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Sample records for albany ca pacific

  1. 75 FR 11224 - Albany & Eastern Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Albany & Eastern Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Willamette & Pacific Railroad, Inc. Albany & Eastern Railroad...) Acquire the rail freight easement from Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP), the current owner of the...

  2. Albany 2.0

    2012-10-29

    New to version 2.0 of Albany is the development of equations sets for specific application areas. These are independent research and development efforts that have chosen to use Albany as their software deployment vehicle. Because of synergies between the projects, they remain in the same code repository and are all releasing together as the Albany software.

  3. Brighter Choices in Albany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During much of the previous nine years, Tom Carroll had overseen the launch of eight charter schools in Albany. All of Tom Carroll's Albany charter schools made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). Not only that, they had become the best schools in the city. Tom Carroll now runs the Foundation for Education Reform & Accountability (FERA), which…

  4. 33 CFR 165.T11-577 - Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. 165.T11-577 Section 165.T11-577 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T11-577 Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. (a) Location. The limits...

  5. Albany v 1.0

    2011-01-14

    The Albany code is a general purpose finite element code for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). Albany is a research code that demonstrates how a PDE code can be built by interfacing many of the open-source software libraries that are released under Sandia's Trilinos project. Part of the mission of Albany is to be a testbed for new Trilinos libraries, to refine their methods, usability, and interfaces. Albany also serves as a demonstration code onmore » how to build an application code against an installed Trilinos project. Because of this, Albany is a desirable starting point for new code development efforts that wish to make heavy use of Trilinos. The physics solved in Albany are currently only very academic problems, such as heat transfer, linear elasticity, and nonlinear elasticity. Albany includes hooks to optimization and uncertainty quantification algorithms, including those in the Dakota toolkit.« less

  6. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United...

  7. North Pacific Late Miocene correlations using microfossils, stable isotopes, percent CaCO3, and magnetostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.; Barron, J.A.; Burckle, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to stratigraphy based on magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, percent CaCO3 and microfossils provides a framework for paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic reconstruction of the equatorial and North Pacific. A high-resolution biochronologic time scale has been achieved through integration of diatom, radiolaria, coccolith and planktic foraminifer datum levels with direct or indirect correlations to the paleomagnetic time scale. Over 70 datum levels have been identified between 12.5 and 5 Ma from low and middle latitudes resulting in an unprecedented time control. This high-resolution biostratigraphic control combined with stable-isotopic and percent CaCO3 analyses permits identification of regional as well as global paleoceanographic events. ?? 1982.

  8. 77 FR 834 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Albany International Airport, Albany, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Albany International Airport, Albany, NY... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Albany... exposure maps is December 19, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Suki Gill,...

  9. 78 FR 56692 - Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... August 20, 2013, Albany Engineering Corporation (Albany Engineering) filed an application for a..., Albany Engineering Corporation, 5 Washington Square, Albany, NY 12205; phone: (518) 456-7712....

  10. Variability in Pacific trade winds inferred from coral Mn/Ca: Implications for the rate of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. M.; Cole, J. E.; Shen, G. T.; Tudhope, A. W.; Meehl, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Zonal wind strength and direction are fundamental components of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and likely play an important role in global temperature modulation. However, historical observations of tropical Pacific winds are limited, and existing datasets disagree on long-term trends, emphasizing the need for independent data to assess zonal wind variability. Earlier work using a 17-year dataset from Tarawa Atoll suggests that Mn/Ca in corals near west-facing lagoons record westerly winds associated with the onset and maintenance of El Niño events. These westerly wind anomalies trigger strong physical mixing and release of Mn from the Mn-enriched lagoonal sediments, which is incorporated into the coral skeleton. Here we present a new ~90 year Mn/Ca record from Tarawa that allows us to assess westerly wind anomalies before the mid-20th century, when instrumental data from the tropical Pacific are scarce. We compare this new Mn/Ca record with 20th-century reanalysis zonal wind and demonstrate a strong association between the frequency of westerly winds and Tarawa Mn/Ca from 1890-1982. This new wind reconstruction also corroborates and extends the idea, developed from models and analyses of the well-observed late 20th century, that periods of strong Pacific trade winds are associated with cooler equatorial Pacific SSTs and a slower rate of global warming, and vice versa. By adding Mn/Ca to the suite of coral tracers measured for paleoclimate reconstructions from appropriate sites, we can expand our view of past climate variability to include westerly winds, along with the more commonly reconstructed variables of SST and salinity. Development of additional Mn/Ca records from other equatorial atolls with westerly facing lagoons will be used to obtain a broader multivariate perspective on the dynamics of recent climate variability.

  11. 49 CFR 372.201 - Albany, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Albany, N.Y., within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or foreign commerce, not under... combined areas defined in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, and (e) All of any municipality...

  12. Comparison of Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Variability and Trends with Sr/Ca Records from Multiple Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D.; Gove, J.; Young, C.; Decarlo, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The short duration of instrumental SST records makes it difficult to reliably separate anthropogenic-related trends from natural variability, especially in the tropical Pacific. The Sr/Ca ratio of massive corals has been used to lengthen the record and fill data gaps but its reliability has been questioned because different coral colonies on the same reef can have different Sr/Ca-temperature relationships and yield opposing derived SST trends. We exploited a unique multi-year dataset of in situ temperature data to assess whether inter-colony differences are attributable to small-scale oceanographic variability or "vital effects" and to quantify the effect of these differences on temperature estimates and uncertainties. Sr/Ca records from four massive Porites colonies growing on the east and west sides of Jarvis Island, central equatorial Pacific, were compared with temperature data from in situ loggers also placed on the east and west sides. In general, Sr/Ca captured - albeit inconsistently - the occurrence of inter-annual SST events but their amplitude was not consistently recorded by any of the corals. However, the Sr/Ca-temperature regressions derived from the four different colonies were statistically distinct. Assuming these relationships represent the full range of Sr/Ca-temperature calibrations in Jarvis Porites, we assessed how well Sr/Ca of a fossil coral with an unknown Sr/Ca-temperature relationship can constrain past temperatures. Our results indicate that the standard error of prediction methods underestimate the actual error as we could not reliably reconstruct the amplitude or frequency of ENSO events as large as ±2°C. Further, Sr/Ca of one coral implied a statistically significant cooling trend while that of its neighbor implied a warming trend whereas no long-term trend was identified in the instrumental data. This observation of a derived trend where none exists is consistent with observations made independently at other coral reef sites in the

  13. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warming world: Using Mg/Ca, Zn/Ca, and Mn/Ca in foraminifera to track surface ocean water masses during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Julene P.; Carter, Lionel; Bostock, Helen C.; Bolton, Annette; Smith, Euan

    2013-06-01

    In situ measurements of Mg/Ca, Zn/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Ba/Ca in Globigerinoides bulloides and Globigerina ruber from southwest Pacific core top sites and plankton tow are reported and their potential as paleoproxies is explored. The modern samples cover 20° of latitude from 34°S to 54°S, 7-19°C water temperature, and variable influence of subantarctic (SAW) and subtropical (STW) surface waters. Trace element signatures recorded in core top and plankton tow planktic foraminifera are examined in the context of the chemistry and nutrient profiles of their modern water masses. Our observations suggest that Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca may have the potential to trace SAW and STW. Intraspecies and interspecies offsets identified by in situ measurements of Mg/Ca and Zn/Ca indicate that these ratios may also record changes in thermal and nutrient stratification in the upper ocean. We apply these potential proxies to fossilized foraminifera from the high-resolution core MD97 2121. At the Last Glacial Maximum, surface water Mg/Ca temperature estimates indicate that temperatures were approximately 6-7°C lower than those of the present, accompanied by low levels of Mn/Ca and Zn/Ca and minimal thermal and nutrient stratification. This is consistent with regional dominance of SAW and reduced STW inflow associated with a reduced South Pacific Gyre (SPG). Upper ocean thermal and nutrient stratification collapsed during the Antarctic Cold Reversal, before poleward migration of the zonal winds and ocean fronts invigorated the SPG and increased STW inflow in the early Holocene. Together with reduced winds, this favored a stratified upper ocean from circa 10 ka to the present.

