Nili Patera deposits an ideal location for future focused study.

  2. Paterae on Io: Volcanic Activity Observed by Galileo's NIMS and SSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Kamp, Lucas; Smythe, W. D.; Carlson, R.; Radebaugh, Jani; Gregg, Tracy K.

    2003-01-01

    Paterae are the most ubiquitous volcanic construct on Io s surface. Paterae are irregular craters, or complex craters with scalloped edges, interpreted as calderas or pit craters. Data from Galileo has shown that the activity of Ionian paterae is often confined to its interior and that generally lava flows are not seen spilling out over the edges. We use observations from Galileo s Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) to study the thermal emission from several Ionian paterae and compare them with images in visible wavelengths obtained by Galileo s Solid State Imaging System (SSI). Galileo s close fly-bys of Io from 1999 to 2001 have allowed NIMS to image the paterae at high spatial resolution (1-30 km pixel). At these scales, several of these features reveal greater thermal emission around the edges, which can be explained as the crust of a lava lake breaking up against the paterae walls. Comparisons with imaging data show that lower albedo areas (which are indicative of young lavas) coincide with higher thermal emission areas on NIMS data. Other paterae, however, show thermal emission and features in the visible that are more consistent with lava flows over a solid patera floor. Identifying eruption styles on Io is important for constraining eruption and interior models on Io.

  3. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McLennan, S. M.

    Of all the planets, Mars is the most Earthlike, inviting geochemical comparisons. Geochemical data for Mars are derived from spacecraft remote sensing, surface measurements and Martian meteorites. These analyses of exposed crustal materials enable estimates of bulk planet composition and inferences about its iron-rich mantle and core, as well as constraints on planetary differentiation and crust-mantle evolution. Mars probably had an early magma ocean, but there is no evidence for plate tectonics or crustal recycling any time in its history. The crust is basaltic in composition and lithologically heterogeneous, with radiometric crystallization ages ranging from ~4 billion years to within the last several hundred million years. Mantle sources for magmas vary considerably in incompatible element abundances. Although Mars is volatile element-rich, estimations of the amount of water delivered to the surface by volcanism are controversial. Low-temperature aqueous alteration affected the ancient Martian surface, producing clay minerals, sulfates, and other secondary minerals. Weathering and diagenetic trends are distinct from terrestrial chemical alteration, indicating different aqueous conditions. Organic matter has been found in Martian meteorites, but no geochemical signal of life has yet been discovered. Dynamic geochemical cycles for some volatile elements are revealed by stable isotope measurements. Long-term secular changes in chemical and mineralogical compositions of igneous rocks and sediments have been documented but are not well understood.

  4. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Tilman; Sohl, Frank; Breuer, Doris

    Mars is the fourth planet out from the sun. It is a terrestrial planet with a density suggesting a composition roughly similar to that of the Earth. Its orbital period is 687 days, its orbital eccentricity is 0.093 and its rotational period is about 24 hours. Mars has two small moons of asteroidal shapes and sizes (about 11 and 6 km mean radius), the bigger of which, Phobos, orbits with decreasing semimajor orbit axis. The decrease of the orbit is caused by the dissipation of tidal energy in the Martian mantle. The other satellite, Deimos, orbits close to the synchronous position where the rotation period of a planet equals the orbital period of its satellite and has hardly evolved with time. Mars has a tenous atmosphere composed mostly of CO2 with strong winds and with large scale aeolian transport of surface material during dust storms and in sublimation-condensation cycles between the polar caps. The planet has a small magnetic field, probably not generated by dynamo action in the core but possibly due to remnant magnetization of crustal rock acquired earlier from a stronger magnetic field generated by a now dead core dynamo. A dynamo powered by thermal power alone would have ceased a few billions of years ago as the core cooled to an extent that it became stably stratified. Mars' topography and its gravity field are dominated by the Tharsis bulge, a huge dome of volcanic origin. Tharsis was the major center of volcanic activity, a second center is Elysium about 100° in longitude away. The Tharsis bulge is a major contributor to the non-hydrostaticity of the planet's figure. The moment of inertia factor together with the mass and the radius presently is the most useful constraint for geophysical models of the Martian interior. It has recently been determined by Doppler range measurements to the Mars Pathfinder Lander to be 0.3662 +/- 0.0017 (Folkner et al. 1997). In addition, models of the interior structure use the chemistry of the SNC meteorites which are

  5. Interpretation of collapsed terrain on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewa Zalewska, Natalia; Skocki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    On the images from HiRISE camera within volcanoes and circumpolar areas there are depressions that can be explained in two ways, either by melting subsurface layer of ice or by cooling of lava which forms branch intrusion and flank craters underneath. On many pictures from Mars similar cavities are found on the slopes of Martian craters on Arsia Mons , Pavonis Mons on northern hemisphere and Alba Patera on southern hemisphere. Such cavities can be compared to a Hawaiian type volcanoes. At the top of Mauna Loa linearly arranged craters can be seen, strikingly similar to those on Arsia Mons . Basing on map ice content measured by Odyssey GRS apparatus, in this place of the volcanic cone, quite small ice content can be observed that varies in the range of 2-4% hydrogen abundance. It is therefore difficult to explain these collapses by unfreezing of subsurface ice. In an infrared spectrum of these areas there are no bands of water in the CRISM spectra, although it does not say that the water in the form of ice couldn't have been there before. In the central part of Chryse, there are series of chains depressions caused most likely by the collapse of land. These forms have been associated with an open pingo type system additionally with assisted topography of the area or tectonics and internal cracks in the rocks. These are noticed on the slopes of craters or wherever the area decline. Then flowing subsurface water or brine coming from the ice layer could while freezing accumulate and create a longitudinal hill that collapsed due to seasonal thawing forming gullies or canyons . At the end of these gullies remaining trace of the leak can be seen, as if there was a crack in the ground and liquid flew out on the surface. Cryosubsurface processes on Mars can support the hypothesis of geochemical origin of water, which separates from the magma, and its primary source comes from the protoplanetary disk. The water separated from the magma migrates up to the surface and if the

  6. Cleopatra Patera on Venus - Venera 15/16 evidence for a volcanic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Kozak, R. C.; Masursky, H.

    1987-01-01

    The nonconcentric nature, anomalous depth, and terraced morphology of the nested craters that compose Cleopatra Patera are more closely analogous to volcanic craters (calderas) than multiring impact structures. Associated deposits northeast and downslope of the Patera first recognized on Venera 15/16 radar images are interpreted as volcanic plains related to, and perhaps cogenetic with, Cleopatra. The plains lavas probably originated as effusions from a radial rift zone or ring fissures. Rim deposits surrounding Cleopatra are asymmetric along the structural fabric of the region, also indicating fissure-type eruptions. Finally, a volcanic origin not only is easily reconciled with the tectonic setting of the Patera, it is almost required by the correlation between the Patera and regional structural trend.

  7. Geology and Topography of Ra Patera, Io, in the Voyager era: Prelude to Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McEwen, Alfred; Davies, A. G.; Davenport, Trevor; Jones, Kevin; Fessler, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Voyager era stereo images are used to map the geology and topography of Ra Patera (a major active volcanic center and possible site of sulfur eruptions on Io). The summit of Ra Patera reaches only approx.1 km above the surrounding plains. Pre-Voyager-era lava flows occur on slopes of 0.1-0.3 deg, comparable to the lunar mare. These flows were emplaced at either low viscosities, high eruption rates, or both. A 600- km-long ridged mountain unit (rising to approx. 8 km near Carancho Patera) forms a 60 by 90 km wide plateau approx. 0.5 km high 50 km east of Ra Patera. The new lava flows observed by Galileo flowed around the southern edge of this plateau.

  8. Pityriasis versicolor alba.

    PubMed

    Thoma, W; Krämer, H-J; Mayser, P

    2005-03-01

    Pityriasis versicolor alba is a hypopigmented or depigmented variant of pityriasis versicolor characterized by maculous, partly pityriasiform, scaly depigmented lesions occurring particularly in seborrhoeic areas. Long-persisting hypopigmentation after healing of the pityriasis versicolor was first described by Gudden in 1853. Hypopigmentation and depigmentation were later differentiated as an independent variant of the disease. In 1848, Eichstedt recognized the pathogen-related character of pityriasis versicolor in its hyperpigmented form. Today it is generally accepted that the disease is caused by yeasts of the genus Malassezia, of which nine species are differentiated. It is controversial whether a single species is responsible for the disease. The pathogenesis of depigmentation has not been established. A screening effect by the scale layer as well as toxic effects on pigment synthesis by fungal metabolites have been discussed. With regard to the second mechanism, the newly discovered tryptophan-derived metabolites of M. furfur might be significant. Evidence-based data concerning the therapy of pityriasis versicolor alba do not exist. According to current recommendations, pityriasis versicolor should be rapidly treated with antimycotics, followed by ultraviolet therapy to induce maturation of existent melanosomes and accelerate repigmentation. However, depigmented lesions are difficult to improve by ultraviolet therapy.

  9. 3D morphometry of valley networks on Mars from HRSC/MEX DEMs: Implications for climatic evolution through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.

    2013-09-01

    valley networks have been identified mainly in the Noachian heavily cratered uplands. Eight dense branching valley networks were studied in Noachian terrains of Huygens, Newcomb and Kepler craters, south Tyrrhena Terra, and Thaumasia, in Hesperian terrains of Echus Plateau and west Eberswalde craters, and in Amazonian terrains of Alba Patera, using images and digital elevation models from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera to determine 2D and 3D morphometric parameters. Extracted geomorphic parameters show similar geometry to terrestrial valleys: drainage densities, organization from bifurcation ratios and lengths ratios, Hack exponent consistent with terrestrial values of ~0.6, and progressive deepening of valleys with increasing Strahler order. In addition, statistics on valley depths indicate a deeper incision of Noachian valleys compared to younger post-Noachian valleys (<25 m for Amazonian ones compared to >100 m for Noachian ones), showing a strong difference in fluvial erosion. These characteristics show that dense Martian valley networks formed by overland flows in relation to a global atmospheric water cycle in Noachian epoch and confirm that the later stages of activity may be related to shorter duration of activity, distinct climatic conditions, and/or regional processes, or conditions.

  10. Structural Mapping of Paterae and Mountains on Io: Implications for Crustal Stresses and Feature Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, A.; Radebaugh, J.; Christiansen, E. H.; Harris, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Paterae and mountains are some of the most distinguishing and well-distributed surface features on Io, and they reveal the role of tectonism in Io's crust. Paterae, similar to calderas, are volcano-tectonic collapse features that often have straight margins. Io's mountains are some of the highest in the solar system and contain linear features that reveal crustal stresses. Paterae and mountains are often found adjacent to one another, suggesting possible genetic relationships. We have produced twelve detailed regional structural maps from high-resolution images of relevant features, where available, as well as a global structural map from the Io Global Color Mosaic. The regional structural maps identify features such as fractures, lineations, folds, faults, and mass wasting scarps, which are then interpreted in the context of global and regional stress regimes. A total of 1048 structural lineations have been identified globally. Preliminary analyses of major thrust and normal fault orientations are dominantly 90° offset from each other, suggesting the maximum contractional stresses leading to large mountain formation are not a direct result of tidal extension. Rather, these results corroborate the model of volcanic loading of the crust and global shortening, leading to thrust faulting and uplift of coherent crustal blocks. Several paterae, such as Hi'iaka and Tohil, are found adjacent to mountains inside extensional basins where lava has migrated up normal faults to erupt onto patera floors. Over time, mass wasting and volcanic resurfacing can change mountains from young, steep, and angular peaks to older, gentler, and more rounded hills. Mass wasting scarps make up 53% of all features identified. The structural maps highlight the significant effect of mass wasting on Io's surface, the evolution of mountains through time, the role of tectonics in the formation of paterae, and the formation of mountains through global contraction due to volcanism.

  11. Topography of closed depressions, scarps, and grabens in the North Tharsis region of Mars: implications for shallow crustal discontinuities and graben formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1995-01-01

    Using Viking Orbiter images, detailed photoclinometric profiles were obtained across 10 irregular depressions, 32 fretted fractures, 49 troughs and pits, 124 solitary scarps, and 370 simple grabens in the north Tharsis region of Mars. These data allow inferences to be made on the shallow crustal structure of this region. The frequency modes of measured scarp heights correspond with previous general thickness estimates of the heavily cratered and ridged plains units. The depths of the flat-floored irregular depressions (55-175 m), fretted fractures (85-890 m), and troughs and pits (60-1620 m) are also similar to scarp heights (thicknesses) of the geologic units in which these depressions occur, which suggests that the depths of these flat-floored features were controlled by erosional base levels created by lithologic contacts. Although the features have a similar age, both their depths and their observed local structural control increase in the order listed above, which suggests that the more advanced stages of associated fracturing facilitated the development of these depressions by increasing permeability. If a ground-ice zone is a factor in development of these features, as has been suggested, our observation that the depths of these features decrease with increasing latitude suggests that either the thickness of the ground-ice zone does not increase poleward or the depths of the depressions were controlled by the top of the ground-ice zone whose depth may decrease with latitude. Deeper discontinuities are inferred from fault-intersection depths of 370 simple grabens (assuming 60° dipping faults that initiate at a mechanical discontinuity) in Tempe Terra and Alba Patera and from the depths of the large, flat-floored troughs in Tempe Terra. The frequency distributions of these fault-intersection and large trough depths show a concentration at 1.0-1.6 km depth, similar to data obtained for Syria, Sinai, and Lunae Plana. The consistency of these depth data over

  12. Time-Evolution and Thermal Mapping of Io's Loki Patera at High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kleer, Katherine R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; de Pater, Imke; Davies, Ashley; Conrad, Al; Caleb Resnick, Aaron; Hinz, Philip; Defrère, Denis; Veillet, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Observations of Loki Patera with Keck, Gemini N, and the Large Binocular Telescope have yielded a wealth of information in the past several years. Observations with adaptive optics at the Keck and Gemini N telescopes have captured multiple brightening events since 2009. High-cadence observations of the three most recent events place constraints on the thermal properties of the magma and indicate a dependency of the observed intensity on either viewing geometry or mean anomaly. Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) observations during a Europa mutual event have yielded the first-ever temperature map of the entire patera floor at high spatial resolution. M-band (4.7-micron) images were recorded during the event at a cadence of 123 milliseconds, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 10 km across the entire ~200-km patera. This represents a factor of 40 improvement over the spatial resolution achieved by standard adaptive optics imaging with a 10-m telescope at this wavelength. A map of the lava age distribution within the patera is derived from the temperature map using models for cooling basaltic lavas, and the resurfacing rate is calculated. This age distribution, as well as the locations of emission derived from the Keck and Gemini N observations, suggests that resurfacing proceeds in a clockwise direction, contrary to previous findings. All data are consistent with resurfacing by an overturn front on a magma sea, but other resurfacing mechanisms are not ruled out.

  13. Tracking Topographic Changes from Multitemporal Stereo Images, Application to the Nili Patera Dune Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.; Leprince, S.; Lucas, A.

    2012-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) in orbit around Mars provides images with a nominal ground resolution of 25cm. Its agility allows imaging a same scene with stereo view angles thus allowing for for Digital elevation Model (DEM) extraction through stereo-photogrammetry. This dataset thus offers an exceptional opportunity to measure the topography with high precision and track its eventual evolution with time. In this presentation, we will discuss how multi-temporal acquisitions of HiRISE images of the Nili Patera dune field allow tracking ripples migration, assess sand fluxes and dunes activity. We investigated in particular the use of multi-temporal DEMs to monitor the migration and morphologic evolution of the dune field. We present here the methodology used and the various challenges that must be overcome to best exploit the multi-temporal images. Two DEMs were extracted from two stereo images pairs acquired 390 earth days apart in 2010-2011 using SOCET SET photogrammetry software, with a 1m post-spacing and a vertical accuracy of few tens of centimeters. Prior to comparison the DEMs registration, which was not precise enough out of SOCET-SET, was improved by wrapping the second DEM onto the first one using the bedrock only as a support for registration. The vertical registration residual was estimated at around 40cm RMSE and is mostly due to CCD misalignment and uncorrected spacecraft attitudes. Changes of elevation over time are usually determined from DEMs differentiation: provided that DEMs are perfectly registered and sampled on the same grid, this approach readily quantifies erosion and deposition processes. As the dunes have moved horizontally, they are not physically aligned anymore in the DEMs, and their morphologic evolution cannot be recovered easily from differentiating the DEMs. In this particular setting the topographic evolution is best recovered from correlation of the DEMs. We measure that the fastest dunes have migrated by

  14. Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

  15. Absence of silicic volcanism on Mars - Implications for crustal composition and volatile abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    It is believed that explosive basic to ultrabasic eruptions may be responsible for small cinder conelike features on Mars and perhaps for the ancient flank-scoured paterae. Eruptions of this type may have been driven by near-surface water/ice-magma interactions or volatile rich magmas. Noting that the paterae represent a unique style of volcanism that stopped approximately 2 b.y. ago, it is suggested that the volatiles associated with these features were derived from mantle sources and that the cessation of patera formation may coincide with the termination of the period of maximum planetary degassing. Since approximately 2 b.y. ago volcanism has been dominantly effusive, except for such minor explosive ash events as those that blanketed part of the summit of Hecates Tholus. It is proposed that such eruptions were driven by volatiles generated by differentiation of a magma chamber, similar to Icelandic explosive eruptions.

  16. Topographic mapping of paterae and layered plains on Io using photoclinometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    have generated regional scale photoclinometry digital elevation models (DEMs) from Voyager and Galileo imagery of Io that resolve small-scale topographic features including paterae and layered plains. Given the difficulty of applying this technique to Io due to its anomalous surface albedo properties, we have experimented extensively with the relevant procedures in order to generate what we consider to be the most reliable DEMs. The DEMs have been used to gauge the depths of 23 paterae and the heights of 12 layered plains outcrops, and we find the very similar relief and frequent close association of the two landforms to support the existence of a mixed silicate-volatile layer covering much of the surface of Io.

  17. Geology of the Uranius Group Volcanic Constructs: Uranius Patera, Ceraunius Tholus, and Uranius Tholus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plescia, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Uranius Patera, Ceraunius Tholus, and Uranius Tholus (three small constructs in the northeast Tharsis region) date to the Late Hesperian Epoch and define the earliest phases of constructional volcanism in the Tharsis province. All three volcanoes are interpreted as shields, built by effusive eruptions of low-viscosity lavas, presumably basalt. Ceraunius Tholus and Uranius Tholus also record pyroclastic volcanism in the form of mantling deposits on their flanks; Uranius Patera either did not experience pyroclastic volcanism or the deposits were subsequently buried by later effusive eruptions. Troughs observed on the flanks of Ceraunius Tholus and Uranius Tholus are interpreted to have been formed by fluvial surface runoff. These constructs are coeval with other small edifices in western Tharsis province and are coeval with plains volcanism in the southern Tharsis, Syria, and Sinai regions. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  18. "Active" and "Passive" Lava Resurfacing Processes on Io: A Comparative Study of Loki Patera and Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Matson, D. L.; Leone, G.; Wilson, L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data and ground based data of volcanism at Prometheus and Loki Patera on Io reveal very different mechanisms of lava emplacement at these two volcanoes. Data analyses show that the periodic nature of Loki Patera s volcanism from 1990 to 2001 is strong evidence that Loki s resurfacing over this period resulted from the foundering of a crust on a lava lake. This process is designated passive , as there is no reliance on sub-surface processes: the foundering of the crust is inevitable. Prometheus, on the other hand, displays an episodicity in its activity which we designate active . Like Kilauea, a close analog, Prometheus s effusive volcanism is dominated by pulses of magma through the nearsurface plumbing system. Each system affords views of lava resurfacing processes through modelling.

  19. Potential Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites West and South of Apollinaris Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2001-01-01

    Apollinaris provides an exceptional site for astrobiological, geological, and climatalogical purposes. Fluvial (including ground water sapping) and associated processes were likely pervasive from the late Noachian, through the Hesperian, and into the Amazonian. Long-lived and large scale hydrothermal systems were certainly present throughout much if not all of this period. Thermal springs likely persisted for long periods. Water from the highlands via Ma'adim Valles and other smaller valley networks deposited highland-derived material in the area. In short, Apollinaris provides an excellent variety of rock types and ages and may preserve evidence of biologic or pre-biologic processes in associated thermal spring deposits.

  20. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    ). The medium-resolution Viking images used for mapping and base preparation also formed the basis of the 1:2,000,000 scale subquadrangle series. Earlier geologic maps of all or parts of the region include: (1) maps of the Phoenicis Lacus, Coprates, Thaumasia, and Argyre quadrangles at 1:5,000,000 scale based mainly on Mariner 9 images (respectively, Masursky and others, 1978; McCauley, 1978; McGill, 1978; and Hodges, 1980), (2) the global map of Mars at 1:25,000,000 (Scott and Carr, 1978) compiled largely from the 1:5,000,000 scale geologic maps, (3) maps showing lava flows in the Tharsis region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking and Mariner 9 images (Scott, 1981; Scott and Tanaka, 1981a, b; Scott and others, 1981), (4) the map of the western equatorial region of Mars at 1:15,000,000 scale based on Viking images (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), and (5) the map of the Valles Marineris region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking images (Witbeck and others, 1991). The previous maps have described the overall geology and geomorphology of the region but have not unraveled the detailed stratigraphy and complex evolution of this unique and geologically diverse martian province. The main purpose of this comprehensive mapping project is to reconstruct the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories of the Thaumasia region. The region is the last major province of the Tharsis region to undergo detailed structural mapping using Viking images; its history is essential to documenting the overall tectonic history of Tharsis. Other provinces of Tharsis that have been structurally mapped include Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988), Tempe Terra and Ulysses Patera (Scott and Dohm, 1990b), and Alba Patera (Tanaka, 1990). Another primary mapping objective is to determine the region's volcanic history and assess the relations among fault systems and volcanoes (Wise and others, 1979; Scott and Tanaka, 1980; Whitford-Stark, 1982; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). A secondary mapping

  1. The Circum-Hellas Volcanic Province, Mars: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald; Fergason, Robin L.; Kuzmin, Ruslan; McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean-Phillipe; Head, James W.; Xiao, Long; Manfredi, Leon; Poulet, François; Pinet, Patrick; Baratoux, David; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Raitala, Jouko; Neukum, Gerhard; the HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    2009-07-01

    Building on previous studies of volcanoes around the Hellas basin with new studies of imaging (High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Context Imager (CTX)), multispectral (HRSC, Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA)), topographic (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)) and gravity data, we define a new Martian volcanic province as the Circum-Hellas Volcanic Province (CHVP). With an area of >2.1 million km 2, it contains the six oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars, which formed after the Hellas impact basin, between 4.0 and 3.6 Ga. These volcanoes mark a transition from the flood volcanism that formed Malea Planum ˜3.8 Ga, to localized edifice-building eruptions. The CHVP volcanoes have two general morphologies: (1) shield-like edifices (Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites Paterae), and (2) caldera-like depressions surrounded by ridged plains (Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa Paterae). Positive gravity anomalies are found at Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites, perhaps indicative of dense magma bodies below the surface. The lack of positive-relief edifices and weak gravity anomalies at Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa suggest a fundamental difference in their formation, styles of eruption, and/or compositions. The northernmost volcanoes, the ˜3.7-3.9 Ga Tyrrhena and Hadriaca Paterae, have low slopes, well-channeled flanks, and smooth caldera floors (at tens of meters/pixel scale), indicative of volcanoes formed from poorly consolidated pyroclastic deposits that have been modified by fluvial and aeolian erosion and deposition. The ˜3.6 Ga Amphitrites Patera also has a well-channeled flank, but it and the ˜3.8 Ga Peneus Patera are dominated by scalloped and pitted terrain, pedestal and ejecta flow craters, and a general 'softened' appearance. This morphology is indicative not only of surface materials subjected to

  2. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Giovanni; Davies, Ashley G.; Wilson, Lionel; Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle.

  3. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, G.; Gerard, Davies A.; Wilson, L.; Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Tyrrhena-Malea Volcanic Province, Mars: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Greeley, R.; Ferguson, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McCord, T.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.; Xiao, L.; Manfredi, L.; Poulet, F.; Pinet, P.; Baratoux, D.; Plaut, J. J.; Raitala, J.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Building on previous studies of volcanoes around the Hellas basin with new studies of imaging (HRSC, THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, CTX), multispectral (HRSC, OMEGA), topographic (MOLA) and gravity data, we define a new Martian volcanic province as the Tyrrhena-Malea Volcanic Province (T-MVP). With an area of >2.1 million sq. km, it contains the six oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars, which formed after the Hellas impact basin, between 4.0 to 3.6 Ga. These volcanoes mark a transition from the flood volcanism that formed Malea Planum ~3.8 Ga, to localized point source eruptions. The T-MVP volcanoes have two general morphologies: 1) shieldlike edifices (Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites Paterae), and 2) caldera-like depressions surrounded by ridged plains (Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa Paterae). Positive gravity anomalies are found at Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites, perhaps indicative of dense magma bodies below the surface. The lack of shield-like edifices and weak gravity anomalies at Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa suggest a fundamental difference in their formation, styles of eruption, and/or compositions. The northernmost volcanoes, the ~3.7- 3.9 Ga Tyrrhena and Hadriaca Paterae, have low slopes, well-channeled flanks, and smooth caldera floors (at tens of meters/pixel scale), indicative of ash shields formed from poorly-consolidated pyroclastic deposits that have been modified by fluvial and aeolian erosion and deposition. The ~3.6 Ga Amphitrites Patera also has a well-channeled flank, but it and the ~3.8 Ga Peneus Patera are dominated by scalloped and pitted terrain, pedestal and ejecta flow craters, and a general `softened' appearance. This morphology is indicative not only of surface materials subjected to periglacial processes involving water ice, but also of a surface composed of easily eroded materials such as ash and dust. The southernmost volcanoes, the ~3.8 Ga Malea and Pityusa Paterae, have no channeled flanks, no scalloped and pitted terrain, and lack the

  5. Explosive mafic volcanism on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1993-01-01

    Deposits within Amazonia Planitia, Mars, have been interpreted as ignimbrite plains on the basis of their erosional characteristics. The western flank of Hecates Tholus appears to be mantled by an airfall deposit, which was produced through magma-water interactions or exsolution of magmatic volatiles. Morphologic studies, along with numerical and analytical modeling of Martian plinian columns and pyroclastic flows, suggest that shield materials of Tyrrhena and Hadriaca paterae are composed of welded pyroclastic flows. Terrestrial pyroclastic flows, ignimbrites, and airfall deposits are typically associated with silicic volcanism. Because it is unlikely that large volumes of silicic lavas have been produced on Mars, we seek terrestrial analogs of explosives, mafic volcanism. Plinian basaltic airfall deposits have been well-documented at Masaya, Nicaragua, and basaltic ignimbrite and surge deposits also have been recognized there. Ambrym and Yasour, both in Vanuatu, are mafic stratovolcanioes with large central calderas, and are composed of interbedded basaltic pyrocalstic deposits and lava flows. Zavaritzki, a mafic stratovolcano in the Kurile Islands, may have also produced pyroclastic deposits, although the exact nature of these deposits in unknown. Masaya, Ambrym and Yasour are known to be located above tensional zones. Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae may also be located above zones of tension, resulting from the formation and evolution of Hellas basin, and, thus, may be directly analogous to these terrestrial mafic, explosive volcanoes.

  6. Channels and valley networks. [of planet Mars surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Carr, Michael H.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Williams, Cameron R.; Marley, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Martian channels and valley networks, since they have become a principal element of evidence to the effect that the Martian atmosphere evolved from an early volatile-rich state to its present condition. The outflow channels are relatively young, later Hesperian or Amazonian in age. They formed by immense outbursts of fluid from subsurface sources. Complexity in outflow-channel morphology was generated by varying amounts of sediment and ice in the aqueous-fluid flow systems. The overall cataclysmic-flood morphology may thus be locally transitional to morphologies generated by ice and debris flowage. Although local areas of valley networks, such as on Alba Patera, formed coevally with outflow channel activity, regionally extensive networks dominate in the heavily cratered terrains. The morphology of many valleys suggests genesis by ground-water sapping; for some valleys, surface runoff may have been more important.

