Science.gov

Sample records for alba seed meal

  1. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  2. Mustard (Sinapis alba) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container Grown Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meal is a byproduct of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown and oil production. Developing new uses for mustard seed meal could increase the profitability of growing mustard. Seed meal of mustard, var. ‘IdaGold’ was applied to the soil surface to evaluate its effect on several common weeds...

  3. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

  4. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    PubMed Central

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  5. Herbicidal activity of glucosinolate degradation products in fermented meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jan F; Reed, Ralph L; Alber, Susan; Pritchett, Larry; Machado, Stephen

    2009-03-11

    Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. This study investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome ( Bromus tectorum ) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO(4) (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile, and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of the seed meal (r(2) = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  6. Identifying rates of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal needed for suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Pythium irregulare in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is a commercial oilseed crop grown in Oregon. After extracting oil from seed, the remaining seed meal is rich in the secondary plant metabolite glucolimnanthin, which can be converted into pesticidal compounds such as 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (ITC) and 3-methoxyphe...

  7. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding. PMID:26633322

  8. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

  9. Identification and phytotoxicity of a new glucosinolate breakdown product from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Intanon, Suphannika; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F; Hulting, Andrew G; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2014-07-30

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth.) is an oilseed crop grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Meadowfoam seed meal (MSM), a byproduct after oil extraction, contains 2-4% glucosinolate (glucolimnanthin). Activated MSM, produced by adding freshly ground myrosinase-active meadowfoam seeds to MSM, facilitates myrosinase-mediated formation of glucosinolate-derived degradation products with herbicidal activity. In the activated MSM, glucolimnanthin was converted into 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate ("isothiocyanate") within 24 h and was degraded by day three. 3-Methoxyphenylacetonitrile ("nitrile") persisted for at least 6 days. Methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPAA), a previously unknown metabolite of glucolimnanthin, appeared at day three. Its identity was confirmed by LC-UV and high resolution LC-MS/MS comparisons with a standard of MPAA. Isothiocyanate inhibited lettuce germination 8.5- and 14.4-fold more effectively than MPAA and nitrile, respectively. Activated MSM inhibited lettuce germination by 58% and growth by 72% compared with the control. Results of the study suggest that MSM has potential uses as a pre-emergence bioherbicide. PMID:24998843

  10. Phytotoxicity of mustard seed meals alone and in combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meal is produced when oil is extracted from brassicaceous seeds. The high glucosinolate content of these seed meals makes them of interest as management agents for weeds and soilborne pathogens. Previous studies indicated that seed meals from Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba are nemat...

  11. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  12. Integration of brassicaceous seed meals into red raspberry production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceous seed meals are an alternative to synthetic chemical fumigation for the pre-plant soil management of soil borne organisms. Greenhouse, microplot, and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed meals on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) soil ...

  13. Effect of mustard seed meal on early weed emergence in peppermint and potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is the by-product remaining after pressing/crushing mustard seed to remove the majority of the oil. Trials to evaluate weed suppression were conducted at several locations on peppermint and potatoes using seed meal obtained from Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold. White mustard seed meal appl...

  14. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from brassicaceous seeds have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea Bj and Sinapis alba (Sa) against ...

  15. Mustard seed meal amendments for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meal is applied to soil as a fertilizer and for suppressing weeds and pathogens. Brassica juncea (Bj) ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sinapis alba (Sa) ‘IdaGold’ seed meals were tested for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato ‘BHN 444’. In greenhouse trials these treatments (all 0.25% weig...

  16. Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, S. L. F.; Morra, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus ‘Sunrise’ was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’, for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source

  17. Mustard seed meal for management of root-knot nematode and weeds in tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meals of indian mustard [InM (Brassica juncea)] and yellow mustard [YeM (Sinapis alba)], alone and combined, were tested for effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and for suppression of southern root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] and weed populations. In the gree...

  18. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  19. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Orisajo, Samuel B; Morra, Matthew J

    2011-03-01

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj 'Pacific Gold' and Sa 'IdaGold' were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on pepper (Capsicum annuum) without phytotoxicity. Rates of soil application (% w/w) for the phytotoxicity study were: 0.5 Sa, 0.2 Bj, 0.25 Sa + 0.25 Bj, 0.375 Sa + 0.125 Bj, 0.125 Sa + 0.375 Bj, and 0, applied 0 - 5 weeks before transplant. Overall, 0.2% Bj was the least toxic meal to pepper seedlings. By comparison, 0.5% S. alba seed meal did not reduce lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination at week 0, but all seed meal treatments containing B. juncea prevented or significantly reduced germination at week 0. The seed meals did not affect lettuce seed germination at weeks 1-5, but hypocotyl growth was reduced by all except 0.2% Bj at weeks 1, 4 and 5. Brassica juncea and Sa meals were tested for M. incognita suppression at 0.2, 0.15, 0.1 and 0.05%; mixtures were 0.1% Sa + 0.1% Bj, 0.15% Sa + 0.05% Bj, and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj. All treatments were applied 2 weeks before transplant. The 0.2% Bj and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj treatments overall had the longest shoots and highest fresh weights. Eggs per g root were lowest with 0.1 - 0.2% Bj amendments and the seed meal mixtures. The results indicate that Bj and some Bj + Sa mixtures can be applied close to transplant to suppress M. incognita populations on pepper; consequently, a seed meal mixture could be selected to provide activity against more than one pest or pathogen. For pepper, care should be taken in formulating mixtures so that Sa rates are low compared to Bj.

  20. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Orisajo, Samuel B; Morra, Matthew J

    2011-03-01

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj 'Pacific Gold' and Sa 'IdaGold' were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on pepper (Capsicum annuum) without phytotoxicity. Rates of soil application (% w/w) for the phytotoxicity study were: 0.5 Sa, 0.2 Bj, 0.25 Sa + 0.25 Bj, 0.375 Sa + 0.125 Bj, 0.125 Sa + 0.375 Bj, and 0, applied 0 - 5 weeks before transplant. Overall, 0.2% Bj was the least toxic meal to pepper seedlings. By comparison, 0.5% S. alba seed meal did not reduce lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination at week 0, but all seed meal treatments containing B. juncea prevented or significantly reduced germination at week 0. The seed meals did not affect lettuce seed germination at weeks 1-5, but hypocotyl growth was reduced by all except 0.2% Bj at weeks 1, 4 and 5. Brassica juncea and Sa meals were tested for M. incognita suppression at 0.2, 0.15, 0.1 and 0.05%; mixtures were 0.1% Sa + 0.1% Bj, 0.15% Sa + 0.05% Bj, and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj. All treatments were applied 2 weeks before transplant. The 0.2% Bj and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj treatments overall had the longest shoots and highest fresh weights. Eggs per g root were lowest with 0.1 - 0.2% Bj amendments and the seed meal mixtures. The results indicate that Bj and some Bj + Sa mixtures can be applied close to transplant to suppress M. incognita populations on pepper; consequently, a seed meal mixture could be selected to provide activity against more than one pest or pathogen. For pepper, care should be taken in formulating mixtures so that Sa rates are low compared to Bj. PMID:22791910

  1. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, Inga A.; Orisajo, Samuel B.; Morra, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sa ‘IdaGold’ were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on pepper (Capsicum annuum) without phytotoxicity. Rates of soil application (% w/w) for the phytotoxicity study were: 0.5 Sa, 0.2 Bj, 0.25 Sa + 0.25 Bj, 0.375 Sa + 0.125 Bj, 0.125 Sa + 0.375 Bj, and 0, applied 0 – 5 weeks before transplant. Overall, 0.2% Bj was the least toxic meal to pepper seedlings. By comparison, 0.5% S. alba seed meal did not reduce lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination at week 0, but all seed meal treatments containing B. juncea prevented or significantly reduced germination at week 0. The seed meals did not affect lettuce seed germination at weeks 1-5, but hypocotyl growth was reduced by all except 0.2% Bj at weeks 1, 4 and 5. Brassica juncea and Sa meals were tested for M. incognita suppression at 0.2, 0.15, 0.1 and 0.05%; mixtures were 0.1% Sa + 0.1% Bj, 0.15% Sa + 0.05% Bj, and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj. All treatments were applied 2 weeks before transplant. The 0.2% Bj and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj treatments overall had the longest shoots and highest fresh weights. Eggs per g root were lowest with 0.1 – 0.2% Bj amendments and the seed meal mixtures. The results indicate that Bj and some Bj + Sa mixtures can be applied close to transplant to suppress M. incognita populations on pepper; consequently, a seed meal mixture could be selected to provide activity against more than one pest or pathogen. For pepper, care should be taken in formulating mixtures so that Sa rates are low compared to Bj. PMID:22791910

  2. Replant disease control and soil system resilience to pathogen infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils. Application of a Brassica juncea/Sinapis alba SM formulation provided disease cont...

  3. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  4. Reducing the toxicity of castor seed meal through processing treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The castor plant produces a seed that is high in oil content and composed of approximately 90% ricinoleate. Due to the numerous uses of castor oil and ricinoleate, the oil is in high demand. However, the presence of a protein toxin in the seed meal is a key concern about processing the castor seed t...

  5. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  6. Nutritive value of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) meal: utilization by growing pigs of semipurified diets in which rubber seed meal partially replaced soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, G M; Pond, W G; Peo, E R

    1990-02-01

    Thirty-six four-way cross (Chester White X Landrace X Large White X Yorkshire) growing barrows and gilts were used to investigate the effects of replacing graded levels of protein from soybean meal with equivalent levels of protein from rubber seed meal in 16% CP semipurified diets on the performance characteristics, hematocrit, plasma metabolites and N utilization of pigs. The first diet (control) was largely cornstarch-soybean meal in which the soybean meal supplied all of the CP. In other diets, rubber seed meal replaced 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively, of the protein of soybean meal in the control diet. Twenty gilts were used in a 28-d growth trial and 16 barrows were used in an 8-d digestion trial (4-d collection). There were no differences (P greater than .05) in ADG, ADF intake and in the feed:gain ratios, even though there was a trend for lower ADG and gain:feed ratio as the level of rubber seed meal increased in the diet. There were no differences in hematocrit, but plasma protein and albumin tended to be depressed when rubber seed meal provided more than 10% of the dietary protein. Apparent digestibilities of GE, DM and N were lower with rubber seed meal at 20% of the protein than with any other diet, but apparent N retained and the percent of digested N retained were not depressed significantly (P greater than .05). Although rubber seed meal protein is of poorer quality than soybean meal protein for growing pigs, at least 10% of dietary protein can be provided by rubber seed meal without adversely affecting growth and N utilization.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments.

  8. [Chemical and biological characterization of meal and protein isolates from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata)].

    PubMed

    Salgado, J M; Takashima, M K

    1992-12-01

    The present study was carried out in order to check through chemical and biological analyses the nutritional characteristics of pumpkin seed, its delipidized meal and its proteic concentrate, considering its availability, nutritional potential, facility for production in poor soils and the need for new food resources. Another objective was to complement the amino acid pattern of pumpkin with others protein sources for human consumption. The results obtained indicate that: Raw pumpkin seed meal has a proteic values of 37.6% and the delipidized meal 68.8%; The PER values for raw seed meal and delipidized meal were 2.26 and 1.65, respectively; The chemical composition revealed that the delipized pumpkin seed meal was limited in threonine (66.8%); The isolate and seed meal proteins were both complemented with lysine and with cowpea bean meal; Whole pumpkin seed meal obtained from variety Caravelle is a good caloric material (approximately 568 cal/100 g).

  9. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    PubMed

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P < 0.05), but did not affect the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake. The feeding and rumination efficiencies had a quadratic response (P < 0.05). The experimental diets did not affect (P > 0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.

  10. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Kling, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  11. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... variety of bioengineered safflower in cattle and poultry feeds. DATES: Submit either electronic or written... for the safe use of seed meal from a variety of bioengineered safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)...

  12. Progress in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform or sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites (STM, SR and Tukey orchards) in Washington State to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for ...

  13. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments. PMID:25314611

  14. Physical properties of ebony seed (Pithecellobium flexicaule) and functional properties of whole and defatted ebony seed meal.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Santiago-Adame, Rubén; Navarro-Cortéz, Ricardo O; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Castro-Rosas, Javier; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E; Vivar-Vera, María A; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    A partial characterization was done of ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule) seed physical properties, and how defatting affected some functional properties of ebony seed meal. Average seed dimensions were 13.02 mm length, 8.78 mm width and 9.65 mm thickness. Geometric diameter was 10.76 mm, volume was 530 mm(3), surface area was 364.33 mm(2), sphericity was 83.26 % and aspect ratio was 68.24 %. Thousand-seed weight was 0.70 Kg, of which 0.42 Kg (60 %) represented the kernel. Defatted ebony seed meal differed from whole meal in all measured parameters, particularly in its protein (44.72 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (44.12 g/100 g) proportions. The defatted meal had higher water absorption capacity (1.28 g/g sample), water solubility capacity (26.06 %), oil absorption capacity (2.04 g/g sample), emulsifying capacity (53.78 %) and gelling capacity (8 % w/v) than the whole meal. Ebony seed physical properties may prove useful in designing post-harvest processing equipment and in quality control. The high protein content of defatted ebony seed meal suggests its use as a natural alternative ingredient in numerous food industry applications.

  15. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  16. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression. PMID:25412009

  17. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  18. Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz is under development as a novel oil-seed crop, yet bioefficacy of camelina phytochemicals is unknown. Defatted camelina seed meal contains two major aliphatic glucosinolates (GSL), glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonylglucosinolate; GSL 9) and glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfi...

  19. Regional association analysis delineates a sequenced chromosome region influencing antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R J; Wittkop, B; Rezaidad, A; Hasan, M; Lipsa, F; Stein, A; Friedt, W

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the use of regional association analyses to delineate a sequenced region of a Brassica napus chromosome with a significant effect on antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds was mapped to the same position on B. napus chromosome A9 in biparental mapping populations from two different yellow-seeded × black-seeded B. napus crosses. Sequences of markers spanning the QTL region identified synteny to a sequence contig from the corresponding chromosome A9 in Brassica rapa. Remapping of sequence-derived markers originating from the B. rapa sequence contig confirmed their position within the QTL. One of these markers also mapped to a seed colour and fibre QTL on the same chromosome in a black-seeded × black-seeded B. napus cross. Consequently, regional association analysis was performed in a genetically diverse panel of dark-seeded, winter-type oilseed rape accessions. For this we used closely spaced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the sequence contig covering the QTL region. Correction for population structure was performed using a set of genome-wide SSR markers. The identification of QTL-derived markers with significant associations to seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds in the association panel enabled the identification of positional and functional candidate genes for B. napus seed meal quality within a small segment of the B. rapa genome sequence.

  20. Changes in available nitrogen and nematode abundance in response to Brassica seed meal amendment of orchard soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica tissues are often promoted as a soil amendment to meet various management objectives, particularly in organic production systems. To predict the efficacy of brassicaceae seed meal amendments as either biofumigants or organic fertilizers, a better understanding of the impacts of seed meal am...

  1. [Physical and antioxidant characteristics of black (Brassica nigra) and yellow mustard (Brassica alba) seeds and their products].

    PubMed

    Mejia-Garibay, Beatriz; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The composition, some physical properties (density, refraction index, and color), antioxidant capacity (DPPH), and fatty acid profile of seeds of black (Brassica nigra) or yellow mustard (Brassica alba) were evaluated, as well as for their oils and residues from oil extraction. Density of the black and yellow mustard oils were 0.912 ± 0.01 and 0.916 ± 0.01 g/mL, respectively; their refraction indexes were 1.4611 ± 0.01 and 1.4617 ± 0.01, respectively; being not significantly different (p > 0.05) between two mustards. Color parameters of the black and yellow mustard oils presented greenish-yellow tones and reddish-yellow tones, respectively; regarding antioxidant activities, these ranged from 25 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 gin the yellow mustard oil to 1,366 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 g in the residues from oil extraction of black seed mustard. The fatty acid profile of the black mustard seed revealed that its predomipant fatty acid is oleic (22.96%), followed by linoleic (6.63%) and linolenic (3.22%), whereas foryellow mustard seed the major fatty acid is erucic (6.87%), followed by oleic (5.08%) and linoleic (1.87%) acids. PMID:26817385

  2. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  3. Advances in Brassica seed meal formulation for apple replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform and sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease for this soil amendment to be used as a viable alternative to pre-plant soil fumigation. Therefore, field trials were established at multiple site...

  4. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  5. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environmentally friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainable c...

  6. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  7. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  8. Changes in rhizosphere microbiome associated with orchard soil resilience in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrosequencing analysis of the apple rhizosphere microbiome was conducted two years post-planting at an orchard replant trial which included a no treatment control, 1,3-dichloropropene-C17 pre-plant fumigation, and pre-plant soil incorporation of a Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation. SM treate...

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  10. Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

  11. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  12. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers.

  13. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers. PMID:26616944

  14. Simple physical treatment as an effective tool to improve the functional properties or rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. toria) and sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) meals.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amita; Dua, Saroj; Bhardwaj, Seema

    2002-03-01

    Dry and 24 h imbibed rapeseeds and sesame seeds were defatted with hexane and the resulting freeze-dried powder was analysed for the functional properties of the meals. Water absorption capacity (WAC) of imbibed rapeseed meal and fat absorption capacity (FAC) of both the imbeded meals were higher than those for dry meals. Protein solubility of rapeseed meals was improved by imbibition and both the imbibed meals exhibited maximum protein solubility at pH 12. Rapeseed meal possessed better foaming properties and viscosity than sesame seed meal. Imbibition considerably enhanced the foaming properties of rapeseed meal while the emulsification properties and viscosity did not change appreciably. Emulsification properties of sesame meal were higher than rapeseed meal.

  15. Simple physical treatment as an effective tool to improve the functional properties of rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. toria) and sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) meals.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amita; Dua, Saroj; Bhardwaj, Seema

    2002-11-01

    Dry and 24-h imbibed rapeseeds and sesame seeds were defatted with hexane, and freeze-dried powder was analysed for the functional properties of the meals. The water absorption capacity of the imbibed rapeseed meal and the fat absorption capacity of both the imbibed meals were higher than dry meals. Protein solubility of the rapeseed meal was improved by imbibition and both the imbibed meals exhibited maximum protein solubility at pH 12. The rapeseed meal possessed better foaming properties and viscosity than the sesame seed meal. Imbibition considerably enhanced the foaming properties of the rapeseed meal, while the emulsification properties and viscosity did not change appreciably. Emulsification properties of the sesame meal were higher than those of the rapeseed meal.

  16. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  17. Assessment of Pb and Cd in seed oils and meals and methodology of their extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Peng, Liang; Chen, Zhipeng; Zeng, Qingru

    2016-04-15

    Oil seed, which is a secondary product in phytoremediation, contaminated with heavy metals should be disposed of in an appropriate fashion. In this study, heavy metal concentrations found in oilseed rape and peanut oils were below 0.1 mg kg(-1) after extractions, being found most of the heavy metals in meals rather in oils. Extraction experiments were carried out to determine the optimum methodology for the removal of Pb and Cd from seed meals using K3C6H5O7, K2C4H4O6 and (NH4)2EDTA. The highest extraction of the Pb and Cd in the seed meals was achieved using 30 mM extractant solutions at 30°C for 24 h and a three-step extraction procedure. K3C6H5O7 and K2C4H4O6 had less impact on the removal of nutrients than (NH4)2EDTA. PMID:26616978

  18. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  19. Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Fargasova, A. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Purification of sulforaphane from Brassica oleracea seed meal using low-pressure column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Xiao, Qian

    2005-12-15

    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate that is present naturally in widely consumed Brassica oleracea vegetables and has been shown to block the formation of tumors. The contents of sulforaphane in five groups of B. oleracea seeds (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kale) were determined by RP-HPLC using linear gradient of acetonitrile in water. A new low-cost method to isolate and purify natural sulforaphane from B. oleracea seed meal was described in this work. Crude sulforaphane was first separated from B. oleracea seed meal by using immiscible solvent extraction with ethyl acetate, 10% ethanol and hexane, and the crude sulforaphane was used as raw materials to prepare high purity sulforaphane by low-pressure column chromatography of silica gel (200-300 mesh) with different eluents and elution modes. Compared with these different elution methods, the gradient elution was preferable to the isocratic elution for reducing the elution time and the eluent consumption and increasing the purity of sulforaphane product. The purity and recovery of sulforaphane were more than 90% in gradient elution.

  1. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11.1 and 11.6%) in meals obtained by the two defatting methods were present at high concentrations. However, the trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA) and lectin (2.7 mg/g and 1.5 mg/ml) in the screw-pressed meal were significantly lower, due to the high temperature (120 °C) used in this defatting process. From nutritional side, the values of crude protein (CP), buffer-soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, pepsin insoluble nitrogen, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), as well as essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal obtained by Soxhlet extraction were better than the screw-pressed meal. However, taking practical application into account, from detoxification side, screw-pressed meal is better for detoxification. PMID:24876645

  2. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11.1 and 11.6%) in meals obtained by the two defatting methods were present at high concentrations. However, the trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA) and lectin (2.7 mg/g and 1.5 mg/ml) in the screw-pressed meal were significantly lower, due to the high temperature (120 °C) used in this defatting process. From nutritional side, the values of crude protein (CP), buffer-soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, pepsin insoluble nitrogen, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), as well as essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal obtained by Soxhlet extraction were better than the screw-pressed meal. However, taking practical application into account, from detoxification side, screw-pressed meal is better for detoxification.

  3. Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

  4. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  5. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  6. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

    2014-10-15

    Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5μg/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates.

  8. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    PubMed

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  9. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola M; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-12-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  10. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Girgih, Abraham T.; Alashi, Adeola M.; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A.; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity. PMID:25493943

  11. Mustard seeds (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haifeng; Zhu, Minggu; Guo, Wen; Jin, Ling; Chen, Weihong; Brunk, Ulf T; Zhao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Mustard seeds (MS), which are consumed in considerable amounts by the Japanese people that, interestingly, have the longest life expectancy in the world, are known to contain a number of yet not fully defined but quite powerful anti-oxidants. A suspension of extracted MS was found to suppress oxidized-LDL-induced macrophage respiratory burst in vitro, to prevent growth, and to induce apoptotic death of SW480 cells (a human colon cancer cell line), while no such effects were found for normal 3T3 cells. A diet enriched with MS decreased plasma levels of the lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde in mice exposed to the colon cancer-inducer azoxymethane (AOM). Such a diet also dose-dependently enhanced the activity of several anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and GSH-peroxidase and, moreover, reduced AOM-mediated formation of colon adenomas by about 50%. Further studies are required to detail and explore the beneficial effects of MS and their rich content of powerful anti-oxidants. PMID:21605497

  12. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  13. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  14. Resilience of orchard replant soils to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatment provided similar levels of disease control during the initial gr...

  15. Replant disease control and system resilience to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassica seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatments provided similar levels of disease control during the initial g...

  16. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and mustard seed meal for control of charcoal rot in California strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and mustard seed meal (MSM) appear to be promising non-fumigant alternatives for soilborne disease control. However studies of their effect on charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in California strawberry are limited. ASD with rice bran 20 t ha-1 (ASD-RB...

  17. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  18. Preparative separation and purification of rosmarinic acid from perilla seed meal via combined column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weizhuo; Sun, Baoshan; Zhao, Yuqing

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the preparative separation and purification of rosmarinic acid (RA) from perilla seed meal (PSM), which is a by-product of edible oil production, was achieved using combined column chromatography over macroporous and polyamide resins. To optimize the RA enrichment process, the performance and separation characteristics of nine selected macroporous resins with different chemical and physical properties were investigated. SP825 resin was the most effective: the content of RA increased from 0.27% in the original extract to 16.58% in the 50% ethanol fraction (a 61.4-fold increase). During further purification treatment on polyamide resin, 90.23% pure RA could be obtained in the 70% ethanol fraction. RA with a higher purity (>95%) could also be easily obtained using one crystallization operation. The proposed method is simple, easily operated, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly and is suitable for both large-scale RA production and waste management.