  14. Comparison of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature variability and trends with Sr/Ca records from multiple corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gove, Jamison M.; Young, Charles W.

    2016-02-01

    Coral Sr/Ca is widely used to reconstruct past ocean temperatures. However, some studies report different Sr/Ca-temperature relationships for conspecifics on the same reef, with profound implications for interpretation of reconstructed temperatures. We assess whether these differences are attributable to small-scale oceanographic variability or "vital effects" associated with coral calcification and quantify the effect of intercolony differences on temperature estimates and uncertainties. Sr/Ca records from four massive Porites colonies growing on the east and west sides of Jarvis Island, central equatorial Pacific, were compared with in situ logger temperatures spanning 2002-2012. In general, Sr/Ca captured the occurrence of interannual sea surface temperature events but their amplitude was not consistently recorded by any of the corals. No long-term trend was identified in the instrumental data, yet Sr/Ca of one coral implied a statistically significant cooling trend while that of its neighbor implied a warming trend. Slopes of Sr/Ca-temperature regressions from the four different colonies were within error, but offsets in mean Sr/Ca rendered the regressions statistically distinct. Assuming that these relationships represent the full range of Sr/Ca-temperature calibrations in Jarvis Porites, we assessed how well Sr/Ca of a nonliving coral with an unknown Sr/Ca-temperature relationship can constrain past temperatures. Our results indicate that standard error of prediction methods underestimate the actual error as we could not reliably reconstruct the amplitude or frequency of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events as large as ± 2°C. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing the full range of temperature-Sr/Ca relationships at each study site to estimate true error.

  15. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 121--Albany, NY; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Albany Molecular Research, Inc., Subzone 121A, (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production), Rensselaer, NY Albany Molecular Research, Inc....

  16. Albany State College Factbook, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albany State Coll., GA.

    The fourth edition of the Albany State College Fact Book, developed by the Office of Institutional Research, provides detailed information about the college. The design of the publication provides necessary data in the preparation of grants and proposals and in responding to questionnaires seeking pertinent institutional data. Contents include:…

  17. State Secrets Made Public: The Albany Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavryck, Jacquelyn; Kanpp, Sara

    1973-01-01

    A simplified scheme for cataloging and classifying state and municipal documents is now in use at the State University of New York at Albany, employing double Cutter numbers to designate documents by state and agency. A consistent scheme for subject and state Cuttering makes possible both subject and agency approaches. (2 references) (Author/DH)

  18. 78 FR 37971 - Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado... speed zone from an anchored naval high value unit vessel during a Naval exercise, which will...

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Western Pacific Railroad Company, Oroville, CA, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected final remedial action at the Western Pacific Railroad Superfund Site (the Site) in Oroville, California. The remedy the Environmental Protection Agency has selected for soil includes excavation of approximately 2,000 tons of soil in the area with the highest levels of contamination.

  20. Detecting the progression of ocean acidification from the saturation state of CaCO3 in the subtropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Progression of ocean acidification in the subtropical South Pacific was investigated by using high-quality data from trans-Pacific zonal section at 17°S (World Ocean Circulation Experiment section P21) collected in 1994 and 2009. During this 15 year period, the CaCO3 saturation state of seawater with respect to calcite (Ωcal) and aragonite (Ωarg) in the upper water column (<400 dbar) decreased at rates of 0.037 a-1 and 0.025 a-1, respectively, east of 145°W longitude; these rates are among the fastest in the world's oceans. In contrast, at longitudes 170°E-145°W, Ωcal and Ωarg decreased relatively slowly, at 0.008 a-1 and 0.005 a-1, respectively. The Ωarg saturation horizon occurred at a depth of about 1200 dbar at the westernmost end of the section and shoaled eastward to about 20 dbar. From 1994 to 2009, it migrated upward at a rate of 5.2 dbar a-1 west of 145°W. Decomposition of the temporal changes of Ω (ΔΩ) showed that the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean accounted for more than half of ΔΩ. The more rapid rate of decline of Ω in the eastern section was attributable to a relatively large contribution of organic matter remineralization, whereas the slower rate in the central section was attributed to a decrease of anthropogenic CO2 uptake caused by rising water temperatures. An important finding of this study was that acidification of the upper water column was enhanced by processes related to the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean.

  1. Ba/Ca Ratios in North Pacific Bamboo Corals Record Changes in Intermediate Water Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrato Marks, G.; LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sauthoff, W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Roark, E. B.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Trace elemental ratios preserved in the skeleton of bamboo corals, which live for hundreds of years at >500m depth, have been utilized as archives of deep-ocean conditions. However, it was previously unclear whether trace element data from these corals were internally reproducible and could therefore be used as reliable climate proxies. This study tests the internal reproducibility of Ba/Ca in the calcite of nine bamboo corals to further develop a new proxy for dissolved Ba in seawater (BaSW). Trace element LA-ICP-MS data were collected along three replicate radii of varying lengths of the calcitic internodes of well-dated corals collected live from the Gulf of Alaska (720m and 643m) and the California Margin (870m, 1012m, 1295m, 1500m, 1521m, 1954m, and 2054m; samples from 1295-1521m are not yet dated). Data were aligned using visible bands measured with a petrographic microscope to account for irregular growth. Ba/Ca data filtered with a 50μm (1.5-2 year) moving average were reproducible within each coral to 2.9 ± 2.1% (n=3 radii/coral, 9 corals), suggesting that regional geochemical signals are recorded as reproducible Ba/Ca signals on >annual timescales. Coral Ba/Ca presents an excellent proxy for BaSW, which has been found to be correlated with refractory nutrients (e.g. silicate) and oxygen minima. Increasing BaSW with depth and increased variability near 1000m suggests that BaSW is not constant with depth or with time. Several factors, including barite saturation state, particulate organic carbon (POC) remineralization rate, and particle sinking time, may be involved in the observed changes in BaSW. Further examination of such mechanisms could provide new insights into modern changes in deep-sea biogeochemistry.

  2. 77 FR 30523 - Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Albany Engineering Corporation filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...) or 16,000 MWh (Scenario 2). Applicant Contact: Wendy Jo Carey, Albany Engineering Corporation,...

  3. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 63290, 10/16/2012). The FTZ Board has... Molecular Research, Inc.; Subzone 121A (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production); Rensselaer, NY On September 26, 2012, Albany Molecular Research, Inc., submitted a notification of proposed production activity to...

  4. Bottom water variability in the subtropical northwestern Pacific from 26 kyr BP to present based on Mg / Ca and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Y.; Kimoto, K.; Itaki, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyairi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-06-01

    To understand bottom water variability in the subtropical northwestern Pacific, bottom water temperatures (BWTs), carbon isotopes (δ13C), and oxygen isotopes of seawater (δ18Ow) at a water depth of 1166 m were reconstructed from 26 kyr BP to present. A new regional Mg / Ca calibration for the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi (type B) was established to convert the benthic Mg / Ca value to BWT, based on 26 surface sediment samples and two core-top samples retrieved around Okinawa Island. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the δ18Ow in the intermediate water in the northwestern South Pacific was ~0.4‰ lower than in the deep South Pacific, indicating a greater vertical salinity gradient than at present. This salinity (and probably density) structure would have led to stratification in the intermediate and deep Pacific, which would, in turn, have greatly influenced carbon storage during the glacial time. The benthic Mg / Ca and δ18Ow records suggest changes that seem to follow Heinrich event 1 (H1) and the Bølling-Alleød (B/A) and Younger Dryas (YD) intervals, with BWT higher during H1 (~17 kyr BP) and YD (~12 kyr BP) and lower during B/A (~14 kyr BP). The warming in the bottom water during H1 suggests increased contribution of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) to the subtropical northwestern Pacific and decreased upwelling of cooler waters from the abyssal North Pacific. During the interval from 17 to 14.5 kyr BP, the BWT tended to decrease successively in association with a decrease in δ13C values, presumably as a result of increased upwelling of the abyssal waters to the intermediate depths of the North Pacific caused by shoaling and enhancement of the southward return flow of Pacific Deep Water (PDW). During the Holocene, the millennial- to sub-millennial-scale variations in the BWT generally correlate with the sea surface temperatures in the Okhotsk Sea, the source region of the NPIW, suggesting that changes in the BWT are linked