  7. Chronology, eruption duration, and atmospheric contribution of the Martian volcano Apollinaris Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Mark S.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.; Wu, Sherman S. C.; Ablin, Karyn K.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the geology, physical properties, and topography of Apollinaris Patera which was performed on the basis of geologic mapping, thermal inertia measurements, and analysis of the color (visual wavelengths) of this Martian volcano. Initially, the main edifice was formed over a period of about 10 exp 7 yr, and then the volcano experienced a period of quiescence during which the basal scarp formed and the valleys were incised in the main flanks. Activity at the summit formed the present large outer caldera and floor materials. After, or during late stages of outer calder activity, the materials that formed the fan were erupted over 10,000 yr. After emplacement of the fan materials, the smaller, inner caldera and associated floor materials formed over an unconstrained time period. Morphologic analysis suggests that a significant portion of the main edifice is composed of poorly to nonwelded pyroclastic deposits, possibly including a phreatomagmatic component.

  8. Relationships Between Paterae, Mountains, and Hotspots on Io from a Global Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radebaugh, J.; Jaeger, W. L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Turtle, E. P.; Milazzo, M. P.; Perry, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Lopes, R.; Davies, A. G.; Geissler, P.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the Galileo spacecraft s tour of the Jupiter system is over, we seek to integrate all available datasets in the hopes of understanding Io as completely as possible. We have compiled information about the morphologies and locations of paterae (volcano-tectonic depressions), mountains, and hotspots on Io in a single database. It is our hope that an analysis of the spatial and temporal relationships between these features will provide more indications of the nature of the crust of Io and the mechanisms leading to these features formation. Since Io s tidal heat escapes through its crust, more knowledge about the crust will lead to an understanding of internal processes, such as magma generation and delivery to the surface, and magnitude and orientation of internal stresses.

  9. Gish Bar Patera, Io: Geology and Volcanic Activity, 1996-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jason; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly; McEwen, Alfred; Keszthelyi, Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    Since the two Voyagers passed by Jupiter in 1979, it has been known that volcanic activity is ubiquitous on the surface of Io. With over 400 volcanic centers, Io is even more volcanically active than the earth with massive flood basalt-style eruptions and komatitite lavas a common occurrence. Additionally, some volcanoes appear to be giant lava lakes, with violent activity churning the crust of the lake for periods of 20 years or more. Finally, sulfur is believed to play a large role in Io's volcanism, be it as a primary lava or as a secondary product of large, high-temperature eruptions. By studying one volcano in particular, Gish Bar Patera, one can observe many of these characteristics in one volcanic center.

  10. Effusion Rate Variability at Zamama, Culann, Tupan Patera and Prometheus on Io during the Galileo Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Ennis, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Zamama, Culann, and Tupan Patera are three large, persistent volcanic centers on the jovian moon Io. As part of an ongoing project to quantify contributions from individual volcanic centers to Io's thermal budget, we have quantified the radiant flux and effusion rates from all suitable observations made by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) of these volcanoes [1], in some cases filling omissions in previous analyses. Eruption rates at these three volcanoes are on the order of 30 m3 s-1, consistent with a previous analysis of NIMS observations of Prometheus [2], and nearly an order of magnitude greater than Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i, Earth's most active volcano. We propose that future missions to the jovian system could better constrain activity at these volcanoes and others where similar styles of activity are taking place by obtaining data on a time scale of, ideally, at least one observation per day.

  11. Chronology, Eruption Duration, and Atmospheric Contribution of the Martian Volcano Apollinaris Patera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Wu, S.S.C.; Ablin, K.K.; Howington-Kraus, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Geologic mapping, thermal inertia measurements, and an analysis of the color (visual wavelengths) of the martian volcano Apollinaris Patera indicate the existence of two different surface materials, comprising an early, easily eroded edifice, and a more recent, competent fan on the southern flank. A chronology of six major events that is consistent with the present morphology of the volcano has been identified. We propose that large scale explosive activity occurred during the formation of the main edifice and that the distinctive fan on the southern flank appears to have been formed by lavas of low eruptive rate similar to those that form compound pahoehoe flow fields on Earth. A basal escarpment typically 500 m in relief and morphologically similar to the one surrounding Olympus Mons was produced between the formation of the main edifice and the fan, indicating multistage eruptions over a protracted period of time. Contact relations between the volcanic units and the adjacent chaotic material indicate that formation of the chaotic material occurred over an extended period of time and may be related to the volcanic activity that formed Apollinaris Patera. Stereophotogrammetric measurements permit the volume of the volcano to be estimated at 105 km3. From this volume measurement and an inferred eruption rate (1.5 ?? 10-2 km3 yr-1) we estimate the total eruption duration for the main edifice to be ???107 yrs. Plausible estimates of the exsolved volatile content of the parent magma imply that greater than 1015 kg of water vapor was released into the atmosphere as a consequence of this activity. This large amount of water vapor as well as other exsolved gases must have had a significant impact on local, and possibly global, climatic conditions. ?? 1993 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of the east rim of the Hellas basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, David A.; Price, Katherine H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The Hellas basin is a dominant feature in the ancient, southern cratered highlands of Mars. The east rim of Hellas is a complex geologic region affected by volcanism, tectonism, and channeling. A detailed study of the area between 27.5-42.4 degrees S and 260-275 degrees W was initiated to analyze the processes forming surface materials and to decipher the evolution of this geologically important highland area. Major units include Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae in the north and Hesperian and Amazonian channeled plains and outflow channels in the south. A brief discussion of the findings is presented.

  13. Classification of volcanoes of the Kane Patera Quadrangle of Io: Proportions of lava flows and pyroclastic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager 1 images show 14 volcanic centers wholly or partly within the Kane Patera quadrangle of Io, which are divided into four major classes: (1) shield with parallel flows; (2) shield with early radial fan shapd flows; (3) shield with radial fan shaped flows, surfaces of flows textured with longitudinal ridges; and (4) depression surrounded by plateau-forming scarp-bounded, untextured deposits. The interpretation attempted here hinges largely on the ability to distinguish lava flows from pyroclastic flows by remote sensing.

  14. Charting thermal emission variability at Pele, Janus Patera and Kanehekili Fluctus with the Galileo NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence V.

    2012-09-01

    Using the NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED), a collection of over 1000 measurements of radiant flux from Io’s volcanoes (Davies, A.G. et al. [2012]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L01201. doi:10.1029/2011GL049999), we have examined the variability of thermal emission from three of Io’s volcanoes: Pele, Janus Patera and Kanehekili Fluctus. At Pele, the 5-μm thermal emission as derived from 28 night time observations is remarkably steady at 37 ± 10 GW μm-1, re-affirming previous analyses that suggested that Pele an active, rapidly overturning silicate lava lake. Janus Patera also exhibits relatively steady 5-μm thermal emission (≈20 ± 3 GW μm-1) in the four observations where Janus is resolved from nearby Kanehekili Fluctus. Janus Patera might contain a Pele-like lava lake with an effusion rate (QF) of ≈40-70 m3 s-1. It should be a prime target for a future mission to Io in order to obtain data to determine lava eruption temperature. Kanehekili Fluctus has a thermal emission spectrum that is indicative of the emplacement of lava flows with insulated crusts. Effusion rate at Kanehekili Fluctus dropped by an order of magnitude from ≈95 m3 s-1 in mid-1997 to ≈4 m3 s-1 in late 2001.

  15. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  16. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  17. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  18. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  19. Temperature, age and crust thickness distributions of Loki Patera on Io: implications for resurfacing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    A high-spatial-resolution, multi-wavelength observation by the Galileo NIMS instrument has been analysed to determine the temperature and area distribution of a large portion of the ionian volcano Loki Patera. The temperatures of the cooler components from a two-temperature fit to the data can be used to determine ages of the surface. The age of the floor along a profile across the floor of the caldera ranges from 10 to 80 days. This puts the start of the resurfacing in July/early August 2001, yielding a resurfacing rate of approximately 1 km/day, with the new lava spreading from the SW corner of the caldera in a NE direction. This rate is consistent with resurfacing by foundering of the crust on a lava lake. However,the temperature distribution may also result from the emplacement of flows. Implied crust thicknesses (derived using a lava cooling model) range from 2.6 to 0.9 m.

  20. Measuring sand flux on Mars using HiRISE Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.; Avouac, J.; Leprince, S.; Lucas, A.; Mattson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As wind is the major agent of sediment transport on Mars, a quantitative estimate of aeolian processes is therefore essential to assess recent geological evolution and current climate. We adapted the Co-registration of Optically Sensed Image and Correlation (COSI-Corr) toolbox to the MRO HiRISE imager specifications to produce a dense map of the ripples migration on the surface of the Martian dunes on the Nili Patera area. The ripple migration rate, along with an estimate of the ripple height, were used to derive the sand flux, a key quantity that controls the style and rate of landscape evolution. Using the dunes shape, size, and height, which were extracted from a DEM of the dune field, we show that the dunes are near steady state, and we observe that dune migration rate varies inversely with size and position within the dune field. The time scale associated with the formation and evolution of the Nili Patera dune field, estimated from comparing the sand volume with the sand flux and the dunes migration rates with the length scale of the dune field, is on the order of 10s to 100s of thousands Earth years. However, sand fluxes at the dune crests are 0.7 - 4.8 m3 m-1 per Earth year, which is comparable to that of dunes in Victoria Valley, Antarctica. This implies that rates of landscape modification from aeolian abrasion on Mars may be comparable to that on Earth.

  1. Observations and temperatures of Io's Pele Patera from Cassini and Galileo spacecraft images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Turtle, E.P.; Dawson, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pele has been the most intense high-temperature hotspot on Io to be continuously active during the Galileo monitoring from 1996-2001. A suite of characteristics suggests that Pele is an active lava lake inside a volcanic depression. In 2000-2001, Pele was observed by two spacecraft, Cassini and Galileo. The Cassini observations revealed that Pele is variable in activity over timescales of minutes, typical of active lava lakes in Hawaii and Ethiopia. These observations also revealed that the short-wavelength thermal emission from Pele decreases with rotation of Io by a factor significantly greater than the cosine of the emission angle, and that the color temperature becomes more variable and hotter at high emission angles. This behavior suggests that a significant portion of the visible thermal emission from Pele comes from lava fountains within a topographically confined lava body. High spatial resolution, nightside images from a Galileo flyby in October 2001 revealed a large, relatively cool (< 800 K) region, ringed by bright hotspots, and a central region of high thermal emission, which is hypothesized to be due to fountaining and convection in the lava lake. Images taken through different filters revealed color temperatures of 1500 ?? 80 K from Cassini ISS data and 1605 ?? 220 and 1420 ?? 100 K from small portions of Galileo SSI data. Such temperatures are near the upper limit for basaltic compositions. Given the limitations of deriving lava eruption temperature in the absence of in situ measurement, it is possible that Pele has lavas with ultramafic compositions. The long-lived, vigorous activity of what is most likely an actively overturning lava lake in Pele Patera indicates that there is a strong connection to a large, stable magma source region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Search for Mars lander/rover/sample-return sites: A status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masursky, Harold; Dial, A. L., Jr.; Morris, E. C.; Strobell, M. E.; Applebee, D. J.; Chapman, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    Ten Mars sites were studied in the USA for four years. The sites are the Chasma Boreale (North Pole), Planum Australe (South Pole), Olympus Rupes, Mangala Valles, Memnonia Sulci, Candor Chasma, Kasel Valles, Nilosyrtis Mensae, Elysium Montes, and Apollinaris Patera. Seven sites are being studied by the USSR; their prime sites are located at the east mouth of Kasel Valles and near Uranius Patera. Thirteen geological maps of the first six USA sites are compiled and in review. Maps of the Mangala East and West sites at 1:1/2 million scale and a 1:2 million scale map show evidence of three episodes of small-channel formation interspersed with episodes of volcanism and tectonism that span the period from 3.5 to 0.6 b.y. ago. The tectonic and geological history of Mars, both ancient and modern, can be elucidated by sampling volcanic and fluvial geologic units at equatorial sites and layered deposits at polar sites. The evidence appears clear for multiple episodes of fluvial channeling, including some that are quite recent; this evidence contrasts with the theses of Baker and Partridge (1986) and many others that all channels are ancient. Verification of this hypothesis by Mars Observer will be an important step forward in the perception of the history of Mars.

  3. The summer 1997 eruption at Pillan Patera on Io: Implications for ultrabasic lava flow emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David A.; Davies, Ashley G.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Greeley, Ronald

    2001-12-01

    Galileo data and numerical modeling were used to investigate the summer 1997 eruption at Pillan Patera on Io. This event, now defined as ``Pillanian'' eruption style [Keszthelyi et al., this issue], included a high-temperature (>1600°C), possibly ultrabasic, 140-km-high plume eruption that deposited dark, orthopyroxene-rich pyroclastic material over >125,000 km2, followed by emplacement of dark flow-like material over >3100 km2 to the north of the caldera. We estimate that the high-temperature, energetic episode of this eruption had a duration of 52-167 days between May and September 1997, with peak eruption temperatures around June 28, 1997. Galileo 20 m pixel-1 images of part of the Pillan flow field show a widespread, rough, pitted surface that is unlike any flow surface we have seen before. We suggest that this surface may have resulted from (1) a fractured lava crust formed during rapid, low-viscosity lava surging, perhaps including turbulent flow emplacement; (2) disruption of the lava flow by explosive interaction with a volatile-rich substrate; or (3) a combination of 1 and 2 with or without accumulation of pyroclastic materials on the surface. Well-developed flow lobes are observed, suggesting that this is a relatively distal part of the flow field. Shadow measurements at flow margins indicate a thickness of ~8-10 m. We have modeled the emplacement of putative ultrabasic flows from the summer 1997 Pillan eruption using constraints from new Galileo data. Results suggest that either laminar sheet flows or turbulent channelized flows could have traveled 50-150 km on a flat, unobstructed surface, which is consistent with the estimated length of the Pillan flow field (~60 km). Our modeling suggests low thermal erosion rates (<0.1 m d-1), and that the formation of deep (>20 m) erosion channels was unlikely, especially distal to the source. We calculate a volumetric flow rate of ~2-7×103m3s-1, which is greater than those for typical Mauna Loa/Kilauea flows but

  4. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  5. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, Matthew; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our "lessons learned" from formative evaluation, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  6. In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

    1989-01-01

    Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

  7. [Quality assessment of sulfur-fumigated paeoniae alba radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Chen, Yu-Wu; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei-Yi; Jin, Hong-Yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The samples of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix acquired both by random spot check from domestic market and self-production by the research group in the laboratory were used to evaluate the effects of sulphur fumigation on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix by comparing sulfur-fumigated degree and character, the content of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and changes of the fingerprint. We used methods in Chinese Pharmacopeia to evaluate the character of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix and determinate the content of aulfur-fumigated paeoniflorin. LC-MS method was used to analyze paeoniflorin-converted products. HPLC fingerprint methods were established to evaluate the differences on quality by similarity. Results showed that fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix became white and its unique fragrance disappeared, along with the production of pungent sour gas. It also had a significant effect on paeoniflorin content. As sulfur smoked degree aggravated, paeoniflorin content decreased subsequently, some of which turned into paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and this change was not reversible. Fingerprint also showed obvious changes. Obviously, sulfur fumigation had severe influence on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix, but we can control the quality of the Paeoniae Alba Radix by testing the paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester content.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Volcanic Hotspots and Paterae on Io: Implications for Tidal Heating Models and Magmatic Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. W.; Beggan, C. D.; Lopes, R.; Williams, D. A.; Radenbaugh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Io, the innermost of Jupiter's Galilean satellites, is the most volcanically active body in the Solar. System. Io's global mean heat flow is approximately 2 W/square m, which is approximately 20 times larger than on Earth. High surface temperatures concentrate within "hotspots" and, to date, 172 Ionian hotspots have been identified by spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes. The Laplace resonance between Io, Europa, and Ganymede maintains these satellites in noncircular orbits and causes displacement of their tidal bulges as the overhead position of Jupiter changes for each moon. Gravitational interactions between Jupiter and Io dominate the orbital evolution of the Laplacian system and generate enormous heat within to as tidal energy is dissipated. If this energy were transferred out of Io at the same rate as it is generated, then the associated surface heat flux would be 2.24 +/- 0.45 W/square m. This estimate is in good agreement with observed global heat flow, but to better constrain tidal dissipation mechanisms and infer how thermal energy is transferred to Io's surface, it is critical to closely examine the spatial distribution of volcanic features. End-member tidal dissipation models either consider that heating occurs completely in the mantle, or completely in the asthenosphere. Mixed models typically favor one-third mantle and two-thirds asthenosphere heating. Recent models also consider the effects of mantle-asthenosphere boundary permeability and asthenospheric instabilities. Deep-mantle heating models predict maximum surface heat flux near the poles, whereas asthenosphere heating models predict maxima near the equator-particularly in the Sub-Jovian and Anti-Jovian hemispheres, with smaller maxima occurring at orbit tangent longitudes. Previous studies have examined the global distribution of Ionian hotspots and patera (i.e., irregular or complex craters with scalloped edges that are generally interpreted to be volcanic calderas), but in this study, we

  9. Paenibacillus alba nov., isolated from peat soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-06-01

    A white-colored bacterial strain designated J20-6(T) was isolated from peat soil collected in Russia. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the strain J20-6(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and the closest relatives were Paenibacillus frigoriresistens YIM 016(T) (98.2 %), Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050T(T) (97.9 %), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) (97.4 %), Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) (96.9 %), and Paenibacillus pectinilyticus RCB-08(T) (96.6 %). Cells are gram-positive, motile, facultative aerobic, endospore forming, and rod shaped. The cell wall contains MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major fatty acid is anteiso-C15:0, and the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of the strain J20-6(T) was 49.9 mol %. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic data clearly suggest that the strain J20-6(T) belongs to the novel member of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus alba sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is J20-6(T) (=KEMC 7302-005(T) = JCM 18165(T)).

  10. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  11. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubov, D.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, launching in December 1996 and landing on Mars on July 4, 1997, will demonstrate a low-cost delivery system to the surface of Mars for follow-on landers. Objectives are the return of engineering data, panoramic images of the Martian surface, microrover experiments, etc. A technical mission description is included.

  12. Are sinuous ridges and channel networks in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied a network of channels and ridges that are key to understanding the extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) geomorphology of Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. The branching pattern of the ridge and channel system is consistent with a fluvial origin, with cross sections of the channel and banks being reminiscent of fluvial v-shaped valleys. Possible fluvial explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels [e.g., 1] and eskers (sub-glacial, sediment-filled channels, e.g. [2]). Here, we present observations on the system and test the fluvial and fluvioglacial hypotheses.

  13. Uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of porcine linea alba.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Gerard M; Moerman, Kevin M; Takaza, Michael; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

    2015-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a severe complication post-laparoscopic/laparotomy surgery that is commonly associated with the linea alba. However, the few studies on the mechanical properties of the linea alba in the literature appear contradictory, possible due to challenges with the physical dimensions of samples and variations in protocol. This study focuses on the tensile mechanical characterisation of the porcine linea alba, as determined by uniaxial and equi-load biaxial testing using image-based strain measurement methods. Results show that the linea alba demonstrated a non-linear elastic, anisotropic behaviour which is often observed in biological soft tissues. The transverse direction (parallel to fibres) was found to be approximately eight times stiffer than the longitudinal (cross-fibre) direction under both uniaxial and equi-load biaxial loading. The equi-load biaxial tensile tests revealed that contraction could occur in the transverse direction despite increasing load, probably due to the anisotropy of the tissue. Optical surface marker tracking and digital image correlation methods were found to greatly improve the accuracy of stretch measurement, resulting in a 75% change in the apparent stiffness compared to using strain derived from machine cross-head displacement. Additionally, a finite element model of the experiments using a combination of an Ogden and fibre exponential power law model for the linea alba was implemented to quantify the effect of clamping and tissue dimensions (which are suboptimal for tensile testing) on the results. The preliminary model results were used to apply a correction factor to the uniaxial experimental data prior to inverse optimisation to derive best fit material parameters for the fibre reinforced Ogden model. Application of the model to the equi-load biaxial case showed some differences compared to the experimental data, suggesting a more complex anisotropic model may be necessary to capture biaxial behaviour. These

  14. Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2012-12-15

    Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

  15. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  16. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. PMID:26850343

  17. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E.; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds. PMID:21931523

  18. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.

  19. Volcano Flank Structures on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Byrne, P. K.; Mathieu, L.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    Shield volcanoes on Earth and Mars share common features, including calderas and pit crater chains. A set of structures present on the sides of several of the large shields on Mars are not regarded as having Earth analogues, however. Flank terraces are topographically subtle structures, characterised by a gentle convex profile and a distinctive "fish scale" imbricate distribution pattern. Magma chamber inflation, lithospheric flexure, flank relaxation, or gravitational slumping have been suggested as terrace formation mechanisms. Terraces on both Mars and Earth are clearly visible only in slope maps, and may thus escape visual detection in the field. We show that both Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Etna (Sicily) display the same characteristic "fish scale" terrace pattern. This pattern delineates structures that we contend are terrestrial flank terraces. Heterogeneities in volcano geometry, due to buttressing or extension, result in terrace distributions that are not as evenly circumferential as those on Mars. Plan and cross-sectional profiles, however, parallel those of the Martian structures. These structures may also be present on Alayta (Ethiopia), Santa Cruz (Galapagos), and Tendürek Dagi (Turkey). Another type of structure, larger and steeper than flank terraces but sharing a similar plan-view morphology, is also present on Mauna Lau and Etna. These "flank bulges" appear to correlate with structures on Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion), Cosiguina (Nicaragua), and Karthala (Comoros) on Earth, and Apollinaris Patera and Tharsis Tholus on Mars. Elsewhere (Paul K. Byrne et al., this volume) we argue that lithospheric flexure is a likely formation mechanism for Martian terraces. Flexure is active beneath Mauna Loa, and possibly under Etna, and so may also be responsible for terrestrial flank terraces. Scaled analogue models suggest that the larger flank bulges are due to magma intrusions derived from large chambers within these edifices. There is thus a strong

  20. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  1. Mining area environmental mercury assessment using Abias alba

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Bauleo, R.

    1992-07-01

    Several Hg biomonitors are used for environmental mercury assessment in mining areas. Among these, lichens are those most studied but other vegetal organisms are also employed, such as brooms, pine needles, and many other species. This paper reports the results of a mercury assessment at Mt. Amiata (Italy) based on the metal concentration in needles of Abies alba. Mt. Amiata is an area of Tuscany characterized by the presence of cinnabar deposits. The mercury extraction activity was ended in 1975, but the environment is still contaminated by the metal. Albies alba is a widespread conifer tree in Italy whose needles live about fourteen years. It is present not only in the woods but also in many parks and gardens. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. LINEA ALBA COLLAGEN ASSESSMENT IN MORBIDLY OBESE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    GROSSI, João Vicente Machado; NICOLA, Felipe Fernandes; ZEPEDA, Ivan Alberto; BECKER, Martina; TRINDADE, Eduardo Neubarth; DIEMEN, Vinicius Von; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti; TRINDADE, Manoel Roberto Maciel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The evaluation of collagen in the abdominal wall has been increasingly studied because of the relevance on collagen in the healing process after laparotomy. Aim: To evaluate the amount of collagen in the linea alba of patients undergoing laparotomic bariatric surgery and comparing with non-obese cadavers. Methods: Were evaluated 88 samples of aponeurosis from abdominal linea alba of 44 obese patients (obesity group) and 44 non-obese cadavers (control group). The samples were collected in 2013 and 2104, and were sorted according to age (18-30, 31-45 and 46-60), gender, BMI, waist and cervical circumference, and subcutaneous tissue thickness. Material for biopsy was collected from the supraumbilical region of the linea alba for immunohistochemical analysis differentiating collagen type 1 and type 3 and the 1/3 ratio. Image-Pro Plus pixel counting software was used to measure the amount of collagen. Results: The obesity group evidenced mean age 44.11±9.90 years; 18-30 age group had three (6.8%) obese individuals; 31-45 had 22 (50%) and 46-60 had 19 (43.1%). Females were present in 81.8% (n=36); BMI (kg/m²) was 48.81±6.5; waist circumference (cm) was 136.761±13.55; subcutaneous tissue thickness (cm) 4.873±0.916. Considering age groups, gender and BMI, there were statistical differences in all tests when compared with the cadavers. Conclusion: The amount of collagen in the linea alba above the umbilical region in the morbidly obese patients was smaller than in the non-obese cadavers in the same age group. PMID:27683766

  3. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  4. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  5. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  6. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  7. Mars resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-05-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  8. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  9. The variability of volcanic activity at Zamama, Culann, and Tupan Patera on Io as seen by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Ennis, Megan Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Zamama, Culann, and Tupan Patera are three large, persistent volcanic centers on the jovian moon Io. As part of an ongoing project to quantify contributions from individual volcanic centers to Io's thermal budget, we have quantified the radiant flux from all suitable observations made by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) of these volcanoes, in some cases filling omissions in previous analyses. At Zamama, after a long period of cooling, we see a peak in thermal emission that corresponds with new plume activity. Subsequently, toward the end of the Galileo epoch, thermal emission from Zamama drops off in a manner consistent with a greatly reduced eruption rate and the cooling of emplaced flows. Culann exhibits possible episodic activity. We present the full Tupan Patera NIMS dataset and derive new estimates of thermal output and temporal behavior. Eruption rates at these three volcanoes are on the order of 30 m 3 s -1, consistent with a previous analysis of NIMS observations of Prometheus, and nearly an order of magnitude greater than Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i, Earth's most active volcano. We propose that future missions to the jovian system could better constrain activity at these volcanoes and others where similar styles of activity are taking place by obtaining data on a time scale of, ideally, at least one observation per day. Observations at similar or even shorter timescales are desirable during initial waxing phases of eruption episodes. These eruptions are identifiable from their characteristic spectral signatures and temporal behavior.

  10. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  11. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  12. The dynamics of pyroclastic density currents on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, B. D.; Clarke, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    The products of explosive volcanism have long been observed on the surface of Mars, and their corresponding dynamics, associated with phenomenon such as dike propagation, magma fragmentation, and eruption columns under Martian conditions, have been modeled with significant success (e.g., Wilson, L., J. W. Head (1994), Mars- Review and analysis of volcanic eruption theory and relationships to observed landforms, Rev. Geophy, 32, 221-263). However, the dynamics of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) under Martian conditions is still poorly constrained. Our increasing capability to image the surface at high resolution, both from orbit and from rovers, presents an opportunity for more rigorous deposit observations and descriptions. For example, observations and measurements from Orbiters identify what have been interpreted as extensive aprons of volcanic ash deposits in several volcanic regions, namely those surrounding several southern highland patera, which have been interpreted as the deposits of PDCs. In addition the bedded deposits identified by the Spirit rover at “Home Plate,” an outcrop within the Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater, have been interpreted by many as the deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents. This demonstrates that the need to understand the role of the Martian atmosphere on flow dynamics and depositional processes is much more important and relevant than it has been in the past. We have developed a quantitative, axi-symmetric model for flow of and sedimentation from a steady-state, vertically uniform dilute density current for application to PDCs on Earth and Mars (following Bursik, M. I., A. W. Woods, 1996, The dynamics and thermodynamics of large ash flows, Bull Volcan, 58, 175-193). The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are solved simultaneously, and include the effects of atmospheric entrainment, particle sedimentation, basal friction, temperature changes, and variations in current thickness and density. For a given set of

  13. Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These maps are global false-color topographic views of Mars at different orientations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The maps are orthographic projections that contain over 200,000,000 points and about 5,000,000 altimetric crossovers. The spatial resolution is about 15 kilometers at the equator and less at higher latitudes. The vertical accuracy is less than 5 meters. The right hand image view features the Hellas impact basin (in purple, with red annulus of high standing material). The left hand features the Tharsis topographic rise (in red and white). Note also the subtle textures associated with resurfacing of the northern hemisphere lowlands in the vicinity of the Utopia impact basin. These data were compiled by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Team led by David Smith at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

  14. Cracky Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cracked, layered plains-forming material in the western part of Utopia Planitia, Mars. Investigators have speculated that ice might be -- or might once have been -- present in the ground, and changes in temperature and the amount of ice over time may have led to the formation of these cracks. But no one is certain just how these features formed.