  19. Preparative separation and purification of rosmarinic acid from perilla seed meal via combined column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weizhuo; Sun, Baoshan; Zhao, Yuqing

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the preparative separation and purification of rosmarinic acid (RA) from perilla seed meal (PSM), which is a by-product of edible oil production, was achieved using combined column chromatography over macroporous and polyamide resins. To optimize the RA enrichment process, the performance and separation characteristics of nine selected macroporous resins with different chemical and physical properties were investigated. SP825 resin was the most effective: the content of RA increased from 0.27% in the original extract to 16.58% in the 50% ethanol fraction (a 61.4-fold increase). During further purification treatment on polyamide resin, 90.23% pure RA could be obtained in the 70% ethanol fraction. RA with a higher purity (>95%) could also be easily obtained using one crystallization operation. The proposed method is simple, easily operated, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly and is suitable for both large-scale RA production and waste management. PMID:24381020

  20. [Effects of applying tea seed meal and EDTA on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of nickel and zinc in soil].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Xia, Hui-Long

    2013-06-01

    A pot experiment with sugarcane was conducted to study the effects of applying tea seed meal and EDTA on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in soil. With the increasing application rate of tea seed meal, the biomass of sugarcane root, stem, and leaf increased gradually, but no significant difference was observed in the stem and leaf biomass between EDTA treatments and the control. Applying tea seed meal and EDTA increased the acid-soluble Ni and Zn contents in soil, and promoted the bioconcentration and translocation of Ni and Zn in sugarcane. Meanwhile, the strengthening effect increased gradually with the increasing application rate of tea seed meal. As compared with EDTA, tea seed meal was more efficient in improving the accumulation of Ni and Zn in sugarcane, and thus, made the sugarcane remove more Ni and Zn from soil. The Ni and Zn contents in sugarcane stem and leaf had significant positive correlations with the application rate of tea seed meal, while the Ni and Zn contents in sugarcane root were significantly negatively correlated with the application rate of tea seed meal.

  1. Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Sonker, Nivedita; Singh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 μL/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 μL/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 μL/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage. PMID:26928885

  2. Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities after biofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Landi, Silvia; Curto, Giovanna; Elisabetta, Dallavalle; Infantino, Alessandro; Colzi, Claudia; d'Errico, Giada; Roversi, Pio Federico; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EC has raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM) derived from brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice to control soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures. For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms and free-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturally nematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata (CAR), a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower (SUN) and the metham-sodium fumigant (VAP). Tomato plants were transplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The response of soil microbial communities was assessed through 454-pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62 days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities, whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similar changes initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAP amendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation than bacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significant changes in microbial communities, but it was not effective against M. incognita root infestation. Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMS proved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. These results confirmed the

  3. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the metabolisable energy content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed meals for chicken, guinea fowl and quail.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A B; Elangovan, A V; Tyagi, Pramod K; Tyagi, Praveen K; Johri, A K; Kaur, S

    2005-02-01

    (1) The nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(N)) content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed (un-decorticated) meals in relation to species (chicken, guinea fowl and quail) and dietary addition of feed enzymes (0 or 0.5 g/kg diet) was evaluated by a diet replacement method in a 3 x 2 factorial design. (2) The metabolism trial was conducted at two substitution levels (200 and 400 g/kg diet) of each meal with or without supplementation of commercial enzyme preparation in 6 individuals or 6 groups of cockerels, guinea fowls and quails. (3) The experimental diets were fed for a period of 12 d followed by a 3-d collection period during which total feed consumed and droppings output were quantitatively recorded. (4) The AME(N) values of rapeseed meal for cockerels, guinea fowls and quails were 8.4, 8.7 and 8.8 MJ/kg, respectively, while the corresponding values for sunflower seed meal were 6.1, 6.1 and 6.2 MJ/kg dry matter, without enzyme supplementation. (5) The AME(N) value of rapeseed meal did not improve with enzyme supplementation. However, AME(N) values of sunflower seed meal significantly increased with enzyme supplementation, from 6.1 to 6.5 MJ/kg dry matter. (6) Since AME(N) values of rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal were similar in chicken, guinea fowl and quail, values reported for chicken could, therefore, be used for guinea fowl and Japanese quail.

  4. Extraction and characterization of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from rape seed meal.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shota; Maruyama, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Hara, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    While some isothiocyanate (ITCs) are attractive targets for the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries, the presence of goitrin and ITCs has hampered the widespread utilization of rapeseed meal. ITCs are the products of the myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolate (GSLs). As such, a study was conducted in order to gain a better understanding into the identity of the GSLs contained in rapeseed meal. Extraction of the GSLs was carried out with 20% ethanol, affording 3.0% GSL content. The resulting GSL extracts were purified via silica gel column chromatography resulting in the isolation of main three pure GLSs (GSL A, B, and C) and a final GSL content of 39.8%. The indirect-identification of the GSLs in rapeseed meal was also carried out via GC/MS analysis of ITCs. The GSLs, progoitrin and gluconapin, were present in the highest concentration in these extracts. Interestingly, only goitrin was produced when GSL A was the substrate for the defatted rapeseed meal mediated hydrolysis reaction. This indicates GSL A is a progoitrin. Conversely, 3-butenyl ITC was produced only when GSL B was used as substrate, indicating GSL B is gluconapin. These results will be helpful for opening the doors for the use of rapeseed meal in the agricultural or pharmaceutical sectors.

  5. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

  6. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  7. Comparison of sweet white lupin seeds with soybean meal as a protein supplement for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, B; Otterby, D E; Linn, J G; Stern, M D; Johnson, D G

    1987-11-01

    Data were from 45 Holstein cows (23 multiparous, 22 primiparous) assigned by calving date and parity within groups to one of two isonitrogenous (16% crude protein) diets. The diets were 50% forages (corn silage, alfalfa silage) and 50% concentrate, dry basis. In diet A, soybean meal supplied 34.2% of total crude protein; in diet B, ground sweet white lupin seeds provided 37.9% of total crude protein. Cows were fed once daily during the experimental period (d 4 to 116 postpartum). Cows fed lupins consumed significantly less dry matter, produced 1.8 kg/d less milk (but not significantly different), and had lower milk protein percent. Milk fat and total solids percents were similar. Reasons for reduced intake of cows fed lupins were not evident. Traces of alkaloids (.005% dry basis) were present in diet B. Combined results of in vitro continuous culture fermentation and in situ degradation measurements indicated that crude protein from lupins was more degradable than that of soybean meal. Poor performances of cows fed lupins could be partly due to a reduced true protein supply to the small intestine.

  8. Performance of Mashona doelings supplemented with different levels of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. DC. var. utilis) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Mutema, Nyasha; Chimonyo, Michael; Bakare, Archibold Garikai; Mapiye, Cletos

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of feeding increasing levels of velvet bean seed meal (VBM; 0, 12, 24, and 36 %) on the performance of Mashona doelings. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the control diet compared to VBM diets, but linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. Average daily weight gain was significantly different between experimental groups. Doelings' final live weights and average daily gains were slightly higher in control group than other three supplemented groups where they linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. The cost per kilogram of feed, however, decreased with high inclusion level of VBM. Result suggested that high inclusion level of VBM negatively influenced the growth of young goats probably due to the presence of some anti-nutritional factors which needs further investigation. PMID:24756463

  9. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  10. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  11. Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a

  12. Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a

  13. Response of Japanese quail fed seed meal from sunflowers grown on municipal sludge-amended soil: elevation of cadmium in tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Babish, J.G.; Telford, J.N.; Bahm, C.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sunflowers were grown on soil amended with 224 metric tons/ha of municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, NY. The yield of sunflower seeds was reduced by 47.2% by the sludge addition. The harvested seeds contained 1.71 ppm dry weight of cadmium. Deoiled seed meal was incorporated as 25 and 50% of semipurified diet and feed to male and female Japanese quail. The concentrations of cadmium were higher in kidney, liver, muscle, and eggs of birds fed the sludge-grown seed meal as compared to control quail. Tissue concentrations of cadmium increased with increasing dietary levels of sludge-grown seed meal. No significant differences were observed between dietary treatments in the activity of hepatic microsomal p-nitroanisole O-demethylase or aminopyrine N-demethylase in the male birds. Additionally, no mutagenic activity, either direct or with metabolic activation, was found in quail eggs. No observable changes in tissue ultrastructure were observed under electron microscopy in any of the treatment groups. There were no significant differences among the dietary treatment groups in feed intake, growth rate, egg production, or egg hatchability.

  14. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Léon, Fabian; Van Boven, Maurits; de Witte, Peter; Busson, Roger; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2004-03-10

    A mixture of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been isolated by column chromatography from a jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) extract. The molecular species of both classes could be separated and isolated by C18 reversed phase HPLC. The two major compounds were identified by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR, by MS, and by GC-MS as 1-oleoyl-3-lysophosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine. Eight other molecular species of LPC and four other molecular species of PC could be assigned by comparison of the mass spectra of the isolated compounds with the spectra of the two major compounds. Complete characterization of the individual molecular species was achieved by GC and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acyl composition from the isolated compounds. The PC/LPC proportion in the phospholipid mixture from three different samples is 1.6 +/- 0.1. LPC is considered to be an important bioactive compound; the results of this study suggest further research for the evaluation of potential health benefits of jojoba meal phospholipids.

  15. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  16. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  17. Rapid isolation and purification of 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (crambene) from Crambe abyssinica seed meal using immiscible solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Niedoborski, T E; Klein, B P; Wallig, M A

    2001-08-01

    1-Cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (crambene) is a nitrile found in cruciferous vegetables that causes significant upregulation of quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferases in vivo and in vitro, making it a likely candidate as a cancer chemopreventive compound. To investigate further the putative anticarcinogenic mechanisms of crambene, a compound of the highest possible purity is vital. Therefore, a rapid and effective method of purification of crambene is necessary to continue studies of its beneficial health effects. A rapid method to isolate and purify natural crambene from either Crambe abyssinica (crambe) seed or commercially processed crambe seed meal was developed using immiscible solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of this methodology eliminated the need for time-consuming and relatively inefficient column chromatography, improved extraction efficiency, and resulted in higher purity than previously used methodologies. Elimination of trace amounts of fatty acid residues, unachievable with previous methodologies, also was accomplished.

  18. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion.

  19. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  20. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  1. Preparative Separation of N-Feruloyl Serotonin and N-(p-Coumaroyl) Serotonin from Safflower Seed Meal Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulong; Hu, Na; Li, Wencong; Ding, Chenxi; Ma, Tao; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Chenxu

    2015-09-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the preparative separation and purification of N-feruloyl serotonin (NF) and N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (NP) from safflower seed meal. After the measurement of partition coefficient of the two target compounds in the two-phase solvent systems, the HSCCC was performed well with a two-phase solvent system composed of CHCl3-methanol-0.1 M HCl at a volume ratio of 1 : 1 : 1, v/v. The upper phase was used as stationary phase and the lower phase was used as mobile phase. Under the optimized condition, 7.5 mg NF and 6.9 mg NP were separated from 40 mg crude sample with the purity of 98.8 and 97.3%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  2. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.

  3. Quantification, localization and identification of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed meals produced by hydraulic press

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se), especially in seeds, when grown in soils laden with Se in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley. In this study, we attempt to accurately determine the forms of Se present in the Se-enriched products produced from plants grown for the phytomanagement of Se. ...

  4. Dietary mustard seeds (Sinapis alba Linn) suppress 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced immuno-imbalance and colonic carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minggu; Yuan, Haifeng; Guo, Wen; Li, Xinyan; Jin, Lin; Brunk, Ulf T; Han, Jiahuai; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Yawei

    2012-04-01

    In a Wistar rat model, prolonged supplementation of mustard seed (MS) to the diet significantly ameliorates the induction of colorectal carcinomas by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The expression of the splenocyte major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) was found significantly enhanced, whereas that of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) was significantly decreased. Compared to that of control animals, the proportion of spleenic B- and dendritic cells (DC) was amplified in the MS group. The expressions of MHCI, as well as that of MHCII, were increased in DC cells; whereas in B cells, MHCI expression was augmented but that of MHCII moderately decreased. The percentages of CD8+CD28+ and CD4+CD28+ cells were increased in the MS group, while the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ subset was depressed. Plasma analysis showed that DMH-exposure induced amplified amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta, whereas MS feeding counteracted this effect but enhanced IL-2, IL12p70, IL21, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma. In the SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell-line, the cytotoxicity of spleenic T-cells from MS-fed animals was significantly increased. In the DMH-exposed rats, the expression of perforin in the spleenic T-cells was dramatically decreased, whereas MS abolished this depression. In summary, dietary MS suppresses DMH-induced immuno-imbalance as well as colon carcinogenesis in rats. PMID:22420317

  5. Pityriasis versicolor alba.

    PubMed

    Thoma, W; Krämer, H-J; Mayser, P

    2005-03-01

    Pityriasis versicolor alba is a hypopigmented or depigmented variant of pityriasis versicolor characterized by maculous, partly pityriasiform, scaly depigmented lesions occurring particularly in seborrhoeic areas. Long-persisting hypopigmentation after healing of the pityriasis versicolor was first described by Gudden in 1853. Hypopigmentation and depigmentation were later differentiated as an independent variant of the disease. In 1848, Eichstedt recognized the pathogen-related character of pityriasis versicolor in its hyperpigmented form. Today it is generally accepted that the disease is caused by yeasts of the genus Malassezia, of which nine species are differentiated. It is controversial whether a single species is responsible for the disease. The pathogenesis of depigmentation has not been established. A screening effect by the scale layer as well as toxic effects on pigment synthesis by fungal metabolites have been discussed. With regard to the second mechanism, the newly discovered tryptophan-derived metabolites of M. furfur might be significant. Evidence-based data concerning the therapy of pityriasis versicolor alba do not exist. According to current recommendations, pityriasis versicolor should be rapidly treated with antimycotics, followed by ultraviolet therapy to induce maturation of existent melanosomes and accelerate repigmentation. However, depigmented lesions are difficult to improve by ultraviolet therapy.

  6. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  7. Alba Patera Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located northeast of Olympus Mons and southwest of Alba Patera. The lava flows the windstreaks occur on most likely originated from Alba Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.3, Longitude 235.1 East (124.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Effect of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds as a replacement protein source of soybean meal on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Abdullah Y; Muwalla, Marwan M; Qudsieh, Rasha I; Titi, Hosam H

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing the protein source of soybean meal (SBM) with different levels of bitter vetch seeds (BVS) in the diets of finishing Awassi ram lambs on performance, and carcass characteristics. Diets were designed based on replacing SBM with BVS as a percentage of the diet. Diets were: control (0% BVS), substituting 5% of SBM (5% BVS), 10% of SBM (10% BVS) and the entire SBM in the ration with BVS (15% BVS). Forty eight lambs (18.74 +/- 3.95 kg initial body weight and 70 days of age) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment diets (12 lambs/treatment). Lambs were given an adaptation period of 10 days and the experiment lasted for 84 days. At the end of the trial, a digestibility experiment was performed and 6 lambs from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics. Average daily gain tended (P = 0.07) to be higher for lambs fed 10% BVS when compared to the other diets. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher (P < 0.01) in control diet compared to the other diets. Fat depth (C) and leg fat depth (L3) tended (0.05 < P < 0.1) to be affected by BVS levels in the diet. Leg total lean % was the highest (P < 0.05) in 5% BVS and 10% BVS diets. These results suggest that substituting SBM with BVS in the diets did not influence performance or carcass characteristics of lambs. However, the cost of ration formulation decreases since SBM is a very expensive component of the ration.

  9. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) breed effect on body weight and gain, shank length, thigh length, body width and body length. The growth traits of Anak breed were found to be superior to NHLE chickens. Within treatments, chicks on T1, T2 and T3, grew heavier than those on T4 and T5. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P > 0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  10. Effects of Condensed Tannins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) Seed Meal on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Utilization in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Gunun, N.; Cherdthong, A.; Sirilaophaisan, S.; Kaewwongsa, W.

    2016-01-01

    Mao seed is a by-product of the wine and juice industry, which could be used in animal nutrition. The current study was designed to determine the effect of supplementation of mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) seed meal (MOSM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on rumen fermentation, nitrogen (N) utilization and microbial protein synthesis in goats. Four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weight (BW) 20±2 kg were randomly assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were MOSM supplementation at 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% of total dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. During the experimental periods, all goats were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 at 3.0% BW/d and pangola grass hay was used as a roughage source. Results showed that supplementation with MOSM did not affect feed intake, nutrient intakes and apparent nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). In addition, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were not influenced by MOSM supplementation, whilst blood urea nitrogen was decreased quadraticly (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with MOSM at 2.4% of total DM intake. Propionate was increased linearly with MOSM supplementation, whereas acetate and butyrate were remained the same. Moreover, estimated ruminal methane (CH4) was decreased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Numbers of bacteria and protozoa were similar among treatments (p>0.05). There were linear decreases in urinary N (p<0.01) and total N excretion (p<0.01) by MOSM supplementation. Furthermore, N retention was increased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM supplementation at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Microbial protein synthesis were not significantly different among treatments (p>0.05). From the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of MOSM at 1.6% to 2.4% of total DM intake can be used to modify ruminal fermentation, especially propionate

  11. Effects of Condensed Tannins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) Seed Meal on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Utilization in Goats.

    PubMed

    Gunun, P; Wanapat, M; Gunun, N; Cherdthong, A; Sirilaophaisan, S; Kaewwongsa, W

    2016-08-01

    Mao seed is a by-product of the wine and juice industry, which could be used in animal nutrition. The current study was designed to determine the effect of supplementation of mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) seed meal (MOSM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on rumen fermentation, nitrogen (N) utilization and microbial protein synthesis in goats. Four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weight (BW) 20±2 kg were randomly assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were MOSM supplementation at 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% of total dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. During the experimental periods, all goats were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 at 3.0% BW/d and pangola grass hay was used as a roughage source. Results showed that supplementation with MOSM did not affect feed intake, nutrient intakes and apparent nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). In addition, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were not influenced by MOSM supplementation, whilst blood urea nitrogen was decreased quadraticly (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with MOSM at 2.4% of total DM intake. Propionate was increased linearly with MOSM supplementation, whereas acetate and butyrate were remained the same. Moreover, estimated ruminal methane (CH4) was decreased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Numbers of bacteria and protozoa were similar among treatments (p>0.05). There were linear decreases in urinary N (p<0.01) and total N excretion (p<0.01) by MOSM supplementation. Furthermore, N retention was increased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM supplementation at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Microbial protein synthesis were not significantly different among treatments (p>0.05). From the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of MOSM at 1.6% to 2.4% of total DM intake can be used to modify ruminal fermentation, especially propionate

  12. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  13. Meal to meal energy balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Magnen, J; Devos, M

    1984-01-01

    Meal to meal energy balance was examined in thirty-eight simultaneous recordings of feeding pattern and O2 consumption in six rats. The mean difference between energy intake in a meal and energy expenditure until the onset of the next meal was found positive at night and negative during day time. At night the excess of meal intake over meal to meal expenditures was decreasing from the beginning to the end of the night and was strongly correlated to meal sizes. During day time meal to meal deficit was decreasing from the beginning to the end of the period but was not correlated to meal sizes. These meal location and size effects on the meal to meal energy balance were not determined by an effect of these factors on metabolic rate. No indication was provided that meal to meal energy balance was influenced by a "meal induced thermogenesis." Rather an evolution from the beginning to the end of the night of the correlation between meal size and durations of meal to meal intervals was found to be parallel to the evolution of positive meal to meal energy balance throughout the night. From these data it is concluded that at night a dual utilization of meal caloric intake (current energy metabolism plus fat storage) and a dual source of fuel during the day (food plus mobilized fats) determine time and mechanism of meal onset.

  14. The utilization of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and faba bean globulins by rats is poorer than of soybean globulins or lactalbumin but the nutritional value of lupin seed meal is lower only than that of lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Scislowski, P W; Brown, D; Bardocz, S; Pusztai, A

    1995-08-01

    The effects of dietary sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, Unicrop) seed meal or its insoluble fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides + lignin) on performance, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in growing rats were studied in four experiments. Globulin proteins isolated from lupin, faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) or soybean (Glycine max) were also incorporated into purified diets as replacements for lactalbumin (control) and the nutritional effects were evaluated. Isocaloric, legume-based diets supplemented with amino acids were used. Final weight gain, gain:feed ratios, nitrogen retention and net protein utilization of the animals fed whole lupin meal-based diets for 10 d were inferior to those of controls. In contrast, adding lupin insoluble fiber to a control diet produced no adverse effects. Ileal starch and apparent nitrogen digestibilities, and fecal digestibility of starch in lupin-fed rats were higher than those of controls, but fecal true nitrogen digestibility was lower. Replacement of lactalbumin with globulin proteins from lupin or faba bean depressed food intake and protein utilization, but only performance was affected by consumption of soybean globulins. Rats consuming lupin or faba bean globulins excreted significantly more nitrogen, particularly as urea through the urine. This did not occur in rats fed soybean globulins. Urea concentration in plasma was higher in rats fed diets containing lupin meal or legume globulins. The concentrations of urea, arginine and ornithine in plasma increased significantly compared with control values after 3 to 9 h of a lupin diet. After 9 h, plasma lysine was also decreased. We concluded that the main reasons for the low nutritional value of sweet lupin seed meal are likely to be related to the chemical structure of the globulin proteins and their adverse effects on growth and nitrogen metabolism, and not to any known antinutritional factor or poor digestibility.

  15. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  16. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  17. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  18. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  19. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  20. Effects of feeding canola meal from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cutability of pigs.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine growth performance, visceral mass differences, carcass characteristics, fresh meat quality, and carcass cutability of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing high-protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Seven dietary treatments were fed to investigate effects of increasing inclusion rates of CM-HP or CM-CV in a corn-soybean meal diet containing no canola meal (control). Inclusion rates were 33, 66, or 100% replacement of soybean meal with either CM-HP or CM-CV. Pigs (140 barrows and 140 gilts; 2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen) were fed experimental diets in 3 phases with each phase lasting 35, 28, and 28 d, respectively. Within each phase, diets were formulated to be similar in concentrations of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA and in standardized total tract digestible P, but NE concentrations were not equalized among diets. At the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested. Over the 91-d growing-finishing period, no effects of CM-HP on ADG, ADFI, or G:F were observed, but final BW tended ( = 0.06) to be reduced as increasing levels of CM-HP were included in the diets. There was a linear increase ( < 0.05) in ADFI and a linear reduction ( < 0.05) in G:F as CM-CV inclusion level increased. Pigs fed CM-CV also had greater ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed diets containing CM-HP. There was a linear increase ( < 0.01) in liver weights, as a percentage of live weight, as CM-CV inclusion increased, but that was not the case if CM-HP was included in the diets. There was a linear increase ( < 0.05) in kidney weights, as a percentage of live weight, as CM-HP or CM-CV inclusion increased. There were no differences among treatments for ending live weight, HCW, carcass yield, loin eye area, 10th rib backfat thickness, or estimated carcass lean. Shear force, cook loss, LM moisture, LM extractible lipid, and drip loss were also not different among treatment groups

  1. Identification of 4,5-didemethyl-4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsimmondsin and pinitol alpha-D-galactosides in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Van Boven, M; Leyssen, T; Busson, R; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2001-09-01

    The isolation and identification of two pinitol alpha-D-galactosides from jojoba meal are described. The products were isolated by a combination of preparative HPLC on silica gel and TLC on amino silica gel and were identified by MS, NMR spectroscopy, and chemical derivatization as 5-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol or 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol and 2-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol or 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. The same preparative HPLC method on silica gel allowed a new simmondsin derivative to be isolated and identified as 4,5-didemethyl-4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsimmondsin mainly by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  2. Properties of extruded chia-corn meal puffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the properties of extruded corn meal puffs containing chia. Mixtures of corn meal and chia seeds (0-20%) were processed in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder at different moisture contents (18-22%) and final heating zone temperatures (120-160 °C). Extrusion processing pro...