  5. Assessing divergent SST behavior during the last 21 ka derived from alkenones and G. ruber-Mg/Ca in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Axel; Sachs, Julian; Timm, Oliver Elison

    2014-06-01

    Equatorial Pacific SST reconstructions derived from Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and from alkenone-producing coccolithophorids record different trends throughout the Holocene and the last deglaciation. We set forth the hypothesis that their diverging behavior may be related to different seasonal sensitivities which result from the annually varying production rates of alkenone-producing coccolithophorids and of G. ruber. Using a series of transient paleoclimate model simulations forced with the time-varying forcing history over the last 21 ka, a good qualitative agreement is found between simulated boreal winter temperatures and alkenone-SST reconstructions as well as between simulated boreal summer temperatures and reconstructed Mg/Ca-based SST variations. Pronounced features in the reconstructions that can be readily explained by the conjectured seasonal biases include the mismatch in middle-to-late Holocene temperature trends and the different onsets of deglacial climate change in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The analysis presented here further suggests that through combinations of Mg/Ca and alkenone SST reconstructions information can be gained on annual mean temperature changes and the amplitude of the seasonal cycle in SST. Our study concludes by discussing potential weaknesses of the proposed model-derived seasonal bias interpretation of tropical Pacific SST proxies in terms of present-day core-top data, sediment trap studies, and satellite-based observations of chlorophyll.

  6. Oxygen isotopes of Pacific seawater, 0-40 kyr, based on d18O and Mg/Ca of benthic and planktic foraminifera: relation to deglacial sealevel rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Klinkhammer, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    Combining high resolution (~200 year sample resolution) oxygen and carbon isotope measurements and Mg/Ca analyses in planktic (G. ruber and N. dutertrei) and benthic foraminifera (Uvigerina sp.; use of infaunal benthics minimizes likely CO3= effects) from the mid-depth eastern Pacific provides for detailed estimates of changing d18O of seawater over the past 40 kyr at ODP Site 1242. The key to this analysis is improved precision of the Mg/Ca analyses based on a new generation of high precision flow-through time-resolved analysis (FT-TRA) (e.g., average internal precision for Mg/Ca is now +/-0.005 benthic, and +/-0.015 planktic). This method is relatively insensitive to mild dissolution of heterogeneous shells, and thus requires no corrections for preservation. The change in seawater d18O (at 1364 m depth) between the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum is 1.2 +/- 0.04 permil when averaged over the stages, consistent with pore-water diffusion estimates; however, millennial scale events (which the pore-water data cannot detect) bring the total range up to about 1.6 permil. Are such short-term events related to sealevel change, or do they reflect changing watermasses? Measurements of d13C data (C. wuellerstorfi), sensitive to modern subsurface watermass gradients, are not highly correlated to short- term changes in d18Oseawater suggesting a transient response to ice volume changes. Glacial weakening of AAIW (salty, high d18O, high d13C) relative to north Pacific watermasses (fresher, lower d18O, low d13C) suggest that the benthic d18Oseawater may underestimate total local changes related to ice volume (with a caveat regarding proper scaling of benthic Mg/Ca to temperature). Benthic d18Oseawater falls through the deglaciation in steps, starting at 18 cal ka, with maximum rates of change at 14-15 ka, and with secondary rapid steps at 16-17 ka and 10-11 kar. Planktic foraminifera yield smaller glacial-interglacial d18Oseawater values, with Holocene-to-LGM stage- average

  7. Eocene sea temperatures for the mid-latitude southwest Pacific from Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic and benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, John B.; Baker, Joel A.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Smith, Euan G. C.

    2010-11-01

    We have used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure elemental (Mg/Ca, Al/Ca, Mn/Ca, Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca) ratios of 13 species of variably preserved early to middle Eocene planktonic and benthic foraminifera from New Zealand. The foraminifera were obtained from Ashley Mudstone, mid-Waipara River, South Island, which was deposited at bathyal depth ( ca. 1000 m) on the northern margin of the east-facing Canterbury Basin at a paleo-latitude of ca. 55°S. LA-ICP-MS data yield trace element depth profiles through foraminifera test walls that can be used to identify and exclude zones of surficial contamination and infilling material resulting from diagenetic coatings, mineralisation and detrital sediment. Screened Mg/Ca ratios from 5 species of foraminifera are used to calculate sea temperatures from late Early to early Middle Eocene ( ca. 51 to 46.5 Ma), a time interval that spans the termination of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). During this time, sea surface temperatures (SST) varied from 30 to 24 °C, and bottom water temperatures (BWT) from 21 to 14 °C. Comparison of Mg/Ca sea temperatures with published δ 18O and TEX 86 temperature data from the same samples (Hollis et al., 2009) shows close correspondence, indicating that LA-ICP-MS can provide reliable Mg/Ca sea temperatures even where foraminiferal test preservation is variable. Agreement between the three proxies also implies that Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations for modern planktonic and benthic foraminifera can generally be applied to Eocene species, although some species (e.g., V. marshalli) show significant calibration differences. The Mg/Ca ratio of the Eocene ocean is constrained by our data to be 35-50% lower than the modern ocean depending on which TEX 86 - temperature calibration (Kim et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009) - is used to compare with the Mg/Ca sea temperatures. Sea temperatures derived from δ 18O analysis of foraminifera from Waipara show

  8. Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

    1980-02-01

    The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

  9. Comparison of eastern tropical Pacific TEX86 and Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca derived sea surface temperatures: Insights from the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Smith, Richard W.; Shields, Michael R.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The use of the TEX86 temperature proxy has thus far come to differing results as to whether TEX86 temperatures are representative of surface or subsurface conditions. In addition, although TEX86 temperatures might reflect sea surface temperatures based on core-top (Holocene) values, this relationship might not hold further back in time. Here, we investigate the TEX86 temperature proxy by comparing TEX86 temperatures to Mg/Ca temperatures of multiple species of planktonic foraminifera for two sites in the eastern tropical Pacific (on the Cocos and Carnegie Ridges) across the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum. Core-top and Holocene TEX86H temperatures at both study regions agree well, within error, with the Mg/Ca temperatures of Globigerinoides ruber, a surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera. However, during the Last Glacial Maximum, TEX86H temperatures are more representative of upper thermocline temperatures, and are offset from G. ruber Mg/Ca temperatures by 5.8 °C and 2.9 °C on the Cocos Ridge and Carnegie Ridge, respectively. This offset between proxies cannot be reconciled by using different TEX86 temperature calibrations, and instead, we suggest that the offset is due to a deeper export depth of GDGTs at the LGM. We also compare the degree of glacial cooling at both sites based on both temperature proxies, and find that TEX86H temperatures greatly overestimate glacial cooling, especially on the Cocos Ridge. This study has important implications for applying the TEX86 paleothermometer in the eastern tropical Pacific.

  10. Albany-Laramie Counties Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Albany-Laramie Counties area of Wyoming, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general…

  11. 75 FR 66750 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power... Transmission Line Rebuild Project EIS and requesting comments about the potential environmental impacts it should consider as it prepares the EIS for the proposed project. DATES: Written comments are due to...

  12. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD..., based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE/EIS-0457, March 2012). BPA has decided... will continue to operate at 115 kV. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling...

  13. Transfer Guides: University at Albany, State University of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Patrick A.