    Location near: 45.0oN, 276.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  15. Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

    2013-03-01

    The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

  16. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analyses of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles are being used to characterize the Reull Vallis (RV) system and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives for these quadrangles include 1) characterization of RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examination of young (?), presumably sedimentary plains along RV that embay the surrounding highlands, and 4) determination of the nature of the connection between segments 1 and 2 of RV.

  17. Feldspathic rocks on Mars: Compositional constraints from infrared spectroscopy and possible formation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Nekvasil, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    Rare feldspar-dominated surfaces on Mars were previously reported based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral data and were interpreted to consist of anorthosite or felsic rocks. Using thermal infrared (TIR) data over the feldspar detections with the largest areal extent in Nili Patera and Noachis Terra, we rule out felsic interpretations. Basaltic or anorthositic compositions are consistent with TIR measurements, but the geologic contexts for these regions do not support a plutonic origin. Laboratory NIR spectral measurements demonstrate that large plagioclase crystals (>~840 µm) can be detected in mixtures with as much as 50 vol % mafics, which is higher than the previously stated requirement of no more than 15% mafics. Thus, anorthositic or felsic interpretations need not be invoked for all NIR-based feldspar detections. Plagioclase-enriched basaltic eruptive products can be formed from Martian basalts through partial crystallization at the base of a thick crust, followed by low-pressure crystallization of the residual liquids.

  18. Spectral identification of geological units on the surface of Mars related to the presence of silicates from earth-based near-infrared telescopic charge-coupled device imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge

    1990-08-01

    During the September 1988 Mars opposition, new high spatial (100-150 km) and spectral resolution near-IR telescopic CCD images of Mars were obtained from Pic-du-Midi Observatory. These images allow the association of spectral units with morphologic surface units on Mars, especially within the dark regions which exhibit much greater variability than the bright regions. Mineralogical interpretation of the data leads to a global description of the surface state of alteration consistent with the spatial distribution of bright and dark regions, with the bright regions being more altered than the dark. Within the less altered regions, Fe(2+) crystal field absorption bands are detected, indicative of the presence of mafic minerals in agreement with a likely crustal basaltic composition. The most conspicuous Fe(2+) absorption features are clearly related to the volcanic regions of the Syrtis Major Shield and Hesperia Planum unit. The strongest observed absorptions due to olivine and clinopyroxene are spatially associated with the restricted central caldera complex of Nili-Meroe Paterae (within Syrtis Major) and the Tyrrhena Patera unit (within Hesperia Planum) and indicate an ultramafic composition.

  19. Differential Subcellular Localization of Leishmania Alba-Domain Proteins throughout the Parasite Development

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Aurélien; Dumas, Carole; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alba-domain proteins are RNA-binding proteins found in archaea and eukaryotes and recently studied in protozoan parasites where they play a role in the regulation of virulence factors and stage-specific proteins. This work describes in silico structural characterization, cellular localization and biochemical analyses of Alba-domain proteins in Leishmania infantum. We show that in contrast to other protozoa, Leishmania have two Alba-domain proteins, LiAlba1 and LiAlba3, representative of the Rpp20- and the Rpp25-like eukaryotic subfamilies, respectively, which share several sequence and structural similarities but also important differences with orthologs in other protozoa, especially in sequences targeted for post-translational modifications. LiAlba1 and LiAlba3 proteins form a complex interacting with other RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal subunits, and translation factors as supported by co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis. A higher co-sedimentation of Alba proteins with ribosomal subunits was seen upon conditions of decreased translation, suggesting a role of these proteins in translational repression. The Leishmania Alba-domain proteins display differential cellular localization throughout the parasite development. In the insect promastigote stage, Alba proteins co-localize predominantly to the cytoplasm but they translocate to the nucleolus and the flagellum upon amastigote differentiation in the mammalian host and are found back to the cytoplasm once amastigote differentiation is completed. Heat-shock, a major signal of amastigote differentiation, triggers Alba translocation to the nucleolus and the flagellum. Purification of the Leishmania flagellum confirmed LiAlba3 enrichment in this organelle during amastigote differentiation. Moreover, partial characterization of the Leishmania flagellum proteome of promastigotes and differentiating amastigotes revealed the presence of other RNA-binding proteins, as well as differences in

  20. Differential Subcellular Localization of Leishmania Alba-Domain Proteins throughout the Parasite Development.

    PubMed

    Dupé, Aurélien; Dumas, Carole; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alba-domain proteins are RNA-binding proteins found in archaea and eukaryotes and recently studied in protozoan parasites where they play a role in the regulation of virulence factors and stage-specific proteins. This work describes in silico structural characterization, cellular localization and biochemical analyses of Alba-domain proteins in Leishmania infantum. We show that in contrast to other protozoa, Leishmania have two Alba-domain proteins, LiAlba1 and LiAlba3, representative of the Rpp20- and the Rpp25-like eukaryotic subfamilies, respectively, which share several sequence and structural similarities but also important differences with orthologs in other protozoa, especially in sequences targeted for post-translational modifications. LiAlba1 and LiAlba3 proteins form a complex interacting with other RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal subunits, and translation factors as supported by co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis. A higher co-sedimentation of Alba proteins with ribosomal subunits was seen upon conditions of decreased translation, suggesting a role of these proteins in translational repression. The Leishmania Alba-domain proteins display differential cellular localization throughout the parasite development. In the insect promastigote stage, Alba proteins co-localize predominantly to the cytoplasm but they translocate to the nucleolus and the flagellum upon amastigote differentiation in the mammalian host and are found back to the cytoplasm once amastigote differentiation is completed. Heat-shock, a major signal of amastigote differentiation, triggers Alba translocation to the nucleolus and the flagellum. Purification of the Leishmania flagellum confirmed LiAlba3 enrichment in this organelle during amastigote differentiation. Moreover, partial characterization of the Leishmania flagellum proteome of promastigotes and differentiating amastigotes revealed the presence of other RNA-binding proteins, as well as differences in

  1. A Beam line for Macromolecular Crystallography in ALBA

    SciTech Connect

    Juanhuix, Jordi; Ferrer, Salvador

    2007-01-19

    ALBA is a third generation 3 GeV storage ring being built near Barcelona and foreseen to be operational in 2010. Out of the seven beamlines already funded in ALBA, one will be dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX). The beamline, dubbed XALOC, shall cope with a broad range of crystal structures and sizes. To this aim, a flexible optical design involving variable focusing optics has been incorporated into the beamline optics. The photon source will be a 2 m long, in-vacuum undulator with a period of 21.3 mm. The optics will consist in a Si(111), double-crystal monochromator cryogenically cooled, and a pair of mirrors placed in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. The beamline will deliver a high flux beam in the 5-15 keV energy range, with an energy resolution of {delta}E/E {approx}2 x 10-4. In addition to the main beamline, it is being considered the possibility to use a diamond laue monochromator to provide photons at a fixed wavelength to an ancillary branch. This report shows the present status of the beamline design.

  2. Large-scale volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Moosman, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The process of volcano-ground ice interaction on Mars is investigated by thermodynamic calculations and observations of Viking Orbiter images. We develop a numerical model of volcano-ground ice interaction that includes heat transport by conduction, radiation from the surface, heat transfer to the atmosphere, and H2O phase changes in an ice-rich permafrost. We consider eruption of lava flows over permafrost, and intrusion of sills into permafrost. For eruption of lava over permafrost, most of the heat in the flow is lost by radiation and atmospheric effects. The amount of H2O liquid and vapor produced is small, and its removal would not be sufficient to cause collapse that would lower the surface of the lava flow below the surrounding terrain. For intrusion of a sill, most of the heat in the sill eventually goes into H2O phase changes, producing much larger amounts of water that could have profound geomorphic and geochemical effects. Approximate meltwater discharge rates are calculated for both extrusive and intrusive interactions. We examine two large regions of large-scale volcano-ground ice interactions. Near Aeolis Mensae, intrusion of a complex of dikes and sills into ice-rich ground has produced substantial melting, with mobilization and flow of material. This interaction probably also produced large quantities of palagonite tuff and breccia. Morphologic evidence for progressive fluidization implies that meltwater was stored beneath the surface for some time, and that most of the release of water and volcanic mudflow took place late in the interaction. Northeast of Hellas, several large channels emanate from the area near the volcano Hadriaca Patera. If genetically related to the volcanic activity, large collapse features at the sources of some channels must have originated due to heat from large buried magma bodies. A channel emerging directly from the base of Hadriaca Patera may have originated from release of heat from thick extruded material. Other small

  3. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Azlan, Azrina; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Yeap, Swee Keong; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba) using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD), 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697097

  4. The mosaic of ancestral karyotype blocks in the Sinapis alba L. genome.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Parkin, Isobel A P; Lydiate, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    The organisation of the Sinapis alba genome, comprising 12 linkage groups (n = 12), was compared with the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype (AK) genomic blocks previously described in other crucifer species. Most of the S. alba genome falls into conserved triplicated genomic blocks that closely match the AK-defined genomic blocks found in other crucifer species including the A, B, and C genomes of closely related Brassica species. In one instance, an S. alba linkage group (S05) was completely collinear with one AK chromosome (AK1), the first time this has been observed in a member of the Brassiceae tribe. However, as observed for other members of the Brassiceae tribe, ancestral genomic blocks were fragmented in the S. alba genome, supporting previously reported comparative chromosome painting describing rearrangements of the AK karyotype prior to the divergence of the Brassiceae from other crucifers. The presented data also refute previous phylogenetic reports that suggest S. alba was more closely related to Brassica nigra (B genome) than to B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome). A comparison of the S. alba and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes revealed many regions of conserved gene order, which will facilitate access to the rich genomic resources available in the model species A. thaliana for genetic research in the less well-resourced crop species S. alba.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range.

  6. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  7. Progress in the Scandia Region Geologic Map of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the second year of a four year project to produce a geologic map of the Scandia region of Mars at 1:3,000,000 scale for publication in the USGS Scientific Investigations Map series. The primary objective of the map is to analyze and reconstruct the resurfacing history of this region in much greater detail than achieved by the previous northern plainswide mapping effort. This region includes (1) a broad swath of the Vastitas Borealis plains that includes various Scandia landforms and the Phoenix lander site; (2) part of the margin of the north polar plateau, Planum Boreum; and (3) the northern margin of the immense Alba Mons volcanic shield. We rely mostly on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevation models, Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer infrared and visual range, and Context Camera images for mapping and topographic analysis.

  8. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  9. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Rownak; Al-Nahain, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba can be found growing wild in fallow lands of Bangladesh where it is considered as a weed by farmers. Traditional medicinal systems of the Indian subcontinent countries as well as tribal practitioners consider the plant to have diverse medicinal values and use it commonly for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders (including asthma), fever, hair loss and graying of hair, liver disorders (including jaundice), skin disorders, spleen enlargement, and cuts and wounds. The plant has several phytoconstituents like wedelolactone, eclalbasaponins, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, luteolin, and apigenin. Pharmacological activities of plant extracts and individual phytoconstituents have revealed anticancer, hepatoprotective, snake venom neutralizing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Phytoconstituents like wedelolactone and ursolic and oleanolic acids as well as luteolin and apigenin can form the basis of new drugs against cancer, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and liver disorders. PMID:27355071

  10. Characterization of the error budget of Alba-NOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Josep; Martínez, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The Alba-NOM instrument is a high accuracy scanning machine capable of measuring the slope profile of long mirrors with resolution below the nanometer scale and for a wide range of curvatures. We present the characterization of different sources of errors that limit the uncertainty of the instrument. We have investigated three main contributions to the uncertainty of the measurements: errors introduced by the scanning system and the pentaprism, errors due to environmental conditions, and optical errors of the autocollimator. These sources of error have been investigated by measuring the corresponding motion errors with a high accuracy differential interferometer and by simulating their impact on the measurements by means of ray-tracing. Optical error contributions have been extracted from the analysis of redundant measurements of test surfaces. The methods and results are presented, as well as an example of application that has benefited from the achieved accuracy.

  11. Fluoride in the prey of barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Thomson, A G

    1987-01-01

    Bone fluoride in short-tailed voles (Microtus agrestis) and common shrews (Sorex araneus), the prey of barn owls (Tyto alba), was studied on Anglesey, North Wales. The average fluoride content of M. agrestis skulls obtained from a location 0.9 km from an aluminium reduction plant was significantly greater than that of skulls from another location 22 km from the source of industrial fluoride pollution. At both locations, mean fluoride levels of skulls extracted from owl pellets and those of voles trapped mechanically were broadly similar but important differences existed. Near the aluminium reduction plant, owls caught voles and shrews with a much wider range of fluoride levels than occurred at a single trapping site. However, there was no evidence for selection of heavily fluoridated prey. Within 1 km of the aluminium reduction plant, six trapping sites yielded S. araneus with a fourfold difference between the highest and lowest mean bone fluoride level. PMID:15092770

  12. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  13. Quantitative analysis of seasonal variation in the amino acids in phloem sap of Salix alba L.

    PubMed

    Leckstein, P M; Llewellyn, M

    1975-01-01

    Phloem sap of Salix alba L. was collected at monthly intervals between May and October. Amino acid analysis was carried out by ion exchange chromatography. The concentrations of individual amino acids are reported.

  14. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species Sonneratia alba using Illumina platform.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sufang; Zhou, Renchao; Huang, Yelin; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Guili; Zhong, Cairong; Shi, Suhua

    2011-06-01

    Mangroves are critical and threatened marine resources, yet few transcriptomic and genomic data are available in public databases. The transcriptome of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, was sequenced using the Illumina Genome Analyzer in this study. Over 15 million 75-bp paired-end reads were assembled into 30,628 unique sequences with an average length of 581 bp. Of them, 2358 SSRs were detected, with di-nucleotide repeats (59.2%) and tri-nucleotide repeats (37.7%) being the most common. Analysis of codon usage bias based on 20,945 coding sequences indicated that genes of S. alba were less biased than those of some microorganisms and Drosophila and that codon usage variation in S. alba was due primarily to compositional mutation bias, while translational selection has a relatively weak effect. Genome-wide gene ontology (GO) assignments showed that S. alba shared a similar GO slim classification with Arabidopsis thaliana. High percentages of sequences assigned to GO slim category 'mitochondrion' and four KEGG pathways, such as carbohydrates and secondary metabolites metabolism, may contribute to salt adaptation of S. alba. In addition, 1266 unique sequences matched to 273 known salt responsive genes (gene families) in other species were screened as candidates for salt tolerance of S. alba, and some of these genes showed fairly high coverage depth. At last, we identified four genes with signals of strong diversifying selection (K(a)/K(s)>1) by comparing the transcriptome sequences of S. alba with 249 known ESTs from its congener S. caseolaris. This study demonstrated a successful application of the Illumina platform to de novo assembly of the transcriptome of a non-model organism. Abundant SSR markers, salt responsive genes and four genes with signature of natural selection obtained from S. alba provide abundant sequence sources for future genetic diversity, salt adaptation and speciation studies. PMID:21620334

  16. Prime candidate sites for astrobiological exploration through the hydrogeological history of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairén, Alberto G.; Dohm, James M.; Uceda, Esther R.; Rodríguez, Alexis P.; Baker, Victor R.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Amils, Ricardo

    2005-11-01

    The hydrogeological evolution of Mars has been proposed to be dominated by the development of the Tharsis Magmatic Complex through superplume activity, with related magmatic-pulse-driven flood inundations that directly influence the shaping of the northern plains, the evolution of the atmosphere and climate, and subsurface and surface water processes. On the other hand, several possible biological models and terrestrial analogues have been suggested for Mars during the last decade, including the description of putative microfossils and the proposal of sedimentary units. Here we revisit these scenarios and present a possible bridge that integrates the geological, paleohydrological, and the putative biological histories of the planet. We primarily focus on the Noachian, a time period that arguably has recorded an inner dynamo, plate tectonics, and an ocean that may have covered one-third of the total surface area of Mars, due to its implications on the possible origin and early evolution of life. This stage is followed by a long-lived cold and dry phase, briefly punctuated by transient magmatic-driven hydrological cycles, dominated by a stagnant-lid/superplume regime, which directly influences the processes of natural selection on the putative early biosphere. Based on this hypothesized evolution of the planet, we suggest three martian locations as prime candidate sites for astrobiological exploration, each one corresponding to an inundation period: Meridiani Planum (Noachian/Early Hesperian), Mangala Valles (Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian), and Orcus Patera (Amazonian).

  17. Plains Style Caldera Complexes: Evidence for Ancient, Explosive Volcanism on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the mysteries of Mars' geology is the origin of widespread, layered, friable deposits that likely formed through air fall deposition. The enigmatic chaos terrains are largely composed of such deposits, as are many of the most intriguing layered, clay- and sulfate-bearing deposits of astrobiological interest. Such deposits are most likely of volcanic origin, but lack an obvious source, based on comparison with well-known volcanic provinces [1]. We suggest that these deposits may have been sourced from previously unrecognized explosive volcanoes in Arabia Terra. While Arabia is not traditionally considered to be a volcanic region, we propose that several of the large depressions in the area are in fact calderas that formed through a combination of structural collapse and explosive volcanism. These features are characterized by the observation of sets of nested depressions, association with ridged plains, development of ring fractures and faults, the presence of interior slump blocks, and direct association, in some cases, with friable deposits, lavas and evidence for lava lakes. Eden Patera is the type example and shows evidence for three nested calderas with >4000 km3 of collapse volume. Siloe Patera also contains a set of nested collapse features that occur within a zone of demagnetized crust that might indicate the presence of a magma chamber at shallow depth [2]. It is not yet clear why explosive volcanoes may have formed in Arabia Terra, but we suggest that they might represent the rapid rise of mafic magmas through a thin crust. They might represent more silicic or volatile-rich magmas, but these scenarios do not appear to be necessary [3]. We suggest that explosive mafic volcanism was an important aspect of early Martian geological processes. [1] Kerber, L., Head III, J., Madeleine, J. B., Forget, F. & Wilson, L. The dispersal of pyroclasts from ancient explosive volcanoes on Mars: Implications for the friable layered deposits. Icarus 219, 358-381 (2012

  18. Radar, visual and thermal characteristics of Mars - Rough planar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution Viking Orbiter images contain significant information on Martian surface roughness at 25- to 100-m lateral scales, while earth-based radar observations of Mars are sensitive to roughness at lateral scales of 1 to 30 m or more. High-rms slopes predicted for the Tharsis-Memnonia-Amazonis volcanic plains from extremely weak radar returns are qualitatively confirmed by the Viking image data. Large-scale, curvilinear ridges on lava flows in the Memnonia Fossae region are interpreted as innate flow morphology caused by compressional foldover of moving lava sheets of possible rhyolite-dacite composition. The presence or absence of a recent mantle of fine-grained eolian material on the volcanic surfaces studied was determined by the visibility of fresh impact craters with diameters less than 50 m. Lava flows with surfaces modified by eolian erosion and deposition occur west-northwest of Apollinaris Patera at the border of the cratered equatorial uplands and southern Elysium Planitia. Nearby yardangs, for which radar observations indicate very high-rms slopes, are similar to terrestrial features of similar origin.

  19. History of plains resurfacing in the Scandia region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Skinner, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a preliminary photogeologic map of the Scandia region of Mars with the objective of reconstructing its resurfacing history. The Scandia region includes the lower section of the regional lowland slope of Vastitas Borealis extending about 500–1800 km away from Alba Mons into the Scandia sub-basin below −4800 m elevation. Twenty mapped geologic units express the diverse stratigraphy of the region. We particularly focus on the materials making up the Vastitas Borealis plains and its Scandia sub-region, where erosional processes have obscured stratigraphic relations and made the reconstruction of the resurfacing history particularly challenging. Geologic mapping implicates the deposition, erosion, and deformation/degradation of geologic units predominantly during Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian time (~3.6–3.3 Ga). During this time, Alba Mons was active, outflow channels were debouching sediments into the northern plains, and basal ice layers of the north polar plateau were accumulating. We identify zones of regional tectonic contraction and extension as well as gradation and mantling. Depressions and scarps within these zones indicate collapse and gradation of Scandia outcrops and surfaces at scales of meters to hundreds of meters. We find that Scandia Tholi display concentric ridges, rugged peaks, irregular depressions, and moats that suggest uplift and tilting of layered plains material by diapirs and extrusion, erosion, and deflation of viscous, sedimentary slurries as previously suggested. These appear to be long-lived features that both pre-date and post-date impact craters. Mesa-forming features may have similar origins and occur along the southern margin of the Scandia region, including near the Phoenix Mars Lander site. Distinctive lobate materials associated with local impact craters suggest impact-induced mobilization of surface materials. We suggest that the formation of the Scandia region features potentially resulted from crustal heating

  20. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  1. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  2. MarsSat: assured communication with Mars.

    PubMed

    Gangale, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The author developed the MarsSat concept during the 1990s. For this task, he designed a class of orbits to solve the problem of communicating with crews on Mars when the planet is in solar conjunction as seen from Earth, a planetary configuration that occurs near the midpoint of a conjunction class mission to Mars. This type of orbit minimizes the distance between Mars and the communications satellite; thus, minimizing the size, weight, and power requirements, while providing a simultaneous line-of-sight to both Earth and Mars. The MarsSat orbits are solar orbits that have the same period as Mars, but are inclined a few degrees out of the plane of the Mars orbit and also differ in eccentricity from the orbit of Mars. These differences cause a spacecraft in this orbit to rise North of Mars, then fall behind Mars, then drop South of Mars, and then pull ahead of Mars, by some desired distance in each case-typically about 20 million kilometers-in order to maintain an angular separation of a couple of degrees as seen from a point in the orbit of Earth on the opposite side of the Sun. A satellite in this type of orbit would relay communications between Earth and Mars during the period of up to several weeks, when direct communication is blocked by the Sun. These orbits are far superior for this purpose when compared to stationing a satellite at one of the Sun-Mars equilateral Lagrangian points, L(4) or L(5), for two reasons. First, L(4) and L(5) are 228 million kilometers from Mars, about 10 times the distance of a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits, and by virtue of the inverse-square law, all other things being equal, the signal strength received at L(4) or L(5) would be one percent of the signal strength received by a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits. Thus, a relay satellite stationed at L(4) or L(5) would have to be that much more powerful to receive data at the same rate, with concomitant increases in spacecraft size and weight. Second, a number of

  3. Halopolyspora alba gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hangxian; Wei, Xiaomin; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Gillerman, Leionid

    2014-08-01

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated strain AFM 10251(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Dead Sea, Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% multi-salts, and did not grow without NaCl or MgCl2. The isolate formed a white aerial mycelium, and long chains of arthrospores with more than 10 spores per chain. The spores were spherical or oval with warty surfaces, and sterile mycelium was present between individual spores. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and a small proportion of LL-diaminopimelic acid as cell-wall diamino acids, and galactose and arabinose as whole-cell sugars. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain AFM 10251(T) was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10251(T) and the genus Actinopolyspora formed a distinct lineage. Analysis of the secondary structures of variable areas of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain AFM 10251(T) was different from all recognized species of the genus Actinopolyspora and members of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. Analysis of the signature nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain AFM 10251(T) and Actinopolyspora halophila formed a single group, but with base pair differences at positions 127 : 234 and 183 : 194. On the basis of analysis of chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10251(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Actinopolysporaceae, for which the name Halopolyspora alba gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Halopolyspora alba is AFM 10251(T) ( = DSM 45976(T) = CGMCC 4.7114(T)). PMID:24860112

  4. Small- to large-scale geographical patterns within the macrobenthic Abra alba community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoey, Gert; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2005-09-01

    The Abra alba community is widely spread in the coastal zone of the English Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. The community is located on shallow, fine muddy sands. Its spatial distribution can be broken up into a number of isolated patches (Atlantic French, British and German coast) and one large continuous distribution area (northern France up to the Netherlands). The aim of this study is to investigate the geographical patterns within the macrobenthic A. alba community at different scales: the community's full distribution range (i.e. large scale) and a selected area with a continuous distribution of the A. alba community (i.e. small scale) in relation to structuring environmental variables. Therefore, an analysis of newly collected samples along the Belgian coastal zone was combined with available information on the A. alba community throughout its distribution range. Although the community structure shows a high similarity across the full distribution range of the A. alba community, large- as well as small-scale changes in community composition were observed: the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS) should be considered as a major transition from the rich southern to the relatively poorer northern distribution area of the A. alba community. At a large scale (i.e. full distribution range), the differences in community structure are expected to result from (1) the specific hydrodynamic conditions in the English Channel (Atlantic ocean waters) and the Southern Bight of the North Sea, with a consequent differential connectivity between the different areas and (2) the climatological and related faunal shift from temperate (English Channel) to boreal conditions (German Bight). At a small scale (i.e. within the continuous distribution area), structural and functional community aspects may result from geographic differences in (1) detrital food availability, related to riverine input and pelagic productivity, along and across the coastline and (2) the amount

  5. β-Amylase from Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sharma, Rameshwar

    1989-01-01

    A polyclonal antiserum against mustard (Sinapis alba L.) β-amylase was obtained by injecting a homogeneously purified enzyme preparation in rabbits. The formation of β-amylase specific antibodies was confirmed by staining the precipitin line in double diffusion gel for β-amylase activity. The monospecificity of antiserum against mustard β-amylase was also ascertained by Western blotting. The antiserum efficiently recognised both the denatured and the native form of β-amylase, but it did not cross-react with other higher plant β-amylase. The mode of photoregulation of β-amylase activity in mustard cotyledons was investigated by a variety of immunochemical techniques. Immunotitration experiments ruled out the possible contribution of enzyme activation/inactivation in photoregulation of β-amylase activity. The use of single radial immunodiffusion, rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and immunotitration confirmed that the light mediated increase in β-amylase activity quantitatively corresponds with the increase in β-amylase protein level. The in vivo labeling with l-[35S] methionine and pulse chase studies of in vivo labeled β-amylase protein revealed that the photoregulated increase in β-amylase activity in mustard cotyledon exclusively results from an increase in the rate of de novo synthesis of β-amylase protein against a very low background rate of enzyme degradation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666633

  6. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    PubMed

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  8. Antihyperglycemic activity of Eclipta alba leaf on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ananthi, J.; Prakasam, A.; Pugalendi, K. V.

    2003-01-01

    Eclipta alba, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in rural southern India as a hypoglycemic agent. In order to confirm this claim, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of E. alba and to study the activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver of control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of leaf suspension of E. alba (2 and 4 g/kg body weight) for 60 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 372.0 +/- 33.2 to 117.0 +/- 22.8), glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1)c, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and an increase in the activity of liver hexokinase. E. alba at dose of 2 g/kg body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 4 g/kg body weight. Thus, the present study clearly shows that the oral administration of E. alba possess potent antihyperglycemic activity. PMID:15369623

  9. SimAlba: A Spatial Microsimulation Approach to the Analysis of Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malcolm; Ballas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents applied geographical research based on a spatial microsimulation model, SimAlba, aimed at estimating geographically sensitive health variables in Scotland. SimAlba has been developed in order to answer a variety of “what-if” policy questions pertaining to health policy in Scotland. Using the SimAlba model, it is possible to simulate the distributions of previously unknown variables at the small area level such as smoking, alcohol consumption, mental well-being, and obesity. The SimAlba microdataset has been created by combining Scottish Health Survey and Census data using a deterministic reweighting spatial microsimulation algorithm developed for this purpose. The paper presents SimAlba outputs for Scotland’s largest city, Glasgow, and examines the spatial distribution of the simulated variables for small geographical areas in Glasgow as well as the effects on individuals of different policy scenario outcomes. In simulating previously unknown spatial data, a wealth of new perspectives can be examined and explored. This paper explores a small set of those potential avenues of research and shows the power of spatial microsimulation modeling in an urban context.