  3. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  4. Learning through school meals?

    PubMed

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica

    2014-07-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals.

  5. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements. PMID:27132827

  6. Evaluation of growth performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters on broiler birds fed with raw and processed samples of Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis seed meal as an alternative protein source.

    PubMed

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2013-03-01

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the inclusion of underutilised legumes, Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis, seed meal in soybean-based diet in broilers. The utilisation of these wild legumes is limited by the presence of antinutrient compounds. Processing methods like soaking followed by autoclaving in sodium bicarbonate solution in E. scandens and C. gladiata and soaking followed by autoclaving in ash solution in C. ensiformis were adopted. The proximate composition of raw and processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis were determined. The protein content was enhanced in processed sample of E. scandens (46 %) and C. ensiformis (16 %). This processing method had reduced the maximum number of antinutrients such as tannins (10-100 %), trypsin inhibitor activity (99 %), chymotrypsin inhibitor activity (72-100 %), canavanine (60-62 %), amylase inhibitor activity (73-100 %), saponins (78-92 %), phytic acid (19-40 %) and lectins. Hence, the raw samples at 15 % and processed samples at 15 and 30 % were replaced with soybean protein in commercial broiler diet respectively. Birds fed with 30 % processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis showed significantly similar results of growth performance, carcass characteristics, organ weight, haematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, protein, bilirubin, albumin, globulin and liver and kidney function parameters) without any adverse effects after 42 days of supplementation. The proper utilisation of these underutilised legumes may act as an alternative protein ingredient in poultry diets. PMID:23076820

  7. Evaluation of growth performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters on broiler birds fed with raw and processed samples of Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis seed meal as an alternative protein source.

    PubMed

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2013-03-01

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the inclusion of underutilised legumes, Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis, seed meal in soybean-based diet in broilers. The utilisation of these wild legumes is limited by the presence of antinutrient compounds. Processing methods like soaking followed by autoclaving in sodium bicarbonate solution in E. scandens and C. gladiata and soaking followed by autoclaving in ash solution in C. ensiformis were adopted. The proximate composition of raw and processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis were determined. The protein content was enhanced in processed sample of E. scandens (46 %) and C. ensiformis (16 %). This processing method had reduced the maximum number of antinutrients such as tannins (10-100 %), trypsin inhibitor activity (99 %), chymotrypsin inhibitor activity (72-100 %), canavanine (60-62 %), amylase inhibitor activity (73-100 %), saponins (78-92 %), phytic acid (19-40 %) and lectins. Hence, the raw samples at 15 % and processed samples at 15 and 30 % were replaced with soybean protein in commercial broiler diet respectively. Birds fed with 30 % processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis showed significantly similar results of growth performance, carcass characteristics, organ weight, haematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, protein, bilirubin, albumin, globulin and liver and kidney function parameters) without any adverse effects after 42 days of supplementation. The proper utilisation of these underutilised legumes may act as an alternative protein ingredient in poultry diets.

  8. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism. PMID:26409958

  9. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism.

  10. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  11. Purification and biochemical characterization of phytocystatin from Brassica alba.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-05-01

    Phytocystatins belong to the family of cysteine proteinases inhibitors. They are ubiquitously found in plants and carry out various significant physiological functions. These plant derived inhibitors are gaining wide consideration as potential candidate in engineering transgenic crops and in drug designing. Hence it is crucial to identify these inhibitors from various plant sources. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated and purified by a simple two-step procedure using ammonium sulfate saturation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR from Brassica alba seeds (yellow mustard seeds).The protein was purified to homogeneity with 60.3% yield and 180-fold of purification. The molecular mass of the mustard seed cystatin was estimated to be nearly 26,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by gel filtration chromatography. The stokes radius and diffusion coefficient of the mustard cystatin were found to be 23A° and 9.4 × 10(-7)  cm(2) s(-1) respectively. The isolated phytocystatin was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-8 and is thermostable up to 60 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that the phytocystatin exhibited non-competitive type of inhibition and inhibited papain more efficiently (K(i)  = 3 × 10(-7)  M) than ficin (K(i)  = 6.6 × 10(-7)  M) and bromelain (K(i) = 7.7 × 10(-7)  M respectively). CD spectral analysis shows that it possesses 17.11% alpha helical content. PMID:26748819

  12. Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

    1991-02-01

    Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

  13. Volcanic flow development at Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattermole, P.

    1990-02-01

    On the Alba Patera volcanic shield of Mars, a Hesperian flood-lava phase was followed by the extrusion of sheet lavas and tube-fed lavas emerging in many cases from the flanking fissures of rising domes. These events were followed by the eruption of additional sheet and tube-fed lavas from linear vents which formed complex flow fields. Later, Amazonian volcanism at Alba involved long, narrow flows from two complex summit calderas; the thermal energy outflow for some individual flows would have been substantially greater than the annual heat loss of the earth through volcanism, implying that the process of patera-building represented substantial Martian geological heat-loss during the planet's early volcanic-centralization stages.

  14. Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

  15. The Timing of Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strubbe, Jan H.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on obtaining food and few competing activities, 3 levels of…

  16. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  17. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  18. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  19. Optimizing protein quality of mixtures of blood meal, feather meal and bone meal.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, M; Bokori, J; Andrásofszky, E; Kövári, L

    1990-01-01

    The protein quality of two- or three-component mixtures of blood meal, feather meal and bone meal was characterized by amino acid scores and rat net protein utilization (NPU) values. A graphic method designed to find optimum levels of the limiting essential amino acids in the mixtures was suitable for predicting the optimum of NPU values determined by feeding rats with diets having 10% crude protein. The protein quality of mixtures of blood meal, feather meal and bone meal showed an optimum if blood meal constituted 60% of the protein content of the mixtures; however, poor feed intake and growth data were obtained.

  20. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  1. In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

    1989-01-01

    Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

  2. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  3. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  4. [Quality assessment of sulfur-fumigated paeoniae alba radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Chen, Yu-Wu; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei-Yi; Jin, Hong-Yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The samples of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix acquired both by random spot check from domestic market and self-production by the research group in the laboratory were used to evaluate the effects of sulphur fumigation on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix by comparing sulfur-fumigated degree and character, the content of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and changes of the fingerprint. We used methods in Chinese Pharmacopeia to evaluate the character of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix and determinate the content of aulfur-fumigated paeoniflorin. LC-MS method was used to analyze paeoniflorin-converted products. HPLC fingerprint methods were established to evaluate the differences on quality by similarity. Results showed that fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix became white and its unique fragrance disappeared, along with the production of pungent sour gas. It also had a significant effect on paeoniflorin content. As sulfur smoked degree aggravated, paeoniflorin content decreased subsequently, some of which turned into paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and this change was not reversible. Fingerprint also showed obvious changes. Obviously, sulfur fumigation had severe influence on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix, but we can control the quality of the Paeoniae Alba Radix by testing the paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester content.

  5. Paenibacillus alba nov., isolated from peat soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-06-01

    A white-colored bacterial strain designated J20-6(T) was isolated from peat soil collected in Russia. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the strain J20-6(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and the closest relatives were Paenibacillus frigoriresistens YIM 016(T) (98.2 %), Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050T(T) (97.9 %), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) (97.4 %), Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) (96.9 %), and Paenibacillus pectinilyticus RCB-08(T) (96.6 %). Cells are gram-positive, motile, facultative aerobic, endospore forming, and rod shaped. The cell wall contains MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major fatty acid is anteiso-C15:0, and the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of the strain J20-6(T) was 49.9 mol %. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic data clearly suggest that the strain J20-6(T) belongs to the novel member of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus alba sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is J20-6(T) (=KEMC 7302-005(T) = JCM 18165(T)).

  6. Nutritional evaluation of low glucosinolate mustard meals (Brassica juncea) in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, R W; Classen, H L; Tyler, R T

    1997-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of meal derived from low glucosinolate cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea) in comparison to samples of canola meal (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa). Samples of Brassica seed (four B. juncea, one B. napus, and one B. rapa) were processed using laboratory procedures to produce oil-extracted meals, which were examined for composition (DM basis), and nutritional value for broiler chickens as judged by nutrient retention (AMEn, ileal protein digestibility) and performance. Meals derived from B. juncea contained more CP and less total dietary fiber (TDF) on a dry basis than either B. napus or B. rapa, 45.9 vs 44.6 and 43.1% CP and 27.22 vs 29.47 and 29.67% TDF, respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels for B. juncea and B. rapa meals were similar to each other, but lower than those of B. napus, 12.79 and 13.20 vs 20.6% ADF, and 21.15 and 19.58 vs 29.47% NDF, respectively. Brassica juncea meals contained more glucosinolates than B. napus and B. rapa, 34.3 vs 21.8 and 25.5 mumol/g total glucosinolates, respectively. Brassica juncea meals were equal or superior to B. napus and B. rapa meals for AMEn and apparent ileal protein digestibility. Similarly, broilers fed B. juncea meals grew as quickly and converted feed to BW gain as efficiently to 21 d of age as those birds fed B. napus and B. rapa meals. Feeding meal from B. rapa reduced growth rate and gain to feed ratio. In conclusion, the nutritional value of meal from low glucosinolate mustard was equal or superior to that of canola meal samples derived from B. napus and B. rapa cultivars.

  7. Lava Tube Flow Models at Alba Patera, Mars: Topographic Constraints on Eruption Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. J.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Bradley, B. A.; DeWet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Alba Patera has some of the longest lava tubes over some of the shallowest slopes on Mars. We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography to model eruption rates for several Alba Patera lava tubes and compare them within Alba and with flows from other martian volcanic regions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  9. Development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.

    The Alba Patera volcano is located in the middle of an almost 3000 km long fossae grabe zone radial to the Tharsis bulge. Alba Patera construction is wide, but only 7 km high. It has the appearance of a large, central-vent shield volcano with very low slope angle. Huge volumes of lavas have erupted from its center and flank vents to build it. The viscosity of the lavas must have been relatively low allowing them to flow hundreds of kilometers along the gentle downslopes. Lava tubes and flows radiate from central Alba Patera, where complex calderas can be seen. The composition of the lava flows may be indicative to the Martian internal development. A deep magma generation has to be considered as a possible cause for low-viscous lavas.

  10. Uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of porcine linea alba.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Gerard M; Moerman, Kevin M; Takaza, Michael; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

    2015-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a severe complication post-laparoscopic/laparotomy surgery that is commonly associated with the linea alba. However, the few studies on the mechanical properties of the linea alba in the literature appear contradictory, possible due to challenges with the physical dimensions of samples and variations in protocol. This study focuses on the tensile mechanical characterisation of the porcine linea alba, as determined by uniaxial and equi-load biaxial testing using image-based strain measurement methods. Results show that the linea alba demonstrated a non-linear elastic, anisotropic behaviour which is often observed in biological soft tissues. The transverse direction (parallel to fibres) was found to be approximately eight times stiffer than the longitudinal (cross-fibre) direction under both uniaxial and equi-load biaxial loading. The equi-load biaxial tensile tests revealed that contraction could occur in the transverse direction despite increasing load, probably due to the anisotropy of the tissue. Optical surface marker tracking and digital image correlation methods were found to greatly improve the accuracy of stretch measurement, resulting in a 75% change in the apparent stiffness compared to using strain derived from machine cross-head displacement. Additionally, a finite element model of the experiments using a combination of an Ogden and fibre exponential power law model for the linea alba was implemented to quantify the effect of clamping and tissue dimensions (which are suboptimal for tensile testing) on the results. The preliminary model results were used to apply a correction factor to the uniaxial experimental data prior to inverse optimisation to derive best fit material parameters for the fibre reinforced Ogden model. Application of the model to the equi-load biaxial case showed some differences compared to the experimental data, suggesting a more complex anisotropic model may be necessary to capture biaxial behaviour. These

  11. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant.

  12. Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2012-12-15

    Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

  13. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  14. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  15. Effects of soil contamination by trace elements on white poplar progeny: seed germination and seedling vigour.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Cantos, Manuel; Jiménez-Ramos, María C; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M

    2015-11-01

    Seed germination is considered a critical phase in plant development and relatively sensitive to heavy metals. White poplar (Populus alba) trees tend to accumulate Cd and Zn in their tissues. We tested if soil contamination can affect P. alba progeny, reduced seed germination and explored the distribution of mineral elements in the seed. For this purpose, fruits and seeds from female P. alba trees were selected from two contaminated and one non-contaminated areas. Seeds from all the sites were germinated using only water or a nutritive solution (in vitro). Concentrations of nutrients and trace elements in the fruits and seeds were analysed. Seedling growth in vitro was also analysed. Finally, a mapping of different elements within the poplar seed was obtained by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Germination was similar between different progenies, refuting our hypothesis that seeds from a contaminated origin would have reduced germination capacity compared to those from a non-contaminated site. Seedling growth was not affected by the contaminated origin. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in fruits produced by P. alba trees in the contaminated sites were higher than by those from the non-contaminated site. However, the nutritional status of the trees was adequate in both cases. Cd in seedlings was higher in those from contaminated soils although lower than in fruits, indicating a certain exclusion from seeds. Preliminary results of the PIXE technique showed that Al and Zn were distributed uniformly in the seeds (Cd was not detected with this technique), while the nutrients P and S were concentrated in the cotyledons.

  16. Effects of soil contamination by trace elements on white poplar progeny: seed germination and seedling vigour.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Cantos, Manuel; Jiménez-Ramos, María C; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M

    2015-11-01

    Seed germination is considered a critical phase in plant development and relatively sensitive to heavy metals. White poplar (Populus alba) trees tend to accumulate Cd and Zn in their tissues. We tested if soil contamination can affect P. alba progeny, reduced seed germination and explored the distribution of mineral elements in the seed. For this purpose, fruits and seeds from female P. alba trees were selected from two contaminated and one non-contaminated areas. Seeds from all the sites were germinated using only water or a nutritive solution (in vitro). Concentrations of nutrients and trace elements in the fruits and seeds were analysed. Seedling growth in vitro was also analysed. Finally, a mapping of different elements within the poplar seed was obtained by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Germination was similar between different progenies, refuting our hypothesis that seeds from a contaminated origin would have reduced germination capacity compared to those from a non-contaminated site. Seedling growth was not affected by the contaminated origin. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in fruits produced by P. alba trees in the contaminated sites were higher than by those from the non-contaminated site. However, the nutritional status of the trees was adequate in both cases. Cd in seedlings was higher in those from contaminated soils although lower than in fruits, indicating a certain exclusion from seeds. Preliminary results of the PIXE technique showed that Al and Zn were distributed uniformly in the seeds (Cd was not detected with this technique), while the nutrients P and S were concentrated in the cotyledons. PMID:26433900

  17. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. PMID:26850343

  18. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E.; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds. PMID:21931523

  19. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.

  20. Efficacy of feeding glucosinolate-extracted crambe meal to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffrey, E; Wallig, M; Tumbleson, M; Parsons, C; Johnson, L; Reuber, M

    1994-10-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products (nitriles) have long been implicated as toxic factors when feeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) meals and crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meals to poultry. Accordingly, various methods have been developed to remove these compounds from the meals to enhance their value as feed supplements. Glucosinolates and nitriles were extracted from commercially processed, defatted crambe meal by washing with water or various solvent-water mixtures: 50% isopropanol, 50% acetone, or 50% ethanol. In addition, crambe seed was extruded and extracted in the laboratory with isopropanol or hexane. Water washing of commercially defatted meal proved to be the most effective method of extraction, removing 95% of the glucosinolates and nitriles. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 10% of the diet for 14 d. Weight gain decreased (P < .05) in most groups; however a greater decrease (P < .01) was observed in birds fed meals with high glucosinolate content. Feed intake also decreased (P < .05) in most groups; consequently, feed efficiencies were similar for all groups. No changes in serum chemistries, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, or tissue lesions were associated with glucosinolate or nitrile intake. A relationship (P < .05, r = .74) was found between weight gain and glucosinolate intake. No correlation was found between feed intake and meal glucosinolate or nitrile concentrations.

  1. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P < 0.01) SID of CP and all AA except Thr, Trp, and Gly than 00-rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P < 0.05) among the 7 sources of canola meal, among the 10 sources of 00-rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00

  2. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  3. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  4. Meal replacements and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-04-26

    Induction and maintenance of a period of negative energy balance are required for overweight and obese subjects to lose weight. Meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, have now evolved as part of the "toolbox" used by researchers and clinicians to achieve negative energy balance. This overview traces the historical development of beverage meal replacements, reviews key studies supporting their clinical efficacy, and examines concerns related to their safe use. This collective information supports the view that meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, are now an effective and safe component for use in the clinical setting. Further studies are needed to identify those subjects most likely to benefit from use of meal replacements as part of their comprehensive weight control program.

  5. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups Fewer calories About the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal and snack Healthy fats Along ... meet and maintain your weight loss goal. HOW CARBOHYDRATES AFFECT BLOOD SUGAR Carbohydrates in food give your ...

  6. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-κB and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-κB and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P < 0.05). Concentrations of α-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and plasma and total antioxidant capacity of plasma and relative mRNA abundances of NF-κB and Nrf2 target genes in the liver did not differ between the two groups. However, the ratio of villus height:crypt depth and the gain:feed ratio was higher in the pigs fed GSGME than in control pigs (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation of a polyphenol rich GSGME suppresses the activity of NF-κB in the duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  7. Mining area environmental mercury assessment using Abias alba

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Bauleo, R.

    1992-07-01

    Several Hg biomonitors are used for environmental mercury assessment in mining areas. Among these, lichens are those most studied but other vegetal organisms are also employed, such as brooms, pine needles, and many other species. This paper reports the results of a mercury assessment at Mt. Amiata (Italy) based on the metal concentration in needles of Abies alba. Mt. Amiata is an area of Tuscany characterized by the presence of cinnabar deposits. The mercury extraction activity was ended in 1975, but the environment is still contaminated by the metal. Albies alba is a widespread conifer tree in Italy whose needles live about fourteen years. It is present not only in the woods but also in many parks and gardens. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. LINEA ALBA COLLAGEN ASSESSMENT IN MORBIDLY OBESE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    GROSSI, João Vicente Machado; NICOLA, Felipe Fernandes; ZEPEDA, Ivan Alberto; BECKER, Martina; TRINDADE, Eduardo Neubarth; DIEMEN, Vinicius Von; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti; TRINDADE, Manoel Roberto Maciel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The evaluation of collagen in the abdominal wall has been increasingly studied because of the relevance on collagen in the healing process after laparotomy. Aim: To evaluate the amount of collagen in the linea alba of patients undergoing laparotomic bariatric surgery and comparing with non-obese cadavers. Methods: Were evaluated 88 samples of aponeurosis from abdominal linea alba of 44 obese patients (obesity group) and 44 non-obese cadavers (control group). The samples were collected in 2013 and 2104, and were sorted according to age (18-30, 31-45 and 46-60), gender, BMI, waist and cervical circumference, and subcutaneous tissue thickness. Material for biopsy was collected from the supraumbilical region of the linea alba for immunohistochemical analysis differentiating collagen type 1 and type 3 and the 1/3 ratio. Image-Pro Plus pixel counting software was used to measure the amount of collagen. Results: The obesity group evidenced mean age 44.11±9.90 years; 18-30 age group had three (6.8%) obese individuals; 31-45 had 22 (50%) and 46-60 had 19 (43.1%). Females were present in 81.8% (n=36); BMI (kg/m²) was 48.81±6.5; waist circumference (cm) was 136.761±13.55; subcutaneous tissue thickness (cm) 4.873±0.916. Considering age groups, gender and BMI, there were statistical differences in all tests when compared with the cadavers. Conclusion: The amount of collagen in the linea alba above the umbilical region in the morbidly obese patients was smaller than in the non-obese cadavers in the same age group. PMID:27683766

  9. Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauhanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

  10. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  11. Seeds of Peace: Toward a Common Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marieke

    2004-01-01

    The Seeds of Peace program began in August 1993 when forty-eight Egyptian, Israeli, and Arabic boys met at a summer camp in Maine for a two-week coexistence program that gave them the opportunity not only to meet their "enemies" for the first time, but to live with them in cabins, share meals, and participate in typical summer camp activities. In…

  12. Valorization of rapeseed meal. 2. Nutritive value of high or low-glucosinolate varieties and effect of dehulling.

    PubMed

    Vermorel, M; Baudet, J J

    1987-01-01

    Five groups of 12 growing rats each were fed a control diet or one of 4 experimental diets composed of either high glucosinolate (Jet Neuf) or low glucosinolate (Tandem) rapeseed meal. After a 3-day adaptation period, the rats were fed ad libitum for 15 days. Both meals were given dehulled or non-dehulled. The Tandem rapeseed meal provided all the protein and Jet Neuf half the protein of the corresponding diets. Dehulling the seeds significantly increased the energy and protein digestibility of the rapeseed meals (+ 16.5 and + 6.3 or 10.4 points, respectively), their digestible energy and digestible protein contents (+ 28 and + 30%) and metabolic utilization of digestible protein in the indirect nitrogen balance trial. Conversely, in the feeding trial, the feed efficiency of the dehulled meal diets was lower than that of the non-dehulled meal diets. However, dehulling the Tandem rape seeds did not seem to reduce lysine availability. Finally, feeding dehulled Tandem rapeseed meal as the sole protein source did not significantly increase the liver weight of the rats. PMID:3575868

  13. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  14. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  15. The Benefits of Family-Style Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Ros, Denise; Duff, R. Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of having family-style meals in early childhood programs. Notes how such meals allow young children to develop self-help and communication skills and allow teachers to assess many aspects of children's development. Reviews the implementation of a family-style meal program at the University of South Carolina's Children's…

  16. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating children in…

  17. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  18. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of family meals.

    PubMed

    Prior, Amie-Louise; Limbert, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Benefits of family meals include diet quality, social interaction and wellbeing, yet previous research indicates only one in four adolescents eats a meal with their family every day. This study identified factors relating to the frequency and importance of family meals. A focus group conducted with seven adolescents was analysed thematically. The themes and findings of past research were used to develop a Family Meals Questionnaire (FMQ), completed by 76 adolescents. Regular engagement in healthy family meals eaten around the table was reported, with the majority of participants reporting that their meals included a variety of foods and portions of vegetables. Frequency of family meals was associated with increased family togetherness for both males and females. The nutritional value of meals was found to be most important to females, whereas the impact of family meals on mood was more salient for males. Findings suggest that the views and behaviour of other family members may influence adolescents' enjoyment and perceptions of the importance of family meals, and therefore impact on their frequency. These findings may inform the development of future interventions aimed at increasing adolescent engagement in family meals by adopting a family systems approach to improve the frequency and experience of family meals.

  19. Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

    2013-03-01

    The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

  20. What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning.

    PubMed

    Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Hinton, Elanor C; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-04-01

    The customary approach to the study of meal size suggests that 'events' occurring during a meal lead to its termination. Recent research, however, suggests that a number of decisions are made before eating commences that may affect meal size. The present study sought to address three key research questions around meal size: the extent to which plate-cleaning occurs; prevalence of pre-meal planning and its influence on meal size; and the effect of within-meal experiences, notably the development of satiation. To address these, a large-cohort internet-based questionnaire was developed. Results showed that plate-cleaning occurred at 91% of meals, and was planned from the outset in 92% of these cases. A significant relationship between plate-cleaning and meal planning was observed. Pre-meal plans were resistant to modification over the course of the meal: only 18% of participants reported consumption that deviated from expected. By contrast, 28% reported continuing eating beyond satiation, and 57% stated that they could have eaten more at the end of the meal. Logistic regression confirmed pre-meal planning as the most important predictor of consumption. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of meal planning as a key determinant of meal size and energy intake. PMID:21232568

  1. Using Mustard Seed Meal and Cover Crops for Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There continues to be a steady growth in the use of fall planted brassica cover crops in the Columbia Basin especially prior to potatoes. Several benefits include better water infiltration, reclaiming nitrogen, reduced erosion, and suppression of nematodes, diseases, and weeds. Weed suppression is...