    The State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany has worked with the state's community colleges to develop guides for community college students to identify programs and patterns of study which maximize the transfer of credit from the community college courses toward specific SUNY academic programs. This collection of 11 documents provides the…

  14. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  16. Evidence for insolation and Pacific forcing of late glacial through Holocene climate in the Central Mojave Desert (Silver Lake, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Knell, Edward J.; Anderson, William T.; Lachniet, Matthew S.; Palermo, Jennifer; Eeg, Holly; Lucero, Ricardo; Murrieta, Rosa; Arevalo, Andrea; Silveira, Emily; Hiner, Christine A.

    2015-09-01

    Silver Lake is the modern terminal playa of the Mojave River in southern California (USA). As a result, it is well located to record both influences from the winter precipitation dominated San Bernardino Mountains - the source of the Mojave River - and from the late summer to early fall North American monsoon at Silver Lake. Here, we present various physical, chemical and biological data from a new radiocarbon-dated, 8.2 m sediment core taken from Silver Lake that spans modern through 14.8 cal ka BP. Texturally, the core varies between sandy clay, clayey sand, and sand-silt-clay, often with abrupt sedimentological transitions. These grain-size changes are used to divide the core into six lake status intervals over the past 14.8 cal ka BP. Notable intervals include a dry Younger Dryas chronozone, a wet early Holocene terminating 7.8 - 7.4 cal ka BP, a distinct mid-Holocene arid interval, and a late Holocene return to ephemeral lake conditions. A comparison to potential climatic forcings implicates a combination of changing summer - winter insolation and tropical and N Pacific sea-surface temperature dynamics as the primary drivers of Holocene climate in the central Mojave Desert.

  17. CaCO3 dissolution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific during the Mid-Miocene: A study using IODP PEAT cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackford, J. K.; Lyle, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) scan data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 320/321 in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific show evidence of carbonate dissolution occurring at multiple times during the Cenozoic. Specifically, at sites U1335, U1336, and U1337, the characteristic variations in sedimentary calcium carbonate content that results in the common seismic stratigraphy found throughout the equatorial Pacific east of Hawaii. Large-scale changes in the carbon cycle are reflected in changes of the carbonate compensation depth, those changes subsequently being recorded in deep sea sediments. We have identified a number of carbonate dissolution events throughout the Cenozoic, primarily focusing on a major carbonate dissolution cycle during the early to mid-Miocene (~18-16 Ma). Previously, inadequate core recovery within this time interval has hindered study of this event, however we have completed analysis of three nearly continuous sediment records of the early Miocene allowing much more detailed study. These three IODP Leg 320/321 sites in the study provide a matrix of sedimentation rates and latitude for the early Miocene since they were all at roughly the same depth (~4 km) at 17 Ma, and formed a transect of paleolatitude from the equator, through 1°N to 3.5°N. Since the magnitude of productivity depends heavily on latitude in the equatorial Pacific, these three sites can be used to distinguish between dissolution events and productivity transients. XRF scan data from Sites U1335, U1336, and U1337 over the 18-16 Ma interval are used to better constrain the timing and structure of the event, as well as provide understanding of how productivity and changes in ocean carbon cycling affect carbonate preservation in sediments. The major dissolution event at 17 Ma lasted ~1 million years and CaCO 3 analyses indicate cyclicity on an approximately 100,000 year time scale. The cycling is strongly influenced by orbital insolation changes. Core sections from

  18. How Dramatic is the Unrest at Colli Albani, the Volcanic District 20 km from Rome (Italy)? Insights from SAR Interferometry and Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Di Filippo, M.; Di Nezza, M.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Moro, M.; Polcari, M.; Stramondo, S.; Ventura, G.

    2015-12-01

    Colli Albani (Italy) is an alkali-potassic volcanic district located about 20 km SE of Rome (3 M inhabitants) and lastly erupted 36 ka ago. Its eruptive activity is characterized by well-clustered, regularly spaced time cycles, with an average recurrence time of 45±5 ka. Since the modern volcanic activity at Colli Albani seems not particularly intense, scientists have interpreted this volcano to be quiescent. Therefore, unlike other Italian volcanoes, the area has not undergone extensive monitoring. However, a seismic swarm during 1989-1990 has been related to a local uplift of ca. 30 cm since the 1950's along a line crossing the western side of the volcano, giving rise to a debate about its possible interpretation in terms of unrest. Furthermore, recent geological investigations indicate a coupling of eruption history, uplift history, and changes in the regional stress field, pointing to the conclusion that Colli Albani is in unrest. As a result, an evaluation of the volcanic hazard of such a strongly inhabited and vulnerable area is needed. We present the results from the analysis of 20 years of SAR interferometry. The time series show a linear trending displacement (3 mm/yr maximum ground velocity) affecting the western flank of the volcano. In addition, results from gravimetric surveys conducted during 2005-2007 reveal a different behavior between the eastern and western sectors. In an attempt of understanding the dynamics of Colli Albani from the available geodetic and gravimetric data, we build a finite element model incorporating local structural and lithological features, such as mapped faults and elastic discontinuities. Our results suggest that magma is accumulating beneath the Colli Albani western flank, where uplift and positive microgravity anomalies are observed and where the recent seismic swarm took place. Our model constrains the location and geometry of the magmatic source, which is below the vents responsible for the last eruptive activity

  19. Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum TEX86 and Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca Sea Surface Temperatures from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Bianchi, T. S.; Smith, R. W.; Shields, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Although the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) exerts a major influence on tropical climate dynamics, there is considerable disagreement among various proxy reconstructions on the evolution of sea surface temperatures (SST) in this region since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). For example, foraminiferal Mg/Ca and alkenone UK'37 based SST reconstructions disagree on both the timing and magnitude of deglacial SST change in the EEP (Kienast et al., 2006; Lea et al., 2006), and it remains unclear how the SST gradient between the cold tongue and the warm pool to the north differed during the LGM (Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2003). In order to better quantify regional SST change in the EEP, we will present companion reconstructions of Holocene SST change using both the molecular organic geochemical TEX86 index and Mg/Ca ratios in Globigerinoides ruber (white) from newly-acquired multicores on the Coco Ridge (MV1014-01-07MC; 6o14.0' N, 86o2.6' W; 1.2 - 3.5 kyr BP; 2.0 km depth) and Carnegie Ridge (MV1014-02-09MC; 0o41.6' S, 85o20.0' W; 2.3 - 6.9 kyr BP; 2.45 km depth). Reconstructed core-top values based on both proxies are in excellent agreement with modern average SSTs at each site. Furthermore, reconstructed Holocene TEX86 and Mg/Ca-SSTs are nearly identical within analytical error. To determine the relationship between TEX86 and Mg/Ca-SSTs in the past, we will also use both proxies to reconstruct LGM SSTs using radiocarbon-dated piston cores from the Cocos Ridge (MV1014-01-08JC; 6o14.0' N, 86o2.6' W; 2.0 km depth) and Carnegie Ridge (MV1014-02-17JC; 0o10.8' S, 85o52.0' W; 2.87 km depth). Kienast et al. (2006) Nature 443, 846-849. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz (2003) Paleoceanography 18(4), 1089. Lea et al. (2006) Quat. Sci. Rev. 25, 1152-1167.

  20. A 170-year Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca coral record from the western Pacific warm pool: 2. A window into variability of the New Ireland Coastal Undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Chantal; Kinsley, Leslie

    2008-06-01

    A Porites coral from New Ireland (2.5°S, 150.5°E), at the heart of the Pacific warm pool, records variations of Ba/Ca back to the early 1820s. The New Ireland Coastal Undercurrent, which flows along the north coast and transports high-nutrient thermocline waters, is thought to be the main source of the Ba enrichment observed in the coral during El Niño. Between the 1850s and the 1960s, frequent large Ba peaks indicate that nutrients were available during both phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During La Niña, Ba could be advected along the South Equatorial Current. Also during this period, clusters of Ba/Ca peaks at nearly decadal timescale generally coincide with the return time of a strong El Niño, in accord with the high decadal variance of NINO3 sea surface temperatures. Ba enrichment in this coral primarily reflects the stratification in the thermocline that controls vertical mixing. The coral records long-term changes in those properties affecting nutrients in surface waters, with reduced Ba after the 1960s, and even less between 1823 and 1850. These reductions are tentatively attributed to the high rate of warming at the end of the Dalton Minimum and since the mid-20th century. An ensuing weakening of the trade winds may have produced a more stratified equatorial thermocline, hindering the transport of Ba and nutrients from the undercurrent to the shallow coastal waters north of New Ireland.