  10. Investigation of Antiarthritic Potential of Plumeria alba L. Leaves in Acute and Chronic Models of Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipin; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Surender

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The present investigation was designed to evaluate antiarthritic potential of fractions of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of P. alba. Materials and Methods. Plumeria alba L. leaves were extracted with hydroalcohol (30 : 70) to obtain hydroalcoholic extract of P. alba. This extract was further fractionated with solvents ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain EAPA and BPA, respectively. These fractions were tested against formaldehyde and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis. Arthritis assessment, paw volume, body weight, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold were measured. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology was done. Results. The 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of EAPA and BPA caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) reduction in paw swelling in both models. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and spleen weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in arthritic rats treated with extracts. There was significant (P < 0.05) improvement in thymus weight in EAPA treated rats whereas significant (P < 0.01) improvement was also seen in haemoglobin level (Hb) in diclofenac treated group. Motor incoordination and nociceptive threshold were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) improved. Conclusion. The present study suggests that Plumeria alba L. has protective activity against arthritis and supports the traditional use of P. alba for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25025056

  11. Time-variable surface patterns as an indicator of the surface environments on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kurita, K.

    2008-09-01

    volcanoes in Tharsis region such as Olympus Mons, Arsia Mons, Ascraeus Mons and Alba Patera EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00513, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 whereas it is not recognized in Celaunius Tholus, Tharsis Tholus and Elysium Mons. Because of the numbers of available images and stable climate situation, we have intensively investigated the pattern at Pavonis Mons. MOC wide-angle images and THEMIS-VIS images are used to check the temporal variation of the pattern from 1999 to 2007. In Fig. 2 the time-sequential images taking the SW flank show temporal pattern change of the dark halo. The drastic change can be found between 2000 and 2003. The assemblage of dark spindle-shaped pattern at higher positions before 2003 completely disappeared in the 2003 and the front of the halo receded to lower position. In 2001, a huge global dust storm has occurred. The resultant effect on the global climate by this dust storm is decrease in global daytime temperature and increase in global nighttime temperature due to the dust green house effect [2]. Since the dark halo appears to be formed in nighttime (the pattern is consistent with down-slope wind, which would be dominant at nigh time on the surface of high mountain.), the increase of the nighttime temperature should be responsible for erasing the pattern. Not only the position of the front of the dark halo but also the darkness changes with time. DN at the front position is determined by taking the difference from the reference point near the caldera. The maximum contrast around Ls=50 deg. and the minimum contrast around Ls=270 deg. are obtained. This indicates seasonal variation, which strongly suggests meteorological variation such as the atmospheric pressure controls the surface pattern. Fig. 3 shows THEMIS-VIS image, THEMIS-IRNighttime image and THEMIS-IR-Daytime image of the southern flank. THEMIS-VIS image clearly shows the upper boundary of the dark halo; brighter near the summit and darker

  12. Mars Global Surveyor: Cruising to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Glenn E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and is now cruising to Mars. While the launch was excellent, and the spacecraft and its science payload are in perfect operating condition, a broken deployment damper on one of the two solar arrays has posed some concern relative to the use of that solar array as a drag surfae during aerobraking operations at Mars.

  13. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.

  14. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  15. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  16. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

  17. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  18. [Proof of the indigenous nature of Populus alba L. in the western Mediterranean Basin].

    PubMed

    Roiron, Paul; Ali, Adam A; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Carcaillet, Christopher; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Around the western Mediterranean Basin, the ecological status of Populus alba, whether indigenous or introduced, is controversial. This note presents new palaeobotanical data based on analyses of leaf imprints from a travertine formation located in southern France. This travertine presents two levels with Populus alba imprints. The oldest level is dated back by 14C to the Early Holocene, i.e., 8890 +/- 70 BP. This demonstrates that Populus alba is an autochthonous species of the southern-France vegetation, removing speculations reporting that its distribution area was greatly influenced by Roman civilization. Finally, we discuss this new data in regard to other Pleistocene and Holocene deposits circum the Mediterranean Basin and in Europe, where this species was identified. PMID:15060983

  19. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  20. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Newman, C E; Richardson, M I; Lucas, A; Leprince, S; Bridges, N T

    2014-01-01

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1-100 km scale) of τ(s)=0.01±0.0015 N m(-2).

  1. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

    2014-09-01

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1-100 km scale) of τs=0.01±0.0015 N m-2.

  2. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile stress-stretch response of human linea alba.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Gerard M; Lake, Spencer P; Thompson, Dominic M; Castile, Ryan M; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies on the stress-stretch behaviour of human linea alba, yet understanding the mechanics of this tissue is important for developing better methods of abdominal wound closure. Published data focuses mainly on porcine linea alba and for human tissue there are conflicting results and no bi-axial data available. This variability is likely due to challenges with the physical dimensions of the tissue and differences in experimental methodology. This study focussed on the tensile mechanical characterisation of the human linea alba using uniaxial and equi-load biaxial testing performed using image-based strain measurement methods. Thirteen freshly frozen human cadaveric abdominal walls were obtained and used to prepare 7 samples in both the transverse and longitudinal directions for uniaxial testing, and 13 square samples for bi-axial testing. The results showed significant anisotropy and for the equi-load biaxial tests the deformation was heavily biased in the longitudinal direction. In comparison with similar tests on porcine tissue from a previous study, it was found that the response of porcine linea alba to uniaxial loading is similar to that of human linea alba, with no statistically significant differences observed. Under biaxial loading human and porcine linea showed no statistical significance in the difference between their means in the transverse direction. However, a significant difference was observed in the longitudinal direction, and further study of the respective tissue structures is needed to better understand this result. These results provide the first data on the biaxial tensile properties of human linea alba and can aid in an improved assessment of wound closure mechanics. PMID:27367944

  3. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect. PMID:21264159

  4. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified

  5. MAVEN's Trajectory to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the cruise trajectory of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, which was launched on Nov. 18, 2013. It will arrive at Mars on Sept. 21, 2014, to explore th...

  6. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  7. Mars Meteorolgical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring and ultimately establishing a permanent presence on the surface of Mars will necessitate an understanding the weather conditions and the ability to forecast its dynamic behavior. The meteorology of Mars will need to be developed. This abstract puts forth a concept for a Mars Meteorological Network that will be used to investigate the Mars atmosphere behavior, explore the surface environment, and prepare for operational activities. It is proposed that the long term and the dynamic nature of the lower atmosphere and surface of Mars be observed with a distributed global array of simple automated surface nodes. The data would be ingested into the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and other research tools for analyses to gain a better understanding of the atmospheric conditions on Mars.

  8. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  9. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  10. Purification and biochemical characterization of phytocystatin from Brassica alba.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-05-01

    Phytocystatins belong to the family of cysteine proteinases inhibitors. They are ubiquitously found in plants and carry out various significant physiological functions. These plant derived inhibitors are gaining wide consideration as potential candidate in engineering transgenic crops and in drug designing. Hence it is crucial to identify these inhibitors from various plant sources. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated and purified by a simple two-step procedure using ammonium sulfate saturation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR from Brassica alba seeds (yellow mustard seeds).The protein was purified to homogeneity with 60.3% yield and 180-fold of purification. The molecular mass of the mustard seed cystatin was estimated to be nearly 26,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by gel filtration chromatography. The stokes radius and diffusion coefficient of the mustard cystatin were found to be 23A° and 9.4 × 10(-7)  cm(2) s(-1) respectively. The isolated phytocystatin was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-8 and is thermostable up to 60 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that the phytocystatin exhibited non-competitive type of inhibition and inhibited papain more efficiently (K(i)  = 3 × 10(-7)  M) than ficin (K(i)  = 6.6 × 10(-7)  M) and bromelain (K(i) = 7.7 × 10(-7)  M respectively). CD spectral analysis shows that it possesses 17.11% alpha helical content. PMID:26748819

  11. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems.

  12. Properties of a laccase produced by Phanerochaete flavido-alba induced by vanillin.

    PubMed

    de la Rubia, Teresa; Ruiz, Esteban; Pérez, Juana; Martínez, José

    2002-12-01

    Phanerochaete flavido-alba is able to remove simple and polymeric phenols from the recalcitrant wastes of the olive oil industry, in a process in which a laccase is involved. This report describes the characterization of a laccase produced by P. flavido-alba and induced by vanillin. Although the amino acid composition of the purified enzyme is typical for laccases, other molecular characteristics show that it is quite different from fungal laccases. The purified laccase oxidized preferably o- and p-biphenols. PMID:12471507

  13. Anaerobic reduction of elemental sulfur by Chromatium vinosum and Beggiatoa alba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of sulfur globules on the buoyant density of Chromatium vinosum and Beggiatoa alba was examined. The potential use of sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor in the anaerobic metabolism of Beggiatoa alba is also examined. The effect of the reduction of intracellular sulfur was investigated during dark metabolism on the buoyant density of C. vinosum. It is hypothesized from the results that the sulfur reduction to sulfide is part of an anaerobic energy operating system. Carbon stored as PHB can be oxidized with the concomitant reduction of sulfur to sulfide.

  14. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems. PMID:17705148

  15. Saltation transport on Mars.

    PubMed

    Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-05-11

    We present the first calculation of saltation transport and dune formation on Mars and compare it to real dunes. We find that the rate at which grains are entrained into saltation on Mars is 1 order of magnitude higher than on Earth. With this fundamental novel ingredient, we reproduce the size and different shapes of Mars dunes, and give an estimate for the wind velocity on Mars.

  16. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  17. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  18. Mars: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Mars Exploration program for the current decade and beyond. The potential items for procurements for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are discussed, as well as future technology investments to enable to continued development of exploration of Mars by rovers and orbiters that are planned and envisioned for future missions.

  19. Are sinuous ridges in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matt R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman

    2013-04-01

    A suite of elongate, branching positive relief landforms has been observed around Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. They are typically 10 to 150 metres across, and several to tens of kilometres in length. We have observed that these forms occur both individually and as part of complex systems incorporating various cross-cutting, anastomosing and branching patterns. This study forms part of a larger debate as to whether fluvioglacial processes, as opposed to igneous activity, shaped the landscapes in the Elysium Planitia region. The similarity of some of these positive relief branching forms to inverted channels, or perhaps even relict sub-glacial fluvial systems (eskers) suggests an alternative fluvioglacial hypothesis to formation by volcanic processes. Interestingly, if these are esker-like forms then glacial activity in this region was "wet-based", so there should be other characteristic landforms visible. To address this idea, we are conducting a new mapping study of sinuous ridges in the region around Rahway Vallis to assess whether they are more consistent in morphology with formation by igneous or fluvioglacial processes. The survey is being performed using orbital images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Our mapping has shown that many of the ridges form convergent, contributory networks. The ridges are spatially associated with kilometre-wide shallow channels and are found at a nearly constant elevation of -3000m above Mars Datum. Our preliminary interpretation is that these ridges are depositional landforms with multiple sources, and therefore could be sub-glacial (eskers), or inverted fluvial channels. The associated larger channels could be higher order fluvial channels, with the ridges and wide-channels together forming part of a larger drainage network.

  20. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  1. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  2. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (Mars is a planet which was volcanically active over most (if not all) of its history, a similar distribution of volcano size might be expected. Martian small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade

  3. Mustard (Sinapis alba) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container Grown Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meal is a byproduct of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown and oil production. Developing new uses for mustard seed meal could increase the profitability of growing mustard. Seed meal of mustard, var. ‘IdaGold’ was applied to the soil surface to evaluate its effect on several common weeds...

  4. Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba.

    PubMed

    Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Shen, Lianqing; Xiu, Lili; Winterhalter, Peter

    2007-05-01

    A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time.

  5. Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Davis, J. B.; Esser, A.

    2005-07-01

    This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with small grain cereals and has fewer limitations compared to other traditional alternative crops.

  6. BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

    2011-01-01

    BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

  7. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml.

  8. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  9. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Laccase from the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba

    PubMed Central

    Perez, J.; Martinez, J.; de la Rubia, T.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to excreting lignin-degrading peroxidases, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba also excretes a laccase. This protein was purified to homogeneity and found to have a molecular weight of 94,000 and an isoelectric point lower than 3.55. Its UV-visible spectrum is typical of copper-containing proteins. PMID:16535452

  10. Rejoinder: On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses--"Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We commend the measured tone and clearly stated arguments in Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on our article. It is particularly welcome because, in combination with our own conclusions, it lays out before the relevant audiences the substance of the debate in this field. Based on the commentary's opening statement, it would appear that there…

  11. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml. PMID:11346978

  12. You Need Company in the Dark: Building the House of Bernarda Alba at HMP Holloway Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rachel Marie-Crane

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the production of The House of Bernarda Alba in Her Majesty's Prison Holloway in London England. It is written from a personal perspective and focuses on the following topics, collaboration, a brief comparison of prison life in the US and the UK, the successful and unsuccessful experiences of participants, and their insights…

  13. On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

  14. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.; Husmann, Diana I.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2012-08-01

    We present Earth-based radar images of Mars obtained with the upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ = 12.6 cm) radar during the 2005-2012 oppositions. The imaging was done using the same long-code delay-Doppler technique as for the earlier (pre-upgrade) imaging but at a much higher resolution (˜3 km) and, for some regions, a more favorable sub-Earth latitude. This has enabled us to make a more detailed and complete mapping of depolarized radar reflectivity (a proxy for small-scale surface roughness) over the major volcanic provinces of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis. We find that vast portions of these regions are covered by radar-bright lava flows exhibiting circular polarization ratios close to unity, a characteristic that is uncommon for terrestrial lavas and that is a likely indicator of multiple scattering from extremely blocky or otherwise highly disrupted flow surfaces. All of the major volcanoes have radar-bright features on their shields, although the brightness distribution on Olympus Mons is very patchy and the summit plateau of Pavonis Mons is entirely radar-dark. The older minor shields (paterae and tholi) are largely or entirely radar-dark, which is consistent with mantling by dust or pyroclastic material. Other prominent radar-dark features include: the "fan-shaped deposits", possibly glacial, associated with the three major Tharsis Montes shields; various units of the Medusae Fossae Formation; a region south and west of Biblis Patera where "Stealth" deposits appear to obscure Tharsis flows; and a number of "dark-halo craters" with radar-absorbing ejecta blankets deposited atop surrounding bright flows. Several major bright features in Tharsis are associated with off-shield lava flows; these include the Olympus Mons basal plains, volcanic fields east and south of Pavonis Mons, the Daedalia Planum flows south of Arsia Mons, and a broad expanse of flows extending east from the Tharsis Montes to Echus Chasma. The radar-bright lava plains in Elysium are

  15. Radar, visual and thermal characteristics of Mars: Rough planar surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution Viking Orbiter images (10 to 15 m/pixel) contain significant information on Martian surface roughness at 25- to 100-m lateral scales, whereas Earth-based radar observations of Mars are sensitive to roughness at lateral scales of 1 to 30 m, or more. High-rms slopes predicted for the Tharsis-Memnonia-Amazonis volcanic plains from extremely weak radar returns (low peak radar cross section) are qualitatively confirmed by the Viking image data. Large-scale, curvilinear (but parallel) ridges on lava flows in the Memnonia Fossae region are interpreted as innate flow morphology caused by compressional foldover of moving lava sheets of possible rhyolite-dacite composition. The presence or absence of a recent mantle of fine-grained eolian material on the volcanic surfaces studied was determined by the visibility of fresh impact craters with diameters less than 50 m. Lava flows south and west of Arsia Mons, and within the large region of low thermal inertia centered on Tharsis Montes (H. H. Kieffer et al., 1977, J. Geophys. Res.82, 4249-4291), were found to possess such a recent mantle. At predawn residual temperatures ??? -10K (south boundary of this low-temperature region), lava flows are shown to have relatively old eolian mantles. Lava flows with surfaces modified by eolian erosion and deposition occur west-northwest of Apollinaris Patera at the border of the cratered equatorial uplands and southern Elysium Planitia. Nearby yardangs, for which radar observations indicate very high-rms slopes, are similar to terrestrial features of similar origin. ?? 1980.

  16. Quick trips to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed.

  17. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  18. Mars Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  19. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  20. Spacecraft exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Conway W.; Moroz, Vasilii I.

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and American spacecraft exploration of Mars over the past quarter century is reviewed. Data on the earliest Soviet attempts to send spacecraft to observe the planet are presented. Of the series of spacecraft that were announced (designated Mars 1 to Mars 7), none fulfilled all its scientific goals, but some good photographs and other important data were obtained. Of the six spacecraft in the Mariner series, two failed, but Mariner 4 first revealed the cratered surface of Mars, and Mariner 9 discovered all the major geologic features. The Viking mission, with its two Orbiters, two Landers, and its 6-yr duration, surpassed in quantity and variety of data all other missions combined. The Phobos mission ended in two failures, but the second of the two spacecraft acquired significant new data about Mars and Phobos. An appendix listing special issues of journals containing collections of papers about Mars is provided.

  1. Mars at Opposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  2. Mars: The Viking discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the Viking Mars probe is presented. The Viking spacecraft is described and a brief history of the earlier observations and exploration of Mars is provided. A number of the Viking photographs of the Martian surface are presented and a discussion of the experiments Viking performed including a confirmation of the general theory of relativity are reported. Martian surface chemistry is discussed and experiments to study the weather on Mars are reported.

  3. Mars Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is dynamically similar to the Earth's. Its spin-axis rotation rate is only minutes longer than Earth's so the Coriolois force is nearly identical to Earth's. The inclination of its spin axis is also similar to Earth's giving it similarity in seasonal change. And the Martian atmosphere is nearly transparent to solar radiation (except during dust periods) such that it is heated primarily by upwelling infrared radiation from the surface. These characteristics make Mars an ideal laboratory for studying the dynamics of rapidly rotating differentially heated atmospheres. This talk reviews what we have learned about Mars atmospheric dynamics and how if compares with Earth. The source of information to make such a comparison comes from observations and models. The former are sparse and that the latter have played a major role in shaping our thinking about the general circulation on Mars. However, the models need validation. Fortunately, the first two orbiters in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program have instrumentation to address many of the issues related to the general circulation and climate of Mars. The first, Mars Global Surveyor, is already at Mars gathering data. The second, the Mars 98 Orbiter to be launched later this year, carries a dedicated atmospheric sounder. Thus, much will be learned about Mars' atmosphere in the next few years.

  4. Digital cartography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    A medium-resolution Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars is being compiled. A DIM is a mosaic of radiometrically corrected, photometrically modelled spacecraft images displaying accurate reflectance properties at uniform resolution, and geometrically tied to the best available control. The Mars medium-resolution DIM contains approximately 4700 Viking Orbiter image frames that were used to compile the recently completed 1:2,000,000-scale controlled photomosaic series of Mars. This DIM provides a planimetric control base to which all other Mars maps will be registered. A similar control base of topographic elevations (Digital Terrain Model, or DTM) is also being compiled. These products are scheduled for completion in 1989.

  5. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  6. Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Moore and Howard [1] reported the discovery of large alluvial fans in craters on Mars. Their initial survey from 0-30 S found that these fans clustered in three distinct regions and occurred at around the +1 km MOLA defined Mars datum. However, due to incomplete image coverage, Moore and Howard [1]could not conduct a comprehensive survey. They also recognized, though did not quantitatively address, gravity scaling issues. Here, we briefly discuss the identification of alluvial fans on Mars, then consider the general equations governing the deposition of alluvial fans and hypothesize a method for learning about grain size in alluvial fans on Mars.

  7. A Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated to provide an approach to the development of a permanently manned Mars base. The objectives for a permanently manned Mars base are numerous. Primarily, human presence on Mars will allow utilization of new resources for the improvement of the quality of life on Earth, allowing for new discoveries in technologies, the solar system, and human physiology. Such a mission would also encourage interaction between different countries, increasing international cooperation and leading to a stronger unification of mankind. Surface studies of Mars, scientific experiments in the multiple fields, the research for new minerals, and natural resource production are more immediate goals of the Mars mission. Finally, in the future, colonization of Mars will ensure man's perpetual presence in the universe. Specific objectives of this study were: (1) to design a Mars habitat that minimizes the mass delivered to the Mars surface, provides long-stay capability for the base crew, and accommodates future expansion and modification; (2) to develop a scenario of the construction of a permanently manned Mars base; and (3) to incorporate new and envisioned technologies.

  8. Mars Museum Visualization Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohus, A. M.; Viotti, M. A.; de Jong, E. M.

    2004-11-01

    The Mars Museum Visualization Alliance is a collaborative effort funded by the Mars Public Engagement Office and supported by JPL's Informal Education staff and the Solar System Visualization Project to share the adventure of exploration and make Mars a real place. The effort started in 2002 with a small working group of museum professionals to learn how best to serve museum audiences through informal science educators. By the time the Mars Exploration Rovers landed on Mars in January 2004, over 100 organizations were partners in the Alliance, which has become a focused community of Mars educators. The Alliance provides guaranteed access to images, information, news, and resources for use by the informal science educators with their students, educators, and public audiences. Thousands of people have shared the adventure of exploring Mars and now see it as a real place through the efforts of the Mars Museum Visualization Alliance partners. The Alliance has been lauded for "providing just the right inside track for museums to do what they do best," be that webcasts, live presentations with the latest images and information, high-definition productions, planetarium shows, or hands-on educational activities. The Alliance is extending its mission component with Cassini, Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust. The Mars Exploration and Cassini Programs, as well as the Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust Projects, are managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

  9. Climatic change on Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Toon, O. B.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that Mars is the only known planet with a major atmospheric constituent condensable at typical surface temperatures. The temperatures range from 290 K at equatorial noon to a temperature at the cold pole of 145 K in polar winter. There may be three different periods of climatic variation on Mars. Aspects of reversible climatic instability might possibly explain the channels and other features suggestive of the extensive occurrence of liquid water on Mars. An aqueous epoch on Mars would have important biological and other geological implications. Putative Martian organisms which flourish in the aqueous epoch may now be in cryptobiotic repose.

  10. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies. PMID:25746409

  11. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  12. The two faces of Alba: the evolutionary connection between proteins participating in chromatin structure and RNA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, L; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Anantharaman, Vivek

    2003-01-01

    Background There is considerable heterogeneity in the phyletic patterns of major chromosomal DNA-binding proteins in archaea. Alba is a well-characterized chromosomal protein from the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus. While Alba has been detected in most archaea and some eukaryotic taxa, its exact functions in these taxa are not clear. Here we use comparative genomics and sequence profile analysis to predict potential alternative functions of the Alba proteins. Results Using sequence-profile searches, we were able to unify the Alba proteins with RNase P/MRP subunit Rpp20/Pop7, human RNase P subunit Rpp25, and the ciliate Mdp2 protein, which is implicated in macronuclear development. The Alba superfamily contains two eukaryote-specific families and one archaeal family. We present different lines of evidence to show that both eukaryotic families perform functions related to RNA metabolism. Several members of one of the eukaryotic families, typified by Mdp2, are combined in the same polypeptide with RNA-binding RGG repeats. We also investigated the relationships of the unified Alba superfamily within the ancient RNA-binding IF3-C fold, and show that it is most closely related to other RNA-binding members of this fold, such as the YhbY and IF3-C superfamilies. Based on phyletic patterns and the principle of phylogenetic bracketing, we predict that at least some of the archaeal members may also possess a role in RNA metabolism. Conclusions The Alba superfamily proteins appear to have originated as RNA-binding proteins which formed various ribonucleoprotein complexes, probably including RNase P. It was recruited as a chromosomal protein possibly only within the crenarchaeal lineage. The evolutionary connections reported here suggest how a diversity of functions based on a common biochemical basis emerged in proteins of the Alba superfamily. PMID:14519199

  13. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  14. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Contents include the following: Executive Summary; Introduction; Scientific Goals for the Exploration of Mars; Overview of Mars Surveyor and Others Mars Missions; Key Issues for NASA's Mars Exploration Program; and Assessment of the Scientific Potential of NASA's Mars Exploration Program.

  15. Properties of the Medussae Fossae Formation and its relation to the volcanic history of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Anton B.; Cantini, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Medussae Fossae (MFF) is a well known formation, stretching west of Tharsis volanoes. It is characterized as a relatively young Amazonian units (Amm, Amu), due to widespread signs of erosion. Earth based imaging radar observations at 3.5 cm [1] and 12 cm [2] have discovered a dark radar feature (Stealth), which roughly correlates with the MFF outline.Recent investigations [3], suggested that the unit emplacement is in fact during Hesperian period, but it is composed of material that can be easily eroded. It is not clear when the erosion happened and if it is a continuing process. Hypotheses on MFF formation range from volcanic material emplacement (ash flow tuffs or pyroclastic materials) to an ice-rich dusty mantle, deposited during high obliquity.In this work, we will present the latest observations of the East Medussae Fossae formation by the long wavelength MARSIS radar, continuing the work reported in [4], as well as complementing data surveyed by SHARAD data in [5]. The MARSIS radar has detected strong subsurface interfaces in the areas of Gordi and Eumenides Dorsae at depths up to 1.5km. We will present our analysis of the data, inferring the dielectric properties of the material to constrain properties of the material constituting the Medusae Fossae formation. We will also demonstrate an efficient user interface to work with MARSIS data inside a Geographical Information System (GIS).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement 607379.[1] D. Muhleman, et al., "Radar images of mars," Science, vol. 253, no. 5027, 1991.[2] J. K. Harmon, et al., "Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces," Icarus, vol. 220, aug 2012.[3] L. Kerber, et al., "The dispersal of pyroclasts from Apollinaris Patera, Mars: Implications for the origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation," Icarus, vol. 216, nov 2011.[4] T. R. Watters, et al., "Radar Sounding of the

  16. Is Mars Red Hot?

    NASA Video Gallery

    What would it feel like if you could stand on Mars – toasty warm, or downright chilly? Find out more about the temperature on Mars in this 60-second video from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  18. Viking Mars encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Various phases of planetary operations related to the Viking mission to Mars are described. Topics discussed include: approach phase, Mars orbit insertion, prelanding orbital activities, separation, descent and landing, surface operations, surface sampling and operations starting, orbiter science and radio science, Viking 2, Deep Space Network and data handling.

  19. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  20. Mars' grand finale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. C.; Beish, J. D.; Hernandez, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    Results are presented from observations of the 1988 Mars apparition. Consideration is given to observations of the Martian south polar cap, meteorological activity on the planet, and changes in the surface features of Mars during the apparition. Also, the Martian dust storms observed in November 1988 are described.

  1. Dust devils on Mars.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Gierasch, P J

    1985-10-11

    Columnar, cone-shaped, and funnel-shaped clouds rising 1 to 6 kilometers above the surface of Mars have been identified in Viking Orbiter images. They are interpreted as dust devils, confirming predictions of their occurrence on Mars and giving evidence of a specific form of dust entrainment.

  2. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  3. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  4. Rat on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  5. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-01

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  6. Microscope on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  7. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  8. Surface Drainage on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Vidal, A.