  2. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  3. Differential Subcellular Localization of Leishmania Alba-Domain Proteins throughout the Parasite Development

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Aurélien; Dumas, Carole; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alba-domain proteins are RNA-binding proteins found in archaea and eukaryotes and recently studied in protozoan parasites where they play a role in the regulation of virulence factors and stage-specific proteins. This work describes in silico structural characterization, cellular localization and biochemical analyses of Alba-domain proteins in Leishmania infantum. We show that in contrast to other protozoa, Leishmania have two Alba-domain proteins, LiAlba1 and LiAlba3, representative of the Rpp20- and the Rpp25-like eukaryotic subfamilies, respectively, which share several sequence and structural similarities but also important differences with orthologs in other protozoa, especially in sequences targeted for post-translational modifications. LiAlba1 and LiAlba3 proteins form a complex interacting with other RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal subunits, and translation factors as supported by co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis. A higher co-sedimentation of Alba proteins with ribosomal subunits was seen upon conditions of decreased translation, suggesting a role of these proteins in translational repression. The Leishmania Alba-domain proteins display differential cellular localization throughout the parasite development. In the insect promastigote stage, Alba proteins co-localize predominantly to the cytoplasm but they translocate to the nucleolus and the flagellum upon amastigote differentiation in the mammalian host and are found back to the cytoplasm once amastigote differentiation is completed. Heat-shock, a major signal of amastigote differentiation, triggers Alba translocation to the nucleolus and the flagellum. Purification of the Leishmania flagellum confirmed LiAlba3 enrichment in this organelle during amastigote differentiation. Moreover, partial characterization of the Leishmania flagellum proteome of promastigotes and differentiating amastigotes revealed the presence of other RNA-binding proteins, as well as differences in

  4. Differential Subcellular Localization of Leishmania Alba-Domain Proteins throughout the Parasite Development.

    PubMed

    Dupé, Aurélien; Dumas, Carole; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alba-domain proteins are RNA-binding proteins found in archaea and eukaryotes and recently studied in protozoan parasites where they play a role in the regulation of virulence factors and stage-specific proteins. This work describes in silico structural characterization, cellular localization and biochemical analyses of Alba-domain proteins in Leishmania infantum. We show that in contrast to other protozoa, Leishmania have two Alba-domain proteins, LiAlba1 and LiAlba3, representative of the Rpp20- and the Rpp25-like eukaryotic subfamilies, respectively, which share several sequence and structural similarities but also important differences with orthologs in other protozoa, especially in sequences targeted for post-translational modifications. LiAlba1 and LiAlba3 proteins form a complex interacting with other RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal subunits, and translation factors as supported by co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis. A higher co-sedimentation of Alba proteins with ribosomal subunits was seen upon conditions of decreased translation, suggesting a role of these proteins in translational repression. The Leishmania Alba-domain proteins display differential cellular localization throughout the parasite development. In the insect promastigote stage, Alba proteins co-localize predominantly to the cytoplasm but they translocate to the nucleolus and the flagellum upon amastigote differentiation in the mammalian host and are found back to the cytoplasm once amastigote differentiation is completed. Heat-shock, a major signal of amastigote differentiation, triggers Alba translocation to the nucleolus and the flagellum. Purification of the Leishmania flagellum confirmed LiAlba3 enrichment in this organelle during amastigote differentiation. Moreover, partial characterization of the Leishmania flagellum proteome of promastigotes and differentiating amastigotes revealed the presence of other RNA-binding proteins, as well as differences in

  5. Nitrites derived from Foneiculum vulgare (fennel) seeds promotes vascular functions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Akila; Sridhara, Sree Rama Chaitanya; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that nitrites play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Fennel (Foneiculum vulgare) seeds are often used as mouth fresheners after a meal in both the Indian sub-continent and around the world. The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. We also showed that chewing fennel seeds enhanced nitrite content of saliva. Thus our study indicates the potential role of fennel derived-nitrites on the vascular system.

  6. Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Hare, T.M.; Baker, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess their evolutional histories by focusing on their extent of deformation in space and time through stratigraphic, paleotectonic, topographic, and geomorphologic analyses. Though there are similarities among the two prominent features, there are several distinct differences, including timing deformational extent, and tectonic intensity of formation. Whereas Alba Patera displays a major pulse of activity during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian, Syria Planum is a long-lived center that displays a more uniform distribution of simple graben densities ranging from the Noachian to the Amazonian, many of which occur at greater distances away from the primary center of activity. The histories of the two features presented here are representative of the complex, long-lived evolutional history of Tharsis. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Beam line for Macromolecular Crystallography in ALBA

    SciTech Connect

    Juanhuix, Jordi; Ferrer, Salvador

    2007-01-19

    ALBA is a third generation 3 GeV storage ring being built near Barcelona and foreseen to be operational in 2010. Out of the seven beamlines already funded in ALBA, one will be dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX). The beamline, dubbed XALOC, shall cope with a broad range of crystal structures and sizes. To this aim, a flexible optical design involving variable focusing optics has been incorporated into the beamline optics. The photon source will be a 2 m long, in-vacuum undulator with a period of 21.3 mm. The optics will consist in a Si(111), double-crystal monochromator cryogenically cooled, and a pair of mirrors placed in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. The beamline will deliver a high flux beam in the 5-15 keV energy range, with an energy resolution of {delta}E/E {approx}2 x 10-4. In addition to the main beamline, it is being considered the possibility to use a diamond laue monochromator to provide photons at a fixed wavelength to an ancillary branch. This report shows the present status of the beamline design.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Azlan, Azrina; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Yeap, Swee Keong; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba) using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD), 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697097

  9. The mosaic of ancestral karyotype blocks in the Sinapis alba L. genome.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Parkin, Isobel A P; Lydiate, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    The organisation of the Sinapis alba genome, comprising 12 linkage groups (n = 12), was compared with the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype (AK) genomic blocks previously described in other crucifer species. Most of the S. alba genome falls into conserved triplicated genomic blocks that closely match the AK-defined genomic blocks found in other crucifer species including the A, B, and C genomes of closely related Brassica species. In one instance, an S. alba linkage group (S05) was completely collinear with one AK chromosome (AK1), the first time this has been observed in a member of the Brassiceae tribe. However, as observed for other members of the Brassiceae tribe, ancestral genomic blocks were fragmented in the S. alba genome, supporting previously reported comparative chromosome painting describing rearrangements of the AK karyotype prior to the divergence of the Brassiceae from other crucifers. The presented data also refute previous phylogenetic reports that suggest S. alba was more closely related to Brassica nigra (B genome) than to B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome). A comparison of the S. alba and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes revealed many regions of conserved gene order, which will facilitate access to the rich genomic resources available in the model species A. thaliana for genetic research in the less well-resourced crop species S. alba.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range.

  11. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  12. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  13. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a...

  14. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a...

  15. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  16. Acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Miles, C

    1986-08-01

    An experimental study of the acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork showed that there was a post-meal impairment in detection of targets in a cognitive vigilance task. This was found both during the day and at night, although certain features of the results suggested that the day and night effects were not equivalent. Noise increased the number of false alarms but reduced the post-meal impairment in hit rate. Subjects with low levels of trait or state anxiety showed the greatest post-lunch impairments in performance, but this effect was reduced when the meal was eaten at night.

  17. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Rownak; Al-Nahain, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba can be found growing wild in fallow lands of Bangladesh where it is considered as a weed by farmers. Traditional medicinal systems of the Indian subcontinent countries as well as tribal practitioners consider the plant to have diverse medicinal values and use it commonly for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders (including asthma), fever, hair loss and graying of hair, liver disorders (including jaundice), skin disorders, spleen enlargement, and cuts and wounds. The plant has several phytoconstituents like wedelolactone, eclalbasaponins, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, luteolin, and apigenin. Pharmacological activities of plant extracts and individual phytoconstituents have revealed anticancer, hepatoprotective, snake venom neutralizing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Phytoconstituents like wedelolactone and ursolic and oleanolic acids as well as luteolin and apigenin can form the basis of new drugs against cancer, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and liver disorders. PMID:27355071

  18. Characterization of the error budget of Alba-NOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Josep; Martínez, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The Alba-NOM instrument is a high accuracy scanning machine capable of measuring the slope profile of long mirrors with resolution below the nanometer scale and for a wide range of curvatures. We present the characterization of different sources of errors that limit the uncertainty of the instrument. We have investigated three main contributions to the uncertainty of the measurements: errors introduced by the scanning system and the pentaprism, errors due to environmental conditions, and optical errors of the autocollimator. These sources of error have been investigated by measuring the corresponding motion errors with a high accuracy differential interferometer and by simulating their impact on the measurements by means of ray-tracing. Optical error contributions have been extracted from the analysis of redundant measurements of test surfaces. The methods and results are presented, as well as an example of application that has benefited from the achieved accuracy.

  19. Fluoride in the prey of barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Thomson, A G

    1987-01-01

    Bone fluoride in short-tailed voles (Microtus agrestis) and common shrews (Sorex araneus), the prey of barn owls (Tyto alba), was studied on Anglesey, North Wales. The average fluoride content of M. agrestis skulls obtained from a location 0.9 km from an aluminium reduction plant was significantly greater than that of skulls from another location 22 km from the source of industrial fluoride pollution. At both locations, mean fluoride levels of skulls extracted from owl pellets and those of voles trapped mechanically were broadly similar but important differences existed. Near the aluminium reduction plant, owls caught voles and shrews with a much wider range of fluoride levels than occurred at a single trapping site. However, there was no evidence for selection of heavily fluoridated prey. Within 1 km of the aluminium reduction plant, six trapping sites yielded S. araneus with a fourfold difference between the highest and lowest mean bone fluoride level. PMID:15092770

  20. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  1. Quantitative analysis of seasonal variation in the amino acids in phloem sap of Salix alba L.

    PubMed

    Leckstein, P M; Llewellyn, M

    1975-01-01

    Phloem sap of Salix alba L. was collected at monthly intervals between May and October. Amino acid analysis was carried out by ion exchange chromatography. The concentrations of individual amino acids are reported.

  2. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability.

  3. Plant regeneration from single-nodal-stem explants of legume tree Prosopis alba Griseb.

    PubMed

    Castillo de Meier, G; Bovo, O A

    2000-08-01

    Seeds of Prosopis alba were scarified with abrasive paper and placed to germinate on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) nutrient medium. After 7 days of culture, the basal part of cotyledons was removed and pieces of 4 mm" from distal parts were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) mineral salts and vitamins (MS) (3% sucrose) supplemented with growth regulators. Callus proliferation took place in the majority of the media tested. A low percentage of calluses with green buds that developed on MS basal medium containing 0.1 mg.L-1 2,4-D alone or supplemented with BAP at 0.1 mg.L-1 was observed. Neither cotyledonary segments in any medium assayed regenerated the whole plants. Bud elongation (near 70%) was achieved when single-nodal-stem segments cut from 20 days old seedlings were cultured on MS salts supplemented with 3 mg.L-1 NAA or 3 mg.L-1 IBA combined with 0.05 mg.L-1 KIN after 60 days in culture. Multiple shoots per bud were also observed. Single-nodal-stem segments from five-year-old plants were also cultured on the same media used for seedling explants. Maximal frequency of explants with bud elongation (near 70%) was found on MS with 0.1 mg.L-1 NAA plus 1 mg.L-1 BAP after 60 days of culture. Single-nodal-stem explants cut from adult trees (more than 20 years) were also employed, but the number of bud elongation was lesser. For rooting, the elongated shoots were transferred to a semisolid or liquid MS culture medium employing a paper bridge, supplemented with 0.5 mg.L-1 IBA or 0.1 mg.L-1 NAA.

  4. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  5. Apparent and standardized total tract digestibility by growing pigs of phosphorus in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe without and with microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) by growing pigs of P in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from the prepressed canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseeed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Two hundred sixteen barrows (18.0 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 36 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five samples of canola meal from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, 8 samples of 00-rapeseed meal from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe were used in the experiment. Eighteen diets were prepared by including 40% of each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, or 00-rapeseed expellers in 1 diet. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 1,500 units of microbial phytase to the diets. The only source of P in the diets was canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, or 00-rapeseed expellers. Pigs were placed in metabolism crates that allowed for total fecal collection. Pigs were fed at 2.5 times their estimated energy requirement for maintenance. Ingredients, diets, and feces were analyzed for P, and the ATTD and STTD of each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers were calculated. A value for endogenous P loss of 190 mg/kg DMI was used to calculate the STTD of P. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of P for canola meal were not different from values obtained in 00-rapeseed meal, and the ATTD and STTD of P in 00-rapeseed meal were not different from values for 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD and STTD of P increased (P < 0.001) from 44.99 and 48.82% to 64.08 and 67.97% for canola meal, from 46.77 and 50.36% to 63.53 and 67

  6. Transcriptome sequencing of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species Sonneratia alba using Illumina platform.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sufang; Zhou, Renchao; Huang, Yelin; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Guili; Zhong, Cairong; Shi, Suhua

    2011-06-01

    Mangroves are critical and threatened marine resources, yet few transcriptomic and genomic data are available in public databases. The transcriptome of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, was sequenced using the Illumina Genome Analyzer in this study. Over 15 million 75-bp paired-end reads were assembled into 30,628 unique sequences with an average length of 581 bp. Of them, 2358 SSRs were detected, with di-nucleotide repeats (59.2%) and tri-nucleotide repeats (37.7%) being the most common. Analysis of codon usage bias based on 20,945 coding sequences indicated that genes of S. alba were less biased than those of some microorganisms and Drosophila and that codon usage variation in S. alba was due primarily to compositional mutation bias, while translational selection has a relatively weak effect. Genome-wide gene ontology (GO) assignments showed that S. alba shared a similar GO slim classification with Arabidopsis thaliana. High percentages of sequences assigned to GO slim category 'mitochondrion' and four KEGG pathways, such as carbohydrates and secondary metabolites metabolism, may contribute to salt adaptation of S. alba. In addition, 1266 unique sequences matched to 273 known salt responsive genes (gene families) in other species were screened as candidates for salt tolerance of S. alba, and some of these genes showed fairly high coverage depth. At last, we identified four genes with signals of strong diversifying selection (K(a)/K(s)>1) by comparing the transcriptome sequences of S. alba with 249 known ESTs from its congener S. caseolaris. This study demonstrated a successful application of the Illumina platform to de novo assembly of the transcriptome of a non-model organism. Abundant SSR markers, salt responsive genes and four genes with signature of natural selection obtained from S. alba provide abundant sequence sources for future genetic diversity, salt adaptation and speciation studies. PMID:21620334

  7. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  8. Pilot Fullerton prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communications kit assembly (assy) mini headset (HDST), prepares meal on middeck. Fullerton clips corner of rehydratable food (cereal) package with scissors. The opening will allow Fullerton to insert JSC water dispenser kit water gun in order to heat contents with hot water. Meal tray assembly is secured to forward middeck locker and holds additional food packages and beverage containers.

  9. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    PubMed

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed. PMID:23551143

  10. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  11. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  12. Halopolyspora alba gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hangxian; Wei, Xiaomin; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Gillerman, Leionid

    2014-08-01

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated strain AFM 10251(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Dead Sea, Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% multi-salts, and did not grow without NaCl or MgCl2. The isolate formed a white aerial mycelium, and long chains of arthrospores with more than 10 spores per chain. The spores were spherical or oval with warty surfaces, and sterile mycelium was present between individual spores. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and a small proportion of LL-diaminopimelic acid as cell-wall diamino acids, and galactose and arabinose as whole-cell sugars. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain AFM 10251(T) was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10251(T) and the genus Actinopolyspora formed a distinct lineage. Analysis of the secondary structures of variable areas of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain AFM 10251(T) was different from all recognized species of the genus Actinopolyspora and members of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. Analysis of the signature nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain AFM 10251(T) and Actinopolyspora halophila formed a single group, but with base pair differences at positions 127 : 234 and 183 : 194. On the basis of analysis of chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10251(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Actinopolysporaceae, for which the name Halopolyspora alba gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Halopolyspora alba is AFM 10251(T) ( = DSM 45976(T) = CGMCC 4.7114(T)). PMID:24860112

  13. Small- to large-scale geographical patterns within the macrobenthic Abra alba community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoey, Gert; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2005-09-01

    The Abra alba community is widely spread in the coastal zone of the English Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. The community is located on shallow, fine muddy sands. Its spatial distribution can be broken up into a number of isolated patches (Atlantic French, British and German coast) and one large continuous distribution area (northern France up to the Netherlands). The aim of this study is to investigate the geographical patterns within the macrobenthic A. alba community at different scales: the community's full distribution range (i.e. large scale) and a selected area with a continuous distribution of the A. alba community (i.e. small scale) in relation to structuring environmental variables. Therefore, an analysis of newly collected samples along the Belgian coastal zone was combined with available information on the A. alba community throughout its distribution range. Although the community structure shows a high similarity across the full distribution range of the A. alba community, large- as well as small-scale changes in community composition were observed: the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS) should be considered as a major transition from the rich southern to the relatively poorer northern distribution area of the A. alba community. At a large scale (i.e. full distribution range), the differences in community structure are expected to result from (1) the specific hydrodynamic conditions in the English Channel (Atlantic ocean waters) and the Southern Bight of the North Sea, with a consequent differential connectivity between the different areas and (2) the climatological and related faunal shift from temperate (English Channel) to boreal conditions (German Bight). At a small scale (i.e. within the continuous distribution area), structural and functional community aspects may result from geographic differences in (1) detrital food availability, related to riverine input and pelagic productivity, along and across the coastline and (2) the amount

  14. Supervisors' support for nurses' meal breaks and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, David A; Nelson, Candace C; Hashimoto, Dean; Sorensen, Glorian

    2015-03-01

    Meal breaks promote occupational health and safety; however, less is known about supervisors' support for nurses' meal breaks. In this study, the researchers tested whether the frequency of meal breaks was positively related to supervisors' support of nurses' meal breaks, and whether more frequent meal breaks were associated with less psychological distress. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,595 hospital nurses working on 85 units supervised by nursing directors. Specific meal-break support was measured at the nursing director level; frequency of meal breaks and psychological distress were measured at the individual nurse level. Multilevel adjusted models showed a positive association between supervisors' support for meal breaks and the frequency of nurses' meal breaks (β=.16, p<.001). Moreover, nurses who took meal breaks more frequently reported lower psychological distress (β=-.09, p<.05). Meal breaks might be daily opportunities to promote mental health and fatigue recovery and provide downtime.

  15. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  16. Cognitive control of meal onset and meal size: Role of dorsal hippocampal-dependent episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Parent, Marise B

    2016-08-01

    There is a large gap in our understanding of how top-down cognitive processes, such as memory, influence energy intake. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding how the brain controls the timing of meals and meal frequency. Understanding how cognition influences ingestive behavior and how the brain controls meal frequency will provide a more complete explanation of the neural mechanisms that regulate energy intake and may also increase our knowledge of the factors that contribute to diet-induced obesity. We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal neurons, which are critical for memory of personal experiences (i.e., episodic memory), form a memory of a meal, inhibit meal onset during the period following a meal, and limit the amount ingested at the next meal. In support, we describe evidence from human research suggesting that episodic memory of a meal inhibits intake and review data from human and non-human animals showing that impaired hippocampal function is associated with increased intake. We then describe evidence from our laboratory showing that inactivation of dorsal hippocampal neurons decreases the interval between sucrose meals and increases intake at the next meal. We also describe our evidence suggesting that sweet orosensation is sufficient to induce synaptic plasticity in dorsal hippocampal neurons and raise the possibility that impaired dorsal hippocampal function and episodic memory deficits contribute to the development and/or maintenance of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we raise some critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27083124

  17. β-Amylase from Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sharma, Rameshwar

    1989-01-01

    A polyclonal antiserum against mustard (Sinapis alba L.) β-amylase was obtained by injecting a homogeneously purified enzyme preparation in rabbits. The formation of β-amylase specific antibodies was confirmed by staining the precipitin line in double diffusion gel for β-amylase activity. The monospecificity of antiserum against mustard β-amylase was also ascertained by Western blotting. The antiserum efficiently recognised both the denatured and the native form of β-amylase, but it did not cross-react with other higher plant β-amylase. The mode of photoregulation of β-amylase activity in mustard cotyledons was investigated by a variety of immunochemical techniques. Immunotitration experiments ruled out the possible contribution of enzyme activation/inactivation in photoregulation of β-amylase activity. The use of single radial immunodiffusion, rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and immunotitration confirmed that the light mediated increase in β-amylase activity quantitatively corresponds with the increase in β-amylase protein level. The in vivo labeling with l-[35S] methionine and pulse chase studies of in vivo labeled β-amylase protein revealed that the photoregulated increase in β-amylase activity in mustard cotyledon exclusively results from an increase in the rate of de novo synthesis of β-amylase protein against a very low background rate of enzyme degradation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666633

  18. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    PubMed

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  20. Antihyperglycemic activity of Eclipta alba leaf on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ananthi, J.; Prakasam, A.; Pugalendi, K. V.

    2003-01-01

    Eclipta alba, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in rural southern India as a hypoglycemic agent. In order to confirm this claim, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of E. alba and to study the activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver of control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of leaf suspension of E. alba (2 and 4 g/kg body weight) for 60 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 372.0 +/- 33.2 to 117.0 +/- 22.8), glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1)c, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and an increase in the activity of liver hexokinase. E. alba at dose of 2 g/kg body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 4 g/kg body weight. Thus, the present study clearly shows that the oral administration of E. alba possess potent antihyperglycemic activity. PMID:15369623

  1. SimAlba: A Spatial Microsimulation Approach to the Analysis of Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malcolm; Ballas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents applied geographical research based on a spatial microsimulation model, SimAlba, aimed at estimating geographically sensitive health variables in Scotland. SimAlba has been developed in order to answer a variety of “what-if” policy questions pertaining to health policy in Scotland. Using the SimAlba model, it is possible to simulate the distributions of previously unknown variables at the small area level such as smoking, alcohol consumption, mental well-being, and obesity. The SimAlba microdataset has been created by combining Scottish Health Survey and Census data using a deterministic reweighting spatial microsimulation algorithm developed for this purpose. The paper presents SimAlba outputs for Scotland’s largest city, Glasgow, and examines the spatial distribution of the simulated variables for small geographical areas in Glasgow as well as the effects on individuals of different policy scenario outcomes. In simulating previously unknown spatial data, a wealth of new perspectives can be examined and explored. This paper explores a small set of those potential avenues of research and shows the power of spatial microsimulation modeling in an urban context.

  2. Investigation of Antiarthritic Potential of Plumeria alba L. Leaves in Acute and Chronic Models of Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipin; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Surender

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The present investigation was designed to evaluate antiarthritic potential of fractions of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of P. alba. Materials and Methods. Plumeria alba L. leaves were extracted with hydroalcohol (30 : 70) to obtain hydroalcoholic extract of P. alba. This extract was further fractionated with solvents ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain EAPA and BPA, respectively. These fractions were tested against formaldehyde and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis. Arthritis assessment, paw volume, body weight, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold were measured. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology was done. Results. The 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of EAPA and BPA caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) reduction in paw swelling in both models. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and spleen weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in arthritic rats treated with extracts. There was significant (P < 0.05) improvement in thymus weight in EAPA treated rats whereas significant (P < 0.01) improvement was also seen in haemoglobin level (Hb) in diclofenac treated group. Motor incoordination and nociceptive threshold were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) improved. Conclusion. The present study suggests that Plumeria alba L. has protective activity against arthritis and supports the traditional use of P. alba for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25025056

  3. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  4. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  5. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  7. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  8. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  9. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  10. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  11. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  14. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  15. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  16. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  17. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  18. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  19. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  20. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  1. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  2. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  3. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of far-infrared (FIR) irradiation on the antioxidant activities of sesame meal, half of sesame seeds were FIR-irradiated and then oil was extracted from the seeds. The resulting defatted sesame meal (DSM) was extracted with methanol, and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extract were determined. FIR irradiation of sesame seeds for 30 min increased the total phenol content from 34.0 to 59.0 muM and radical scavenging activity of DSM extracts from 26.40 to 68.76%. The induction time of lipid oxidation of oil added to extracts was also retarded from 0.82 to 0.96 h. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, several low molecular weight phenolic compounds, such as p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoferulic acid, and o-coumaric acid, were frequently detected in FIR-irradiated DSM extracts as compared to unirradiated ones. These results indicated that FIR irradiation of sesame seeds increased the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of DSM. PMID:15740030

  4. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

  5. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  6. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combined Federal Campaign Text to Give Donate a Vehicle Shop for Good Give Stock Corporate Giving Ways ... UP Meals on Wheels America is thrilled to launch a first-of-its-kind national awareness campaign ...