  1. 19. 'Southern Pacific Company, Pacific Lines, Remodeling of Piers For ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 'Southern Pacific Company, Pacific Lines, Remodeling of Piers For Renewal of Br. 210-C Near Tehama, Sac. Division, Scale 1' = 40' & 1/4' = 1'-0', Sept. 1927, M.W.D., Drawing 5935, Sheet 2.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  2. Decadal to Multi-centennial SST Reconstructions From the Anthropocene Into the Last 2 Millennia: Planktonic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca Evidence From San Lazaro Basin (NE Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortyn, P. G.; Martínez-Botí, M. À.; Herguera, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    On inter-annual time scales, the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon is the largest driver of change in the ocean-atmosphere system. Significant impacts also arise from longer-term phenomena at decadal to centennial timescales, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). It is a primary interest to understand how modern global warming has impacted such drivers of significant climatic impacts, and how the marine sedimentary archive records this linkage in the southern California Current (CC). This would allow detailed comparison against other high-resolution archives, such as corals, and an improved ability to interpret past events as potential analogs for the future of ENSO and PDO. Furthermore, such reconstructions in recent millennia are crucial, since they record pre-anthropogenic climates under interglacial (warm) boundary conditions that allow us to characterize the nature of modern influence on this system. Here we present sub-decadal reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST), derived from the Mg/Ca ratio of the shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber. The samples come from San Lázaro Basin in the southern Baja California continental margin (25°N; 112°W), situated beneath the dynamic boundary of the cool eastern Pacific boundary CC of northern origin, and the warm subtropical water masses of southern origin. The bottom of this coastal basin (maximum depth of 540m) is bathed by oxygen-depleted waters that flow over a shallow sill at 370m. High levels of primary production and export of biogenic particles to depth ensue from strong seasonal upwelling processes during spring to early summer. This combination of high sediment production and preservation in an area very sensitive to ENSO and PDO impacts allows for a high-resolution reconstruction of inter-annual climatic phenomena in this unique eastern boundary current setting. For our highest temporal detail, we examine 2 cores at interannual resolution

  3. Development of HTS Cable System for ALBANY Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, M.; Yumura, H.; Takigawa, H.; Ito, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Kato, T.; Suzawa, C.; Masuda, T.; Sato, K.; Isojima, S.

    2006-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable is anticipated to transmit a large amount of electricity with a compact size and can reduce the transmission loss and greenhouse gas emission. The Albany project is being undertaken to verify the practicability of a long HTS cable in the real grid by performing a long-term operation test. The cable is 350-meter long and carries 800 A at 34.5 kV between two electric power substations (Menands and Riverside) in Albany, N.Y. [1]. The project is scheduled to run from 2002 to 2007 and is proceeding as planned. The HTS cable and its apparatus were manufactured in Japan, and the cable was shipped to the USA in the middle of August. After it arrives at the site, the cable installation and the apparatus assembly will be carried out sequentially. This system is expected to begin operating early next year after initial cooling. This paper gives an overview and the current status of the development of the HTS cable system.

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Used by First Central Pacific Train to Enter Oakland -- November 8, 1869 - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie Magazine May 11, 1878 OAKLAND LONG WHARF - CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TERMINUS - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1913. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 7. 'Tunnel No 14, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard SingleTrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 'Tunnel No 14, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, ca. 1909. Under current numbering, this is now Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. Variations in intermediate and deep ocean circulation in the subtropical northwestern Pacific from 26 ka to present based on a new calibration for Mg/Ca in benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Y.; Kimoto, K.; Itaki, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyairi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2014-03-01

    To understand variations in intermediate and deep ocean circulation in the North Pacific, bottom water temperatures (BWT), carbon isotopes (δ13C) of benthic foraminifera, and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) of seawater at a water depth of 1166 m were reconstructed from 26 ka to present. A new regional Mg/Ca calibration for the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi was established to convert the benthic Mg/Ca value to BWT, based on twenty-six surface sediment samples and a core top sample retrieved around Okinawa Island. In addition, core GH08-2004, retrieved from 1166 m water depth east of Okinawa Island, was used to reconstruct water properties from 26 ka to present. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), from 24 to 18 ka, BWT appeared to be relatively constant at approximately 2 °C, which is ~1.5-2 °C lower than today. One of the prominent features of our BWT records was a millennial-scale variation in BWT during the last deglaciation, with BWT higher during Heinrich event 1 (H1; ~17 ka) and the Younger Dryas (YD; ~12 ka) and lower during the Bølling/Allerød (B/A; ~14 ka). The record of seawater δ18O in core GH08-2004 exhibited a rapid increase in association with the rapid warming of BWT at 17 ka, likely due to the reduced precipitation in the North Pacific in response to less moisture transport from the equatorial Atlantic as a result of the collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. During the interval from 17 to 15 ka, the bottom water temperature tended to decrease in association with a decrease in the carbon isotope values of C. wuellerstorfi, likely as a result of increased upwelling of the older water mass that was stored in the abyssal Pacific during the glacial time. The timing of the increased upwelling coincided with the deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise initiated at ~17 ka, and suggested that the increased upwelling in the subtropical northwestern Pacific from 17 to 15 ka contributed to the carbon release from the Pacific into

  9. The distribution and association of trace elements in the bitumen, kerogen and pyrolysates from New Albany oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and association of trace elements in bitumen, kerogen and pyrolysates from New Albany oil shale were investigated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe x-ray fluorescence (EMP-XRF), liquid chromatography, ultra-violet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The kerogen was found to contain several HCl/HF resistant minerals (determined by XRD), including pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, rutile, and anatase, and the neoformed mineral ralstonite. Kerogens (prepared at UNOCAL, CA) which were fractionated in an aqueous ZnBr[sub 2] solution were found to contain [approximately]20% less acid-resistant minerals than traditional' HCl/HF isolated kerogens and were contaminated with Zn and Br. Kerogens (prepared at the University of Munich) treated with SnCl[sub 2]/H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] at 150-270[degrees]C (Kiba) and/or SnCl[sub 2]/HCl at 110[degrees]C were found to contain <10% of their original pyrite/marcasite (FeS[sub 2]), but were contaminated with large amounts of Sn. The Kiba treatment also appeared to demetallate Ni(II) and VO(II) porphyrins. The inorganic and organic associations of trace elements in New Albany kerogen were studied by analysis of kerogen fractions and a mineral residue ([approximately]85% FeS[sub 2]) obtained through density separations. The degree of association of several elements (As, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, and Se) with FeS[sub 2] was determined through the analysis of individual mineral grains by EMP-XRF and by analysis of the mineral residue treated with dilute HNO[sub 3] to remove FeS[sub 2]. These studies indicated that essentially all of the V and [approximately]95% of the Ni present in New Albany kerogen is organically associated. Methods which are designed to account for the inorganic associations of trace elements in kerogens, including methods based on physical methods of separation, chemical removal of FeS[sub 2], EMP-XRF and low temperature ashing, are compared.

  10. Evaluation of the Albany Librarianship Trainee Program of the School of Library and Information Science of the State University of New York at Albany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Lucille M.