    2001-01-01

    The role of water on Mars bears directly on investigations crossing a wide range of disciplines, including geomorphology, geochemistry, and biology. We have calculated the potential flow patterns of water using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  10. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  11. The ALBA spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station: layout and performance

    PubMed Central

    Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Pellegrin, Eric; Nicolas, Josep; Ferrer, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station at the CIRCE helical undulator beamline, which started user operation at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility in 2012, is presented. This station, based on an Elmitec LEEM III microscope with electron imaging energy analyzer, permits surfaces to be imaged with chemical, structural and magnetic sensitivity down to a lateral spatial resolution better than 20 nm with X-ray excited photoelectrons and 10 nm in LEEM and UV-PEEM modes. Rotation around the surface normal and application of electric and (weak) magnetic fields are possible in the microscope chamber. In situ surface preparation capabilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature flashing, exposure to gases, and metal evaporation with quick evaporator exchange. Results from experiments in a variety of fields and imaging modes will be presented in order to illustrate the ALBA XPEEM capabilities. PMID:25931092

  12. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  13. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  14. Three New Isoprenylated Flavonoids from the Root Bark of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Lee, Yeong-Geun; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dae-Young; Lim, Dong-Wook; Han, Daeseok; Baek, Nam-In

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the root bark of Morus alba has led to the isolation and identification of three new isoprenylated flavonoids, namely sanggenon U (1), sanggenon V (2), and sanggenon W (3), along with four known isoprenylated flavonoids: euchrenone a₇ (4), sanggenon J (5), kuwanon E (6), and kuwanon S (7). All compounds were isolated by repeated silica gel (SiO₂), octadecyl SiO₂ (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography. The structure of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), circular dichroism (CD), and infrared (IR). In addition, compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from the root bark of M. alba in this study. PMID:27563860

  15. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  16. Ionosphere of Mars observed by Mars Express.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, Eduard; Fraenz, Markus; Andrews, Dave; Morgan, Dave

    2016-04-01

    The Martian ionosphere is studied at different solar zenith angles using the local electron number densities and total electron content (TEC) derived from the observations by MARSIS onboard Mars Express. The data are complemented by the ASPERA-3 observations which provide us with the information about upward/downward velocity of the low-energy ions and electron precipitation. We consider the Mars Express observations at different solar cycle intervals. Different factors which influence the ionosphere dynamics are analyzed. The focus is made on a role of the crustal magnetic field on the Martian ionosphere and its influence on ion escape.

  17. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  18. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  19. Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

  20. Cloning and analysis of the planosporicin lantibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster of Planomonospora alba.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Emma J; Hesketh, Andrew R; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2013-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer.

  1. Ignimbrites of Amazonis Planitia region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    The terms ignimbrite and ash flow tuff are used to describe relatively thin but extensive sheets of material interpreted to be of pyroclastic origin and to consist of volcanic ash or pumice fragments. Criteria for distinguishing ignimbrites from other geologic materials are considered, and characteristics observed for rock units interpreted as ignimbrites in Amazonis Planitia are discussed. A series of rock units which are thought to represent ignimbrites have been mapped along an east-west border zone between the highland plateau and lowland plains of Amazonis Planitia. The area is roughly bounded by a triangle whose apices are the volcanoes Apollinaris Patera, Biblis Patera, and Olympus Mons. Attention is given to aspects of general geology, morphology and stratigraphy, and thickness and volume estimates. Correlations with other data are considered and some theoretical aspects of Martian ignimbrite emplacement are discussed.

  2. ESA's Mars Program: European Plans for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the European Space Agency Mars Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) History:Mars Exploration in Europe; 2) A few preliminary results from Mars Express; 3) A new instrument:Radar MARSIS; and 4) European Mars Exploration in the future?

  3. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-10-13

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  4. An airborne actinobacteria Nocardiopsis alba isolated from bioaerosol of a mushroom compost facility.

    PubMed

    Paściak, Mariola; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumiła; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in many environments and represent the most important trigger to the occupant respiratory health. Health complaints, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis of the workers, were recorded in a mushroom compost facility (MCF). The studies on the airborne bacteria were carried out to find a possible microbiological source of these symptoms. Culture analysis of compost bioaerosols collected in different location of the MCF was performed. An assessment of the indoor microbial exposure revealed bacterial flora of bioaerosol in the mushroom compost facility represented by Bacillus, Geobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus spp., and actinobacterial strain with white aerial mycelium. The thermotolerant actinobacterial strain of the same morphology was repeatedly isolated from many locations in MCF: air, compost sample, and solid surface in production hall. On the base of complex morphological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate has been classified as Nocardiopsis alba. Dominant position of N. alba in microbial environment of the mushroom compost facility may represent an indicator microorganism in compost bioaerosol. The bioavailability of N. alba in mushroom compost facility creates potential risk for the health of workers, and the protection of respiratory tract and/or skin is strongly recommended.

  5. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  6. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements. PMID:27132827

  7. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment. PMID:27115720

  8. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  9. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba

    PubMed Central

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

  10. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  11. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence. PMID:16279416

  12. Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Adhikrao V.; Nade, Vandana S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves on dopaminergic function. Materials and Methods: The effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves was evaluated on haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy, foot shock-induced aggression, amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior and phenobarbitone induced sleeping in mice. In each of these tests, the extract was administered in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before performing the test in mice. Further, the inhibitory effect of the extract on dopamine was studied using isolated rat vas deferens. Results: The extract produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and metoclopramide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice. The extract significantly reduced number of fights and increased latency to fights in foot shock-induced aggression; it also decreased amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. The sleeping time induced by phenobarbitone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) too was prolonged. The extract inhibited contractions produced by dopamine on isolated rat vas deferens. Conclusion: The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. possesses antidopaminergic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to antidopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent. PMID:20040961

  13. Characterization of a New Flavone and Tyrosinase Inhibition Constituents from the Twigs of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Zong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1), and sixteen known compounds 2-17 were isolated from M. alba twigs and their structures were identified by interpretation of the corresponding ESI-MS and NMR spectral data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory test, the compounds steppogenin (IC50 0.98 ± 0.01 µM), 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (IC50 0.07 ± 0.02 µM), morachalcone A (IC50 0.08 ± 0.02 µM), oxyresveratrol (IC50 0.10 ± 0.01 µM), and moracin M (8.00 ± 0.22 µM) exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition activities, much stronger than that of the positive control kojic acid. These results suggest that M. alba twig extract should served as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods as antibrowning agents or in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:27598113

  14. Geology and landscape evolution of the Hellas region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Leonard, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    Hellas basin on Mars has been the site of volcanism, tectonism, and modification by fluvial, mass-wasting, and eolian processes over its more than 4-b.y. existence. Our detailed geologic mapping and related studies have resulted in the following new interpretations. The asymmetric distribution of highland massifs and other structures that define the uplifted basin rim suggest a formation of the basin by the impact of a low-angle bolide having a trajectory heading S60E. During the Late Noachian, the basin was infilled, perhaps by lava flows, that were sufficiently thick (greater than 1 km) to produce wrinkle ridges on the fill material and extensional faulting along the west rim of the basin. At about the same time, deposits buried northern Malea Planum, which are interpreted to be pyroclastic flows from Amphitrites and Peneus Paterae on the basis of their degraded morphology, topology, and the application of a previous model for pyroclastic volcanism on Mars. Peneus forms a distinctive caldera structure that indicates eruption of massive volumes of magma, whereas Amphitrites is a less distinct circular feature surrounded by a broad, low, dissected shield that suggests generally smaller volume eruptions. During the Early Hesperian, an approximately 1-to 2km-thick sequence of primarily fined-grained, eolian material was deposited on the floor of Hellas basin. Subsequently, the deposit was deeply eroded, except where armored by crater ejecta, and it retreated as much as 200-300 km along its western margin, leaving behind pedestal craters and knobby outliers of the deposit. Local debris flows within the deposit attest to concentrations of groundwater, perhaps in part brought in by outflow floods along the east rim of the basin. These floods may have deposited approximately 100-200m of sediment, subduing wrinkle ridges in the eastern part of the basin floor. During the Late Hesperian and Amazonian, eolian mantles were emplaced on the basin rim and floor and surrounding

  15. Geology and landscape evolution of the Hellas region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Leonard, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    Hellas basin on Mars has been the site of volcanism, tectonism, and modification by fluvial, mass-wasting, and eolian processes over its more than 4-b.y. existence. Our detailed geologic mapping and related studies have resulted in the following new interpretations. The asymmetric distribution of highland massifs and other structures that define the uplifted basin rim suggest a formation of the basin by the impact of a low-angle bolide having a trajectory heading S 60 deg E. During the Late Noachian, the basin was infilled, perhaps by lava flows, that were sufficiently thick (>1 km) to produce wrinkle ridges on the fill material and extensional faulting along the west rim of the basin. At about the same time, deposits buried northern Malea Planum, which are interpreted to be pyroclastic flows from Amphitrites and Peneus Paterae on the basis of their degraded morphology, topography, and the application of a previous model for pyroclastic volcanism on Mars. Peneus forms a distinctive caldera structure that indicates eruption of massive volumes of magma, whereas Amphitrites is a less distinct circular feature surrounded by a broad, low, dissected shield that suggests generally smaller volume eruptions. During the Early Hesperian, an approx. 1- to 2-km-thick sequence of primarily fined-grained, eolian material was deposited on the floor of Hellas basin. Subsequently, the deposit was deeply eroded, except where armored by crater ejecta, and it retreated as much as 200-300 km along its western margin, leaving behind pedestal craters and knobby outliers of the deposit. Local debris flows within the deposit attest to concentrations of groundwater, perhaps in part brought in by outflow floods along the east rim of the basin. These floods may have deposited approx. 100-200 m of sediment, subduing wrinkle ridges in the eastern part of the basin floor. During the Late Hesperian and Amazonian, eolian mantles were emplaced on the basin rim and floor and surrounding highlands

  16. ExoMars 2016 arrives at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team

    2016-10-01

    The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will arrive at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before arrival at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and

  17. Mars Aerobot Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J.; Bachelder, A.; Cameron, J.; Patzold, J.; Quadrelli, M.; Yavrouian, A.; Cantrell, J.; Lachenmeier, T.; Smith, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Balloon Validation Program (MABVAP) was initiated in August 1997 to develop and validate key technologies needed for aerobot missions on Mars. The major elements of the program are the development of balloons for flight on Mars, robust techniques for deployment and inflation and modeling and simulation of balloon flight paths. selection, development and tests of available balloon materials, design and fabrication of balloons (both superpressure and solar- heated), design and fabrication of deployment and inflation systems for aerial deployment, design and fabrication of avionics to control deployment/inflation process and to get telemetry and video data. Modeling of main processes during deployment and actual flight is also a part of MABVAP. In order to validate deployment and inflation, MABVAP applies experience from previous Mars balloon development or study activities the Russian-French Mars Aerostat Project (1988-1995), Mars Aerial Platform Study (1994) and Mars Aerobot/Balloon Study (1996). The program includes laboratory, wind tunnel, vacuum chamber tests of the system components and a number of tropospheric and stratospheric flight tests of deployment and inflation of lightfilm balloons in a simulated Martian environment.

  18. Global climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kargel, J S; Strom, R G

    1996-11-01

    The authors examine evidence from Mariner and Viking probes of the Martian environment to support theories of a global climate change on Mars. Similarities between some geographical features on Earth and Mars are used to suggest a warmer climate on Mars in the past. An overview of planned Mars exploration missions is included.

  19. Third International Colloquium on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of papers concerning the geology and geophysics of Mars, volcanism on Mars, the Mars atmosphere, and the long term history of the atmosphere-cap-regolith volatile regime are presented. Formation of the Mars surface, climatology, gravity and magnetism, atmospheric boundary layers, and interpretation of Viking imagery and Earth-based observations are considered.

  20. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  1. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-12-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  2. Mars surface transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jeffrey M.; Alred, John W.

    1986-01-01

    As the number of scientific experiments for the surface of Mars grows, the need for effective surface transportation becomes critical. Because of the diversity of the experiments proposed, as well as the desire to explore Mars from the equator to the poles, the optimum surface vehicle configuration is not obvious. Five candidate vehicles are described, with an estimate of their size and performance. In order to maximize the success of a manned Mars mission, it appears that two vehicles should be designed for surface transportation: an advanced long-range rover, and a remotely-piloted airplane.

  3. Human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwynne, Owen; Mckay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  4. Mars Aerocapture Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Oh, David Y.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Fisher, Jody L.; Dyke, R. Eric; Edquist, Karl T.; Brown, James L.; Justh, Hilary L.; Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Mars Aerocapture Systems Study (MASS) is a detailed study of the application of aerocapture to a large Mars robotic orbiter to assess and identify key technology gaps. This study addressed use of an Opposition class return segment for use in the Mars Sample Return architecture. Study addressed mission architecture issues as well as system design. Key trade studies focused on design of aerocapture aeroshell, spacecraft design and packaging, guidance, navigation and control with simulation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermal protection system sizing. Detailed master equipment lists are included as well as a cursory cost assessment.

  5. Exploring Mars in 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beish, J. D.; Parker, D. C.

    1988-04-01

    During September 19-26, 1988, Mars will be 23.8 arcsec wide; this is fully 95 percent as large as Mars can ever possibly become, and only 1 arcsec smaller than it attained during the last very favorable apparition, in 1971. In the case of the 1988 apparition, Mars will be 20 deg higher in the sky than in either 1971 or 1986, offering observers in the Northern Hemisphere a much better view. The south polar cap is discussed as well as clouds and hazes, yellow dust storms, and seasonable trends.

  6. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  7. Mars tectonics and volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1990-01-01

    The focus of this research was on three broad areas: (1) the relation between lithospheric stress in the vicinity of a growing volcano and the evolution of eruption characteristics and tectonic faulting; (2) the relation between elastic lithosphere thickness and thermal structure; and (3) a synthesis of constraints on heat flow and internal dynamics on Mars. The two reports presented are: (1) Heterogeneities in the Thickness of the Elastic Lithosphere of Mars--Constraints on Heat Flow and Internal Dynamics; and (2) State of Stress, Faulting, and Eruption Characteristics of Large Volcanoes on Mars.

  8. Airbag Tracks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The circular shapes seen on the martian surface in these images are 'footprints' left by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's airbags during landing as the spacecraft gently rolled to a stop. Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24, 2004, Earth-received time. The circular region of the flower-like feature on the right is about the size of a basketball. Scientists are studying the prints for more clues about the makeup of martian soil. The images were taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity.

  9. Exobiology on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor); Marshall, J. R. (Editor); Andersen, D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptions of several instrument concepts that were generated during a workshop entitled, Exobiology Instrument Concepts for a Soviet Mars 94/94 Mission, held at NASA Ames Research Center in 1989 are presented. The objective was to define and describe instrument concepts for exobiology and related science that would be compatible with the mission types under discussion for the 1994 and 1996 Soviet Mars missions. Experiments that use existing technology were emphasized. The concepts discussed could also be used on U.S. missions that follow Mars Observer.

  10. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  11. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  12. Explore Mars With Curiosity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the approximate true position of NASA’s Curiosityrover on Mars. A 3-D virtual model of Curiosity is shown inside GaleCrater, near Mount Sharp, Curiosity’s ultimate destin...

  13. Walking on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, G. A.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.

    1998-06-01

    Sometime in the near future humans may walk in the reduced gravity of Mars. Gravity plays an essential role in walking. On Earth, the body uses gravity to `fall forwards' at each step and then the forward speed is used to restore the initial height in a pendulum-like mechanism. When gravity is reduced, as on the Moon or Mars, the mechanism of walking must change. Here we investigate the mechanics of walking on Mars onboard an aircraft undergoing gravity-reducing flight profiles. The optimal walking speed on Mars will be 3.4 km h-1 (down from 5.5 km h-1 on Earth) and the work done per unit distance to move the centre of mass will be half that on Earth.

  14. The Mars Observer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission is to be the first in a series of modest-cost inner-planet missions. Launch is planned for the August/September 1990 Mars opportunity with arrival at Mars one year later. The geoscience/climatology objectives are to be met during a mapping mission over the course of one Mars year (687 days). The mapping orbit will be near-polar (93 degree orbital inclination), sun-synchronous (2 PM sunward equator crossing), and near-circular (350 km orbit altitude, 116 minute period). The spacecraft, to be selected in late 1985, will be a modified version of an existing commercial design which, in the mapping orbit, will maintain a nadir orientation. Experiments and instruments will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) process with release of the AO in April 1985, and selection in early 1986. A description of current planning for this mission, with emphasis on climatology, is presented here.

  15. Atmospheric Electricity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G.; Farrell, W.

    2011-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is one compelling example in our solar system that should possess active electrical processes, where dust storms are known to occur on local, regional, and global scales. Laboratory experiments and simulations all indicate that these events are expected to generate substantial quasi-static electric fields via triboelectric (i.e., frictional) charging, perhaps up to the breakdown potential of the Martian atmosphere. However current observations of potential electrical activity on Mars from both ground-based and orbital platforms have yielded conflicting results. If present, significant atmospheric electricity could be an important source of atmospheric chemistry on Mars, and thus impact our understanding of the evolution of the atmosphere and its past or present astrobiological potential. Here we review the current state of understanding regarding atmospheric electricity on Mars, and discuss its implications pending the results of future measurements.

  16. Retrograde Motion of Mars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knappenberger, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an activity whereby students describe the path of Mars through a background starfield. Includes purpose, materials, pre-lab, and procedure. Also provides guidelines for making a dial-a-planet wheel. (MA)

  17. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  18. From Siberia to Mars

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

    1991-01-01

    Because Mars is so similar to Earth, planetary scientists looking for answers to questions like these often use analogous environments on Earth to help them design future Mars missions. Such terrestrial sites, however remote, are still much more accessible than Mars. Field studies in such places give us a chance to test and refine instruments and procedures, develop overall concepts and collect baseline data to compare with actual results from Mars. Perhaps the best terrestrial analogue to the martian permafrost lies in northeastern Siberia. Freezing conditions have persisted here for over 3 million years. Although young by martian standards, these are among the oldest continuously frozen localities on Earth. They also hold something remarkable: not only organic residues, but also large numbers of viable bacteria (up to 100 million per gram of frozen soil), preserved for 3 million years in ice.

  19. The Cruise to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The long journey to Mars through the harsh environment of spaceconfronts the Curiosity navigation team with a long list of challengesto get the spacecraft safely to its destination.› Mission site

  20. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  1. Mars' core and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    2001-07-12

    The detection of strongly magnetized ancient crust on Mars is one of the most surprising outcomes of recent Mars exploration, and provides important insight about the history and nature of the martian core. The iron-rich core probably formed during the hot accretion of Mars approximately 4.5 billion years ago and subsequently cooled at a rate dictated by the overlying mantle. A core dynamo operated much like Earth's current dynamo, but was probably limited in duration to several hundred million years. The early demise of the dynamo could have arisen through a change in the cooling rate of the mantle, or even a switch in convective style that led to mantle heating. Presently, Mars probably has a liquid, conductive outer core and might have a solid inner core like Earth.

  2. Mars Acoustic Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a very high performance anemometer (wind gauge) for use at Mars. This instrument has great scientific as well as strategic reasons to be included on all future missions to the surface of Mars. We will discuss why we set out to develop this instrument, as well as why the previous wind sensors for Mars are insufficient to meet the scientific and strategic needs at Mars. We will also discuss how the instrument works, and how it differs from terrestrial counterparts. Additionally, we will discuss the current status of the instrument. Measuring winds at Mars is important to better understand the atmospheric circulation at Mars, as well as exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The main conduit of transport of water, and hence its current stability at any particular location on Mars is controlled by these atmospheric motions and the exchange between surface and atmosphere. Mars' large-scale winds are moderately well understood from orbital observations, but the interaction with the surface can only be addressed adequately in situ. Previous anemometers have been 2-D (with the exception of REMS on MSL) and slow response (typically <1Hz), and relatively low sensitivity/accuracy (>1 m/s). Our instrument is capable of fully 3-D measurements, with fast response (>20 Hz) and great sensitivity/accuracy (~3 cm/s). This significant step forward in performance is important for the surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat, momentum and volatiles. In particular, our instrument could directly measure the heat and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere using eddy-flux techniques proven terrestrially. When combined with a fast response volatile analysis instrument (e.g., a TLS) we can also measure eddy fluxes of volatile transport. Such a study would be nearly impossible to carry out with preceding anemometers sent to Mars with insufficient response time and sensitivity to adequately sample the turbulent eddies. Additionally, our instrument, using acoustics

  3. Environment of Mars, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David I. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    A compilation of scientific knowledge about the planet Mars is provided. Information is divided into three categories: atmospheric data, surface data, and astrodynamic data. The discussion of atmospheric data includes the presentation of nine different models of the Mars atmosphere. Also discussed are Martian atmospheric constituents, winds, clouds, and solar irradiance. The great dust storms of Mars are presented. The section on Mars surface data provides an in-depth examination of the physical and chemical properties observed at the two Viking landing sites. Bulk densities, dielectric constants, and thermal inertias across the planet are then described and related back to those specific features found at the Viking landing sites. The astrodynamic materials provide the astronomical constants, time scales, and reference coordinate frames necessary to perform flightpath analysis, navigation design, and science observation design.

  4. The atmosphere of Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.; McCleese, D. J.

    Mars, one of the most Earth-like of the planets, is today a cold, dry and barren world. However, there is good evidence that it may have been much warmer and wetter in the past and perhaps even supported life. The public interest aroused by these findings and by recent studies of `SNC' meteorites, believed to have come from Mars, with their claims of the evidence of ancient Martian life, has focused attention on the ambitious programme of Mars Exploration currently being undertaken by NASA and ESA and has provided additional impetus. Improved measurements of the conditions on Mars' surface and in its atmosphere are central to both agencies' plans, and current atmospheric missions are reviewed in this paper together with possible future designs.

  5. Bringing Life to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    A suitable long-term goal for human exploration of Mars is the determination of whether or not a self-sustainable bio-sphere could be constructed on Mars, a process called Terraforming. Preliminary considerations of the conditions on a habitable Mars suggest that there are two potentially habitable states: one -characterized by an atmosphere of 1-3 bars of CO2 - would be habitable for plants and microorganisms and another which would be habitable by humans. It may be possible to warm the planet by selective introduction of trace gases to enhance the greenhouse effect. Energy balance considerations suggest that warming Mars would take on the order of 100 years with a much longer time required to produce a breathable atmosphere.

  6. Future Mars outpost architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. D.; Owens, J.; Easter, R. W.; Mireles, O. R.; Ramsey, S. A.; Palko, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an outpost designed with the JPL Mars Long Range Planning Team's goals in mind. The design focuses on subsurface mapping and characterization, accomplished through seismic mapping and deep drilling.

  7. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  8. The climate of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The composition of the primitive Martian atmosphere and its development into the present environment are described. The primitive atmosphere consisted of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen released from rocks; the greenhouse effect which maintained the surface temperature above the frost point of water is examined. Volcanic activity reduced the greenhouse effect and along with CO2 removal from the atmosphere caused a lowering of the planet temperature. The global circulation patterns on earth and Mars are compared; the similarities in the circulation patterns and Mars' seasonal variations are studied. The carbon dioxide and water cycles on Mars are analyzed; the carbon dioxide cycle determines seasonal variations in surface pressure and the behavior of the water cycle. The behavior of the atmospheric dust and the relationship between the seasonal dust cycle and Hadley circulation are investigated. The periodic variations in the three orbital parameters of Mars, which affect the climate by changing the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar energy are discussed

  9. Internal constitution of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  10. Methane Plumes on Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spectrometer instruments attached to several telescopes detect plumes of methane emitted from Mars during its summer and spring seasons. High levels of methane are indicated by warmer colors. The m...

  11. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  12. Mars Exploration Zones

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation shows just one of many potential concepts for how the first human landing site on Mars might evolve throughout the course of multiple human expeditions to the Red Planet over...

  13. The influence of phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium in Panicum miliaceum and Brassica alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaden, Ute Susanne; Székely, Balázs; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium (Ge) in biomass two species, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) and white mustard (Brassica alba) were grown and sampled in a greenhouse experiment. The cultivation took place on two different substrates. The plants were fertilized with different nutrient solutions which differed in their phosphate content, and artificial addition of Ge was held via the casting solution. During the test period, measurements of the pH value, electric conductivity, and phosphate content of the soil solution were conducted. To transfer germanium from soil and plant material in solution, melting and microwave digestion processes were done. The experiment showed that in both species the additional Ge supply also leads to an increasing germanium content in the aboveground plant material. The two species, however, behave differently in response to this Ge supply. Panicum miliaceum accumulates Ge in the above-ground parts of plants stem, leaf and fruit to a much greater extent than Brassica alba. On the other hand the Ge accumulation in the roots of both B. alba and P. miliaceum was very high. In case of B. alba the root content was found by far higher as compared to the other parts of the plant. The addition of phosphate in the system changes the behavior. Without additional Ge its natural uptake from soil decreases in both species but in B. alba it is more characteristic. Increasing Ge supply (for both species) leads to an increased Ge uptake, until it reaches a maximum, regardless of the presence of phosphate addition. Phosphate, on the other hand, has positive effects on Ge uptake only in the case of B. alba roots, and to a limited extent in roots of P. miliaceum. In addition, for Panicum miliaceum an increase of germanium mainly in the underground parts was achieved. A further addition of phosphate did not have a positive effect on a greater enrichment of germanium. Whereas in Brassica

  14. Photogeologic mapping and the geologic history of the Hellas basin floor, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, H.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ruesch, O.; Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hellas basin on Mars is the second-largest topographically well-defined impact structure in the Solar System and has repeatedly been interpreted as a major sink of volcanic, glacio-fluvial and eolian materials. Based on established guidelines for planetary mapping, we compiled a comprehensive photogeological map of Hellas Planitia, i.e., the Hellas basin floor (1:2,000,000; ∼1.8 × 106 km2; see Supplementary online material), using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS-IR) day-time mosaic as basemap (supplemented by several other datasets). We identified 33 units, which were categorized into a "Rim Assemblage", containing "Dissected units", a "Layered rim sequence", and "Other basin rim units", as well as a "Floor Assemblage", containing the "Honeycomb formation", an "Interior formation", and a "Plains sequence". Relative dating of units was performed wherever contacts revealed stratigraphic relationships and was complemented by absolute model ages (AMAs) of all units that lend themselves to reliable crater-size frequency distribution (CSFDs) measurements. On the basis of our results, as well as AMAs of circum-Hellas volcanic provinces by previous authors, we compiled a chronostratigraphic model of the Hellas basin floor. The northern basin rim shows evidence (vast layered, hydrous mineral-bearing deposits containing meandering, channel-like valleys), that the early history of the basin until ∼3.8 Ga ago experienced extended periods of low-energy fluvial, and possibly lacustrine, activity. Superposing the layered rim sequence, the majority of the Hellas basin infill (∼1.5-1.7 × 106 km3) consists of volcanic material (a lower and an upper wrinkle-ridged plains unit), which was shortened by a compressive stress field relatively soon after its emplacement. Based on their ages and stratigraphic considerations, we identified Malea Patera (and possibly also Tyrrhena Patera) as a suitable source for the older, lower plains (∼3.8 Ga), and Hadriaca and

  15. Discovery concepts for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.; Nagy, A. F.; Jakosky, B. M.; Barth, C. A.; Waite, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Two focused Mars missions that would fit within the guidelines for the proposed Discovery line are discussed. The first mission would deal with the issue of the escape of the atmosphere (Mars') to space. A complete understanding of this topic is crucial to deciphering the evolution of the atmosphere, climate change, and volatile inventories. The second mission concerns the investigation of remanent magnetization of the crust and its relationship to the ionosphere and the atmosphere.

  16. Mars Observer Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Footage shows Bob MacMillin, NASA's Public Information Office, as he introduces the Mars Observer Project Manager, Glen Cunningham. Glen is shown addressing the current status of the Mars Observer communication system, the inability of NASA to establish contact, and the action that is currently being taken to establish contact with the spacecraft. Glen is also seen answering questions from both the audience as well as other NASA Centers.

  17. North Polar Layers, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows the basal layers of Mars' north polar layered deposits. The floor of Chasma Boreale is at the bottom of the image. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 64 centimeters (25 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 568 meters (621 yards) wide.

  18. Mars Exploration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, James F.; Miller, Sylvia L.

    2000-01-01

    The architecture of NASA's program of robotic Mars exploration missions received an intense scrutiny during the summer months of 1998. We present here the results of that scrutiny, and describe a list of Mars exploration missions which are now being proposed by the nation's space agency. The heart of the new program architecture consists of missions which will return samples of Martian rocks and soil back to Earth for analysis. A primary scientific goal for these missions is to understand Mars as a possible abode of past or present life. The current level of sophistication for detecting markers of biological processes and fossil or extant life forms is much higher in Earth-based laboratories than possible with remotely deployed instrumentation, and will remain so for at least the next decade. Hence, bringing Martian samples back to Earth is considered the best way to search for the desired evidence. A Mars sample return mission takes approximately three years to complete. Transit from Earth to Mars requires almost a single year. After a lapse of time of almost a year at Mars, during which orbital and surface operations can take place, and the correct return launch energy constraints are met, a Mars-to-Earth return flight can be initiated. This return leg also takes approximately one year. Opportunities to launch these 3-year sample return missions occur about every 2 years. The figure depicts schedules for flights to and from Mars for Earth launches in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. Transits for less than 180 deg flight angle, measured from the sun, and more than 180 deg are both shown.