  7. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  8. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  9. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene.

  10. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  11. [Proof of the indigenous nature of Populus alba L. in the western Mediterranean Basin].

    PubMed

    Roiron, Paul; Ali, Adam A; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Carcaillet, Christopher; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Around the western Mediterranean Basin, the ecological status of Populus alba, whether indigenous or introduced, is controversial. This note presents new palaeobotanical data based on analyses of leaf imprints from a travertine formation located in southern France. This travertine presents two levels with Populus alba imprints. The oldest level is dated back by 14C to the Early Holocene, i.e., 8890 +/- 70 BP. This demonstrates that Populus alba is an autochthonous species of the southern-France vegetation, removing speculations reporting that its distribution area was greatly influenced by Roman civilization. Finally, we discuss this new data in regard to other Pleistocene and Holocene deposits circum the Mediterranean Basin and in Europe, where this species was identified. PMID:15060983

  12. Effect of meal composition and cooking duration on the fate of sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli by healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rungapamestry, Vanessa; Duncan, Alan J; Fuller, Zoë; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2007-04-01

    The isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, has been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of brassica vegetables. When broccoli is consumed, sulforaphane is released from hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by plant myrosinase and/or colonic microbiota. The influence of meal composition and broccoli-cooking duration on isothiocyanate uptake was investigated in a designed experiment. Volunteers (n 12) were each offered a meal, with or without beef, together with 150 g lightly cooked broccoli (microwaved 2.0 min) or fully cooked broccoli (microwaved 5.5 min), or a broccoli seed extract. They received 3 g mustard containing pre-formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) with each meal. Urinary output of allyl (AMA) and sulforaphane (SFMA) mercapturic acids, the biomarkers of production of AITC and sulforaphane respectively, were measured for 24 h after meal consumption. The estimated yield of sulforaphane in vivo was about 3-fold higher after consumption of lightly cooked broccoli than fully cooked broccoli. Absorption of AITC from mustard was about 1.3-fold higher following consumption of the meat-containing meal compared with the non meat-containing alternative. The meal matrix did not significantly influence the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin and its excretion as SFMA from broccoli. Isothiocyanates may interact with the meal matrix to a greater extent if they are ingested pre-formed rather than after their production from hydrolysis of glucosinolates in vivo. The main influence on the production of isothiocyanates in vivo is the way in which brassica vegetables are cooked, rather than the effect of the meal matrix.

  13. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile stress-stretch response of human linea alba.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Gerard M; Lake, Spencer P; Thompson, Dominic M; Castile, Ryan M; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies on the stress-stretch behaviour of human linea alba, yet understanding the mechanics of this tissue is important for developing better methods of abdominal wound closure. Published data focuses mainly on porcine linea alba and for human tissue there are conflicting results and no bi-axial data available. This variability is likely due to challenges with the physical dimensions of the tissue and differences in experimental methodology. This study focussed on the tensile mechanical characterisation of the human linea alba using uniaxial and equi-load biaxial testing performed using image-based strain measurement methods. Thirteen freshly frozen human cadaveric abdominal walls were obtained and used to prepare 7 samples in both the transverse and longitudinal directions for uniaxial testing, and 13 square samples for bi-axial testing. The results showed significant anisotropy and for the equi-load biaxial tests the deformation was heavily biased in the longitudinal direction. In comparison with similar tests on porcine tissue from a previous study, it was found that the response of porcine linea alba to uniaxial loading is similar to that of human linea alba, with no statistically significant differences observed. Under biaxial loading human and porcine linea showed no statistical significance in the difference between their means in the transverse direction. However, a significant difference was observed in the longitudinal direction, and further study of the respective tissue structures is needed to better understand this result. These results provide the first data on the biaxial tensile properties of human linea alba and can aid in an improved assessment of wound closure mechanics. PMID:27367944

  14. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect. PMID:21264159

  15. Importance of fragmentation-tolerant species as seed dispersers in disturbed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey E; Swihart, Robert K

    2007-04-01

    Forest fragmentation can negatively affect plants if animal seed-dispersers become locally extinct in fragments. We conducted a 2-year experiment to evaluate the importance of tree squirrels (Sciurus) as seed dispersers for Quercus, Carya, and Juglans, and to assess dispersal consequences in patches where fragmentation-sensitive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are absent. We accounted for fates of approximately 15,700 seeds from five tree species in four exclosure treatments at 18 fragments during a high (2003-2004) and low seed (2004-2005) year. Two treatments excluded Sciurus to mimic disperser loss. We sampled nut-tree seedling density at 259 sites across eight watersheds, half of which were too fragmented to support S. carolinensis, but supported fragmentation-tolerant fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). Autumn-to-spring seed survival was low ( approximately 1%) for all species during low seed production. During high seed production, survival was higher for Juglans nigra (20%) and Carya ovata (16%) than for three Quercus species ( approximately 4% for Quercus palustris and Quercus rubra in two exclosure types; approximately 1% for Quercus alba in all treatments). Survival of J. nigra, C. ovata, and Q. rubra was >or=2.1-7.7 times higher for seeds in exclosures that Sciurus could access. Seed displacement distance was higher in the low seed than the seed-rich year, but the proportion of seeds surviving to greater distances was higher in seed-rich years for all seed types except Q. rubra. This affirms the importance of masting to seed survival and dispersal, but also suggests an advantage to trees of producing seed in non-mast years. Seedling densities were comparable in watersheds with and without S. carolinensis. These results demonstrate the importance of tree squirrels as dispersers of nut-bearing trees, but suggest that fragmentation may not disrupt dispersal of certain species if losing S. carolinensis from disturbed landscapes is compensated for by

  16. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  17. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems.

  18. Properties of a laccase produced by Phanerochaete flavido-alba induced by vanillin.

    PubMed

    de la Rubia, Teresa; Ruiz, Esteban; Pérez, Juana; Martínez, José

    2002-12-01

    Phanerochaete flavido-alba is able to remove simple and polymeric phenols from the recalcitrant wastes of the olive oil industry, in a process in which a laccase is involved. This report describes the characterization of a laccase produced by P. flavido-alba and induced by vanillin. Although the amino acid composition of the purified enzyme is typical for laccases, other molecular characteristics show that it is quite different from fungal laccases. The purified laccase oxidized preferably o- and p-biphenols. PMID:12471507

  19. Anaerobic reduction of elemental sulfur by Chromatium vinosum and Beggiatoa alba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of sulfur globules on the buoyant density of Chromatium vinosum and Beggiatoa alba was examined. The potential use of sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor in the anaerobic metabolism of Beggiatoa alba is also examined. The effect of the reduction of intracellular sulfur was investigated during dark metabolism on the buoyant density of C. vinosum. It is hypothesized from the results that the sulfur reduction to sulfide is part of an anaerobic energy operating system. Carbon stored as PHB can be oxidized with the concomitant reduction of sulfur to sulfide.

  20. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems. PMID:17705148

  1. Effect of partial replacement of different defatted oil seed cakes as substrate in biosynthesis of bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Kalsoom; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Butt, Farooq Bashir; Khan, Jamshaid Ali

    2007-07-01

    The present study was conducted to ascertain the effect of partial replacement of different defatted oil seed cakes as substrate i.e. sunflower meal, rice hulls and soybean meal, in biosynthesis of Bacitracin in Solid-State Fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis on laboratory scale. In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinations were used. The antibiotic activity was determined at various intervals and recorded 48 hours gave maximum yield, 4375 i.u/gm when only soybean was used. However, maximum titre 4820 i.u / gm of antibiotic were obtained when wheat bran and soybean meal was in ratio of 1:3. The raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal and wheat bran. Thus development of this technology in our country would result in utilizing our own resources in Pakistan.

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  5. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  6. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  7. 20 CFR 655.1314 - Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 203(m) of the FLSA, including the recordkeeping requirements found at 29 CFR 516.27. (b) Filing... hear such appeals according to the procedures in 29 CFR part 18, except that the appeal will not be..., the number of workers fed, the number of meals served and the number of days meals were provided....

  8. WEIGHT LOSS WITH MEAL REPLACEMENT AND MEAL REPLACEMENT PLUS SNACKS: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate whether snacking would improve weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight individuals within the context of a structured meal replacement (MR) weight loss program. A prospective 24 week, 2 (snacking vs nonsnacking) x 2 (MR vs meal replacement augmented with snacks (MRPS)...

  9. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  10. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Hanelt, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. This is the first study in which the flight distance of wild mosquitoes has been assessed using blood meal analysis and the first in which zoo animals have served as the exclusive source of blood meals. PMID:22548540

  11. Dehydration-anorexia derives from a reduction in meal size, but not meal number.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Christina N; Lorenzen, Sarah M; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G

    2012-01-18

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, makes dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable.

  12. Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba.

    PubMed

    Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Shen, Lianqing; Xiu, Lili; Winterhalter, Peter

    2007-05-01

    A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time.

  13. Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Davis, J. B.; Esser, A.

    2005-07-01

    This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with small grain cereals and has fewer limitations compared to other traditional alternative crops.

  14. BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

    2011-01-01

    BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

  15. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml.

  16. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  17. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Laccase from the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba

    PubMed Central

    Perez, J.; Martinez, J.; de la Rubia, T.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to excreting lignin-degrading peroxidases, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba also excretes a laccase. This protein was purified to homogeneity and found to have a molecular weight of 94,000 and an isoelectric point lower than 3.55. Its UV-visible spectrum is typical of copper-containing proteins. PMID:16535452

  18. Rejoinder: On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses--"Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We commend the measured tone and clearly stated arguments in Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on our article. It is particularly welcome because, in combination with our own conclusions, it lays out before the relevant audiences the substance of the debate in this field. Based on the commentary's opening statement, it would appear that there…

  19. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml. PMID:11346978

  20. You Need Company in the Dark: Building the House of Bernarda Alba at HMP Holloway Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rachel Marie-Crane

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the production of The House of Bernarda Alba in Her Majesty's Prison Holloway in London England. It is written from a personal perspective and focuses on the following topics, collaboration, a brief comparison of prison life in the US and the UK, the successful and unsuccessful experiences of participants, and their insights…

  1. On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

  2. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues.

  3. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues. PMID:26598858

  4. Structural stability and Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody binding ability of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) napin during industrial-scale myrosinase inactivation process.

    PubMed

    Marambe, Harsha K; McIntosh, Tara C; Cheng, Bifang; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the structural stability of yellow mustard (YM, Sinapis alba L.) napin and the changes of its Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody-binding ability during myrosinase enzyme inactivation process. The food industry uses myrosinase-inactive non-pungent YM for uses beyond spice applications. Napin was isolated from seeds received from an industrial processor before (YM + M) and after (YM - M) myrosinase inactivation. Secondary and tertiary structural features and surface hydrophobicity parameters of napin were analyzed. The Sin a 1 content in YM seeds and the stability of Sin a 1-containing napin during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion were determined by a non-competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody (AE-Ab) as the primary Ab. YM napin retained the dominant alpha-helical components of secondary and tertiary structure folds during this process. YM - M napin showed changes in hydrophobicity parameters of the molecules and binding ability of AE-Ab: 2.19 ± 0.48 g per 100 g of YM - M seeds vs. 1.49 ± 0.16 g per 100 g YM + M seeds. YM - M proteins were more susceptible for in vitro GI digestion and also showed a 30% reduction in AE-Ab binding ability upon digestion of napins. This suggests that the myrosinase inactivation process has induced the surface modification of napin, exposing Sin a 1 epitope, leading to an increase in AE-Ab binding. However, the epitope region of YM - M napin showed improved susceptibility for hydrolysis during GI digestion resulting in fewer available epitope regions, suggesting a possible reduction in napin immune reactivity. PMID:26091085

  5. Structural stability and Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody binding ability of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) napin during industrial-scale myrosinase inactivation process.

    PubMed

    Marambe, Harsha K; McIntosh, Tara C; Cheng, Bifang; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the structural stability of yellow mustard (YM, Sinapis alba L.) napin and the changes of its Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody-binding ability during myrosinase enzyme inactivation process. The food industry uses myrosinase-inactive non-pungent YM for uses beyond spice applications. Napin was isolated from seeds received from an industrial processor before (YM + M) and after (YM - M) myrosinase inactivation. Secondary and tertiary structural features and surface hydrophobicity parameters of napin were analyzed. The Sin a 1 content in YM seeds and the stability of Sin a 1-containing napin during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion were determined by a non-competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody (AE-Ab) as the primary Ab. YM napin retained the dominant alpha-helical components of secondary and tertiary structure folds during this process. YM - M napin showed changes in hydrophobicity parameters of the molecules and binding ability of AE-Ab: 2.19 ± 0.48 g per 100 g of YM - M seeds vs. 1.49 ± 0.16 g per 100 g YM + M seeds. YM - M proteins were more susceptible for in vitro GI digestion and also showed a 30% reduction in AE-Ab binding ability upon digestion of napins. This suggests that the myrosinase inactivation process has induced the surface modification of napin, exposing Sin a 1 epitope, leading to an increase in AE-Ab binding. However, the epitope region of YM - M napin showed improved susceptibility for hydrolysis during GI digestion resulting in fewer available epitope regions, suggesting a possible reduction in napin immune reactivity.

  6. Improving meal context in nursing homes. Impact of four strategies on food intake and meal pleasure.

    PubMed

    Divert, Camille; Laghmaoui, Rachid; Crema, Célia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Wymelbeke, Virginie Van; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In France, in most nursing homes, the composition of menus, the time and the place at which meals are served, the choice of one's place at the table are imposed on residents. Yet, the act of eating cannot be restricted to nutritional and sensory aspects alone. It also includes a psycho-affective dimension, which relates to the context in which the meal is served. We tested the impact of four contextual factors, considered individually, on food intake and meal pleasure in elderly people living in nursing homes: the way the main course was named on the menu, the size and the variety of portions of vegetables served to residents, the presence or not of condiments in the middle of the table and the presence or not of elements to modify the surroundings such as a decorative object on the table or background music. Twelve experimental meals were served to 42 nursing home residents. For each factor, we compared a control condition with two experimental conditions. Our study showed that changing a single contextual element of the meal in nursing homes could be sufficient to improve residents' satisfaction with their meals and increase the quantities of meat or vegetables consumed, as long as this factor had a direct impact on what was going to be consumed (increased variety on the plate, condiments on the table). Factors affecting the context of the meal (names of dishes, decor) proved to be ineffective. Given the budgetary constraints faced by nursing homes, this study proposes interesting and inexpensive ideas to increase satisfaction with meals and food intake in elderly people who are dependent on others for their meals. PMID:25445198

  7. Pilot Crippen prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pilot Crippen gathers food supplies - canned goods, sealed packages, beverages, etc - to prepare meal. Selections are attached with velcro to meal tray assemblies secured on forward middeck lockers MF14H and MF28H. Sitting on the potable water tank, Crippen handles food package (502). Also in view are the window shade and filter kit (on the port side bulkhead),the food warmer (on forward middeck lockers), and field sequential (FS) crewcabin camera with light fixture (freefloating). Commander Young took this photograph with a 35mm camera.

  8. Genetic enhancement of Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Hannoufa, Abdelali; Pillai, Bhinu V S; Chellamma, Sreekala

    2014-02-01

    The ultimate value of the Brassica napus (canola) seed is derived from the oil fraction, which has long been recognized for its premium dietary attributes, including its low level of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and favorable omega-3 fatty acid profile. However, the protein (meal) portion of the seed has also received favorable attention for its essential amino acids, including abundance of sulfur-containing amino acids, such that B. napus protein is being contemplated for large scale use in livestock and fish feed formulations. Efforts to optimize the composition of B. napus oil and protein fractions are well documented; therefore, this article will review research concerned with optimizing secondary metabolites that affect the quality of seed oil and meal, from undesirable anti-nutritional factors to highl value beneficial products. The biological, agronomic, and economic values attributed to secondary metabolites have brought much needed attention to those in Brassica oilseeds and other crops. This review focuses on increasing levels of beneficial endogenous secondary metabolites (such as carotenoids, choline and tochopherols) and decreasing undesirable antinutritional factors (glucosinolates, sinapine and phytate). Molecular genetic approaches are given emphasis relative to classical breeding.

  9. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles. PMID:26202439

  10. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  11. 21 CFR 573.540 - Hydrolyzed leather meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrolyzed leather meal. 573.540 Section 573.540... Additive Listing § 573.540 Hydrolyzed leather meal. (a) Identity. Hydrolyzed leather meal is produced from leather scraps that are treated with steam for not less than 33 minutes at a pressure of not less than...

  12. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  13. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  14. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  16. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  17. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  18. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  19. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  20. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  1. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  2. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  3. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  4. Cafeteria staff perceptions of the new USDA school meal standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of...

  5. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  6. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  7. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  8. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  9. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  10. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  11. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  15. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  16. Using Offer versus Serve in the School Meals Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, RoseAnna

    The goal of the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) option in the Healthy School Meals Initiative is to minimize plate waste and to encourage more food choices in school meal programs. This manual was designed for child nutrition programs as a tool in helping them meet the Healthy School Meals Initiative, in particular to assist them in identifying a…

  17. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies. PMID:25746409

  18. 20 CFR 655.173 - Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) of the FLSA, including the recordkeeping requirements found at 29 CFR 516.27. (b) Filing petitions... goods and services directly related to the preparation and serving of meals, the number of workers...

  19. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  20. Meal composition and shift work performance.

    PubMed

    Love, Heather L; Watters, Corilee A; Chang, Wei-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food intake, sleep, and quality of sleep for two weeks, and measured their body temperature and performed cognitive tests during two night shifts at baseline and in test periods. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to quantify sleepiness, and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure cognitive performance. In comparison with the score at baseline, when subjects had a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intake (1,335 kcal/5,588 kJ, 56% carbohydrate, 28% fat), the 1.6-second PASAT score improved significantly (p=0.042) during night shifts when subjects consumed a test meal (987 kcal/4,131 kJ, 46% carbohydrate, 42% fat). No statistically significant difference in SSS was found between baseline and test periods. The reduced body temperature between 2400 hours and 0530 hours was similar for both baseline and test periods. Meal composition and size during night shifts may affect cognitive performance.

  1. Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Layne

    1998-01-01

    By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

  2. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals.

    PubMed

    Eyong, E U; Umoh, I B; Ogu, T I; Edet, E E; Eteng, M U; Igiri, A O

    2007-01-01

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of twenty eight days. A fourth group which served as control was feed with normal rat pellet. The mean total plasma cholesterol level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control and peeled grated cocoyam fed groups. The mean total plasma triglyceride (MTPTG) level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control group. However the MTPTG level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups were comparable to control. The mean HDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain fed groups were comparable control. The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was significantly lower [P < 0.05] than the control group. The LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to control. These findings suggest low atherogenic potentials of the pounded yam with plain soup meal compared to the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge meals. PMID:18379612

  3. School-Meals Makeover Stirs the Pot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Proposed new federal rules governing the meals served to school children across the country each weekday are causing a stir among food industry groups, cafeteria managers, parents, and students. The skirmish is over the U.S. Department of Agriculture's efforts, prompted by the recent passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, to rewrite the…

  4. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... completely relieved from duty for the purposes of eating regular meals. Ordinarily 30 minutes or more is long... employee is not relieved if he is required to perform any duties, whether active or inactive, while eating. For example, an office employee who is required to eat at his desk or a factory worker who is...

  5. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... completely relieved from duty for the purposes of eating regular meals. Ordinarily 30 minutes or more is long... employee is not relieved if he is required to perform any duties, whether active or inactive, while eating. For example, an office employee who is required to eat at his desk or a factory worker who is...

  6. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p < 0.05). All pulse treatments lowered BG immediately following consumption (at 20 min) (p < 0.05), but there was no effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). Postpizza meal BG AUC was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  7. The two faces of Alba: the evolutionary connection between proteins participating in chromatin structure and RNA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, L; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Anantharaman, Vivek

    2003-01-01

    Background There is considerable heterogeneity in the phyletic patterns of major chromosomal DNA-binding proteins in archaea. Alba is a well-characterized chromosomal protein from the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus. While Alba has been detected in most archaea and some eukaryotic taxa, its exact functions in these taxa are not clear. Here we use comparative genomics and sequence profile analysis to predict potential alternative functions of the Alba proteins. Results Using sequence-profile searches, we were able to unify the Alba proteins with RNase P/MRP subunit Rpp20/Pop7, human RNase P subunit Rpp25, and the ciliate Mdp2 protein, which is implicated in macronuclear development. The Alba superfamily contains two eukaryote-specific families and one archaeal family. We present different lines of evidence to show that both eukaryotic families perform functions related to RNA metabolism. Several members of one of the eukaryotic families, typified by Mdp2, are combined in the same polypeptide with RNA-binding RGG repeats. We also investigated the relationships of the unified Alba superfamily within the ancient RNA-binding IF3-C fold, and show that it is most closely related to other RNA-binding members of this fold, such as the YhbY and IF3-C superfamilies. Based on phyletic patterns and the principle of phylogenetic bracketing, we predict that at least some of the archaeal members may also possess a role in RNA metabolism. Conclusions The Alba superfamily proteins appear to have originated as RNA-binding proteins which formed various ribonucleoprotein complexes, probably including RNase P. It was recruited as a chromosomal protein possibly only within the crenarchaeal lineage. The evolutionary connections reported here suggest how a diversity of functions based on a common biochemical basis emerged in proteins of the Alba superfamily. PMID:14519199

  8. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  9. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  10. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  11. Canola and sunflower meal in beef cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Gregory P; Anderson, Vern

    2002-07-01

    It is apparent from the limited research that sunflower meal is a biologically and economically useful protein source for growing and finishing cattle. Similarly, beef cows can be provided supplemental protein effectively with sunflower meal. Sunflower meal may be especially useful in diets where degradable protein is required, such as lower quality forage or high corn finishing rations. The increased bulk of this relatively high fiber meal may affect logistics, but ruminants are positioned to be more tolerant of high fiber levels than other species. Additional research is warranted to evaluate practical and economic aspects of using sunflower meal in beef cattle diets.

  12. Nutritional Assessment of Free Meal Programs in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Lopez, Andrea; Seligman, Hilary K.

    2013-01-01

    Free meals often serve as a primary food source for adults living in poverty, particularly the homeless. We conducted a nutritional analysis of 22 meals from 6 free meal sites in San Francisco to determine macronutrient and micronutrient content. Meals provided too little fiber and too much fat but appropriate levels of cholesterol. They were also below target for potassium, calcium, and vitamins A and E. These findings may inform development of nutritional content standards for free meals, particularly for vulnerable patients who might have, or be at risk of developing, a chronic illness. PMID:23721791

  13. Voluntary food intake of growing pigs given diets containing rapeseed meal, from different types and varieties of rape, as the only protein supplement.