    In the summer of 1970, the School of Library and Information Science at the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA) initiated an integrated 3-year undergraduate and graduate program leading to a bachelors degree in an area of the student's choice and a Masters of Library Science (MLS). Twenty-one junior year students, (nine Black or Spanish…

  11. Deep, water-free gas potential is upside to New Albany shale play

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1998-02-16

    The New Albany shale of the Illinois basin contains major accumulations of Devonian shale gas, comparable both to the Antrim shale of the Michigan basin and the Ohio shale of the Appalachian basin. The size of the resource originally assessed at 61 tcf has recently been increased to between 323 tcf and 528 tcf. According to the 1995 US Geological Survey appraisal, New Albany shale gas represents 52% of the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of the Illinois basin, with another 45% attributed to coalbed methane. New Albany shale gas has been developed episodically for over 140 years, resulting in production from some 40 fields in western Kentucky, 20 fields in southern Indiana, and at least 1 field in southern Illinois. The paper describes two different plays identified by a GRI study and prospective areas.

  12. Association of trace elements with mineral species in the New Albany oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, S.L.; Day, J.W.; Mercer, G.E.; Filby, R.H. )

    1989-03-01

    X-Ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EMP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to identify mineral species in the New Albany shale and kerogen isolates. Elemental abundances were determined by NAA and distributions of Ni, V, As, and other elements with-in mineral grains were determined by EMP-XRF. Vanadium in the New Albany shale was found to be associated primarily with clay minerals (illite, montmorrillonite). In the New Albany kerogen, Ni and V were shown to be predominantly associated with the organic matrix. Pyrite (and/or marcasite) was shown to occur in two forms, a euhedral variety and as framboidal clusters. The Ni content of the framboidal variety was found to be higher than that of the euhedral pyrite.

  13. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the... waters extend west to the Eastern Hemisphere dividing line between the Atlantic and Pacific Areas...

  14. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the... waters extend west to the Eastern Hemisphere dividing line between the Atlantic and Pacific Areas...

  15. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the... waters extend west to the Eastern Hemisphere dividing line between the Atlantic and Pacific Areas...

  16. 76 FR 75602 - Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc. (HAL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and...

  17. High temperature corrosion research at the Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Matthes, Steven A.; Chinn, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Severe Environment Corrosion and Erosion Research Facility (SECERF) at the Albany Research Center is operational. SECERF consists of 6 modules that share the availability of up to 10 different gases to produce environments for high temperature corrosion and erosion research. Projects to be conducted in the modules include: corrosion sensors for fossil energy systems, thermal gradient effects on high temperature corrosion, the development of sulfidation resistant alloys, determination of the effects of ash on the corrosion of metals and alloys in coal and waste combustion and coal gasification environments, high temperature erosion-corrosion of metals, and molten slag effects on refractories. Results from two areas, the effect of ash deposits on alloy corrosion and thermal gradient effects on the corrosion of metals, will be highlighted. Ash produced in coal gasifiers, coal combustors, and waste combustors, when deposited on metal surfaces, provides sites for corrosion attack and contributes chemical species that participate in the corrosion reaction. Results are presented for the corrosion of 304L stainless steel, that was either uncoated or coated with ash or with ash containing NaCl or Na2SO4, in air-water vapor mixtures at 600 C. The presence of high heat fluxes and temperature gradients in many fossil energy systems creates the need for an understanding of their effects on corrosion and oxidation. Such information would be useful for both improved alloy design and for better translation of isothermal laboratory results to field use. Temperature gradients in a solid oxide result in two changes that modify diffusion within the oxide. The first is when a gradient in point defect concentration is created within the oxide, for example, where more vacancies are expected at a higher temperature. The second change is when the presence of a temperature gradient biases the diffusion jump of an atom. Results of tests are presented for cobalt with metal surface

  18. 11. 'Southern Pacific Company Pacific System. 1 180'1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'Southern Pacific Company - Pacific System. 1 - 180'-1/4' c. to c. End Pins S. Tr. Thro. Span. 16th crossing Sacramento River, The Phoenix Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa., Apr. 25th 1901.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 324.99, Milepost 324.99, Shasta Springs, Siskiyou County, CA

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Souther Pacific Railroad Coll. Wharf ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Souther Pacific Railroad Coll. Wharf - Opened January 16, 1871 Painting of the Long Wharf - Opened January 16, 1871 - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs of 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Before Construction of Long Wharf - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After 1919 Oakland Mole -- Aerial View Looking West by South - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. DOE Closeout Report from SUNY Albany High Energy Physics to Department of Energy Office of Science.

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Jesse; Jain, Vivek

    2014-08-15

    A report from the SUNY Albany Particle Physics Group summarizing our activities on the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. We summarize our work: on data analysis projects, on efforts to improve detector performance, and on service work to the experiment.

  4. State University of New York at Albany--Financial Management Practices. Report 94-S-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This report is the result of an audit of selected financial management practices of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany for the period April 1, 1992 through July 31, 1994. The audit addressed the following practices: cash, payroll, purchasing, revenue accounting, accounts receivable, and computer contingency plans. The report…

  5. Test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments within the Colli Albani region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Calcara, M.

    In this paper we discuss some geochemical data gathered by discrete and continuous monitoring during the 1995-1996 period, carried out for earthquake prediction test-experiments throughout the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, seat of seismicity, selecting some gas discharge sites with peri-volcanic composition. In particular we stressed the results obtained at the continuous geochemical monitoring station (GMS I, BAR site), designed by ING for geochemical surveillance of seismic events. The 12/6/1995 (M=3.6-3.8) Roma earthquake together with the 3/11/1995 (M=3.1) Tivoli earthquake was the most energetic events within the Colli Albani - Roma area, after the beginning of the continuous monitoring (1991) up today: strict correlation between these seismic events and fluid geochemical anomalies in groundwater has been discovered (temperature, Eh, 222Rn, CO 2, NH 3). Separation at depth of a vapour phase, rich in reducing-acidic gases (CO 2, H 2S, etc...), from a hyper-saline brine, within the deep geothermal reservoir is hypothesised to explain the geochemical anomalies: probably the transtensional episodes accompanying the seismic sequences caused an increasing and/or triggering of the phase-separation process and fluid migration, on the regional scale of the Western sector of the Colli Albani, beyond the seismogenic depth (2-4 Km) up to surface. We draw the state of art of GMS II monitoring prototype and the selection criteria of test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments in the Colli Albani region.

  6. Students' Experiences of Their First Two Years at Albany Senior High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipkins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This report documents findings from comprehensive end-of-year student surveys conducted by Albany Senior High School (ASHS) at the end of 2009 and 2010, its first two years of existence as a newly built senior secondary high school. The New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) was given access to the collated survey data for the…

  7. Dissertations 1979-1989: A Cumulative Bibliography of University at Albany Doctoral Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadley, Otis A., Comp.

    This cumulative bibliography of State University at Albany (New York) doctoral dissertations, which spans the years 1979-1989, is not simply a compilation of previous supplements. It is based on an examination of the University Libraries' doctoral dissertation collection as reflected in the online and printed library catalogs. It is also the…

  8. 77 FR 73648 - Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice...

  9. Behavioral Approaches to Anxiety Disorders: A Report on the NIMH-SUNY, Albany, Research Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.; Wolfe, Barry E.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a summary of the Albany Research Conference, April 1980, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health. Leading investigators recommend general research strategies to further knowledge on behavioral approaches to anxiety disorders including areas of: classification, process research, outcome research, treatment delivery, and…

  10. Social Factors and Speech Variation: Some Observations in Albany, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.

    This study was conducted to examine certain social factors, such as sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic group, as they influence the speech of a sample of black and white children, aged 10-12, from a lower socioeconomic group in Albany, New York. The tapes of the interviews were analyzed to determine the usage of the nonstandard forms of four…

  11. Making It Up as We Go Along: The Story of the Albany Free School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercogliano, Chris

    Founded in 1969 in an inner-city neighborhood, the Albany Free School is based on real freedom, community, democratic principles, and affection and trust between teachers and students. This book provides an in-depth history of the Free School, including a brief analysis of its place in the broader scheme of things; describes the school with…

  12. Science Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Resources in the University Libraries SUNY/Albany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osielski, Mary Y., Comp.

    This bibliography is a guide to sources of information in the field of science fiction which are available in the University Libraries at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany. Other libraries may find it useful as a reference tool for expanding their science fiction collections. Emphasis is on works which deal primarily with science…

  13. Volcanology, history and myths of the Lake Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Benedetti, A. A.; Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; Diano, G.; Caprilli, E.; Paterne, M.