  19. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  20. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  1. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  2. Effects of phytohormones and jasmonic acid on glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kastell, Anja; Smetanska, Iryna; Ulrichs, Christian; Cai, Zhenzhen; Mewis, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Although some study have established hairy root cultures from brassicaceous plants with glucosinolates (GS) as characteristic secondary metabolite, studies are missing which compare hairy roots with the corresponding mother plants. Therefore, two different plant species-Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa subsp. rapa pygmeae teltoviensis-were transformed with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Aliphatic and indolyl GS were present in B. rapa, exhibiting larger quantities in leaves than in roots. Aromatic p-hydroxybenzyl GS were found particularly in the leaves of S. alba. However, the proportion of indolyl GS increased suddenly in transformed hairy roots of S. alba and B. rapa. Cultivation with the phytohormone kinetin (0.5 mg L(-1)) enhanced GS accumulation in B. rapa hairy roots, however not in S. alba, but 2,4-D (0.4 mg L(-1)) induced de-differentiation of roots in both species and reduced GS levels. GS levels especially of 1-methoxyindol-3ylmethyl GS increased in hairy roots in response to JA, but root growth was inhibited. While 2 weeks of cultivation in 100 to 200 μM JA were determined at optimum for maximum GS yield in S. alba hairy root cultures, 4 weeks of cultivation in 50 to 100 μM JA was the optimum for B. rapa.

  3. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  4. Southern Mars: It's Spring!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

    The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  5. Why exobiology on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, A.

    1996-11-01

    Processing of organic molecules by liquid water was probably an essential requirement towards the emergence of terrestrial primitive life. According to Oparin's hypothesis, organic building blocks required for early life were produced from simple organic molecules formed in a primitive reducing atmosphere. Geochemists favour now a less reducing atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide. In such an atmosphere very few building blocks are formed. Import of extra-terrestrial organic molecules may represent an alternative supply. Experimental support for such an alternative scenario is examined in comets, meteorites and micrometeorites. The early histories of Mars and Earth clearly show similarities. Liquid water was once stable on the surface of Mars attesting the presence of an atmosphere capable of deccelerating C-rich micrometeorites. Therefore, primitive life may have developed on Mars as well. Liquid water disappeared from the surface of Mars very early, about 3.8 Ga ago. The Viking missions did not find, at the surface of the Martian soil, any organic molecules or clear-cut evidence for microbial activities such as photo-synthesis, respiration or nutrition. The results can be explained referring to an active photochemistry of Martian soil driven by the high influx of solar UV. These experiments do not exclude the existence of organic molecules and fossils of micro-organisms which developed on early Mars until liquid water disappeared. Mars may store below its surface some well preserved clues of a still hypothetical primitive life.

  6. Why exobiology on Mars?

    PubMed

    Brack, A

    1996-11-01

    Processing of organic molecules by liquid water was probably an essential requirement towards the emergence of terrestrial primitive life. According to Oparin's hypothesis, organic building blocks required for early life were produced from simple organic molecules formed in a primitive reducing atmosphere. Geochemists favour now a less reducing atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide. In such an atmosphere, very few building blocks are formed. Import of extraterrestrial organic molecules may represent an alternative supply. Experimental support for such an alternative scenario is examined in comets, meteorites and micrometeorites. The early histories of Mars and Earth clearly show similarities. Liquid water was once stable on the surface of Mars attesting the presence of an atmosphere capable of decelerating C-rich micro-meteorites. Therefore, primitive life may have developed on Mars, as well. Liquid water disappeared from the surface of Mars very early, about 3.8 Ga ago. The Viking missions did not find, at the surface of the Martian soil, any organic molecules or clear-cut evidence for microbial activities such as photosynthesis, respiration or nutrition. The results can be explained referring to an active photochemistry of Martian soil driven by the high influx of solar UV. These experiments do not exclude the existence of organic molecules and fossils of micro-organisms which developed on early Mars until liquid water disappeared. Mars may store below its surface some well preserved clues of a still hypothetical primitive life.

  7. Paleolakes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, R. A. Jr; Crosby, J. M.; McKay, C. P.; Rice, J. W. Jr; Wharton RA, ,. J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Observational evidence such as outflow channels and valley networks suggest that in the past there was flowing water on Mars. The images of fluvial features on Mars logically suggest that there must exist downstream locations in which the water pooled and the sediment load deposited (i.e. lakes). Sediments and morphological features associated with the martian paleolakes are believed to occur in Valles Marineris, and several large basins including Amazonis, Chryse and Elysium planitia. As Mars became progressively colder over geological time, any lakes on its surface would have become seasonally, and eventually perennially ice-covered. We know from polar lakes on Earth that ice-covered lakes can persist even when the mean annual temperature falls below freezing. Thus, the most recent lacustrine sediments on Mars were probably deposited in ice-covered lakes. While life outside of the Earth's atmosphere has yet to be observed, there is a general consensus among exobiologists that the search for extraterrestrial life should be based upon liquid water. The inference that there was liquid water on Mars during an earlier epoch is the primary motivation for considering the possibility of life during this time. It would be of enormous interest from both an exobiological and paleolimnological perspective to discover lakes or the evidence of former lakes on another planet such as Mars. Limnology would then become an interplanetary science.

  8. The Mars Observer database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1988-01-01

    Mars Observer will study the surface, atmosphere, and climate of Mars in a systematic way over an entire Martian year. The observations of the surface will provide a database that will be invaluable to the planning of a future Mars sample return mission. Mars Observer is planned for a September 1992 launch from the Space Shuttle, using an upper-stage. After the one year transit the spacecraft is injected into orbit about Mars and the orbit adjusted to a near-circular, sun-synchronous low-altitude, polar orbit. During the Martian year in this mapping orbit the instruments gather both geoscience data and climatological data by repetitive global mapping. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: (1) determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the surface material; (2) define globally the topography and gravitational field; (3) establish the nature of the magnetic field; (4) determine the time and space distribution, abundance, sources, and sinks of volatile material and dust over a seasonal cycle; and (5) explore the structure and aspects of the circulation of the atmosphere. The science investigations and instruments for Mars Observer have been chosen with these objectives in mind. These instruments, the principal investigator or team leader and the objectives are discussed.

  9. Transportation: Destination Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eoff, Bill

    1998-01-01

    As the agency space transportation lead center, Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting transportation assessments for future robotic and human Mars missions to identify critical technologies. Five human Mars options are currently under assessment with each option including all transportation requirements from Earth to Mars and return. The primary difference for each option is the propulsion source from Earth to Mars. In case any of the options require heavy launch capability that is not currently projected as available, an in-house study has been initiated to determine the most cost effective means of providing such launch capability. This assessment is only considering launch architectures that support the overall human Mars mission cost goal of $25B. The guidelines for the launch capability study included delivery of 80 metric ton (176 KLB) payloads, 25 feet diameter x 92 feet long, to 220 nmi orbits at 28.5 degrees. The launch vehicle concept of the study was designated "Magnum" to differentiate from prior heavy launch vehicle assessments. This assessment along with the assessment of options for all transportation phases of a Mars mission are on-going.

  10. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-11-27

    This report summarizes the results of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of the Mars Rover and Sample Return mission under investigation at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. Cross Reference CID #7135 dated 10/1989. There is a duplicate copy. This document is not relevant to the OSTI Library. Do not send.

  11. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (< 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory is presented.

  12. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (less than 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is presented.

  13. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    PubMed

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  14. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    PubMed

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations. PMID:24823799

  15. Mars at Ls 211o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    31 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  16. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.

  17. Mars at Ls 357o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    31 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 324o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars - Pathway to the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, J. A., Jr.; Buden, D.

    Mars has and will continue to play a key role in our exploration and conquest of the Solar System. Within the context of the creation of humanity's extraterrestrial civilization, the major technical features of the following Mars programs are reviewed: the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter; the Mars Aeronomy Orbiter; the Mars airplane; the Mars Penetrator Network; Mars surface rovers and mobility systems; human exploration of Mars; and permanent Martian bases and settlements. Mars properly explored and utilized opens the way to the resources of the asteroid belt and the outer planets; supports the creation of smart machines for space exploration and exploitation; and encourages the creation of autonomous niches of intelligent life within heliocentric space. All of these developments, in turn, establish the technological pathway for the first interstellar missions.

  20. Examining Mars with SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  1. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This stereoscopic picture of NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft was created from two views of that spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor acquired this image of Mars Odyssey on April 21, 2005. The stereoscopic picture combines one view captured while the two orbiters were 90 kilometers (56 miles) apart with a second view captured from a slightly different angle when the two orbiters were 135 kilometers (84 miles) apart. For proper viewing, the user needs '3-D' glasses with red over the left eye and blue over the right eye.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey was launched on April 7, 2001, and reached Mars on Oct. 24, 2001. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and arrived in Mars orbit on Sept. 12, 1997. Both orbiters are in an extended mission phase, both have relayed data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, and both are continuing to return exciting new results from Mars. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages both missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

  2. Comparison of polyglactin-910 and polydioxanone for closure of the linea alba following caudal ventral midline laparotomy in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Anderson, David E.; Rozell, Timothy G.; Hand, Jacqelyn M.; Faris, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared incisional complications after ventral midline laparotomy using 2 absorbable suture materials for apposition of the linea alba in sheep. The linea alba of 93 yearling sheep was sutured by 3 veterinarians in a simple continuous pattern using either polyglactin 910 (PG910; group PG) or polydioxanone (PDS; group PD). A blinded observer assessed surgical sites at the time of suture removal. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between incisional complications and variables (suture material used, veterinarian, skin suture removal time). The odds of incisional complications did not vary significantly with the type of suture material used (P = 0.11), veterinarian (P = 0.61) or skin suture removal time (P = 0.36). Most incisional complications were cutaneous suture sinus formation. Either PG910 or PDS may be used for linea alba closure in sheep. PMID:26345301

  3. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of

  4. The Scientific Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Fredric W.

    2009-12-01

    Part I. Views of Mars, From the Beginning to the Present Day: 1. The dawn of Mars exploration; 2. The first space missions to Mars; 3. After Viking: the 20-year hiatus; 4. The modern era; Part II. The Big Science: Motivation to Continue the Quest: 5. The origin and evolution of planet Mars; 6. The changing climate of Mars; 7. The search for life; Part III. Plans and Visions for the Future: 8. The future of the unmanned programme; 9. Towards human expeditions; 10. The first footfall on Mars; Appendixes; Index.

  5. Heat shock protein 47 expression in aged normal human fibroblasts: modulation by Salix alba extract.

    PubMed

    Nizard, Carine; Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Boisdé, Cécille; Moreau, Marielle; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Mahé, Christian

    2004-06-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is a specific chaperone of procollagen. This heat shock protein is responsible for the correct three-dimensional organization of procollagen and its control-quality prior secretion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the level of HSP 47 in aged, photoaged, and senescent fibroblasts and its modulation by a plant extract (Salix alba). The level of HSP 47 and/or procollagen expression in fibroblasts was measured by real-time RT-PCR (mRNA transcripts) and by flow cytometry (immunochemistry technique for measurement of arbitrary fluorescence intensity). Immunochemistry techniques and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the cellular localization of HSP 47 and procollagen. These parameters were compared with different age donors, nonsenescent, and senescent fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were irradiated by a noncytotoxic dose of UVA (6 J/cm(2)), and HSP 47 level was evaluated. S. alba extract was tested for its capacity to modulate HSP 47 expression. Colocalization of HSP 47 and procollagen was shown by confocal microscopy, indicating that HSP 47 could play a role of procollagen molecular chaperone in the cellular model. It was also shown that the HSP 47 level is decreased in old-donor cells, senescent, and irradiated cells. This decrease can be modulated by a S. alba extract (polyphenols rich) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of HSP 47 expression in the experimental conditions can lead to a new approach of aging and photoaging, pointing out the implication of this chaperone in these pathophysiologic phenomena. Modulation of HSP 47 expression by this family of molecules could be of cosmetic and/or dermatologic interest.

  6. Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

  7. Optimization of the soft x-ray transmission microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Pereiro, Eva; Valcárcel, Ricardo; Ferrer, Salvador; Nicolas, Josep

    2013-09-01

    Mistral is the soft X-ray full field microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source. The beamline is designed to have large source acceptance and to provide constant magnification at the exit slit for photon energies between 270 and 2600 eV. The monochromator is a variation of the Petersen plane grating monochromator in which a variable line spacing grating is used to maintain the beam focused at the exit slit, independently of the fixed focus constant, and to cancel aberrations. We present the alignment strategy used to compensate errors of the optical elements, and report about the commissioning results.

  8. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Sinapis alba in Revealing the Glucosinolate and Phytochelatin Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Duan, Mengmeng; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    Sinapis alba is an important condiment crop and can also be used as a phytoremediation plant. Though it has important economic and agronomic values, sequence data, and the genetic tools are still rare in this plant. In the present study, a de novo transcriptome based on the transcriptions of leaves, stems, and roots was assembled for S. alba for the first time. The transcriptome contains 47,972 unigenes with a mean length of 1185 nt and an N50 of 1672 nt. Among these unigenes, 46,535 (97%) unigenes were annotated by at least one of the following databases: NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, Gene Ontology (GO), and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). The tissue expression pattern profiles revealed that 3489, 1361, and 8482 unigenes were predominantly expressed in the leaves, stems, and roots of S. alba, respectively. Genes predominantly expressed in the leaf were enriched in photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related pathways. Genes predominantly expressed in the stem were enriched in not only pathways related to sugar, ether lipid, and amino acid metabolisms but also plant hormone signal transduction and circadian rhythm pathways, while the root-dominant genes were enriched in pathways related to lignin and cellulose syntheses, involved in plant-pathogen interactions, and potentially responsible for heavy metal chelating, and detoxification. Based on this transcriptome, 14,727 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, and 12,830 pairs of primers were developed for 2522 SSR-containing unigenes. Additionally, the glucosinolate (GSL) and phytochelatin metabolic pathways, which give the characteristic flavor and the heavy metal tolerance of this plant, were intensively analyzed. The genes of aliphatic GSLs pathway were predominantly expressed in roots. The absence of aliphatic GSLs in leaf tissues was due to the shutdown of BCAT4, MAM1, and CYP79F1 expressions. Glutathione was extensively

  9. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26567954

  10. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis. PMID:27064876

  11. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms.

  12. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  13. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms. PMID:26477326

  14. Mars digital terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    The Mars Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is the result of a new project to: (1) digitize the series of 1:2,000,000-scale topographic maps of Mars, which are being derived photogrammetically under a separate project, and (2) reformat the digital contour information into rasters of elevation that can be readily registered with the Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars. Derivation of DTM's involves interpolation of elevation values into 1/64-degree resolution and transformation of them to a sinusoidal equal-area projection. Digital data are produced in blocks corresponding with the coordinates of the original 1:2,000,000-scale maps, i.e., the dimensions of each block in the equatorial belt are 22.5 deg of longitude and 15 deg of latitude. This DTM is not only compatible with the DIM, but it can also be registered with other data such as geologic units or gravity. It will be the most comprehensive record of topographic information yet compiled for the Martian surface. Once the DTM's are established, any enhancement of Mars topographic information made with updated data, such as data from the planned Mars Observer Mission, will be by mathematical transformation of the DTM's, eliminating the need for recompilation.

  15. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.

  16. Simulating "Mars on Earth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    By now, everyone who's heard of the Haughton-Mars Project knows that we travel to Devon Island to learn how people will live and work on Mars. But how do we learn about Mars operations from what happens in the Arctic? We must document our experience--traverses, life in the hab, instrument deployment, communications, and so on. Then we must analyze and formally model what happens. In short, while most scientists are studying the crater, other scientists must be studying the expedition itself. That's what I have done in the past four field seasons. I study field science, both as it naturally occurs at Haughton (unconstrained by a "Mars Sam") and as a constrained experiment using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station. During the second week of July 2001, I lived and worked in the hab as part of the Phase 2 crew of six. Besides participating in all activities, I took many photographs and time lapse video. The result of my work will be a computer simulation of how we lived and worked in the hab. It won't be a model of particular people or even my own phase per se, but a pastiche that demonstrates (a proof of concept) that we have appropriate tools for simulating the layout of the hab and daily routines followed by the group and individual scientists. Activities-how people spend their time-are the focus of my observations for building such a simulation model.

  17. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  18. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-10-01

    Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. There is a duplicate copy and three copies in the file.

  19. Journey of a Lifetime -- Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA wants you to be part of the Journey to Mars. Today, NASA is pushing the boundaries of technology and innovation. NASA’s fleet of robotic scientific explorers at Mars are paving the way for hu...

  20. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  1. Mars lander survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, William R.; Babb, Gus R.; Davis, Hubert P.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements, issues, and design options are reviewed for manned Mars landers. Issues such as high 1/d versus low 1/d shape, parking orbit, and use of a small Mars orbit transfer vehicle to move the lander from orbit to orbit are addressed. Plots of lander mass as a function of Isp, destination orbit, and cargo up and down, plots of initial stack mass in low Earth orbit as a function of lander mass and parking orbit, detailed weight statements, and delta V tables for a variety of options are included. Lander options include a range from minimum landers up to a single stage reusable design. Mission options include conjunction and Venus flyby trajectories using all-cryogenic, hybrid, NERVA, and Mars orbit aerobraking propulsion concepts.

  2. Dynamics of Mars' magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.; Moses, S. L.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    1989-08-01

    If Mars has a small intrinsic magnetic moment, Mars' magnetosphere could vary on time scales of a few minutes due to reconnection with the solar wind magnetic field. The day-side magnetopause will be one or two reflected-ion Larmor radii from the bow shock. Substorms will have scale-times of about six minutes. Mars' high ionospheric conductance will virtually stop polar cap convection, and create a magnetic 'topological crisis' unless convecting magnetic flux finds a dissipative way to return to the day-side. The strong magnetic shear induced by magnetospheric convection above the ionosphere could be tearing unstable. The magnetic field might diffusively 'percolate' through the tearing layer. This shearing also draws field aligned currents from the ionosphere which could inject few KeV heavy ionospheric ions into the magnetotail.

  3. Ionospheric storms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Woch, J.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D.; Modolo, R.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements made by the ASPERA-3 and MARSIS experiments on Mars Express have shown that space weather effects related to the impact of a dense and high pressure solar wind on Mars cause strong perturbations in the martian induced magnetosphere and ionosphere. The magnetic barrier formed by pile-up of the draped interplanetary magnetic field ceases to be a shield for the incoming solar wind. Large blobs of solar wind plasma penetrate to the magnetosphere and sweep out dense plasma from the ionosphere. The topside martian ionosphere becomes very fragmented consisting of intermittent cold/low energy and energized plasmas. The scavenging effect caused by the intrusions of solar wind plasma clouds enhances significantly the losses of volatile material from Mars.

  4. Mars Spark Source Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

  5. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  6. Spiders from Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003

    No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  7. UBV photometry of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    A critical analysis of selected high-quality photometric observations of Mars indicates that: (1) the phase function is concave upward out to at least 40-deg phase. No sudden brightening occurs at opposition, but the curvature increases at small phase; (2) large systematic differences (0.1-0.2 mag.) exist between different observers' data. However, the small random scatter attributable to Mars (0.01-0.02 mag.) in the better series suggests that these differences represent systematic errors in data reduction, not variations in the planet's brightness; (3) the disentangling of seasonal, diurnal, and phase effects leaves considerable ambiguity; more observations are needed, over a long time, with a stable instrumental system. However, even the present data are sufficient to expose substantial errors in published phase curves of Mars (and consequently, in interpretations based on them).

  8. Remanent magnetism at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a strong case can be made for an intrinsic magnetic field of dynamo origin for Mars earlier in its history. The typical equatorial magnetic field intensity would have been equal to about 0.01-0.1 gauss. The earlier dynamo activity is no longer extant, but a significant remanent magnetic field may exist. A highly non-dipole magnetic field could result from the remanent magnetization of the surface. Remanent magnetization may thus play an important role in the Mars solar wind interactions, in contrast to Venus with its surface temperatures above the Curie point. The anomalous characteristics of Mars'solar wind interaction compared to that of Venus may be explicable on this basis.

  9. Climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Toon, O B; Gierasch, P J

    1973-09-14

    The equatorial sinuous channels on Mars detected by Mariner 9 point to a past epoch of higher pressures and abundant liquid water. Advective instability of the martian atmosphere permits two stable climates-one close to present conditions, the other at a pressure of the order of 1 bar depending on the quantity of buried volatiles. Variations in the obliquity of Mars, the luminosity of the sun, and the albedo of the polar caps each appear capable of driving the instability between a current ice age and more clement conditions. Obliquity driving alone implies that epochs of much higher and of much lower pressure must have characterized martian history. Climatic change on Mars may have important meteorological, geological, and biological implications.

  10. Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William; Vano, Andrew; Rutherford, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Advanced Space Design Program has developed a sample Mars exploration scenario. The purpose of the design project is to enhance NASA and university interaction, to provide fresh ideas to NASA, and to provide real world design problems to engineering students. The Mars Transportation System in this paper is designed to transport a crew of six astronauts to the Martian surface and return them to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) starting in the year 2016. The proposed vehicle features such advanced technologies as nuclear propulsion, nuclear power generation, and aerobraking. Three missions are planned. Orbital trajectories are of the conjunction class with an inbound Venus swingby providing a 60-day surface stay at Mars and an average total trip time of 520 days.

  11. The atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is essentially a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere that contains a small and seasonably varying amount of water vapor. A number of minor constituents which arise from the interactions of solar radiation with water vapor and carbon dioxide include carbon monoxide, atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, ozone, and atomic hydrogen. At the surface of Mars the atmospheric pressure is less than one hundredth of the pressure at the surface of the earth. Extensive cloud systems appear on Mars. The structure of the lower Martian atmosphere is discussed together with variations in the lower atmosphere and the characteristics of the upper atmosphere. Reactions of photochemistry are considered along with the atmospheric escape and interactions between the atmosphere and the polar caps.

  12. Planetary astronomy of Mars. Mars data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Grant #NAGW-1408 was specifically awarded to obtain telescopic visible and near-IR spectral imaging of Mars during the 1988 apparition (9/28/88). The observing program was highly successful producing approximately 2 Gbytes of data, but was only funded for one year and virtually all of the funds were spent in data acquisition. The follow-up grant was funded the following year for reduction of these data into a scientifically productive form, which because of the size and nature of our observations, was a non-trivial task. A more detailed scientific analysis of these data (fully reduced) is in progress now and will take a number of years. Extended geologic analyses of the astronomical data are being funded by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics program. The objective was to produce detailed reflectance spectra for contiguous, spatially resolved surface elements covering most of the planet (about +50 degrees to -90 degrees latitude, all longitudes). A total of 6 observing runs, of 3-4 days duration each, were conducted on the University of Arizona's 1.5m telescope on Mt. Bigelow. We present a sketch map showing the approximate total extent of our spectral image coverage. Nearly all of Mars south of 40 degrees N was observed at least once. About half of the area shown was observed multiple times. South of 65 degrees S, including the south polar cap, our coverage is heavily redundant. The first run was conducted June 29 - July 1, 1988 (all dates are UT) to serve as a baseline prior to possible dust storm activity on Mars. The other observing runs were closer to opposition: Sept. 3-6, 13-15, 24-26, and Oct. 5-7 and 16-18. The September and October observations were scheduled to provide maximum longitudinal coverage. This was also intended to provide a balance between surface observations and observations of predicted dust storm activity. No global dust storm developed in 1988, so we have a large volume of data for the surface of Mars.

  13. Mars Rover Studies Soil on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Both out on the plains of Gusev Crater and in the 'Columbia Hills,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has encountered a thin (approximately 1 millimeter or 0.04 inch thick), light-colored, fine-grained layer of material on top of a dark-colored, coarser layer of soil. In the hills, Spirit stopped to take a closer look at soil compacted by one of the rover's wheels. Spirit took this image with the front hazard-avoidance camera during the rover's 314th martian day, or sol (Nov. 19, 2004).

  14. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  15. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  16. Six Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The landing site chosen for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, at about 68 degrees north latitude, is much farther north than the sites where previous spacecraft have landed on Mars.

    Color coding on this map indicates relative elevations based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In longitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south).

  17. Mars Says 'hi'!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 October 2004 Although one might argue that most of the 'i' is missing, and part of the 'h' has been eroded away, this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Sinus Meridiani that almost seem to spell out the word, 'hi'. This natural graffiti is all that remains of a suite of sedimentary rock that once covered the area shown here. The 400 meter scale bar is about 437 yards long. The features are located near 1.8oN, 357.2oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. Mars mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA to broaden the nation's engineering capability to meet the critical needs of the civilian space program. It has the goal of focusing on research and training technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines: (1) composite materials and fabrication, (2) light weight structures and controls, and (3) hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion in a cross disciplined program directed towards the development of the space transportation system for planetary travel.

  19. Terraforming earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1992-01-01

    The uncontrolled character of current earth environment changes ascribable to anthropogenic pollutants is presently contrasted with the prospects for a controlled, long-term program of 'terraforming' for Mars, whose culmination could be the introduction of organisms able to thrive in the new Martian environment in carefully designed ways. A detailed discussion is conducted concerning the chemical building-blocks available on Mars for this manner of 'environmental engineering', with frequent reference to comparable and contrasting features of the terrestrial surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

  20. Iron Meteorite on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has found an iron meteorite on Mars, the first meteorite of any type ever identified on another planet. The pitted, basketball-size object is mostly made of iron and nickel. Readings from spectrometers on the rover determined that composition. Opportunity used its panoramic camera to take the images used in this approximately true-color composite on the rover's 339th martian day, or sol (Jan. 6, 2005). This composite combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer (red), 530-nanometer (green), and 480-nanometer (blue) filters.

  1. Frost on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows bluish-white frost seen on the Martian surface near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). Frost is expected to continue to appear in images as fall, then winter approach Mars' northern plains.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  3. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  4. Mars exploration: follow the water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    Over the centuries, the red planet Mars has been a subject of imagination as well as intense scientific interest. As the overwhelming success of two Mars Exploration Rovers unfolds before us, this article provides an overview of and rationale for NASA's Mars exploration program.

  5. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%. PMID:25789790

  6. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  7. New diketopiperazine derivatives from a deep-sea-derived Nocardiopsis alba SCSIO 03039.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingbo; Li, Sumei; Chen, Yuchan; Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Yiguang; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-01-01

    The strain SCSIO 03039 was isolated from a sediment sample in the Indian Ocean and was characterized as a Nocardiopsis alba species on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Seven diketopiperazines (DKPs), including two new DKPs nocazines D (2a) and E (2b), and five known DKPs (1, 3-6), were isolated from N. alba SCSIO 03039, along with two known compounds 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (7) and 1-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-naphthoic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated by mass and NMR spectroscopic analyses. The structure of methoxyneihumicin (1), previously proposed in a conference poster lacking publicly available experimental data, was validated for the first time by detailed NMR analyses and X-ray diffraction study. The two enantiomers nocazines D (2a) and E (2b) were isolated as a mixture. Compounds 3 and 4 were only known as synthetic compounds before. Methoxyneihumicin (1) exhibited in vitro cytotoxicities against MCF-7 and SF-268 with IC₅₀ values of 4.6 and 12.7 μM, respectively, better than those of 6 (22.0 and 20.6 μM). The other compounds showed less pronounced cytotoxities against three tested human cancer cell lines and no compounds displayed antibacterial activities toward four indicator strains.

  8. The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Emma J; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2013-07-01

    Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function σ factor (PspX), its cognate anti-σ factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic.