    PubMed

    Lee, P A; Hill, R

    1983-11-01

    The voluntary food intake, during 30 min periods after morning and afternoon feeds and during 24 h, by growing pigs given diets containing rapeseed meal (Rsm) or soya-bean meal (Sbm) as the only protein supplement was determined. One diet was offered at a time and a daily changeover sequence of feeding was followed. Four rapeseed meals were compared, one from seeds of British-grown winter Brassica napus varieties (Brsm) and the others from seeds of the varieties Tower (Trsm), Erglu (Ersm) and Span (Srsm). The effects on feed intake of adding flavouring substances to the Brsm diet were also determined. The flavouring substances were molassine meal, sucrose and four commercially-available substances: P, pig nectar; H, hog nectar; S, sow nectar and A, apple. Intake of the Brsm diet was significantly less than those of the Sbm, Trsm and Ersm diets. Addition to the Brsm diet of molassine meal or sucrose at 50 or 100 g/kg did not improve voluntary feed intake. None of the commercial flavouring substances raised the intake of the Brsm diet to the level of the Sbm diet but they improved intake of the Brsm diet to varying extents. Flavourings H, S and A gave similar improvements which were substantial. The Sbm, Brsm and Trsm diets were each fed ad. lib. to groups of growing pigs continuously for 4 weeks. Weekly feed intakes and weight gains were determined. Feed intakes and weight gains followed closely the intake values obtained in the changeover experiments. The highest values were for the Sbm diet; those for the Trsm diet were slightly lower and those for the Brsm diet were substantially and significantly lower. The glucosinolate, sinapine and tannin contents of the rapeseed meals were determined and the results suggested that voluntary feed intake of diets containing these meals was related to their glucosinolate content, but not to their sinapine or tannin contents. PMID:6639926

  14. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  15. Differential impacts of brassicaceous and nonbrassicaceous oilseed meals on soil bacterial and fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Emily B; Hu, Ping; Wang, Autumn S; Hons, Frank M; Gentry, Terry J

    2013-03-01

    Demand for alternative fuels has sparked renewed interest in the production of biodiesel from oil-rich seeds. Oilseed meals are a byproduct of this process, and given their relatively high nutrient content, land application represents a potential value-added use. In this microcosm-based study, soil microbial community responses to amendments of a glucosinolate-containing brassicaceous oilseed meal (Brassica juncea, mustard), a non-glucosinolate-containing, nonbrassicaceous oilseed meal (Linum usitatissimum, flax), and a nonoilseed biomass (Sorghum bicolor) were characterized using a 28-day time series of replicated 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS gene sequence libraries. We hypothesized that biomass type and glucosinolate content would alter community composition but that effects would diminish over time. Distinct separation occurred by amendment type, with mustard inducing large increases in the abundance of bacterial taxa associated with fungal disease suppression (e.g. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces spp.). Dramatic shifts were seen among the fungi, too, with phylotype richness decreasing by > 60% following mustard addition. Changes in bacterial and fungal community composition were rapid, and distinct community types persisted throughout the study. Oilseed amendment, and mustard in particular, has the potential to alter soil microbial community structure substantially, and such changes are likely to be important in the context of ecosystem health. PMID:23025785

  16. The ALBA spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station: layout and performance

    PubMed Central

    Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Pellegrin, Eric; Nicolas, Josep; Ferrer, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station at the CIRCE helical undulator beamline, which started user operation at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility in 2012, is presented. This station, based on an Elmitec LEEM III microscope with electron imaging energy analyzer, permits surfaces to be imaged with chemical, structural and magnetic sensitivity down to a lateral spatial resolution better than 20 nm with X-ray excited photoelectrons and 10 nm in LEEM and UV-PEEM modes. Rotation around the surface normal and application of electric and (weak) magnetic fields are possible in the microscope chamber. In situ surface preparation capabilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature flashing, exposure to gases, and metal evaporation with quick evaporator exchange. Results from experiments in a variety of fields and imaging modes will be presented in order to illustrate the ALBA XPEEM capabilities. PMID:25931092

  17. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  18. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  19. Three New Isoprenylated Flavonoids from the Root Bark of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Lee, Yeong-Geun; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dae-Young; Lim, Dong-Wook; Han, Daeseok; Baek, Nam-In

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the root bark of Morus alba has led to the isolation and identification of three new isoprenylated flavonoids, namely sanggenon U (1), sanggenon V (2), and sanggenon W (3), along with four known isoprenylated flavonoids: euchrenone a₇ (4), sanggenon J (5), kuwanon E (6), and kuwanon S (7). All compounds were isolated by repeated silica gel (SiO₂), octadecyl SiO₂ (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography. The structure of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), circular dichroism (CD), and infrared (IR). In addition, compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from the root bark of M. alba in this study. PMID:27563860

  20. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  1. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  2. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  3. Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

  4. Cloning and analysis of the planosporicin lantibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster of Planomonospora alba.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Emma J; Hesketh, Andrew R; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2013-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer.

  5. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. RESULTS Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). CONCLUSION Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias. PMID:26634054

  6. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  7. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-10-13

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  8. An airborne actinobacteria Nocardiopsis alba isolated from bioaerosol of a mushroom compost facility.

    PubMed

    Paściak, Mariola; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumiła; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in many environments and represent the most important trigger to the occupant respiratory health. Health complaints, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis of the workers, were recorded in a mushroom compost facility (MCF). The studies on the airborne bacteria were carried out to find a possible microbiological source of these symptoms. Culture analysis of compost bioaerosols collected in different location of the MCF was performed. An assessment of the indoor microbial exposure revealed bacterial flora of bioaerosol in the mushroom compost facility represented by Bacillus, Geobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus spp., and actinobacterial strain with white aerial mycelium. The thermotolerant actinobacterial strain of the same morphology was repeatedly isolated from many locations in MCF: air, compost sample, and solid surface in production hall. On the base of complex morphological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate has been classified as Nocardiopsis alba. Dominant position of N. alba in microbial environment of the mushroom compost facility may represent an indicator microorganism in compost bioaerosol. The bioavailability of N. alba in mushroom compost facility creates potential risk for the health of workers, and the protection of respiratory tract and/or skin is strongly recommended.

  9. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  10. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment. PMID:27115720

  11. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  12. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba

    PubMed Central

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

  13. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  14. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence. PMID:16279416

  15. Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Adhikrao V.; Nade, Vandana S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves on dopaminergic function. Materials and Methods: The effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves was evaluated on haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy, foot shock-induced aggression, amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior and phenobarbitone induced sleeping in mice. In each of these tests, the extract was administered in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before performing the test in mice. Further, the inhibitory effect of the extract on dopamine was studied using isolated rat vas deferens. Results: The extract produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and metoclopramide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice. The extract significantly reduced number of fights and increased latency to fights in foot shock-induced aggression; it also decreased amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. The sleeping time induced by phenobarbitone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) too was prolonged. The extract inhibited contractions produced by dopamine on isolated rat vas deferens. Conclusion: The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. possesses antidopaminergic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to antidopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent. PMID:20040961

  16. Characterization of a New Flavone and Tyrosinase Inhibition Constituents from the Twigs of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Zong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1), and sixteen known compounds 2-17 were isolated from M. alba twigs and their structures were identified by interpretation of the corresponding ESI-MS and NMR spectral data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory test, the compounds steppogenin (IC50 0.98 ± 0.01 µM), 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (IC50 0.07 ± 0.02 µM), morachalcone A (IC50 0.08 ± 0.02 µM), oxyresveratrol (IC50 0.10 ± 0.01 µM), and moracin M (8.00 ± 0.22 µM) exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition activities, much stronger than that of the positive control kojic acid. These results suggest that M. alba twig extract should served as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods as antibrowning agents or in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:27598113

  17. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men For Women For Seniors What Are Chia Seeds? Published February 05, 2014 Print Email When you ... number of research participants. How to Eat Chia Seeds Chia seeds can be eaten raw or prepared ...

  18. A seed coat-specific promoter for canola.

    PubMed

    El-Mezawy, Aliaa; Wu, Limin; Shah, Saleh

    2009-12-01

    The canola industry generates more than $11 billion of yearly income to the Canadian economy. One problem of meal quality is the dark polyphenolic pigments that accumulate in the seed coat. Seed coat-specific promoters are a pre-requisite to regulate the genes involved in seed coat development and metabolism. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to test an Arabidopsis promoter in developing and mature seeds of canola (Brassica napus). The promoter tested is the regulatory region of the laccase gene (AtLAC15) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The AtLAC15 promoter::GUS construct was inserted into canola double haploid line DH12075 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot analysis using a 536 bp GUS probe showed variation among the transformed plants in the T-DNA copy numbers and the position of the insertion in their genomes. Histochemical assay of the GUS enzyme in different tissues (roots, leaves, stem, pollen grains, flowers, siliques, embryos and seed coats) showed ascending GUS activity only in the seed coat from 10 days after pollination (DAP) to the fully mature stage (35 DAP). GUS stain was observed in the mucilage cell layer, in the outer integument layer of the seed coat but not in the inner integument. The AtLAC15 promoter exhibited a specificity and expression level that is useful as a seed coat-specific promoter for canola. PMID:19690805

  19. Fatty meal ultrasonography in chronic acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Donen, Anna; Kantor, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic acalculous cholecystits typically presents with biliary symptoms, normal blood tests and unremarkable ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. However, cholescintigraphy may show reduced gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF). There are no reports on using ultrasound to measure GBEF in adults. Twenty-eight patients with the above presentation underwent ultrasound before and after ingestion of a standardized fatty meal. Consequently, GBEF was calculated. Seven patients had reduced GBEFs (<38%). Two of these patients underwent cholecystectomy and both were found to have chronic gallbladder inflammation. Three patients with normal GBEFs underwent cholecystectomy and were also found to have chronic gallbladder inflammation. There may be a role for fatty meal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis, but it should be used more widely in this patient cohort for its role to be established. It ideally needs to performed alongside cholescintigraphy for the comparison of accuracy. PMID:25409675

  20. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed. PMID:26974503

  1. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed.

  2. Commander Mattingly prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly, wearing flight coveralls, opens beverage container using a pair of scissors in front of middeck lockers (covered with spacecrew supplies, meal tray assemblies, and additional food items). Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) and control panel ML86B appear on port side wall. CFES is designed to separate biological materials according to their surface electrical charges as they pass through an electrical field.

  3. Skylab-4 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-4 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Ed Gibson getting ready to prepare his meal in the crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  4. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the Skylab-3 mission (2nd marned mission), showing Astronaut Owen Garriott enjoying his meal in the Orbital Workshop crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  5. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-06-01

    A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim was to study the effect of the inter-meal interval by dividing energy intake over two or three meals on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and 24 h satiety, in healthy, normal-weight women in a state of energy balance. The study was a randomised crossover design with two experimental conditions. During the two experimental conditions subjects (fourteen normal-weight women, aged 24.4 (SD 7.1) years, underwent 36 h sessions in energy balance in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. The subjects were given two (breakfast, dinner) or three (breakfast, lunch, dinner) meals per d. We chose to omit lunch in the two meals condition, because this resulted in a marked difference in inter-meal-interval after breakfast (8.5 h v. 4 h). Eating three meals compared with two meals had no effects on 24 h energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. Eating three meals compared with two meals increased 24 h fat oxidation, but decreased the amount of fat oxidised from the breakfast. The same amount of energy divided over three meals compared with over two meals increased satiety feelings over 24 h. In healthy, normal-weight women, decreasing the inter-meal interval sustains satiety, particularly during the day, and sustains fat oxidation, particularly during the night.

  6. Designing new meals for an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana I A; Jongen, Wim M F

    2010-06-01

    Today's ageing population is an ever-increasing, highly diverse group of people wanting to live a healthy and enjoyable life. Seniors increasingly see the importance of eating healthy and delicious food in a pleasant environment in achieving happiness and well-being. Up until now, the food industry has been rather slow in transforming the wealth of available knowledge regarding the nutritional needs and sensory perception of the ageing into new food products. Based on our own and the published research of others, we discuss here how the design of new meals for an ageing population can be tackled by a consumer-led approach to food product development. After a brief overview of the underlying concepts and practices, a detailed description is given of how this approach could be used in the design of Home Meal Replacements for senior households. This description includes also a comprehensive review of the major determinants of food preference and meal choice behavior in a later age. Finally, relevant implications are derived from the work presented and future trends in the technological development of foods for the ageing highlighted.

  7. Preparation, composition and functional properties of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed protein isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated two methods, saline extraction (SE) and conventional acid precipitation (AP), to recover proteins from pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed meal. SE was done using 0.1 M NaCl at 50ºC while AP involved alkaline extraction (pH 10) first followed by protein precipitation at pH 4. C...

  8. Bean Seed Imbibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Enables students to examine the time course for seed imbibition and the pressure generated by imbibing seeds. Provides background information, detailed procedures, and ideas for further investigation. (DDR)

  9. Do meal replacement drinks have a role in diabetes management?

    PubMed

    Ditschuneit, Herwig H

    2006-01-01

    The poor effectiveness of conventional dietary treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance in patients with type-2 diabetes may be improved by a meal replacement strategy that provides a strong structured meal plan with reasonable opportunity for dietary variety. Typical meal replacement programs fix the intake of one or two meals per day with a calorie-controlled, nutritionally balanced commercial formulation, and allow prudent additional meals and snacks. In obese subjects, diets with meal replacements have proven to be more efficient than conventional diets. Patients on the meal replacement regimen lost 7.3 and 8.4% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively, whereas the patients on the conventional diet had lost 1.4% and 3.2% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively. The meal replacement plan has also proven to be effective in patients with type-2 diabetes. After 6 and 12 months, patients in the meal replacement group achieved on average a weight loss of 5.24 and 4.35% of their initial body weight, respectively. In contrast, after 6 and 12 months, patients on the individualized diet plan achieved on average a weight loss of 2.85 and 2.36% of their initial body weight, respectively. Meal replacements offer a promising strategy for treating obese patients with type-2 diabetes.

  10. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    PubMed

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  11. Pigs fed camelina meal increase hepatic gene expression of cytochrome 8b1, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and thiosulfate transferase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oil seed crop which can be grown on marginal lands. Camelina seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids (>35%) and γ-tocopherol but is also high in erucic acid and glucosinolates. Camelina meal, is the by-product after the oil has been extracted. Camelina meal was fed to 28 d old weaned pigs at 3.7% and 7.4% until age 56 d. The camelina meal supplements in the soy based diets, improved feed efficiency but also significantly increased the liver weights. Gene expression analyses of the livers, using intra-species microarrays, identified increased expression of phase 1 and phase 2 drug metabolism enzymes. The porcine versions of the enzymes were confirmed by real time PCR. Cytochrome 8b1 (CYP8B1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2), and thiosulfate transferase (TST) were all significantly stimulated. Collectively, these genes implicate the camelina glucosinolate metabolite, methyl-sulfinyldecyl isothiocyanate, as the main xeniobiotic, causing increased hepatic metabolism and increased liver weight. PMID:24383433

  12. The influence of phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium in Panicum miliaceum and Brassica alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaden, Ute Susanne; Székely, Balázs; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium (Ge) in biomass two species, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) and white mustard (Brassica alba) were grown and sampled in a greenhouse experiment. The cultivation took place on two different substrates. The plants were fertilized with different nutrient solutions which differed in their phosphate content, and artificial addition of Ge was held via the casting solution. During the test period, measurements of the pH value, electric conductivity, and phosphate content of the soil solution were conducted. To transfer germanium from soil and plant material in solution, melting and microwave digestion processes were done. The experiment showed that in both species the additional Ge supply also leads to an increasing germanium content in the aboveground plant material. The two species, however, behave differently in response to this Ge supply. Panicum miliaceum accumulates Ge in the above-ground parts of plants stem, leaf and fruit to a much greater extent than Brassica alba. On the other hand the Ge accumulation in the roots of both B. alba and P. miliaceum was very high. In case of B. alba the root content was found by far higher as compared to the other parts of the plant. The addition of phosphate in the system changes the behavior. Without additional Ge its natural uptake from soil decreases in both species but in B. alba it is more characteristic. Increasing Ge supply (for both species) leads to an increased Ge uptake, until it reaches a maximum, regardless of the presence of phosphate addition. Phosphate, on the other hand, has positive effects on Ge uptake only in the case of B. alba roots, and to a limited extent in roots of P. miliaceum. In addition, for Panicum miliaceum an increase of germanium mainly in the underground parts was achieved. A further addition of phosphate did not have a positive effect on a greater enrichment of germanium. Whereas in Brassica

  13. Evaluation of meat meal, chicken meal, and corn gluten meal as dietary sources of protein in dry cat food

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The nutritional value of meat meal (MM), chicken meal (CM), and corn gluten meal (CGM) as dietary sources of protein in dry food formulated for adult cats was evaluated. Twelve healthy adult cats (11 males and 1 female) were used. Dry diets containing MM, CM, or CGM as the main protein source were given for a 3-week period in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design. Digestion and balance experiments were conducted during the last 7 d of each period. In addition, freshly voided urine was taken to determine urinary pH and number of struvite crystals. As compared with the CM diet, dry-matter digestibility was higher and lower for the MM and CGM groups, respectively. Percentages of nitrogen (N) absorption and N retention to N intake were higher in the MM group, and N utilization was not different between the CM group and the CGM group. All cats excreted alkaline urine (pH > 7). Urinary pH, struvite activity product, and number of struvite crystals in urine were lower for the CGM group. There was no difference in retention of calcium and magnesium among the groups. From the point of view of digestibility and N utilization, MM is superior to CGM, and CM is better than or equivalent to CGM as a protein source of dry foods for adult cats. However, when CM is used as a dietary protein source, some manipulation of dietary base excess may be needed to control urinary acid-base balance, because CM contains higher calcium and phosphorus. PMID:16479729

  14. Effects of phytohormones and jasmonic acid on glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kastell, Anja; Smetanska, Iryna; Ulrichs, Christian; Cai, Zhenzhen; Mewis, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Although some study have established hairy root cultures from brassicaceous plants with glucosinolates (GS) as characteristic secondary metabolite, studies are missing which compare hairy roots with the corresponding mother plants. Therefore, two different plant species-Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa subsp. rapa pygmeae teltoviensis-were transformed with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Aliphatic and indolyl GS were present in B. rapa, exhibiting larger quantities in leaves than in roots. Aromatic p-hydroxybenzyl GS were found particularly in the leaves of S. alba. However, the proportion of indolyl GS increased suddenly in transformed hairy roots of S. alba and B. rapa. Cultivation with the phytohormone kinetin (0.5 mg L(-1)) enhanced GS accumulation in B. rapa hairy roots, however not in S. alba, but 2,4-D (0.4 mg L(-1)) induced de-differentiation of roots in both species and reduced GS levels. GS levels especially of 1-methoxyindol-3ylmethyl GS increased in hairy roots in response to JA, but root growth was inhibited. While 2 weeks of cultivation in 100 to 200 μM JA were determined at optimum for maximum GS yield in S. alba hairy root cultures, 4 weeks of cultivation in 50 to 100 μM JA was the optimum for B. rapa.

  15. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  16. Five Nodulation Mutants of White Sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) Exhibit Distinct Phenotypes Blocked at Root Hair Curling, Infection Thread Development, and Nodule Organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Utrup, L. J.; Cary, A. J.; Norris, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to obtain a developmental sequence of mutations in the Rhizobium-legume interaction within a single legume species, we have characterized the early events of nodule development in 10 nodulation mutants of sweetclover, Melilotus alba Desr. cv U389, representing five genetic loci. Both seed and root exudates from all of the sweetclover mutants induced expression of the nod genes of Rhizobium meliloti. Mutants in three loci were blocked in the early stages of root hair curling. Of these, a mutant in the sym-3 locus exhibited root hair deformations in response to inoculation with R. meliloti but produced no nodules or emerging nodule primordia, suggesting a blockage in the signal transduction events leading to nodule organogenesis. In contrast, mutants in both the sym-1 and sym-5 loci formed ineffective nodules in response to inoculation but differed slightly in the type of root hair response observed. None of these three early mutants formed infection threads. Infection threads were observed in mutant sym-2 as well as in ineffective nodules. Mutant sym-4 also formed infection threads but lacked nodules. The phenotypes observed for mutants from these five loci suggest that a secondary receptor or signal produced by the plant is required for nodule development. PMID:12231990

  17. [The place of alcohol in hospital meals].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Broyer, Nathalie; Flot-Arnould, Laurent; Ploton, Louis

    2011-09-01

    Wine and other types of alcohol are generally seen as an important part of French tradition. A study was carried out at Mâcon hospital to reflect on the place of alcohol in meals served on short stay medical-surgical wards. The results show that the consumption of wine, which was already modest ten years ago, had almost disappeared by 2010, without the offer having been restricted. It would seem that it is possible to be hospitalised for a few days without drinking wine.

  18. Meal assistance robot with ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodani, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Kanya; Wakasa, Yuji; Akashi, Takuya; Oka, Masato

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we have constructed a robot that help people with disabilities of upper extremities and advanced stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients to eat with their residual abilities. Especially, many of people suffering from advanced stage ALS of the use a pacemaker. And they need to avoid electromagnetic waves. Therefore we adopt ultra sonic motor that does not generate electromagnetic waves as driving sources. Additionally we approach the problem of the conventional meal assistance robot. Moreover, we introduce the interface with eye movement so that extremities can also use our system. User operates our robot not with hands or foot but with eye movement.

  19. Comparison of polyglactin-910 and polydioxanone for closure of the linea alba following caudal ventral midline laparotomy in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Anderson, David E.; Rozell, Timothy G.; Hand, Jacqelyn M.; Faris, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared incisional complications after ventral midline laparotomy using 2 absorbable suture materials for apposition of the linea alba in sheep. The linea alba of 93 yearling sheep was sutured by 3 veterinarians in a simple continuous pattern using either polyglactin 910 (PG910; group PG) or polydioxanone (PDS; group PD). A blinded observer assessed surgical sites at the time of suture removal. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between incisional complications and variables (suture material used, veterinarian, skin suture removal time). The odds of incisional complications did not vary significantly with the type of suture material used (P = 0.11), veterinarian (P = 0.61) or skin suture removal time (P = 0.36). Most incisional complications were cutaneous suture sinus formation. Either PG910 or PDS may be used for linea alba closure in sheep. PMID:26345301

  20. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of

  1. Heat shock protein 47 expression in aged normal human fibroblasts: modulation by Salix alba extract.

    PubMed

    Nizard, Carine; Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Boisdé, Cécille; Moreau, Marielle; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Mahé, Christian

    2004-06-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is a specific chaperone of procollagen. This heat shock protein is responsible for the correct three-dimensional organization of procollagen and its control-quality prior secretion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the level of HSP 47 in aged, photoaged, and senescent fibroblasts and its modulation by a plant extract (Salix alba). The level of HSP 47 and/or procollagen expression in fibroblasts was measured by real-time RT-PCR (mRNA transcripts) and by flow cytometry (immunochemistry technique for measurement of arbitrary fluorescence intensity). Immunochemistry techniques and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the cellular localization of HSP 47 and procollagen. These parameters were compared with different age donors, nonsenescent, and senescent fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were irradiated by a noncytotoxic dose of UVA (6 J/cm(2)), and HSP 47 level was evaluated. S. alba extract was tested for its capacity to modulate HSP 47 expression. Colocalization of HSP 47 and procollagen was shown by confocal microscopy, indicating that HSP 47 could play a role of procollagen molecular chaperone in the cellular model. It was also shown that the HSP 47 level is decreased in old-donor cells, senescent, and irradiated cells. This decrease can be modulated by a S. alba extract (polyphenols rich) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of HSP 47 expression in the experimental conditions can lead to a new approach of aging and photoaging, pointing out the implication of this chaperone in these pathophysiologic phenomena. Modulation of HSP 47 expression by this family of molecules could be of cosmetic and/or dermatologic interest.

  2. Optimization of the soft x-ray transmission microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Pereiro, Eva; Valcárcel, Ricardo; Ferrer, Salvador; Nicolas, Josep

    2013-09-01

    Mistral is the soft X-ray full field microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source. The beamline is designed to have large source acceptance and to provide constant magnification at the exit slit for photon energies between 270 and 2600 eV. The monochromator is a variation of the Petersen plane grating monochromator in which a variable line spacing grating is used to maintain the beam focused at the exit slit, independently of the fixed focus constant, and to cancel aberrations. We present the alignment strategy used to compensate errors of the optical elements, and report about the commissioning results.