    2008-10-01

    The polygenetic Albano maar is the most recent centre of the Colli Albani volcano, located just few kilometres to the south-east of Roma. Presently the maar hosts a 167.5 m deep crater lake, the deepest in Europe. The maar is to be considered quiescent, as phreatic activity is documented throughout the Holocene. This paper illustrates the close relationships between the activity of the maar and the history of settlement in the Roman region as recorded in the geology, archaeology, history and legends of the area. Severe fluctuations of the groundwater table and catastrophic overflows of the Lake Albano from the maar rim had occurred prior to and after the early prehistoric settlements dated in the maar area at the Eneolithic times (ca. III millennium B.C.). Repeated lahars occurred along the northwestern slope of the maar filling in the paleodrainage network and forming a vast plain. Paleohydraulic analyses on fluvial and lahar deposits originated from the Holocene phreatic activity of the Albano maar indicate sediment-water flows in excess of hundreds of cubic metres per second. Absolute age determinations of the paleosoil underlying one of the most recent deposits of the lahar succession at 5800 ± 100 yr B.P. ( 14C CAL) are in perfect agreement with the age of the overlying Eneolithic age settlements. The last catastrophic overflow is described in the Roman literature as a consequence of the anger of Poseidon against the Romans in 398 B.C. for their war against the Etruscans. In 394 B.C. the Romans decided to prevent the repetition of such events by the excavation through the maar crater wall of a 1.5 km long drain tunnel, which is still operational, keeping the lake 70 m below the lowest point of the maar rim. This tunnel drain may be regarded as the first prevention device for volcanic hazard in history and shows an unprecedented development of the engineering technology under the pressure of hazard perception. The surprising and still largely unknown results

  14. ENSO- and PDO-modulated SST Reconstructions From the Anthropocene Into the Last 2 Millennia: Planktonic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca Evidence at Inter-annual Resolution From San Lázaro Basin (NE Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortyn, P.; Martinez-Boti, M. A.; Herguera, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    On inter-annual time scales, the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon is the largest driver of change in the ocean-atmosphere system. As such, it is a primary interest to understand how modern global warming has impacted ENSO, and how the marine sedimentary archive records this linkage in the southern California Current (CC). This would allow detailed comparison against other high-resolution archives, such as corals, and an improved ability to interpret past events as potential analogs for the future of ENSO. Furthermore, such reconstructions in recent millennia are crucial, since they record pre- anthropogenic climates under interglacial (warm) boundary conditions that allow us to characterize the nature of modern influence on this system. Here we present sub-decadal reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST), derived from the Mg/Ca ratio of the shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber. The samples come from San Lázaro Basin in the southern Baja California continental margin (25° N; 112° W), situated beneath the dynamic boundary of the cool eastern Pacific boundary CC of northern origin, and the warm subtropical water masses of southern origin. The bottom of this coastal basin (maximum depth of 540m) is bathed by oxygen-depleted waters that flow over a shallow sill at 370m. High levels of primary production and export of biogenic particles to depth ensue from strong seasonal upwelling processes during spring to early summer. This combination of high sediment production and preservation in an area very sensitive to ENSO impact allows for a high-resolution reconstruction of inter-annual climatic phenomena in this unique eastern boundary current setting. For our highest temporal detail, we examine 2 cores at interannual resolution for the past ~90 years, which we use to validate our proxy against instrumental SSTs. This variability is effectively traced by Mg/Ca in G. ruber, which has an affinity for warmer waters

  15. Growth Rates, Stable Oxygen Isotopes (18O), and Strontium (Sr/Ca) Composition in Two Species of Pacific Sclerosponges (Acanthocheatetes wellsi and Astrosclera willeyana) with 18O Calibration and Application to Paleoceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Grottoli, A.; Adkins, J; Panero, W; Reaman, D; Moots, K

    2010-01-01

    The isotopic and elemental composition of sclerosponge skeletons is used to reconstruct paleoceanographic records. Yet few studies have systematically examined the natural variability in sclerosponge skeletal {delta}{sup 18}O, growth, and Sr/Ca, and how that may influence the interpretation of sclerosponge proxy records. Here, we analyzed short records in seven specimens of Acanthocheatetes wellsi (high-Mg calcite, 21 mol% Mg) from Palau, four A. wellsi (high-Mg calcite, 21 mol% Mg) from Saipan, and three Astrosclera willeyana (aragonite) sclerosponges from Saipan, as well as one long record in an A. wellsi specimen from Palau spanning 1945-2001.5. In Saipan, species-specific and mineralogical effects appear to have a negligible effect on sclerosponge {delta}{sup 18}O, facilitating the direct comparison of {delta}{sup 18}O records between species at a given location. At both sites, A. wellsi {delta}{sup 18}O and growth rates were sensitive to environmental conditions, but Sr/Ca was not sensitive to the same conditions. High-resolution {delta}{sup 18}O analyses confirmed this finding as both A. wellsi and A. willeyana deposited their skeleton in accordance with the trends in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, though with a 0.27{per_thousand} offset in the case of A. willeyana. In the high-Mg-calcite species A. wellsi, Mg may be interfering with Sr incorporation into the skeleton. On multidecadal timescales, A. wellsi sclerosponge {delta}{sup 18}O in Palau tracked the Southern Oscillation Index variability post-1977, but not pre-1977, coincident with the switch in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) at {approx}1976. This suggests that water mass circulation in the region is influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability during positive PDO phases, but not during negative ones.

  16. TEX86 temperatures and multi-species foraminiferal Mg/Ca temperatures and ?13C reflect changes in glacial nutrient dynamics and upper water column hydrography of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, J.; Schmidt, M. W.; Bianchi, T. S.; Smith, R. K.; Shields, M. R.; Randle, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) exerts a major influence on tropical climate dynamics through its roles in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the global carbon cycle. Despite this, there remains significant disagreement on the evolution of sea surface temperature (SST) change in the EEP since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and it remains unclear how the SST gradient between the cold tongue and warm pool to the north differed during the LGM. While the foraminiferal Mg/Ca and alkenone UK'37 proxies have been studied for the EEP in great detail, the newly developed TEX86 index has yet to be established as a viable SST proxy in this region. In other areas, TEX86 values have been shown to correlate with either surface or subsurface temperatures. Explanations for this discrepancy often invoke regional physical processes, nutrient availability, and GDGT production at depth; however, to date, the exact factors controlling the depth origin of the TEX86 signal remain unclear. Thus, utilization of the TEX86 paleothermometer for down-core reconstructions in the EEP requires a detailed study of the factors influencing this temperature proxy. Here, we reconstruct Holocene and LGM SST change using the TEX86 index and Mg/Ca ratios in the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) from newly acquired multi- and piston cores on the Cocos Ridge (6°N, 86°W) and Carnegie Ridge (.5°S, 85.5°W). Reconstructed core-top values based on both proxies are in excellent agreement with modern annual SSTs at each site and are nearly identical within analytical error. However, LGM TEX86H temperatures are offset to colder values from those of G. ruber Mg/Ca by ~6°C on the Cocos Ridge and ~2°C on the Carnegie Ridge. These temperature offsets at the LGM cannot be reconciled by creation of a regional TEX86:SST calibration equation, or by addition of EEP core-top TEX86 values to the global database. To test the hypothesis that the offset between proxies at the LGM is due

  17. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn...

  18. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7... LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Fossil Point at longitude 120°43.5′ W. to the seaward extremity of Whaler...

  19. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7... LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Fossil Point at longitude 120°43.5′ W. to the seaward extremity of Whaler...