  9. The magnetic field of Mars - Mars 3 evidence reexamined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Dolginov et al. (1972, 1973) presented evidence for a Mars magnetic field based on Mars 2 and 3 measurements. This evidence is somewhat complex, based on a combination of arguments including the position of the bow shock, the identification of magnetopause crossings, and the simultaneous behavior of the plasma and the field. The evidence rests most heavily on one pass of Mars 3 on December 1, 1972 from which Dolginov et al. deduce the direction and orientation of the magnetic moment of Mars. It is the purpose of the present note that there is no reason to suppose that Mars 3 penetrated the Mars magnetosphere on this pass, that because of their locations all other putative magnetopause crossings are suspect and that the effective obstacle height is coincident with the height of the Mars ionosphere to within the accuracy of our knowledge of the proper scaling law for planetary bow shocks.

  10. Mars One; creating a human settlement on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielders, A.; Lansdorp, B.; Flinkenflögel, S.; Versteeg, B.; Kraft, N.; Vaandrager, E.; Wagensveld, M.; Dogra, A.; Casagrande, B.; Aziz, N.

    2013-09-01

    Mars One will take humanity to Mars in 2023, to establish a permanent settlement from which human kind will prosper, learn, and grow. Before the first crew lands, Mars One will have established a habitable, sustainable outpost designed to receive new astronauts every two years. To accomplish this, Mars One has developed a precise, realistic plan based entirely upon proven technologies. It is both economically and logistically feasible, and already underway with the aggregation and appointment of hardware suppliers and experts in space exploration. In this paper Mars One discusses the benefits of the mission for planetary science in general and Mars studies in particular. Furthermore potential contributions from the planetary community to the Mars One project will be identified.

  11. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

  12. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  13. Near-Mars space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The prevalent attributes of near-Mars space are described: the ambient interplanetary environment, the ionosphere, the upper atmosphere, and more remote regions that are affected by the presence of Mars. The descriptions are based on existing Martian data and/or models constructed from measurements made near Venus. Specific attention is given to the features of solar wind interaction with magnetospheric and ionospheric obstacles. The high-altitude plasma and field environment, the energetic particle environment, the ionosphere environment, and the neutral upper atmosphere environment are described with extensive graphic information, based on existing measurements collected from nine Martian missions. The ionospheric obstacle is assumed to prevail as a mechanism for describing the scenario. Martian perturbation of solar wind is theorized to be of a relatively small order. A distinctive local energetic particle population of planetary origin is shown to result from the direct interaction of solar wind plasma. This phenomenon is considered evidence of the important scavenging of planetary elements from Mars. The absence of a planetary dipole field around Mars, like its low gravity and distance from the sun, is considered important in determining the environment of this earthlike laboratory.

  14. Giant saltation on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Murilo P.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    Saltation, the motion of sand grains in a sequence of ballistic trajectories close to the ground, is a major factor for surface erosion, dune formation, and triggering of dust storms on Mars. Although this mode of sand transport has been matter of research for decades through both simulations and wind tunnel experiments under Earth and Mars conditions, it has not been possible to provide accurate measurements of particle trajectories in fully developed turbulent flow. Here we calculate the motion of saltating grains by directly solving the turbulent wind field and its interaction with the particles. Our calculations show that the minimal wind velocity required to sustain saltation on Mars may be surprisingly lower than the aerodynamic minimal threshold measurable in wind tunnels. Indeed, Mars grains saltate in 100 times higher and longer trajectories and reach 5-10 times higher velocities than Earth grains do. On the basis of our results, we arrive at general expressions that can be applied to calculate the length and height of saltation trajectories and the flux of grains in saltation under various physical conditions, when the wind velocity is close to the minimal threshold for saltation. PMID:18443302

  15. Near-Mars space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-05-01

    The prevalent attributes of near-Mars space are described: the ambient interplanetary environment, the ionosphere, the upper atmosphere, and more remote regions that are affected by the presence of Mars. The descriptions are based on existing Martian data and/or models constructed from measurements made near Venus. Specific attention is given to the features of solar wind interaction with magnetospheric and ionospheric obstacles. The high-altitude plasma and field environment, the energetic particle environment, the ionosphere environment, and the neutral upper atmosphere environment are described with extensive graphic information, based on existing measurements collected from nine Martian missions. The ionospheric obstacle is assumed to prevail as a mechanism for describing the scenario. Martian perturbation of solar wind is theorized to be of a relatively small order. A distinctive local energetic particle population of planetary origin is shown to result from the direct interaction of solar wind plasma. This phenomenon is considered evidence of the important scavenging of planetary elements from Mars. The absence of a planetary dipole field around Mars, like its low gravity and distance from the sun, is considered important in determining the environment of this earthlike laboratory.

  16. Footprints on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2013-01-01

    The first three human missions to Mars should be to three different geographic sites. Maximize mobility to extend the reach of human exploration beyond the landing site. Maximize the amount of time that the astronauts spend exploring the planet. Provide subsurface access. Return a minimum of 250 kg of samples to Earth.

  17. Mars landing site catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The catalog was compiled from material provided by the planetary community for areas on Mars that are of potential interest for future exploration. The catalog has been edited for consistency insofar as practical; however, the proposed scientific objectives and characteristics have not been reviewed. This is a working catalog that is being revised, updated, and expanded continually.

  18. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  19. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  20. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-09-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (106 - 107 yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  1. Darwin to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R.; Kolb, V.

    2003-04-01

    The search for life on Mars will be greatly facilitated if some insights are provided into the following questions: would prebiotic chemical evolution on Mars produce the same or reasonably similar types of life as we have on Earth and if not, can we anticipate what non-Earth biosignatures would look like? To answer these questions, we examine the applicability of Darwinian principles to prebiotic evolution and discuss the application of algorithms to Darwinian selection. We utilize both a bottom-up, philosophical approach, and a top-down approach, in which we attempt to extend different concepts of biotic evolution. These include a gradual transition, quantum evolution, and punctuated equilibrium to a "transition" zone of inorganic to prebiotic chemistry and to early biotic transitions. We suggest a new definition of life that may be useful for the search for life on Mars. We apply this definition to a complex inorganic-organic-biotic system on Earth, commonly called desert varnish. We then apply what we have learned to develop a protocol for the search for biotic components in desert varnishes on Earth, as a control, and on Mars, where varnish coatings may exist.

  2. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  3. Mars - The lineament systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.; Mccarthy, D. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the Mariner 4, Mariner 6, and Mariner 7 photographs shows that Mars has at least two distinct types of lineament systems. The most prominent is a well-developed global-type system. The second consists of radial and concentric lineaments associated with the Hellas and south polar basins.

  4. Mars: the lineament systems.

    PubMed

    Binder, A B; McCarthy, D W

    1972-04-21

    Analysis of the Mariner 4, Mariner 6, and Mariner 7 photographs shows that Mars has at least two distinct types of lineament systems. The most prominent is a well-developed global-type system. The second consists of radial and concentric lineaments associated with the Hellas and south polar basins.

  5. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

    1987-01-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  6. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  7. Making Mars habitable.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Toon, O B; Kasting, J F

    1991-08-01

    Mars is believed to be lifeless, but it may be possible to transform it into a planet suitable for habitation by plants, and conceivably humans. The success of such an enterprise would depend on the abundance, distribution and form of materials on the planet that could provide carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen. PMID:11538095

  8. Phanerochaete flavido-alba Laccase Induction and Modification of Manganese Peroxidase Isoenzyme Pattern in Decolorized Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, J.; de la Rubia, T.; Hamman, O. Ben; Martínez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Lignin-degrading enzymes were partially purified from supernatant solutions obtained from Phanerochaete flavido-alba-decolorized olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The dominant enzymes, manganese peroxidases, exhibited different isoform patterns in decolorized OMW-containing cultures than in residue-free samples. Laccase induction was also detected in OMW-containing cultures but not in control cultures. PMID:9647858

  9. Identifying rates of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal needed for suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Pythium irregulare in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is a commercial oilseed crop grown in Oregon. After extracting oil from seed, the remaining seed meal is rich in the secondary plant metabolite glucolimnanthin, which can be converted into pesticidal compounds such as 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (ITC) and 3-methoxyphe...

  10. Mars Express: exploration of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The ESA Mars Express Orbiter will be nearly polar and have an initial orbital period of 7.6 hours for the first 440 days and then will reduce its period to 6.7 hours. As periapsis of the elliptical orbit walks around Mars every 2 years, the ascending and descending nodes of the Mars Express orbit on the Mars equatorial plane will have the same radius as the orbit of Phobos and close encounters of Phobos will occur when Phobos is near the node as Mars Express passes.

  11. Mars Riometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honary, F.; Nielsen, E.; Romano, V.; Ulich, T.; Hapgood, M. A.; Janhunen, P.; Johansson, J.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of Mars Riometer System project is to develop a riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) that can measure ionisation levels in the upper atmosphere of Mars, especially at altitudes below those accessible to existing orbiter-based instruments. Riometer measurements will provide a range of information on the physical environment in which exploration must take place, e.g. the effect of energetic radiation (charged particles or electromagnetic waves) on the atmosphere/ionosphere of Mars and the resulting impact on radio wave propagation and absorption. The latter will become increasingly important as exploration activities make more use of radio links within Mars atmosphere, e.g. for distributed sensor networks and navigation systems. In addition to energy precipitation, the riometer will be able to detect radio emissions from micro-lightning in the Martian atmosphere. Electric fields associated with lightning represent a hazard to electronic equipment and cause an increase in the electromagnetic noise level. The riometer will be a valuable tool for remote sensing of Martian electrical discharges and the assessment of level of risk that exploration activities must consider. At present we are working to develop a prototype that will provide proof-of-concept that existing terrestrial riometer technology can be adapted for use on a planetary lander. This includes a vital element of enabling science - using existing knowledge of Mars' environment to model the signals that the riometer will measure. This science will help us develop the technical specification of the instrument and thus guide the development and testing of the prototype. The short-term aim is to demonstrate scientific and technology readiness at a level that will allow us to compete for flight opportunities on future mission opportunities.

  12. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  13. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  14. [MaRS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  15. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    For the first part of this briefing, see NONP-NASA-VT-2000081556. Marvin Traxler continues his discussion on signal tracking from the Mars Observer. Julie Webster, Lead Engineer, Telecommunications Subsystem, is introduced. She explains how signals coming back from Mars are detected. Dr. Pasquale Esposito talks about flyby orbits and capture orbits. He says that frequencies coming from the spacecraft can determine if the spacecraft has flown by Mars, or if a capture orbit has occurred. Charles Whetsel, System Engineer Spacecraft Team, presents a computer program. He shows where the signal will appear on the computer from the Spacecraft. Suzanne Dodd presents orbit insertion geometry. Dr. Arden Albee, Project Scientist Mars Observer Project, Cal Tech tech, says that Mars is studied to get more data to confirm their hypotheses derived from previous Mars Missions such as the Viking Mars Program and the Mariner Program. Dr. Albee also describes instrumentation on the Mars Observer such as the Ultra Stable Oscillator, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Magnetometer. The camera on the spacecraft is similar to a fax machine because it scans one line at a time as the spacecraft orbits Mars. Dr. Michael Malin, Principle Investigator Mars Observer Camera, Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., describe this process.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory at Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    Sunset on Mars catches NASA's Mars Science Laboratory in the foreground in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory at Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a canyon on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  19. Getting to Mars to Stay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmer, R.

    2000-07-01

    This abstract describes a proposal to start building a Mars Transportation Infrastructure, MTI, starting in earth orbit. The first facility at Mars should be the Manned Mars Orbiting Station, MMOS. Sending a human mission to land on Mars, and to return a couple of years later accomplishes little, is wasteful of resources, creates nothing of lasting value, is horribly expensive, and is not necessary in the near future. The superior plan is to build permanent facilities. The first manned facility at Mars should be in orbit, not on the surface. Mars should be observed for a period of time from medium Mars orbit by human beings in a permanent orbiting base, MMOS, while the complete MTI is being built.

  20. Prime candidate sites for the astrobiological evolution of Mars according to its hydrogeological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uceda, E.; Fairén, A.; Ruiz, J.; Dohm, J.; Öner, T.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; de Pablo, M.; Örmo, J.; Baker, V.

    Different-sized bodies of water have been proposed to have occurred episodically in the lowlands of Mars throughout the planet's history [1], largely related to major stages of development of Tharsis [1], [2]. These water bodies range from large oceans in the Noachian-Early Hesperian, to a minor sea in the Late Hesperian, and reduced lakes during the Amazonian. Assuming that the search for life is directly linked to the search for water, the possible biological history of Mars must have been largely influenced by the endogenetically-driven hydrogeological cycles. In consequence, terrestrial biological and environmental analogues can now be placed in context with the model proposed, so contributing to draw a general approach for the history of life on Mars. If the search for extant/fossil life or biomarkers on Mars is fully successful, our analysis would suggest that records of microbial activity will be reflective of the inundation phases and varying aqueous surface and subterranean environments, similar to what is observed on Earth. This analysis unfolds three prime candidate sites for the astrobiological exploration of Mars, each one corresponding to a major inundation phase of the global hydrological model: 1. Noachian to Early Hesperian: Terra Meridiani, based on (a) the geologic setting of the region [1]; and (b) the comparative analyses of hematite locations on Earth and Mars [3], which suggest an aqueous-hydrothermal origin, well according with the latest results of the MER Opportunity. 2. Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian: Mangala Valles, where diminishing martian episodic hydrologic events over geologic time are clearly recorded [4], particularly representing a later pulse of Tharsis-driven hydrologic activity. 3. Amazonian: Orcus Patera, a volcanic caldera or impact crater where reduced ponded bodies of water [5] [6] may have existed during almost contemporary times. To propose these prime candidate sites, here we perform a comprehensive analysis of the

  1. Pre-sedation and transport of Rhamdia quelen in water containing essential oil of Lippia alba: metabolic and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Salbego, Joseânia; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Loro, Vania L; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of transporting silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) for 6 h in plastic bags containing 0 (control), 30 or 40 µL/L of essential oil (EO) from Lippia alba leaves were investigated. Prior to transport, the fish in the two experimental groups were sedated with 200 µL/L of EO for 3 min. After transport, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, water hardness, pH, temperature and un-ionized ammonia levels in the transport water did not differ significantly among the groups. However, total ammonia nitrogen levels and net Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) effluxes were significantly lower in the groups transported with EO of L. alba than those in the control group. PvO2, PvCO2 and HCO3(-) were higher after transporting fish in 40 µL/L of EO of L. alba, but there were no significant differences between groups regarding blood pH or hematocrit. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish transported in 30 µL/L of EO of L. alba compared to those of the control group. The metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate, total amino acid, total ammonia and total protein) showed different responses after adding EO to the transport water. In conclusion, while the EO of L. alba is recommended for fish transport in the conditions tested in the present study because it was effective in reducing waterborne total ammonia levels and net ion loss, the higher hepatic oxidative stress in this species with the same EO concentrations reported by a previous study led us to conclude that the 10-20 µL/L concentration range of EO and lack of pre-sedation before transport are more effective. PMID:26297516

  2. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  3. Pre-sedation and transport of Rhamdia quelen in water containing essential oil of Lippia alba: metabolic and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Salbego, Joseânia; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Loro, Vania L; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of transporting silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) for 6 h in plastic bags containing 0 (control), 30 or 40 µL/L of essential oil (EO) from Lippia alba leaves were investigated. Prior to transport, the fish in the two experimental groups were sedated with 200 µL/L of EO for 3 min. After transport, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, water hardness, pH, temperature and un-ionized ammonia levels in the transport water did not differ significantly among the groups. However, total ammonia nitrogen levels and net Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) effluxes were significantly lower in the groups transported with EO of L. alba than those in the control group. PvO2, PvCO2 and HCO3(-) were higher after transporting fish in 40 µL/L of EO of L. alba, but there were no significant differences between groups regarding blood pH or hematocrit. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish transported in 30 µL/L of EO of L. alba compared to those of the control group. The metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate, total amino acid, total ammonia and total protein) showed different responses after adding EO to the transport water. In conclusion, while the EO of L. alba is recommended for fish transport in the conditions tested in the present study because it was effective in reducing waterborne total ammonia levels and net ion loss, the higher hepatic oxidative stress in this species with the same EO concentrations reported by a previous study led us to conclude that the 10-20 µL/L concentration range of EO and lack of pre-sedation before transport are more effective.

  4. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia. PMID:25484129

  5. Life sciences and space research XXIII(2): Planetary biology and origins of life; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting and Workshops XX, XXI and XXIII of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, A. W. (Editor); Dose, K. (Editor); Raup, D. M. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor); Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This volume includes chapters on exobiology in space, chemical and early biochemical evolution, life without oxygen, potential for chemical evolution in the early environment of Mars, planetary protection issues and sample return missions, and the modulation of biological evolution by astrophysical phenomena. Papers are presented on the results of spaceflight missions, the action of some factors of space medium on the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides, early peptidic enzymes, microbiology and biochemistry of the methanogenic archaeobacteria, and present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations. Consideration is also given to the development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars, biological nitrogen fixation under primordial Martian partial pressures of dinitrogen, the planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars, and the difficulty with astronomical explanations of periodic mass extinctions.

  6. Developing an Updated, Integrated Understanding of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany; Beaty, David; Meyer, Michael

    2014-09-01

    More than 650 scientists from 21 countries gathered in mid-July at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to debate and examine the status of our exploration of the Red Planet. Since the Seventh International Conference on Mars in 2007, seven Mars missions—Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit/Opportunity), Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)—have been returning data, augmented by telescopic observations, studies of Martian meteorites, laboratory work, and modeling studies.

  7. Life on Mars: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mars has evidence for past liquid water, presence of an atmosphere with CO2 and N2, and potential for preservation of evidence of life. Composition of the Martian atmosphere is 95.3% Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.3-0.1% Water Vapor, 0.13% Oxygen, and 0.07% Carbon Monoxide. Current Mars missions include: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,

  8. 2005 Earth-Mars Round Trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the 2005 Earth-Mars Round Trip. The contents include: 1) Lander; 2) Mars Sample Return Project; 3) Rover; 4) Rover Size Comparison; 5) Mars Ascent Vehicle; 6) Return Orbiter; 7) A New Mars Surveyor Program Architecture; 8) Definition Study Summary Result; 9) Mars Surveyor Proposed Architecture 2003, 2005 Opportunities; 10) Mars Micromissions Using Ariane 5; 11) Potential International Partnerships; 12) Proposed Integrated Architecture; and 13) Mars Exploration Program Report of the Architecture Team.

  9. The aqueous stability of a Mars salt analog: Instant Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, D. L.; Davis, R. D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Due to their stability in low-temperature conditions, aqueous salt solutions are the favored explanation for potential fluid features observed on present-day Mars. A salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations at the Phoenix landing site as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument. "Instant Mars" closely replicates correct relative concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. A Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cellprobed liquid water uptake and loss by Instant Mars particles in a Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) environment. Our experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions starting at 56 ± 5% RH between 235 K and 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution at or above 13 ± 5% RH. Particle levitation using an optical trap examined the phase state and morphology of suspended Instant Mars particles exposed to changing water vapor conditions at room temperature. Levitation experiments indicate that water uptake began at 42 ± 8% RH for Instant Mars particles at 293 K. As RH is decreased at 293 K, the aqueous Instant Mars particles transition into a crystalline solid at 18 ± 7% RH. These combined results demonstrate that Instant Mars can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in low-RH conditions.

  10. Mars Odyssey in the Context of NASA's Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The NASA Mars ODYSSEY Orbiter is the second step in NASA's scientific strategy for Mars Exploration during the present decade. ODYSSEY is intended to produce global scale inventories of key elemental characteristics of the uppermost surface layer, as well as the first 100m scale mineralogical assessment of another planet using middle-IR multispectral imaging. In addition, ODYSSEY will provide the first quantitative assessment of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment in the vicinity of Mars, one of the key steps in preparing the knowledge base necessary to plan for eventual human scientific exploration of the Red Planet. In the context of NASA's restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP), ODYSSEY will provide new vantage points from which to identify localities on the surface of Mars where liquid water may have been persistent in the past, or where there are existing deposits of near-surface ice. In addition, with its THEMIS middle-IR imaging system, ODYSSEY will search for "thermal anomalies" at 100 m scales in an effort to discover landing sites for future missions. Together with the ongoing Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), ODYSSEY is part of a sustained reconaissance of Mars using a variety of remote sensing approaches, that will culminate with the 2005 Mars Reconaissance Orbiter (MRO). Both MGS and ODYSSEY will help target MRO's high resolution instruments so that the large trade-space of scientifically compelling landing sites for Mars can be prioritized to a top few. ODYSSEY will direct MRO, and subsequently MRO will direct the 2009 Mars Smart Lander (aka Mobile Surface Laboratory) to conduct surface-based reconaissance and definitive in situ measurements of key constituents of the "Mars System". Thus, ODYSSEY will provide both context and direction in the near-term scientific exploration of Mars. Most immediately, data from ODYSSEY will contribute to the landing site assessments that are ongoing in support of the early 2004 landings of the twin Mars

  11. Merry Christmas from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This morning, after a journey lasting 205 days and covering 400 million km, the European Mars Express space probe fired its main engine at 03:47 CET for a 37-minute burn in order to enter an orbit around the Mars. This firing gave the probe a boost so that it could match the higher speed of the planet on its orbit around the Sun and be captured by its gravity field, quite like climbing in a spinning merry-go-round. This orbit insertion manoeuvre was a complete success. This is a great achievement for Europe on its first attempt to send a space probe into orbit around another planet. At approximately the same time, the Beagle 2 lander, protected by a thermal shield, entered the Martian atmosphere at high velocity and is expected to have reached the surface at about 03:52 CET. However, the first attempt to communicate with Beagle 2, three hours after landing, via NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter, did not establish radio contact. The next contact opportunity will be tonight at 23h40 CET. The tiny lander was released from the orbiter six days ago on a collision course towards the planet. Before separation, its onboard computer was programmed to operate the lander as from its arrival on the surface, by late afternoon (Martian time). According to the schedule, the solar panels must deploy to recharge the onboard batteries before sunset. The same sequence also tells Beagle 2 to emit a signal in a specific frequency for which the Jodrell Bank Telescope, UK, will be listening late tonight. Further radio contacts are scheduled in the days to come. In the course of the coming week, the orbit of Mars Express will be gradually adjusted in order to prepare for its scientific mission. Mars Express is currently several thousand kilometres away from Mars, in a very elongated equatorial orbit. On 30 December, ESA's ground control team will send commands to fire the spacecraft's engines and place it in a polar, less elongated orbit (about 300 km pericenter, 10000 apocenter, 86

  12. Icebergs on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  13. Noachian Megabreccia on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Tornabene, L.; Grant, J.; Wray, J.; Mustard, J.

    2008-12-01

    Megabreccia consists of randomly oriented angular blocks, many larger than 1 m diameter, which forms suddenly in energetic environments such as impact events. Megaregolith is a related term for unconsolidated material resulting from heavy cratering, but megabreccia may be indurated. We have, to date, identified megabreccia in more than 50 locations on Mars from HiRISE images, generally in the form of indurated bedrock. It is commonly found in the central uplifts of large craters in or near Noachian (>3.8 Ga) terrains, near the rims of large basins such as Isidis, and in deep exposures such as the floor of Uzboi Valles and in parts of Valles Marineris. Well-exposed rock outcrops are required to identify megabreccia, in particular from the diversity of colors and textures indicating diverse lithologies. CRISM has identified hydrated minerals, especially clays, in many of these locations and perhaps alteration will be found in nearly all of the deposits once the data are acquired and analyzed, but they also appear to contain unaltered clasts. These may be among the very oldest rocks exposed on the surface of Mars, dating back to the time of heavy bombardment. In some cases megabreccia with relatively small (1-5 m) clasts probably formed by post Noachian cratering, particularly when found in the pitted and ponded material filling the crater floors, which may be analogous to suevite. The indurated megabreccia with large (>10 m) blocks is only found in locations consistent with deep bedrock, such as the central uplifts, although further brecciation and alteration may have occurred in the crater that exposed the rocks. It has long been assumed that Mars has a ~2 km thick layer of porous and permeable megaregolith, but we suggest that it may be largely cemented by melt and hydrothermal alteration. Heavy bombardment of the ice-rich crust of Mars could have produced a very different surface layer than on the dry Moon. Life on Earth may have begun during the period of heavy

  14. Variations in Crustal Structure, Lithospheric Flexural Strength, and Isostatic Compensation Mechanisms of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, M.; Lin, J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze gravity and topography of Mars to investigate the spatial variations in crustal thickness, lithospheric strength, and mechanisms of support of prominent topographic features on Mars. The latest gravity model JGMRO110c (released in 2012) from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission has a spatial block size resolution of ~97 km (corresponding to degree-110), enabling us to resolve crustal structures at higher spatial resolution than those determined from previous degree-80 and 85 gravity models [Zuber et al., 2000; McGovern et al., 2002, 2004; Neumann et al., 2004; Belleguic et al., 2005]. Using the latest gravity data, we first inverted for a new version of crustal thickness model of Mars assuming homogeneous crust and mantle densities of 2.9 and 3.5 g/cm3. We calculated "isostatic" topography for the Airy local isostatic compensation mechanism, and "non-isostatic" topography after removing the isostatic part. We find that about 92% of the Martian surface is in relatively isostatic state, indicating either relatively small lithospheric strength and/or small vertical loading. Relatively isostatic regions include the hemispheric dichotomy, Hellas and Argyre Planitia, Noachis and Arabia Terra, and Terra Cimmeria. In contrast, regions with significant amount of non-isostatic topography include the Olympus, Ascraeus, Arsia, Pavonis, Alba, and Elysium Mons, Isidis Planitia and Valles Marineris. Their relatively large "non-isostatc topography" implies relatively strong lithospheric strength and large vertical loading. Spectral analysis of the admittance and correlation relationship between gravity and topography were conducted for the non-isostatic regions using the localized spectra method [Wieczorek and Simons, 2005, 2007] and thin-shell lithospheric flexural approximation [Forsyth, 1985; McGovern et al., 2002, 2004]. The best-fitting models reveal significant variations in the effective lithospheric thickness with the greatest values for the Olympus Mon

  15. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) : the US 2009 Mars rover mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Tampari, Leslie; Steltzner, Adam; Umland, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission is the 2009 United States Mars Exploration Program rover mission. The MSL Project expects to complete its pre-Phase A definition activity this fiscal year (FY2003), investigations in mid-March 2004, launch in 2009, arrive at Mars in 2010 during Northern hemisphere summer and then complete a full 687 day Mars year of surface exploration. MSL will assess the potential for habitability (past and present) of a carefully selected landing region on Mars by exploring for the chemical building blocks of life, and seeking to understand quantitatively the chemical and physical environment with which these components have interacted over the geologic history of the planet. Thus, MSL will advance substantially our understanding of the history of Mars and potentially, its capacity to sustain life.

  16. Seismology on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Miller, W. F.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, M. N.; Dainty, A. M.; Duennebier, F. K.; Lazarewicz, A. R.; Kovach, R. L.; Knight, T. C. D.

    1977-01-01

    High-quality data (uncontaminated by lander or wind noise) obtained with a three-axis short-period seismometer operating on Mars in the Utopia Planitia region are analyzed. No large events have been detected during the first five months of operation covered in the present paper. This indicates that Mars is less seismically active than the earth. Winds, and therefore a seismic background, began to intrude into the nighttime hours, starting with sol 119 (sol is a Martian day). The seismic background correlates well with wind velocity, and is proportional to the square of the wind velocity, as is appropriate for turbulent flow. A local seismic event of a magnitude of 3 and a distance of 110 km was detected on sol 80. It is interpreted as a natural seismic event.

  17. The politics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    A discussion is presented comparing past and present major accomplishments of the U.S. and the Soviet Union in space. It concludes that the Soviets are presently well ahead of the U.S. in several specific aspects of space accomplishment and speculates that the Soviet strategy is directed towards sending a man to the vicinity of Mars by the end of this century. A major successful multinational space endeavor, INTELSAT, is reviewed and it is suggested that the manned exploration of Mars offers a unique opportunity for another such major international cooperative effort. The current attitude of U.S. leadership and the general public is assessed as uniformed or ambivalent about the perceived threat of Soviet dominance in space.