  3. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Sinapis alba in Revealing the Glucosinolate and Phytochelatin Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Duan, Mengmeng; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    Sinapis alba is an important condiment crop and can also be used as a phytoremediation plant. Though it has important economic and agronomic values, sequence data, and the genetic tools are still rare in this plant. In the present study, a de novo transcriptome based on the transcriptions of leaves, stems, and roots was assembled for S. alba for the first time. The transcriptome contains 47,972 unigenes with a mean length of 1185 nt and an N50 of 1672 nt. Among these unigenes, 46,535 (97%) unigenes were annotated by at least one of the following databases: NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, Gene Ontology (GO), and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). The tissue expression pattern profiles revealed that 3489, 1361, and 8482 unigenes were predominantly expressed in the leaves, stems, and roots of S. alba, respectively. Genes predominantly expressed in the leaf were enriched in photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related pathways. Genes predominantly expressed in the stem were enriched in not only pathways related to sugar, ether lipid, and amino acid metabolisms but also plant hormone signal transduction and circadian rhythm pathways, while the root-dominant genes were enriched in pathways related to lignin and cellulose syntheses, involved in plant-pathogen interactions, and potentially responsible for heavy metal chelating, and detoxification. Based on this transcriptome, 14,727 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, and 12,830 pairs of primers were developed for 2522 SSR-containing unigenes. Additionally, the glucosinolate (GSL) and phytochelatin metabolic pathways, which give the characteristic flavor and the heavy metal tolerance of this plant, were intensively analyzed. The genes of aliphatic GSLs pathway were predominantly expressed in roots. The absence of aliphatic GSLs in leaf tissues was due to the shutdown of BCAT4, MAM1, and CYP79F1 expressions. Glutathione was extensively

  4. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26567954

  5. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis. PMID:27064876

  6. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms.

  7. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  8. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms. PMID:26477326

  9. Fluvial valleys on Alba Patera, Mars, viewed by HRSC/MEx camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.; Masson, P. L.; Neukum, G.

    2009-12-01

    Alba Patera is the northernmost shield volcano of the Tharsis bulge, on which valley networks have been identified in Viking images. Valleys are mainly distributed on the northern side of volcano, with a parallel to dendritic pattern associated with a very high drainage density of 2.3 km-1, comparable to those observed on Hawaiian volcanoes (Gulick and Baker, Nature 341, 1989; and JGR 95, 1990). They are older than sets of normal faults cutting Alba Patera, and dated of the Amazonian Period, but the age of the volcano itself (Late Hesperian-Early Amazonian) implies an age for valleys younger than that of classical valley networks formed during early Mars. These valley networks have been revisited by the HRSC stereo camera enable to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with a spatial gridding of <100 m and a height accuracy of < 20 m. The depth of the deepest valleys detected in the HRSC DEM is around 30 m, whereas most of them are much shallower. Although these valley networks are relatively young in the Mars History, their original morphology is partially smoothened by a dust mantle in high resolution images, but this mantling does not seem to have filled these valleys significantly. Images also confirm that valleys located to the north are likely the result of hydrologic erosion in volcanic ash as proposed previously by Gulick and Baker (1990). Previously unrecognized valley networks have been observed on the eastern and southeastern sides of Alba Patera, where volcanic flows are well developed and less blanketed by dust or ash deposits. They are shallower than northern ones, and some prints of seepage at the front of lava flows have been identified indicating that liquid water percolation was an active process in this lithology. In summary, 3D characteristics of valleys on Alba Patera do not suggest a sustained fluvial activity unlike what could be derived by their 2D properties such as the high drainage density. Episodic snowmelt following snow deposition

  10. Gas chromatographic analysis of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal.

    PubMed

    Van Boven, M; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2000-09-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal, in detoxified jojoba meal, in jojoba meal extracts, and in animal food mixtures.

  11. Potentiation of cigarette craving and satisfaction by two types of meals.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, M E; Saniga, S S; Herskovic, J E; Weiner, H; Oisboid, D

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consuming different meal types on cigarette craving and satisfaction. Twelve heavy smokers were tested on three evenings. Each day, they smoked three cigarettes and received either a solid meal, an equicaloric liquid meal, or no meal. Subjects smoked the first cigarette one half hour after the experiment began, the second immediately after finishing the meal, and the third 35 min after smoking the second cigarette. Cigarette craving increased most after the solid meal, less so after the liquid meal, and least after no meal. Subjects reported that the cigarette after the solid meal tasted the best, was the most satisfying, enjoyable, and desirable as compared to the cigarette following no meal at all. These results indicate that there is a robust postprandial enhancement of cigarette smoking after a solid meal but less after a liquid meal.

  12. Gap analysis of patient meal service perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Li-Jen Jessica; Eves, Anita; Desombre, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The provision of food and drinks to patients remains a largely unexplored, multidimensional phenomenon. In an attempt to ameliorate this lack of understanding, a survey utilising a modified SERVQUAL instrument measured on a seven-point Likert scale was carried out on-site at four NHS acute trusts for the purpose of assessing the perceptions and expectations of meal attributes and their importance in determining patient satisfaction. The results of factor analysis found three dimensions: food properties, interpersonal service, and environmental presentation, with a high reliability (Cronbach's alpha from 0.9191 to 0.7836). Path analysis further established sophisticated causal relations with patient satisfaction. The food dimension was found to be the best predictor of patient satisfaction among the three dimensions, while the interpersonal service dimension was not found to have any correlation with satisfaction. Bridging the gaps that exist between perceptions and expectations can improve the quality of meal services for the purpose of maximising patient satisfaction and ultimately aiding in patient recovery.

  13. Gap analysis of patient meal service perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Li-Jen Jessica; Eves, Anita; Desombre, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The provision of food and drinks to patients remains a largely unexplored, multidimensional phenomenon. In an attempt to ameliorate this lack of understanding, a survey utilising a modified SERVQUAL instrument measured on a seven-point Likert scale was carried out on-site at four NHS acute trusts for the purpose of assessing the perceptions and expectations of meal attributes and their importance in determining patient satisfaction. The results of factor analysis found three dimensions: food properties, interpersonal service, and environmental presentation, with a high reliability (Cronbach's alpha from 0.9191 to 0.7836). Path analysis further established sophisticated causal relations with patient satisfaction. The food dimension was found to be the best predictor of patient satisfaction among the three dimensions, while the interpersonal service dimension was not found to have any correlation with satisfaction. Bridging the gaps that exist between perceptions and expectations can improve the quality of meal services for the purpose of maximising patient satisfaction and ultimately aiding in patient recovery. PMID:12870254

  14. Spiritual Pain in Meals on Wheels’ Clients

    PubMed Central

    Boss, Lisa; Branson, Sandy; Cron, Stanley; Kang, Duck-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping) and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β) in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4). Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001), depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01), and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01). Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly. PMID:27417804

  15. New NIRS calibrations for fiber fractions reveal broad genetic variation in Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the estimation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) in intact seeds of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ). A set of 338 diverse winter oilseed rape genotypes showing broad variation for seed color was used as a basis for the new calibrations. Different calibrations were generated for 10 or 1 mL seed volumes, respectively. In both seed volumes good coefficients of determination for external validation (R(2)) of the calibrations were obtained for ADL, the major antinutritional fiber fraction in oilseed rape meal, and adequate calibrations for NDF and ADF. Evaluation of diverse B. napus germplasm with the new calibrations revealed a surprisingly broad variation in contents of ADL in dark-seeded oilseed rape. The ability to use NIRS for efficient selection of low-fiber genotypes, irrespective of seed color, represents an important breakthrough in breeding for improved nutritional quality of seed extraction meals from oilseed rape. PMID:22296210

  16. [Methods of analyzing soybean meal adulteration in fish meal based on visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guang-Tao; Han, Lu-Jia; Yang, Zeng-Ling; Liu, Xian

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method for the detection of fish meal adulteration with vegetable meal. Here the authors collected fish meal and soybean meal (representative vegetable meal) which were common used in our country. Fish meal was adulterated with different proportion of soybean meal and then the doping test samples were prepared. Qualitative discriminant analysis and quantitative analysis were studied with representative fish meal adulterated with soybean meal. Two hundred and six calibration samples and 103 validation samples were used in the qualitative discriminant analysis. The effects of different spectrum pre-treatment methods and spectrum regions were considered when the qualitative discriminant analysis model was established. Based on the smallest standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the correct rate, the spectrum region of visible and NIR was chosen as the best region. The eventually established pre-treatment methods were the standard multi-scatter correction (Std MSC) combined with the second derivative (2, 4, 4, 1). Then the independent external validation set was used to test the model, and there was no false positive samples and false negative samples. The correct discriminant rate was 96.12%. In quantitative analysis, 130 fish meal samples adulterated with soybean meal were used as calibration set. The calibration model was established by partial least squares (PLS). Furthermore, the effect of different spectrum pre-treatment methods and the spectrum region were considered. The results showed that the best pre-treatment method was the standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with the second derivative (2, 4, 4, 1). The coefficient of determination (R2) and the standard errors of calibration (SEC) were 0.989 0 and 1.539 0 respectively between the predictive value and the actual value. Sixty five fish meal samples adulterated with soybean meal were used

  17. Development of Meal Assistance Orthosis and Its Controller for Challenged Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, Daisuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Disable persons, motor functional disorder, can not take meal by their arms. Meal assistance orthosis, which assists to take meal, is developed for them. Meal assistance orthosis is actuated by use of human will which is analized based on EOG˜(Electroocurogram) signal. Besides, control theory for meal assistance orthosis is designed with safety policy. Effectiveness of the proposed meal assistace orthosis is assured by simulation and experimental work on normal person.

  18. A Balanced Approach to Managing Student Meal Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Lisa K.

    2012-01-01

    As with most things in life, managing student meal charges is all about balance. To be successful, the program needs to include a fair and reasonable policy, to serve nutritious and flavorful meals, and to include students as active stakeholders in the program. A plan that acknowledges simple forgetfulness, explains expectations of all…

  19. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  20. 21 CFR 573.140 - Ammoniated cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.140 Ammoniated cottonseed meal. The food additive ammoniated cottonseed meal may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is...

  1. 21 CFR 573.140 - Ammoniated cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.140 Ammoniated cottonseed meal. The food additive ammoniated cottonseed meal may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is...

  2. 21 CFR 573.140 - Ammoniated cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.140 Ammoniated cottonseed meal. The food additive ammoniated cottonseed meal may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is...

  3. 21 CFR 573.140 - Ammoniated cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.140 Ammoniated cottonseed meal. The food additive ammoniated cottonseed meal may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is...

  4. 21 CFR 573.140 - Ammoniated cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.140 Ammoniated cottonseed meal. The food additive ammoniated cottonseed meal may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is...

  5. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  6. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  7. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  8. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  9. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  10. A Functional Approach to Meal Planning, Preparation, and Shopping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giere, Sheila; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A functional program including planning, shopping, purchasing, and meal preparation was developed which used a photographic format (to minimize reading) and budget guide. Trial with eight young adults whose disabilities ranged from mild to severe indicated that nonreading individuals could learn all aspects of meal preparation. Skills also…

  11. Categorization of foods as "snack" and "meal" by college students.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi, Elizabeth D

    2012-06-01

    The cognitive representation of a food as being a "snack" or a "meal" influences eating behavior. We found previously that subjects who considered a particular food to be a 'snack' ate significantly more calories when tested later than subjects who considered the same foods as a 'meal'. We conducted two surveys to determine the categorization of foods as "snacks" or "meals". Survey 2 included a larger variety of foods with detailed descriptions and a response option of "never tried". Both surveys found that potato chips, crackers, cookies, and nuts were consistently viewed as snacks, while soups, burritos, pizza, and pancakes were consistently viewed as meals. Useful for future research are foods we found that students varied in considering a snack or meal. Survey 1 found that half the respondents viewed toast, cheese on toast, muffins, and French fries as snacks and the other half as meals. Similarly, in Survey 2 potato salad, toast with jam, English muffin, cinnamon rolls, and nachos were categorized almost equally as snack and meal. These foods can be used in studies looking at the effects of categorizing a food as a meal or snack on other behaviors or categorization, while controlling for the food item.

  12. The role of meal replacements in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; Clifton, P M

    2005-08-01

    Effective weight loss strategies are needed to help overweight and obese people lose weight and maintain weight loss in the long term. Meal replacements for weight loss are available in the community; however, their efficacy in the longer term is not clear. This review summarizes recent evidence on the use of meal replacements as a weight loss strategy.

  13. STS-5 crewmembers with meal tray assembly on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand (in dark blue shirt), Pilot Overmyer (left), and Mission Specialist (MS) Lenoir (right) conduct microgravity experiments with food containers and meal tray assemblies in front of middeck port side wall and side hatch. Brand prepares to eat as meal tray assembly floats above his chest and Overmeyer and Lenoir look on. Sign on port side wall is labeled STS-5 Message Board.

  14. Supplementing barley or rapeseed meal to dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage: I. Rumen degradability and microbial flow.

    PubMed

    Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-08-01

    The present study was conducted to measure the flow of microbial and nonmicrobial N fractions entering the omasal canal of lactating dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage supplemented with barley and rapeseed meal. Four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed, in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, grass-red clover silage alone or supplemented with (on DM basis) 5.1 kg/d of barley, 1.9 kg/d of rape-seed meal or 5.1 kg/d of barley and 1.9 kg/d rapeseed meal. Nonammonia N flow entering the omasal canal was fractionated into microbial and nonmicrobial N using 15N. Microbial N was fractionated into N associated with liquid-associated bacteria, particle-associated bacteria, and protozoa. Supplementation of diets with barley increased microbial N flow entering the omasal canal (P < 0.01) but had no effect on nonmicrobial N flow. Increased microbial N flow was attributed to liquid-associated bacteria and protozoa. Barley had no effect on apparent ruminal N degradability, but increased true ruminal N degradability (P < 0.01). Barley had no effect on urinary N excretion, but increased daily N retention (P = 0.03). Furthermore, barley supplementation decreased ruminal (P = 0.02) and total tract (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility. Supplementation of diets with rapeseed meal increased apparent ruminal N degradability (P < 0.01) and nonmicrobial N flow entering the omasal canal (P < 0.01), but had no effect on true ruminal N degradability. Despite higher N excretion in urine, rapeseed meal improved daily N retention (P < 0.01). Milk yield was increased (P < 0.01) by barley and rapeseed meal supplements, with the responses being additive. Responses attained with barley were primarily due to increased energy supply for ruminal microbes and improvements in energy and protein supply for the animal. However, provision of readily digestible carbohydrates in barley did not improve microbial capture of ruminal ammonia. Benefits associated with rapeseed meal supplementation were

  15. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M; Brockhoff, Per B; Thorsdottir, Inga; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using a longitudinal approach, we monitored a total of 71 participants compiled and experienced 519 meals from their workplace canteen buffet during a three-month period; in addition the composed lunches were photographed. Before and after the lunch choice period respondents filled in a questionnaire on several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced. PMID:27235825

  16. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M; Brockhoff, Per B; Thorsdottir, Inga; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using a longitudinal approach, we monitored a total of 71 participants compiled and experienced 519 meals from their workplace canteen buffet during a three-month period; in addition the composed lunches were photographed. Before and after the lunch choice period respondents filled in a questionnaire on several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced.

  17. 41 CFR 301-11.18 - What M&IE rate will I receive if a meal(s) is furnished by the Government or is included in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receive if a meal(s) is furnished by the Government or is included in the registration fee? 301-11.18...&IE rate will I receive if a meal(s) is furnished by the Government or is included in the registration... must be adjusted for meals furnished to you by the Government (including meals furnished under...

  18. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    PubMed

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  19. Who Is Eligible for Free School Meals? Characterising Free School Meals as a Measure of Disadvantage in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the background characteristics and attainment profile of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) in England, and of those missing a value for this variable. Free school meal eligibility is a measure of low parental income, widely used in social policy research as an individual indicator of potential…

  20. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  1. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production. PMID:27142271

  2. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  3. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%. PMID:25789790

  4. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  5. New diketopiperazine derivatives from a deep-sea-derived Nocardiopsis alba SCSIO 03039.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingbo; Li, Sumei; Chen, Yuchan; Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Yiguang; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-01-01

    The strain SCSIO 03039 was isolated from a sediment sample in the Indian Ocean and was characterized as a Nocardiopsis alba species on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Seven diketopiperazines (DKPs), including two new DKPs nocazines D (2a) and E (2b), and five known DKPs (1, 3-6), were isolated from N. alba SCSIO 03039, along with two known compounds 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (7) and 1-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-naphthoic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated by mass and NMR spectroscopic analyses. The structure of methoxyneihumicin (1), previously proposed in a conference poster lacking publicly available experimental data, was validated for the first time by detailed NMR analyses and X-ray diffraction study. The two enantiomers nocazines D (2a) and E (2b) were isolated as a mixture. Compounds 3 and 4 were only known as synthetic compounds before. Methoxyneihumicin (1) exhibited in vitro cytotoxicities against MCF-7 and SF-268 with IC₅₀ values of 4.6 and 12.7 μM, respectively, better than those of 6 (22.0 and 20.6 μM). The other compounds showed less pronounced cytotoxities against three tested human cancer cell lines and no compounds displayed antibacterial activities toward four indicator strains.

  6. The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Emma J; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2013-07-01

    Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function σ factor (PspX), its cognate anti-σ factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic.

  7. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  8. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  9. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  10. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  11. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  12. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  13. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy food trends - salvia; Healthy snacks - Chia seeds; Weight loss - Chia seeds; Healthy diet - Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia ... fiber. Some think chia seeds may help with weight loss and other risk factors, but this has not ...

  14. Premature farrowings caused by feeding cottonseed meal.

    PubMed

    Love, R J; Peacock, A J; Evans, G

    1990-06-01

    Increasing the level of cottonseed meal (CSM) in sow diets from less than 5% to 10% increased the incidence of premature farrowings (gestation length less than 111 days) from 1.1% to 2.7% (p less than 0.001) and reduced the mean gestation length from 114.07 +/- 1.53 to 113.70 +/- 1.59 days (p less than 0.0001). Survival of piglets born prematurely was poor. After removal of CSM from the diet there was a residual effect lasting several weeks before the gestation length returned to normal. Experimental feeding of diets containing 20% and 40% CSM to small groups of sows caused significant shortening of gestation length and 3 of 26 sows fed 40% CSM farrowed prematurely. The mechanism by which CSM causes this effect has yet to be determined.

  15. The genetic architecture of seed composition in soybean is refined by genome-wide association scans across multiple populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to re...

  16. Phanerochaete flavido-alba Laccase Induction and Modification of Manganese Peroxidase Isoenzyme Pattern in Decolorized Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, J.; de la Rubia, T.; Hamman, O. Ben; Martínez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Lignin-degrading enzymes were partially purified from supernatant solutions obtained from Phanerochaete flavido-alba-decolorized olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The dominant enzymes, manganese peroxidases, exhibited different isoform patterns in decolorized OMW-containing cultures than in residue-free samples. Laccase induction was also detected in OMW-containing cultures but not in control cultures. PMID:9647858

  17. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  18. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  19. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  20. Evidence for a second meal cognitive effect: glycaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index evening meals are associated with cognition the following morning.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Hoyle, Emily; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Dye, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed at breakfast can enhance memory in comparison to high-GI foods; however, the impact of evening meal GI manipulations on cognition the following morning remains unexplored. Fourteen healthy males consumed a high-GI evening meal or a low-GI evening meal in a counterbalanced order on two separate evenings. Memory and attention were assessed before and after a high-GI breakfast the following morning. The high-GI evening meal elicited significantly higher evening glycaemic responses than the low-GI evening meal. Verbal recall was better the morning following the high-GI evening meal compared to after the low-GI evening meal. In summary, the GI of the evening meal was associated with memory performance the next day, suggesting a second meal cognitive effect. The present findings imply that an overnight fast may not be sufficient to control for previous nutritional consumption. PMID:21605502

  1. Estradiol: a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Lisa A

    2004-08-01

    The classic analyses of the inhibitory effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on meal size, conducted by Professor Gerard P. Smith and his colleagues at the Bourne Laboratory, inspired my initial interest in this field. My current research, which investigates the role of estradiol in the control of meal size, continues to be guided by Gerry's thoughtful, scientific approach to the study of ingestive behavior. In 1996, the year I arrived as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Bourne Laboratory, Gerry published a new theory of the controls of meal size. In this important paper, Gerry proposed that the controls of meal size can be either direct or indirect. He argued that direct controls of meal size interact with peripheral, preabsorptive receptors that are sensitive to the chemical, mechanical, and colligative properties of ingested food and that indirect controls of meal size function to modulate the activity of direct controls. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how Gerry's theory has guided much of what is known about the mechanism by which estradiol inhibits food intake in female rats. I will provide evidence, primarily from behavioral studies of gonadally intact and ovariectomized rats, that estradiol exerts phasic and tonic inhibitory effects on food intake by acting as a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

  2. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  3. The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

    PubMed

    Padgette, S R; Taylor, N B; Nida, D L; Bailey, M R; MacDonald, J; Holden, L R; Fuchs, R L

    1996-03-01

    One important aspect of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops destined for food and feed uses is the characterization of the consumed portion of the crop. One crop currently under development, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS), was modified by the addition of a glyphosate-tolerance gene to a commercial soybean cultivar. The composition of seeds and selected processing fractions from two GTS lines, designated 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, was compared with that of the parental soybean cultivar, A5403. Nutrients measured in the soybean seeds included macronutrients by proximate analyses (protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids and fatty acids. Antinutrients measured in either the seed or toasted meal were trypsin inhibitor, lectins, isoflavones, stachyose, raffinose and phytate. Proximate analyses were also performed on batches of defatted toasted meal, defatted nontoasted meal, protein isolate, and protein concentrate prepared from GTS and control soybean seeds. In addition, refined, bleached, deodorized oil was made, along with crude soybean lecithin, from GTS and control soybeans. The analytical results demonstrated the GTS lines are equivalent to the parental, conventional soybean cultivar.

  4. Pre-sedation and transport of Rhamdia quelen in water containing essential oil of Lippia alba: metabolic and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Salbego, Joseânia; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Loro, Vania L; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of transporting silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) for 6 h in plastic bags containing 0 (control), 30 or 40 µL/L of essential oil (EO) from Lippia alba leaves were investigated. Prior to transport, the fish in the two experimental groups were sedated with 200 µL/L of EO for 3 min. After transport, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, water hardness, pH, temperature and un-ionized ammonia levels in the transport water did not differ significantly among the groups. However, total ammonia nitrogen levels and net Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) effluxes were significantly lower in the groups transported with EO of L. alba than those in the control group. PvO2, PvCO2 and HCO3(-) were higher after transporting fish in 40 µL/L of EO of L. alba, but there were no significant differences between groups regarding blood pH or hematocrit. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish transported in 30 µL/L of EO of L. alba compared to those of the control group. The metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate, total amino acid, total ammonia and total protein) showed different responses after adding EO to the transport water. In conclusion, while the EO of L. alba is recommended for fish transport in the conditions tested in the present study because it was effective in reducing waterborne total ammonia levels and net ion loss, the higher hepatic oxidative stress in this species with the same EO concentrations reported by a previous study led us to conclude that the 10-20 µL/L concentration range of EO and lack of pre-sedation before transport are more effective. PMID:26297516

  5. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  6. Pre-sedation and transport of Rhamdia quelen in water containing essential oil of Lippia alba: metabolic and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Salbego, Joseânia; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Loro, Vania L; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of transporting silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) for 6 h in plastic bags containing 0 (control), 30 or 40 µL/L of essential oil (EO) from Lippia alba leaves were investigated. Prior to transport, the fish in the two experimental groups were sedated with 200 µL/L of EO for 3 min. After transport, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, water hardness, pH, temperature and un-ionized ammonia levels in the transport water did not differ significantly among the groups. However, total ammonia nitrogen levels and net Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) effluxes were significantly lower in the groups transported with EO of L. alba than those in the control group. PvO2, PvCO2 and HCO3(-) were higher after transporting fish in 40 µL/L of EO of L. alba, but there were no significant differences between groups regarding blood pH or hematocrit. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish transported in 30 µL/L of EO of L. alba compared to those of the control group. The metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate, total amino acid, total ammonia and total protein) showed different responses after adding EO to the transport water. In conclusion, while the EO of L. alba is recommended for fish transport in the conditions tested in the present study because it was effective in reducing waterborne total ammonia levels and net ion loss, the higher hepatic oxidative stress in this species with the same EO concentrations reported by a previous study led us to conclude that the 10-20 µL/L concentration range of EO and lack of pre-sedation before transport are more effective.