  18. Fossil life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Three major problems beset paleontologists searching for morphological evidence of life on early Earth: selecting a prospective site; finding biogenic structures; and distinguishing biogenic from abiogenic structures. The same problems arise on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with the techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including hot springs, are more prospective than lake deposits. If, on the other hand, the search is for chemical evidence, the strategy can be very different, and lake deposits are attractive targets. Lakes and springs frequenly occur in close proximity, and therefore a strategy that combines the two would seem to maximize the chance of success. The strategy for a search for stromatolite on Mars is discussed.

  19. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this mission is to study the climate history and the water distribution of Mars. Beautiful panoramic views of the shuttle on the launch pad, engine ignition, Rocket launch, and the separation and burnout of the Solid Rocket Boosters are shown. The footage also includes an animation of the mission. Detailed views of the path that the Orbiter traversed were shown. Once the Orbiter lands on the surface of Mars, it will dig a six to eight inch hole and collect samples from the planets' surface. The animation also included the prospective return of the Orbiter to Earth over the desert of Utah. The remote sensor on the Orbiter helps in finding the exact location of the Orbiter so that scientists may collect the sample and analyze it.

  20. MARS Mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center (M2RC) is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in June 1988. It is a cooperative effort between NCSU and A&T in Greensboro. The goal of the Center is to focus on research and educational technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines Mission Analysis and Design, Hypersonic Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Structures and Controls, Composite Materials, and Fabrication Methods in a cross-disciplined program directed towards the development of space transportation systems for lunar and planetary travel. The activities of the students and faculty in the M2RC for the period 1 Jul. 1990 to 30 Jun. 1991 are described.

  1. The soils of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.

    1988-01-01

    A mineralogical model for the Mars fine soil that includes as major components smectite clays absorbed and coated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides and perhaps mixed with small amounts of better-crystalized iron oxides as separate phases is proposed. Also present as accessory minerals are sulfate minerals such as kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) and/or anhydrite (CaSO4), rutile (TiO2), and maghemite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4), the last two as magnetic components. Carbonates may be present at low concentrations only (less than 1 to 2 pct). However, a prime question to be addressed by a Mars Sample Return Mission shall be related to the mineralogical composition of the soil, and its spatial variability.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  3. Happy Mars Solstice!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) in the late afternoon of the 30th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). This is hours after the beginning of Martian northern summer. SSI used its natural-color filters, therefore the color is the color you would see on Mars. The image shows shadows from the SSI (left) and from the meteorological station mast (right) stretching toward the east as the sun dropped low in the west.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  4. Bright dunes on mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, P.C.; Malin, M.C.; Carr, M.H.; Danielson, G.E.; Davies, M.E.; Hartmann, W.K.; Ingersoll, A.P.; James, P.B.; McEwen, A.S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Veverka, J.

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal changes observed on the surface of Mars can in part be attributed to the transport of geological materials by wind. Images obtained by orbiting spacecraft in the 1970s showed large wind-formed features such as dunes, and revealed regional time-varying albedos that could be attributed to the effects of dust erosion and deposition. But the resolution of these images was insufficient to identify different types and sources of aeolian materials, nor could they reveal aeolian deposits other than large dunes or extensive surface coverings that were redistributed by dust storms. Here we present images of Mars with up to 50 times better resolution. These images show that martian dunes include at least two distinct components, the brighter of which we interpret to be composed of relatively soft minerals, possibly sulphates. We also find large areas of the martian surface that have several metres or more of aeolian mantle lacking obvious bedforms.

  5. Mars global surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The design and performance of a highly reliable, 20 volt nickel hydrogen battery compatible with existing NiCad Mars observer based spacecraft components and an 800 psi, zirconium wall wick Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) are discussed. The objectives of the design process are: to meet or exceed all PD requirements by using existing technologies; to have high reliability hardware and parallel fabrication of components; and low schedule risk configurations. This paper discusses the tests performed on the batteries (capacity, charge retention, random vib., pyro shock, energy density, and packing factor) and the results of the tests. In addition to the design discussion, a brief introduction on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Satellite objectives (NASA`s next interplanetary mission) is also presented.

  6. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  7. Chemical composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical composition of Mars is estimated from the cosmochemical model of Ganapathy and Anders (1974) with additional petrological and geophysical constraints. The model assumes that planets and chondrites underwent the same fractionation processes in the solar nebula, and constraints are imposed by the abundance of the heat-producing elements, U, Th and K, the volatile-rich component and the high density of the mantle. Global abundances of 83 elements are presented, and it is noted that the mantle is an iron-rich garnet wehrlite, nearly identical to the bulk moon composition of Morgan at al. (1978) and that the core is sulfur poor (3.5% S). The comparison of model compositions for the earth, Venus, Mars, the moon and a eucrite parent body suggests that volatile depletion correlates mainly with size rather than with radial distance from the sun.

  8. Mineralogical investigations of Mars.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J T

    1969-07-01

    A mineralogical study of Mars will offer a great deal of information on the present state of the planet and on the processes which have operated on it during the past. The degree of planetary development, the amount of igneous activity, the development of a secondary atmosphere, the presence of metamorphic or sedimentary processes, and the effects of impacting meteorites will all be recorded in the mineral assemblages. The identification of the mineral phases in the Martian rocks is the fundamental step in conducting such an investigation. Reliable phase analysis must be backed up with good elemental analyses as well, and with textural analysis of the rocks whenever possible. Many instruments including diffractometers, spectrometers, and petrographic microscopes have been designed to perform the desired analyses on unmanned spaceflights. Proper utilization of complementary techniques and a modest attention to a concerted effort on the problem will yield a quite sophisticated understanding of Mars with only a few space flights.

  9. The Exploration of Mars by Humans: Why Mars? Why Humans?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    As we commemorate the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's historic flight in 1961, the first flight of a human in space, plans are underway for another historic human mission. Plans are being developed for a human mission to Mars. Once we reach Mars, the human species will become the first two-planet species. Both the Bush Administration (in 2004) and the Obama Administration (in 2010) proposed a human mission to Mars as a national goal of the United States.

  10. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePlus

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  12. Powering Mars Rovers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewert, Robin

    2010-01-01

    INL scientists are doing their best to help solve our energy problems here on Earth. But did you know the lab is playing a key role in the exploration of other worlds, too? Meet INL Engineer Robin Stewart helps build and test generators that power NASA missions to Pluto and Mars. You can learn more about INL projects at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Organics on Mars?

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Inge L

    2010-01-01

    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources. Yet they have not been detected on the martian surface; are they there, or are we not capable enough to detect them? The Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer did not detect organics in the headspace of heated soil samples with a detection limit of parts per billion. This null result strongly influenced the interpretation of the reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments and led to the conclusion that life was not present and, instead, that there was some chemical reactivity in the soil. The detection of perchlorates in the martian soil by instruments on the Phoenix lander and the reports of methane in the martian atmosphere suggest that it may be time to reconsider the question of organics. The high-temperature oxidizing properties of perchlorate will promote combustion of organics in pyrolytic experiments and may have affected the ability of both Phoenix's organic analysis experiment and the Viking mass spectrometer experiments to detect organics. So the question of organics on Mars remains open. A primary focus of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will be the detection and identification of organic molecules by means of thermal volatilization, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry--as was done on Viking. However, to enhance organic detectability, some of the samples will be processed with liquid derivatization agents that will dissolve organics from the soil before pyrolysis, which may separate them from the soil perchlorates. Nonetheless, the problem of organics on Mars is not solved, and for future missions other organic detection techniques should therefore be considered as well.

  14. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  15. Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

  16. Organics on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Kate, Inge L.

    2010-08-01

    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources. Yet they have not been detected on the martian surface; are they there, or are we not capable enough to detect them? The Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer did not detect organics in the headspace of heated soil samples with a detection limit of parts per billion. This null result strongly influenced the interpretation of the reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments and led to the conclusion that life was not present and, instead, that there was some chemical reactivity in the soil. The detection of perchlorates in the martian soil by instruments on the Phoenix lander and the reports of methane in the martian atmosphere suggest that it may be time to reconsider the question of organics. The high-temperature oxidizing properties of perchlorate will promote combustion of organics in pyrolytic experiments and may have affected the ability of both Phoenix's organic analysis experiment and the Viking mass spectrometer experiments to detect organics. So the question of organics on Mars remains open. A primary focus of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will be the detection and identification of organic molecules by means of thermal volatilization, followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry - as was done on Viking. However, to enhance organic detectability, some of the samples will be processed with liquid derivatization agents that will dissolve organics from the soil before pyrolysis, which may separate them from the soil perchlorates. Nonetheless, the problem of organics on Mars is not solved, and for future missions other organic detection techniques should therefore be considered as well.

  17. Cryptic Terrain on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    There is an enigmatic region near the south pole of Mars known as the 'cryptic' terrain. It stays cold in the spring, even as its albedo darkens and the sun rises in the sky.

    This region is covered by a layer of translucent seasonal carbon dioxide ice that warms and evaporates from below. As carbon dioxide gas escapes from below the slab of seasonal ice it scours dust from the surface. The gas vents to the surface, where the dust is carried downwind by the prevailing wind.

    The channels carved by the escaping gas are often radially organized and are known informally as 'spiders' (figure 1).

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003179_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 01-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 245.9 km (153.7 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.2 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:19 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 78 degrees, thus the sun was about 12 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 210.8 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  18. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  19. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-08-25

    This report summarizes the results of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of SpecialApplications, in suppport of the Mars Rover and Sample Return mission under investigation at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The report is a rearranged, updated, and significantly expanded amalgam of three interrelated papers presented at the 24th Intersocity Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) at Arlington, Virginia, on August 10, 1989.

  20. Observing Mars with MOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, J.; Jensen, E.; Supulver, K.; Edgett, K.; Davis, S.; Gross, W.; Zimdar, R.; Posiolova, L.; Caplinger, M.; Warren, J.; Malin, M.

    2000-12-01

    NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been in orbit around Mars since September 1997. The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) is one of 6 experiments on board MGS and has taken more than 75,000 images of the Martian surface. MOC consists of two wide angle cameras (one imaging through a 600nm red filter, the other through a 425nm blue filter), used to take daily global maps of the planet, observe weather changes, and provide context for the narrow angle images. The narrow angle camera -- an f/10 3.5m focal length telescope -- is used to acquire high resolution images of specific targets and randomly sample other terrain. MOC primarily looks nadir, but spacecraft slews can be commanded, for example, to examine landing sites and to measure focus performance by imaging stars. MOC is operated by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., from its facilities in San Diego, CA. A six person operations staff is responsible for selecting targets, commanding the camera, retrieving data from Project computers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, checking quality, and archiving the raw data with NASA's Planetary Data System. Following a six-month validation process, the data are made publicly available on the World Wide Web. Specific images of interest are highlighted in media-related web releases. We present an overview of MOC and its operation, with emphasis on the archiving process and details of the camera's design and implementation. We also include some recent images and examples of the active environment of Mars, such as the seasonal regression of the polar caps and dust storms.

  1. Powering Mars Rovers

    ScienceCinema

    Stewert, Robin

    2016-07-12

    INL scientists are doing their best to help solve our energy problems here on Earth. But did you know the lab is playing a key role in the exploration of other worlds, too? Meet INL Engineer Robin Stewart helps build and test generators that power NASA missions to Pluto and Mars. You can learn more about INL projects at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Ice on Mars Again

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This high resolution photo of the surface of Mars was taken by Viking Lander 2 at its Utopia Planitia landing site on May 18, 1979, and relayed to Earth by Orbiter 1 on June 7th. It shows a thin coating of water ice on the rocks and soil. The time of the frost appearance corresponds almost exactly with the build up of frost one Martian year (23 Earth Months) ago.

  3. Organics on Mars?

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Inge L

    2010-01-01

    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources. Yet they have not been detected on the martian surface; are they there, or are we not capable enough to detect them? The Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer did not detect organics in the headspace of heated soil samples with a detection limit of parts per billion. This null result strongly influenced the interpretation of the reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments and led to the conclusion that life was not present and, instead, that there was some chemical reactivity in the soil. The detection of perchlorates in the martian soil by instruments on the Phoenix lander and the reports of methane in the martian atmosphere suggest that it may be time to reconsider the question of organics. The high-temperature oxidizing properties of perchlorate will promote combustion of organics in pyrolytic experiments and may have affected the ability of both Phoenix's organic analysis experiment and the Viking mass spectrometer experiments to detect organics. So the question of organics on Mars remains open. A primary focus of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will be the detection and identification of organic molecules by means of thermal volatilization, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry--as was done on Viking. However, to enhance organic detectability, some of the samples will be processed with liquid derivatization agents that will dissolve organics from the soil before pyrolysis, which may separate them from the soil perchlorates. Nonetheless, the problem of organics on Mars is not solved, and for future missions other organic detection techniques should therefore be considered as well. PMID:20735250

  4. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  5. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  6. Effects of Applied Nitrogen Amounts on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mari; Takahashi, Makoto; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-21

    This study investigated the effects of applied nitrogen amounts on specific functional components in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. The relationships between mineral elements and the functional components in mulberry leaves were examined using mulberry trees cultivated in different soil conditions in four cultured fields. Then, the relationships between the nitrogen levels and the leaf functional components were studied by culturing mulberry in plastic pots and experimental fields. In the common cultured fields, total nitrogen was negatively correlated with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = -0.48) and positively correlated with the 1-deoxynojirimycin content (R(2) = 0.60). Additionally, differences in nitrogen fertilizer application levels affected each functional component in mulberry leaves. For instance, with increased nitrogen levels, the chlorogenic acid and flavonol contents significantly decreased, but the 1-deoxynojirimycin content significantly increased. Selection of the optimal nitrogen application level is necessary to obtain the desired functional components from mulberry leaves. PMID:27579496

  7. Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K T; Nagaraju, S; Nandini, S Usha; Kemparaju, K

    2009-08-01

    Antivenom therapy is the current best therapy available for the treatment of fatal snake envenomation. However, the antivenom offers less or no protection against local effects such as extensive edema, hemorrhage, dermo-, myonecrosis and inflammation at the envenomed region. Viperidae snakes are highly known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation Morus alba plant leaf extract has been studied against the Indian Vipera/Daboia russelii venom induced local and systemic effects. The extract completely abolished the in vitro proteolytic and hyaluronolytic activities of the venom. Edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic activities were also neutralized efficiently. In addition, the extract partially inhibited the pro-coagulant activity and completely abolished the degradation of Aalpha chain of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract processes potent antisnake venom property, especially against the local and systemic effects of Daboia russelii venom.

  8. Potential pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of phenolic constituents from the root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Ha, Manh Tuan; Tran, Manh Hung; Ah, Kim Jeong; Jo, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jaewang; Kim, Wook Dong; Cheon, Woo Jae; Woo, Mi Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Min, Byung Sun

    2016-06-15

    Detailed phytochemical investigation from the root bark of Morus alba resulted in the isolation of eleven new compounds, including seven 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives (morusalfurans A-G), three flavonoids (morusalnols A-C), and one geranylated stilbene (morusibene A), as well as 22 known compounds. The structures of the identified compounds were elucidated based on a comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and Mosher's method. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11, 23, 24, and 29 showed potent inhibition of PL in comparison with the positive control treatment (orlistat, IC50=0.012μM), with IC50 values ranging from 0.09 to 0.92μM. PMID:27156775

  9. (-)-N-Formylanonaine from Michelia alba as a human tyrosinase inhibitor and antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chou, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hou-Chien; Lee, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chau-Zen; Chu, I-Ming

    2010-07-15

    Tyrosinase is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments for coloring hair, skin, and eyes. As reported in this study, a natural product, (-)-N-formylanonaine isolated from the leaves of Michelia alba D.C. (Magnolianceae), was found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 74.3 microM and to have tyrosinase and melanin reducing activities in human epidermal melanocytes without apparent cytotoxicity to human cells, superior to the known tyrosinase inhibitors, such as kojic acid and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU). Based on homology modeling, the compound binds the active site by coordinating with two Cu2+ ions. In addition, the compound had antioxidation activities in tests for scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, and chelating metal ions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the bioactivities of (-)-N-formylanonaine from this plant species. PMID:20584613

  10. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  11. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  12. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption.

  13. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  14. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  15. The investigation of moving dunes over Mars using very high resolution topography and sub pixel co-registration method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Baik, H.; Seol, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although the origins and processes of Martian aeolian features, especially dunes, have not been fully identified yet, it has been better understood by the orbital observation method which has led to the identification of Martian dune migration such as a case in Nili Patera (Bridges, 2012), and the numerical model employing advanced computational fluid dynamics. Specifically, the recent introduction of very high-resolution image products, such as 25 cm-resolution HiRISE imagery and its precise photogrammetric processor, allows us to trace the estimated, although tiny, dune migration over the Martian surface. In this study, we attempted to improve the accuracy of active dune migration measurements by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on the hierarchical geodetic control (Kim and Muller, 2009) for better initial point settings; and 2) the improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage based on a least squares correlation conducted on a pyramidal processor. Consequently, this scheme not only measured Martian dune migration more precisely, but it also achieved the extension of 3D observations combining stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using the HiRISE time series images over several dune fields, such as the Kaiser, Procter, and Rabe craters, which were reported by the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (Hayward et al., 2013). The detected dune migrations were significantly larger than previously reported values. The outcomes in our study will be demonstrated with the quantified values in 2D and volumetric direction. In the future, the method will be further applied to the dune fields in the Mars Global dune database comprehensively and can be compared with the improved General Circulation Model and the numerical simulation.

  16. MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger (Editor); Banin, Amos (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered with respect to chemical weathering on Mars include the following: Mars soil, mineralogy, spectroscopic analysis, clays, silicates, oxidation, iron oxides, water, chemical reactions, geochemistry, minerals, Mars atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, salts, planetary evolution, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, regolith, surface reactions, Mars soil analogs, carbonates, meteorites, and reactivity.

  17. Abiogenic synthesis on Mars.

    PubMed

    Young, R S; Ponnamperuma, C; McCaw, B K

    1965-01-01

    Atmospheres capable of producing organic compounds under primitive conditions are discussed in the light of recent experimental evidence. The atmosphere of Mars is discussed, in particular, the observations of Sinton of reflection spectra with features at 3.45, 3.58, and 3.69, which are attributes to C-H bands and the presence of organic molecules. Colthup interprets these features as being representative of organic aldehydes and suggests specifically, acetaldehyde. Many works have considered these observations as being indicative of life on Mars. Rea has offered alternative hypotheses. This paper presents experimental evidence of yet another possible explanation; that organic compounds are being produced in the Martian atmosphere, and may be responsible for Sinton's observations. The influence of such syntheses on possible Martian organisms is discussed. Various possible Martian atmospheres have been irradiated with ultraviolet light as well as other possible energy sources and a variety of organic end products have been identified. Martian atmospheres plus acetaldehyde as a starting point have also been used and end products analyzed. Possible abiogenic pathways for Mars are discussed.

  18. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  19. Making Mars habitable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Toon, Owen B.; Kasting, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility is considered that the atmosphere and climate of Mars could be altered to allow terrestrial life forms, and possibly human beings, to survive on the surface. Production of CFCs or other greenhouse gases on Mars would warm the surface enough for the regolith and polar caps to release their CO2 and raise atmospheric pressure to 100 mbar. If a large regolith and polar CO2 reservoirs exist, the pressure would continue to rise on its own. If these are absent, additional CO2 would have to be released from carbonate minerals. At this point, perhaps between 100 and 100,000 yrs, Mars might be suitable for plants. If there is a mechanism for sequestering the reduced carbon, these plants could slowly transform the CO2 to produce an O2-rich atmosphere in perhaps 100,000 yrs. If sufficient N2 could be released from putative soil deposits and the CO2 level could be kept low enough, then a human-breathable atmosphere would be produced.

  20. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  1. Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-04-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively.

  2. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba).

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-05-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC(50)) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  3. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  4. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-05-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  5. Did Mars once have martians?

    PubMed

    McKay, C P

    1993-09-01

    Pictures of Mars from the Viking and Mariner 9 missions provide evidence of liquid water in Mars' past, indicating a warmer climate. It is speculated that outflow channels and valley networks were formed 3.5 to 4 billions years ago, at the same time life was developing on Earth. Current theories suggest that chemical reactions in Mars' early atmosphere depleted the original amounts of carbon dioxide with no mechanism to recycle it back into the atmosphere. Ecosystems in the cold, dry Antarctic valleys provide models of Mars on Earth and indicate that if life evolved on Mars there may be organic or fossil evidence under the surface. Lake beds on Mars surface are considered to be the best place to hunt for fossils.

  6. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  7. Mars periglacial punctual features analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Adriane; Barata, Teresa; Ivo Alves, E.; Cunha, Pedro P.

    2012-11-01

    The presence of patterned grounds on Mars has been reported in several papers, especially the study of polygons distribution, size and formation processes. In the last years, the presence of basketball terrains has been noticed on Mars. Studies were made to recognize these terrains on Mars through the analysis of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images. We have been developing an algorithm that recognizes automatically and extracts the hummocky patterns on Mars related to landforms generated by freeze-thaw cycles such as mud boils features. The algorithm is based on remote sensing data that establishes a comparison between the hummocks and mud boils morphology and size from Adventdalen at Longyearbyen (Svalbard - Norway) and hummocky patterns on Mars using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery.

  8. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  9. Did Mars once have martians?

    PubMed

    McKay, C P

    1993-09-01

    Pictures of Mars from the Viking and Mariner 9 missions provide evidence of liquid water in Mars' past, indicating a warmer climate. It is speculated that outflow channels and valley networks were formed 3.5 to 4 billions years ago, at the same time life was developing on Earth. Current theories suggest that chemical reactions in Mars' early atmosphere depleted the original amounts of carbon dioxide with no mechanism to recycle it back into the atmosphere. Ecosystems in the cold, dry Antarctic valleys provide models of Mars on Earth and indicate that if life evolved on Mars there may be organic or fossil evidence under the surface. Lake beds on Mars surface are considered to be the best place to hunt for fossils. PMID:11540045

  10. Mars, Europa and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    The two other solar system bodies thought to be most compatible with "life as we know it" are the planet Mars and Europa, a natural satellite of the planet Jupiter. These worlds appear to harbor the potential for past and/or present-day liquid water, biologically useful energy sources, and a significant and rich organic chemistry. Such traits are under active investigation both through ongoing, targeted, solar system exploration missions and from the extensive analysis of data from previous missions and astronomical observations. And both bodies are the subject of astrobiologically inspired future missions. The nature of both Mars and Europa fuels speculation about the prospects for life, and the established facts about each of them, added to more recent observations, can explain their astrobiological interest. Nonetheless, such data can only form a circumstantial case for that interest, and further investigations of water (in all of its forms), energy, and organic chemistry are sure to be required before astrobiological investigations can be further targeted-and data from any biological observations can be properly interpreted. Most important will be a dedication to understanding both Mars and Europa for the environments that they possess-and the nature and distribution of those environments in space and time-rather than trying to understand these worlds by simple analogy to the modern Earth. It is clear that both Mars and Europa have characteristics that may be similar to those of Earth when studied over its entire history, but it is equally true that each of them have characteristics that are unlike anything presented by the Earth system at any single time in its past. The same can be said of Saturn's moon, Titan, which presents a compelling mix of organic chemistry, water ice, and atmosphere-but must represent a significant departure from any historical Earth. This is not necessarily a disadvantage. In fact, through the study of Mars, Europa, and Titan we may

  11. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  12. Global View of Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This global map of Mars is based on topographical information collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Illumination is from the upper right. The image width is approximately 18,000 kilometers (11,185 miles). Candor Chasma forms part of the large Martian canyon system named Valles Marineris. The location of Southwest Candor Chasma is indicated in the annotated version.

  13. Mars gravity and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, B. G.; Mischna, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    How accurately do we need to measure seasonal variations in Mars gravity, in order to significantly contribute to an understanding of the seasonal climate cycle? It has long been understood that seasonal cycles of volatile mass transport on Mars, mainly involving CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the polar caps, will change the gravitational field by measurable amounts. In recent years, the gravitational field models, which are obtained from measured Doppler shifts in the tracking data for Mars-orbiting satellites, have become accurate enough that they can resolve some seasonal variations. However, the present models only resolve seasonal cycles for two parameters, nominally J2 and J3, which are zonal components of degree 2 and 3, respectively. In fact, what is actually observed is an unresolved linear combination of even degree zonals, in the guise of J2, and a similar combination of odd degree zonals for J3. Mars climate models are currently constrained mainly by the surface atmospheric pressure measurements made at the two Viking Lander sites. Wood and Paige (1992) showed that the observed seasonal pressure cycles at these two locations can be very well simulated by a simple one-dimensional surface thermal balance model, when its 6 free parameters (separate values for albedo and emissivity for each polar cap, and a soil thermal inertia for each hemisphere ) are properly chosen. However, it also emerged that the preferred values for albedo and emissivity are quite different from those obtained via optical remote sensing. It thus appears that the 1-D climate model yields aliased estimates of these parameters. It seems clear that, if we had sufficiently accurate gravity measurements, it would be equivalent to having a global grid of effective Viking Lander pressure measurements, with the number of grid points related to the spatial resolution of the gravity measurements. For example, if the seasonal variations were seen in a full Nth degree and order gravity

  14. Mars Observer magnetic fields investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Wasilewski, P.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J.; Curtis, D. W.; Reme, H.; Cros, A.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic fields experiment designed for the Mars Observer mission will provide definitive measurements of the Martian magnetic field from the transition and mapping orbits planned for the Mars Observer. The paper describes the instruments (which include a classical magnetometer and an electron reflection magnetometer) and techniques designed to investigate the nature of the Martian magnetic field and the Mars-solar wind interaction, the mapping of crustal magnetic fields, and studies of the Martian ionosphere, which are activities included in the Mars Observer mission objectives. Attention is also given to the flight software incorporated in the on-board data processor, and the procedures of data processing and analysis.

  15. Hot oxygen corona of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    1988-10-01

    Electron dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions in the Venus ionosphere, which may be an important source of suprathermal atomic oxygen, is presently considered as a factor in the Mars exosphere; due to the weaker surface gravitational attraction of Mars, a hot oxygen corona thus formed would be denser than that of Venus at altitudes greater than 2000 km despite Mars' lower ionospheric content. If such an extended oxygen corona does exist on Mars, its collisional interaction with Phobos would lead to the formation of an oxygen gas torus whose average number density is of the order of only 1-2/cu cm along the Phobos orbit. 51 references.

  16. Instrument Deployment for Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Liam; Bualat, Maria; Kunz, C.; Lee, Susan; Sargent, Randy; Washington, Rich; Wright, Anne; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Future Mars rovers, such as the planned 2009 MSL rover, require sufficient autonomy to robustly approach rock targets and place an instrument in contact with them. It took the 1997 Sojourner Mars rover between 3 and 5 communications cycles to accomplish this. This paper describes the technologies being developed and integrated onto the NASA Ames K9 prototype Mars rover to both accomplish this in one cycle, and to extend the complexity and duration of operations that a Mars rover can accomplish without intervention from mission control.

  17. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  18. Aerocapture Demonstration and Mars Mission Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Aerocapture is an aeroassist technology that can enable large robotic payloads to be placed into Mars orbit, facilitate access to Phobos and Deimos, and support human Mars exploration. Aerocapture is immediately applicable to near-term Mars missions.

  19. Mars penetrator umbilical. [to study geophysical properties of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The device proposed to gather subsurface data on the planet Mars is a ballistic probe which penetrates the soil after a free fall through the Martian atmosphere. Highlights of the design, development, and testing of several features of the Mars Surface Penetration Probe are outlined.

  20. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification was also made which allows heights to go 'below' local terrain height and return 'realistic' pressure, density, and temperature, and not the surface values, as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local 'valley' areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch versions of Mars-GRAM are presented.