  7. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia. PMID:25484129

  8. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  9. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    PubMed

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed raw or dehulled meals. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05) higher in birds fed raw or dehulled meals compared with those fed the control diet. The relative weight of the pancreas was significantly (P<0.05) increased as a result of acinar hypertrophy. The kidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in birds fed raw and dehulled meals, and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The structural alterations were attributed to intake of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in the processed seeds. In conclusion, aqueous heated kidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any

  10. The seed nuclear proteome

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight. PMID:23267364

  11. Specific dynamic action of ambystomatid salamanders and the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Boehm, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in studies of amphibian and reptile specific dynamic action (SDA). These studies have demonstrated that SDA, the summed energy expended on meal digestion and assimilation, is affected significantly by meal size, meal type, and body size and to some extent by body temperature. While much of this attention has been directed at anuran and reptile SDA, we investigated the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the postprandial metabolic responses and the SDA of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). We also compared the SDA responses among six species of Ambystoma salamanders representing the breadth of Ambystoma phylogeny. Postprandial peaks in VO(2) and VO(2), duration of elevated metabolism, and SDA of tiger salamanders increased with the size of cricket meals (2.5%-12.5% of body mass). For A. tigrinum, as for other ectotherms, a doubling of meal size results in an approximate doubling of SDA, a function of equal increases in peak VO(2) and duration. For nine meal types of equivalent size (5% of body mass), the digestion of hard-bodied prey (crickets, superworms, mealworms, beetles) generated larger SDA responses than the digestion of soft-bodied prey (redworms, beetle larvae). Body temperature affected the profile of postprandial metabolism, increasing the peak and shortening the duration of the profile as body temperature increased. SDA was equivalent among three body temperatures (20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C) but decreased significantly at 15 degrees C. Comparatively, the postprandial metabolic responses and SDA of Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma opacum, Ambystoma talpoideum, Ambystoma texanum, and the conspecific Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium digesting cricket meals that were 5% of their body mass were similar (independent of body mass) to those of A. t. tigrinum. Among the six species, standard metabolic rate, peak postprandial VO(2), and SDA

  12. Optimizing soybean meal levels in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated decreasing soybean meal levels by the use of a combination of cottonseed meal and corn germ meal for pond-raised hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus × blue catfish I. furcatus). Five 28% protein diets containing 40, 30, 25, 20, 15% of soybean meal were formulated based o...

  13. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  14. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News ... Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  15. Missing a meal: effects on alertness during sedentary work.

    PubMed

    Neely, Gregory; Landström, Ulf; Byström, Marianne; Junberger, Maria Lennernäs

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute effects of missing a meal on alertness. The participants were ten university students between 20-29 years old, five females and five males. Participants were chosen on the basis of their good sleep and eating practices. Measurements were collected during an eight hour period starting at 8.00 AM on four separate days. During the test period, participants carried out their normal study activities while on separate days receiving either just breakfast, just lunch, both lunch and breakfast, or no meal at all. During the test period, EEG was monitored continuously while subjective ratings of performance and tiredness were collected every half-hour. The results showed that while there were neither physiological nor subjective indications of tiredness which could be attributed to meal consumption, subjective feelings of lack of energy and motivation was significantly more pronounced at the end of the workday when missing a meal or two. PMID:15615325

  16. School meal crowd out in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores whether the state provision of school meals in the 1980s crowded out private provision by examining two policy reforms that radically altered the UK school meal service. Both reforms effectively increased the cost of school meals for one group (the treated), leaving another unaffected (the controls). I find strong evidence of crowd out: the reforms reduced school meal take-up among the treated by 20-30 percentage points, with no difference among the controls. I then examine whether this affected children's body weights, using a large, unique, longitudinal dataset of primary school children from 1972 to 1994. The findings show no evidence of any effects on child body weight. PMID:23524034

  17. Nature of Random Variation in the Nutrient Composition of Meals

    PubMed Central

    Balintfy, Joseph L.; Prekopa, Andras

    1966-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of nutrient variation in meals in presented by means of random vectors. The primary sources of nutrient variation in unit portions of menu items are identified and expressed in terms of random food-nutrient, random portion size and random ingredient composition variations. A secondary source of nutrient variation can be traced to the random selection process of combining menu items into individual meals from multiple choice menus. The separate as well as the joint effect of these sources on the total variation of the nutrient content of meals is described with the aid of variance-covariance matrices. The investigation is concluded with the formulation of multivariate probability statements concerning the adequacy of the nutrient content of meals relative to the distribution of the nutrient requirements over a given population. PMID:5971545

  18. Anthrax infection in bone meal from various countries of origin

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. G.; Harvey, R. W. S.

    1972-01-01

    Using animal inoculation, three out of six Lebanese and three out of nine Argentinian and two out of two Pakistan separate commercial consignments of bone meal imported during 1970 were found to be infected with anthrax. PMID:4627264

  19. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  20. School meal crowd out in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores whether the state provision of school meals in the 1980s crowded out private provision by examining two policy reforms that radically altered the UK school meal service. Both reforms effectively increased the cost of school meals for one group (the treated), leaving another unaffected (the controls). I find strong evidence of crowd out: the reforms reduced school meal take-up among the treated by 20-30 percentage points, with no difference among the controls. I then examine whether this affected children's body weights, using a large, unique, longitudinal dataset of primary school children from 1972 to 1994. The findings show no evidence of any effects on child body weight.

  1. Shallow Fluvial valleys on Alba Patera, Mars from HRSC/MEX analysis: Limited snowmelt episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.

    2011-10-01

    The distribution of valley networks on whole Alba Patera and their pattern suggest that they formed by runoff controlled by topographic slope and lithology. However, 3D characteristics of valleys do not suggest a sustained fluvial activity unlike what we could derive by their 2D properties such as the high drainage density. Episodic snowmelt following snow deposition could be at the origin of these shallow valleys. Melting can be due either to the volcano geothermal activity (valleys possibly formed coevally to volcanic activity), or to transient climatic episodes during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian periods that may have been recorded in other locations on Mars. Relationships with ice-rich mantling and age of valleys are not consistent with a melting of this mantling deposited during periods of high obliquity [7] in the recent history of Mars [8]. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 6, EPSC-DPS2011-1742, 2011 EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011 c Author(s) 2011

  2. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  3. Effects of Applied Nitrogen Amounts on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mari; Takahashi, Makoto; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-21

    This study investigated the effects of applied nitrogen amounts on specific functional components in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. The relationships between mineral elements and the functional components in mulberry leaves were examined using mulberry trees cultivated in different soil conditions in four cultured fields. Then, the relationships between the nitrogen levels and the leaf functional components were studied by culturing mulberry in plastic pots and experimental fields. In the common cultured fields, total nitrogen was negatively correlated with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = -0.48) and positively correlated with the 1-deoxynojirimycin content (R(2) = 0.60). Additionally, differences in nitrogen fertilizer application levels affected each functional component in mulberry leaves. For instance, with increased nitrogen levels, the chlorogenic acid and flavonol contents significantly decreased, but the 1-deoxynojirimycin content significantly increased. Selection of the optimal nitrogen application level is necessary to obtain the desired functional components from mulberry leaves. PMID:27579496

  4. Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K T; Nagaraju, S; Nandini, S Usha; Kemparaju, K

    2009-08-01

    Antivenom therapy is the current best therapy available for the treatment of fatal snake envenomation. However, the antivenom offers less or no protection against local effects such as extensive edema, hemorrhage, dermo-, myonecrosis and inflammation at the envenomed region. Viperidae snakes are highly known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation Morus alba plant leaf extract has been studied against the Indian Vipera/Daboia russelii venom induced local and systemic effects. The extract completely abolished the in vitro proteolytic and hyaluronolytic activities of the venom. Edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic activities were also neutralized efficiently. In addition, the extract partially inhibited the pro-coagulant activity and completely abolished the degradation of Aalpha chain of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract processes potent antisnake venom property, especially against the local and systemic effects of Daboia russelii venom.

  5. Potential pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of phenolic constituents from the root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Ha, Manh Tuan; Tran, Manh Hung; Ah, Kim Jeong; Jo, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jaewang; Kim, Wook Dong; Cheon, Woo Jae; Woo, Mi Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Min, Byung Sun

    2016-06-15

    Detailed phytochemical investigation from the root bark of Morus alba resulted in the isolation of eleven new compounds, including seven 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives (morusalfurans A-G), three flavonoids (morusalnols A-C), and one geranylated stilbene (morusibene A), as well as 22 known compounds. The structures of the identified compounds were elucidated based on a comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and Mosher's method. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11, 23, 24, and 29 showed potent inhibition of PL in comparison with the positive control treatment (orlistat, IC50=0.012μM), with IC50 values ranging from 0.09 to 0.92μM. PMID:27156775

  6. (-)-N-Formylanonaine from Michelia alba as a human tyrosinase inhibitor and antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chou, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hou-Chien; Lee, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chau-Zen; Chu, I-Ming

    2010-07-15

    Tyrosinase is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments for coloring hair, skin, and eyes. As reported in this study, a natural product, (-)-N-formylanonaine isolated from the leaves of Michelia alba D.C. (Magnolianceae), was found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 74.3 microM and to have tyrosinase and melanin reducing activities in human epidermal melanocytes without apparent cytotoxicity to human cells, superior to the known tyrosinase inhibitors, such as kojic acid and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU). Based on homology modeling, the compound binds the active site by coordinating with two Cu2+ ions. In addition, the compound had antioxidation activities in tests for scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, and chelating metal ions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the bioactivities of (-)-N-formylanonaine from this plant species. PMID:20584613

  7. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  8. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  9. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption.

  10. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  11. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  12. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  13. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Must, Aviva; Hughes, Sheryl O; Gute, David M; Sliwa, Sarah; Boulos, Rebecca J; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Tofuri, Kerline; Pirie, Alex; Economos, Christina D

    2013-06-26

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers' feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (<10 years in the U.S.) immigrant mothers and children. For children, height and weight measurements were transformed into BMI z-scores using age-and sex-specific CDC standards and categorized as overweight (85th–94th percentile) and obese (≥95th percentile); mothers’ BMI was calculated. Frequency of evening family meals, eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding

  14. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Must, Aviva; Hughes, Sheryl O; Gute, David M; Sliwa, Sarah; Boulos, Rebecca J; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Tofuri, Kerline; Pirie, Alex; Economos, Christina D

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers' feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (<10 years in the U.S.) immigrant mothers and children. For children, height and weight measurements were transformed into BMI z-scores using age-and sex-specific CDC standards and categorized as overweight (85th–94th percentile) and obese (≥95th percentile); mothers’ BMI was calculated. Frequency of evening family meals, eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding

  15. Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-04-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively.

  16. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba).

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-05-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC(50)) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  17. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  18. Bolus Estimation—Rethinking the Effect of Meal Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Reifman, Jaques; Edwards, Stephanie S.; Wolpert, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traditionally, insulin bolus calculations for managing postprandial glucose levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes rely solely on the carbohydrate content of a meal. However, recent studies have reported that other macronutrients in a meal can alter the insulin required for good postprandial control. Specifically, studies have shown that high-fat (HF) meals require more insulin than low-fat (LF) meals with identical carbohydrate content. Our objective was to assess the mechanisms underlying the higher insulin requirement observed in one of these studies. Materials and Methods: We used a combination of previously validated metabolic models to fit data from a study comparing HF and LF dinners with identical carbohydrate content in seven subjects with type 1 diabetes. For each subject and dinner type, we estimated the model parameters representing the time of peak meal-glucose appearance (τm), insulin sensitivity (SI), the net hepatic glucose balance, and the glucose effect at zero insulin in four time windows (dinner, early night, late night, and breakfast) and assessed the differences in model parameters via paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: During the HF meal, the τm was significantly delayed (mean and standard error [SE]: 102 [14] min vs. 71 [4] min; P = 0.02), and SI was significantly lower (7.25 × 10−4 [1.29 × 10−4] mL/μU/min vs. 8.72 × 10−4 [1.08 × 10−4] mL/μU/min; P = 0.02). Conclusions: In addition to considering the putative delay in gastric emptying associated with HF meals, we suggest that clinicians reviewing patient records consider that the fat content of these meals may alter SI. PMID:26270134

  19. 39. REDUCTION PLANT THIRD FLOOR The dried fish meal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. REDUCTION PLANT - THIRD FLOOR The dried fish meal was blown into the left side of the room (behind the cloth barrier). When the meal settled to the floor level, it was picked up by an Archimedes screw-shaft which carried it to the far end of the room, where it was blown through pipes (supported by a truss) across Cannery Row to the sacking and storage building. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. Validation of a buffet meal design in an experimental restaurant.

    PubMed

    Allirot, Xavier; Saulais, Laure; Disse, Emmanuel; Roth, Hubert; Cazal, Camille; Laville, Martine

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the reproducibility of intakes and meal mechanics parameters (cumulative energy intake (CEI), number of bites, bite rate, mean energy content per bite) during a buffet meal designed in a natural setting, and their sensitivity to food deprivation. Fourteen men were invited to three lunch sessions in an experimental restaurant. Subjects ate their regular breakfast before sessions A and B. They skipped breakfast before session FAST. The same ad libitum buffet was offered each time. Energy intakes and meal mechanics were assessed by foods weighing and video recording. Intrasubject reproducibility was evaluated by determining intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mixed-models were used to assess the effects of the sessions on CEI. We found a good reproducibility between A and B for total energy (ICC=0.82), carbohydrate (ICC=0.83), lipid (ICC=0.81) and protein intake (ICC=0.79) and for meal mechanics parameters. Total energy, lipid and carbohydrate intake were higher in FAST than in A and B. CEI were found sensitive to differences in hunger level while the other meal mechanics parameters were stable between sessions. In conclusion, a buffet meal in a normal eating environment is a valid tool for assessing the effects of interventions on intakes.

  1. A review of family meal influence on adolescents' dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2008-01-01

    Recent concerns about adolescent nutrition and unhealthy weights have prompted an examination of the myriad influences on dietary intake during adolescence. Included here are a summary of the literature on family influence on dietary intake, specifically during adolescence and within the family context, a summary of family meal patterns, and a systematic review of the known influences of family meals on dietary intake. Because of the complexity of families in today's society, models were developed to depict the broad context of familial influences on adolescent nutritional behaviours and attitudes and to describe what is known and not known about family meal influences on adolescent dietary intake and quality. A systematic review of the literature revealed seven articles specifically related to adolescents, family meals, and dietary intake, which were analyzed for strength of evidence and plausibility. In spite of data collection methods relying on self-report, results suggested that family meals were associated with improved dietary intakes. Families in today's societies are complex. Nevertheless, parents have the potential to influence positively, through family meals, what food is provided, where it is provided (e.g., home, restaurant), and within what type of atmosphere it is provided. PMID:18334049

  2. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  3. Glucosinolate-Containing Seed Meal as a Soil Amendment to Control Plant Pests: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Plants may produce compounds that directly or indirectly affect their biological environment. These compounds fall within a broad category of compounds called allelochemicals, and are exclusive of food that influences growth, health, or behavior of other organisms (Whittaker and Feeney 1971). One reason for interest in allelochemicals is their potential for use in alternative pest management systems. Using plant-produced allelochemicals in agricultural and horticultural practices could minimize synthetic pesticide use, reduce the associated potential for environmental contamination, and contribute to a more sustainable agricultural system.

  4. Role of native soil biology in brassicaceae seed meal induced weed suppression.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable methods of nitrogen (N) fertility and weed management are a challenge in organic orchard management systems. Nutrient supply is dependent on decomposition and mineralization of organic matter, yet intensive cultivation commonly used to control weeds can disrupt biological processes cont...

  5. Determining elemental composition of phytochemicals in camelina seed meal by high mass accuracy and spectral accuracy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optimized single run evaluation that would accurately determine the elemental composition of as many compounds present in an extract would greatly aid in the evaluation of plant tissues. For phytochemicals, we have used accurate mass analysis to quickly characterize the potential chemical formula...

  6. Mining lesquerella seed transcriptome for oil and meal improvement and translational research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a member of the Brassicaceae family, is currently being developed as a new industrial oilseed. Lesquerella is valued for its unusual hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) lesquerolic acid (20:1OH). The conventional source of HFA is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) from castor oil. Ricino...

  7. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22104123

  8. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  9. Maternal and best friends' influences on meal-skipping behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Williams, Lauren; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-09-01

    Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P < 0·001). Boys and girls who perceived that their mother often skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·15; P < 0·05 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·42, 2·59; P < 0·001) and lunch (OR = 2·05, 95 % CI 1·35, 3·12 and OR = 2·02, 95 % CI 1·43, 2·86; P < 0·001). Educating adolescents on how to assess and interpret unhealthy eating behaviours that they observe from significant others may be one nutrition promotion strategy to reduce meal-skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy. PMID:22289518

  10. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    Germination, ethylene production, and carbon dioxide production by dormant Virginia-type peanuts were determined during treatments with plant growth regulators. Kinetin, benzylaminopurine, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid induced extensive germination above the water controls. Benzylaminopurine and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the germination of the more dormant basal seeds to a larger extent above the controls than the less dormant apical seeds. Coumarin induced a slight stimulation of germination while abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide did not stimulate germination above the controls. In addition to stimulating germination, the cytokinins also stimulated ethylene production by the seeds. In the case of benzylaminopurine, where the more dormant basal seeds were stimulated to germinate above the control to a larger extent than the less dormant apical seeds, correspondingly more ethylene production was induced in the basal seeds. However, the opposite was true of kinetin for both germination and ethylene production. When germination was extensively stimulated by the cytokinins, maximal ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution occurred at 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Abscisic acid inhibited ethylene production and germinaton of the seeds while carbon dioxide evolution was comparatively high. The crucial physiological event for germination of dormant peanut seeds was enhancement of ethylene production by the seeds. PMID:16657647

  11. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation.

  12. Comparison of hormonal and metabolic markers after a high-fat, Western meal versus a low-fat, high-fiber meal in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Katcher, Heather I.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Dmitrovic, Romana; Demers, Laurence M.; Gnatuk, Carol L.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Legro, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of meal composition on postprandial testosterone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Randomized, crossover design. Setting Academic research center. Patients Fifteen women with PCOS. Intervention We evaluated changes in testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), DHEA-S, cortisol, glucose, and insulin for six hours after a high-fat, Western meal (HIFAT) (62% fat, 24% carbohydrate, 1g fiber) and an isocaloric low-fat, high-fiber meal (HIFIB) (6% fat, 81% carbohydrate, 27g fiber). Main outcome measure Change in testosterone. Results Testosterone decreased 27% within two hours after both meals (P<0.001). However, testosterone remained below premeal values for four hours after the HIFIB meal (P<0.004) and six hours after the HIFAT meal (P<0.004). Insulin was two fold higher for two hours after the HIFIB meal compared with the HIFAT meal (P<0.03). Glucose was higher for one hour after the HIFIB meal compared with the HIFAT meal (P<0.003). DHEA-S decreased 8−10% within 2−3 hours after both meals, then increased over the remainder of the study period (P<0.001). Cortisol decreased over the 6-hour period after both meals (P<0.001). Conclusions Diet plays a role in the regulation of testosterone levels in women with PCOS. Further studies are needed to determine the role of diet composition in the treatment of PCOS. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0455338). PMID:18331737

  13. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process. PMID:25765856

  14. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  15. Gene expression profiling of Sinapis alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions with Illumina deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hua; Li, Chen; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Shun-Mou; Huang, Jin-Yong; Wang, Li-Jun; Guo, Rui-Xing; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Fang, Xiao-Ping; Wei, Wen-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Sinapis alba has many desirable agronomic traits including tolerance to drought. In this investigation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of S. alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions in an attempt to identify candidate genes involved in drought tolerance, using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. The comparative analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression level attributable to the drought stress, which resulted in the down-regulation of 309 genes and the up-regulation of 248 genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in cell division and catalytic and metabolic processes. Our results provide useful information for further analyses of the drought stress tolerance in Sinapis, and will facilitate molecular breeding for Brassica crop plants. PMID:22207172

  16. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  17. Quantitative Conversion of Phytate to Inorganic Phosphorus in Soybean Seeds Expressing a Bacterial Phytase1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Zeng, Peiyu; Coello, Patricia; Zhang, Zhanyuan J.; Krishnan, Hari B.; Bailey, April; Beuselinck, Paul R.; Polacco, Joe C.

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) contains the major portion of the phosphorus in the soybean (Glycine max) seed and chelates divalent cations. During germination, both minerals and phosphate are released upon phytase-catalyzed degradation of PA. We generated a soybean line (CAPPA) in which an Escherichia coli periplasmic phytase, the product of the appA gene, was expressed in the cytoplasm of developing cotyledons. CAPPA exhibited high levels of phytase expression, ≥90% reduction in seed PA, and concomitant increases in total free phosphate. These traits were stable, and, although resulted in a trend for reduced emergence and a statistically significant reduction in germination rates, had no effect on the number of seeds per plant or seed weight. Because phytate is not digested by monogastric animals, untreated soymeal does not provide monogastrics with sufficient phosphorus and minerals, and PA in the waste stream leads to phosphorus runoff. The expression of a cytoplasmic phytase in the CAPPA line therefore improves phosphorus availability and surpasses gains achieved by other reported transgenic and mutational strategies by combining in seeds both high phytase expression and significant increases in available phosphorus. Thus, in addition to its value as a high-phosphate meal source, soymeal from CAPPA could be used to convert PA of admixed meals, such as cornmeal, directly to utilizable inorganic phosphorus. PMID:18162589

  18. Simmondsin: effects on meal patterns and choice behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Sylvia; Flo, Gerda; Decuypere, Eddy; Van Boven, Maurits; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2003-04-01

    Simmondsin, a glycoside from jojoba meal, decreases food intake after oral administration. The present experiments are designed to clarify the mechanism of simmondsin's anorectic activity. The meal pattern analysis shows that simmondsin supplementation at different doses results in a dose-dependent food intake reduction, which is more pronounced after prior simmondsin experience. The effect of simmondsin on meal patterns (decreased meal size, meal duration and eating rate, increased latency to eat) is most severe at the highest concentration. Rats familiar with simmondsin more seriously postpone their first meal than with first contact, resulting in a decrease of the meal frequency and the day/night feeding ratio. Rats given the choice between a control diet and a simmondsin-supplemented (0.5%) diet, after half an hour, have a significant preference for the control diet. Simmondsin seems to have a specific flavor when mixed in the food since rats recognise the feeder containing simmondsin. The ability of simmondsin to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was also investigated. Rats receiving simmondsin at concentrations of 0.15%, 0.25% or 0.5% during their conditioning develop significant taste aversions to the saccharin solutions. The performed experiments indicate that the simmondsin activity shows some analogy with the satiating molecule cholecystokinin (CCK) at first contact, but shows more analogy with the illness-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl) after prior experience with simmondsin. Rats familiar with simmondsin avoid simmondsin-supplemented food by directly monitoring its presence, and by learning to relate it to the postingestive consequences of consumption.

  19. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  20. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

    PubMed

    Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka; Yi, Young-Joo; Yoo, Jaehong; Kang, Nam Kyu; Heo, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.