  20. Results of the radiological survey at 12 Frost Place, Albany, New York (AL178)

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. Radiological surveys were performed at 27 properties by members of the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July 13-July 26, 1986. The property at 12 Frost Place in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/13 m wide by 29 m deep. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Results of the radiological survey at 16 Yardboro Avenue, Albany, New York (AL137)

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 16 Yardboro Avenue in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 5, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway was on the east side of the house, with broken paving extending to a building at the rear of the lot. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/19 m wide by 35 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Results of the radiological survey at 1110 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL215)

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1110 Central Avenue in Albany, New York (AL215) was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 4, 1987. This commercial property consists of a one-story concrete block office building (Building 1), a one-story concrete block warehouse (Building 2), and four connected storage buildings constructed variously of wood, metal, or concrete block. The structures are situated on an irregularly shaped lot. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 10-m grid network established for measurements outside the buildings is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/45 m wide by 98 m deep. Two views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Results of the radiological survey at 23 Lily Street, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 23 Lily Street in Albany, New York (AL174), was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 21, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/20 m wide by 30 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Results of the radiological survey at 15 Frost Place, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 15 Frost Place in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/ 16 m wide by 33 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Results of the radiological survey at 1052 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL208)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1052 Central Avenue in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 26, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story block and frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and a 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/17.5 m wide by 43.5 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation/Albany Research Center Crada Progress Report, September

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Paul C.; Schoenfield, Mark

    2004-09-13

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) has developed a new Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) process for fossil-fueled boilers. Pursuant to a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, ARC currently is studying the IPR process as applied to the oxygen fuel technology developed by Jupiter. As discussed further below, these two new technologies are complementary. This interim report summarizes the study results to date and outlines the potential activities under the next phase of the CRADA with Jupiter.

  7. Albany Hts Cable Project Long Term In-Grid Operation Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumura, H.; Masuda, T.; Watanabe, M.; Takigawa, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Ito, H.; Hirose, M.; Sato, K.

    2008-03-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems are expected to be a solution for improvement of the power grid and three demonstration projects in the real grid are under way in the United States. One of them is the Albany, NY Cable Project, involving the installation and operation of a 350 meter HTS cable system with a capacity of 34.5kV, 800A, connecting between two substations in National Grid's electric utility system. A 320 meter and a 30 meter cable are installed in underground conduit and connected together in a vault. The cables were fabricated with 70km of DI-BSCCO wire in a 3 core-in-one cryostat structure. The cable installation of a 320 meter and a 30 meter section was completed successfully using the same pulling method as a conventional underground cable. After the cable installation, the joint and two terminations were assembled at the Albany site. After the initial cooling of the system, the commissioning tests such as the critical current, heat loss measurement and DC withstand voltage test were conducted successfully. The in-grid operation began on July 20th, 2006 and operated successfully in unattended condition through May 1st, 2007. In the 2nd phase of the Albany project, the 30 meter section is to be replaced by a YBCO cable. The YBCO cable had been developed and a new 30 meter cable was manufactured by using SuperPower's YBCO coated conductors. This paper describes the latest status of the Albany cable project.

  8. 78 FR 77658 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... metrics out of the Pacific Fishery Information Network (PacFIN) database. 3. Updates on recent... Pacific Room, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037-1509... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Kit Dahl, Pacific Council; telephone: (503) 820-2280....

  9. 17. 'Southern Pacific Company Pacific System, 3 180'61/2' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 'Southern Pacific Company - Pacific System, 3 - 180'-6-1/2' c. to c. end pins S. Tr. Thro. Spans, 10th, 11th and 13th Crossings of Sacramento River, also for 1 - 180'-6-1/2' c. to c. end pins S. Tr. Thro. Span, 8th Crossing Sacramento River, The Phoenixville Bridge Co., Phoenixville Pa., Apr. 9th, 1901.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 310.58, Milepost 310.58, Sims, Shasta County, CA

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Albany Quadrangle, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M T; Truesdell, D B

    1982-09-01

    The Albany 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m for uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Areas of favorable geology and aeroradioactivity anomalies were examined and sampled. Most Triassic and Jurassic sediments in the Connecticut Basin, in the central part of the quadrangle, were found to be favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. Some Precambrian units in the southern Green Mountains of Vermont were found favorable for uranium deposits in veins in metamorphic rocks.

  11. 6. 'Tunnel No. 6, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard SingleTrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 'Tunnel No. 6, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, ca. 1909. Compare to photos in documentation set for Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. Determination of organic inorganic associations of trace elements in New Albany shale kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, G.E.; Filby, R.H. )

    1989-03-01

    The inorganic and organic trace element associations in the kerogen isolated from the New Albany shale were studied by analysis of kerogen fractions and a mineral residue obtained using density separations. Elemental mass balance data from these fractions indicate a predominantly inorganic association with pyrite and marcasite for several elements (As, Co, Ga, Mn, Ni, Sb and Se). The degree of inorganic association of these elements was determined by treatment of the mineral residue ({approximately}85% FeS{sub 2}) with dilute HNO{sub 3} to remove pyrite and marcasite. The association of several other elements in minerals which are insoluble in dilute HNO{sub 3} (rutile, zircon, etc.) were also determined. The results of these studies indicate an essentially total organic association for V and approximately 95% organic association for Ni in New Albany kerogen. The determination of organically combined elements is very difficult for those elements which are predominantly concentrated in the mineral fraction. Correction methods based on low temperature ashing, chemical removal of pyrite, and physical methods of separation are compared.

  13. Competency Testing and Beyond: Improving Student Writing. Conference Presentation (Albany, New York, May 24-25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of English Education.

    This booklet contains selected proceedings of the 1979 conference entitled "Competency Testing and Beyond: Improving Student Writing" held in Albany, New York. Topics covered in the 17 selections are: the "real" world and the teaching of English, what has been learned about competency testing in writing, the composing process, diagnosing student…

  14. Albany Law School of Union University; Self-Evaluation Report for the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albany Law School, NY.

    This report on the Albany Law School is organized on a question-answer basis. Part A discusses: (1) the purposes and objectives of the institution; (2) the administrative and faculty organization, faculty and administrator responsibilities, and different institutional policies; and (3) library resources, facilities, and financial situation. Part B…

  15. 76 FR 38383 - Albany Engineering Corporation, Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation, Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting On July 12, 2011, Office of Energy Projects staff will participate in a...

  16. 77 FR 60418 - Town of Stuyvesant, New York and Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Stuyvesant, New York and Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice...

  17. 76 FR 74116 - Alabama & Florida Railway Co., Inc. d/b/a Ripley & New Albany Railroad Co.-Acquisition and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... Tennessee Railroad, LLC Alabama & Florida Railway Co., Inc. d/b/a Ripley & New Albany Railroad Co. (RNA), a... Ripley, a distance of 22.54 miles in Union and Tippah Counties, Miss. RNA states that it proposes to... amended notice was filed on November 14, 2011. RNA certifies that its projected annual revenues as...

  18. Transfer Guides: University at Albany, State University of New York. Sullivan County Community College & Westchester Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Patrick A.

    The State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany has worked with New York's community colleges to identify programs and patterns of study that maximize the transfer of credit from community college courses toward specific SUNY academic programs, preparing guides specific to each college. This collection provides transfer guides for two SUNY…

  19. Chemical composition of radiation for water at Albany, New York, and its relationship to Fog microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzzi, Sandro; Castillo, Raymond A.; Jiusto, James E.; Lala, G. Garland

    1984-08-01

    Radiation fog water samples collected at the Albany (NY) County airport show quite low acid content compared with previously published data on fog acidity: the pH ranges from 4.3 to 6.4. This fog water ionic concentration is indicative of low pollution in this area. The leading mechanism responsible for the variability in aqueous concentration of nonvolatile ionic constituents of these fogs is the growth and evaporation of droplets, as reflected by the variation of LWC during the fog evolution. For these reasons the origin and composition of aerosol on which fog droplet condensation takes place is of major importance. Droplet size spectra analysis show that there is a need for improving the collection methods of fog water in order to better describe the chemistry involved, especially to maximize the drop capture efficiency of the collectors and reduce the sampling time for better resolution.

  20. Correlation of natural gas content to iron species in the New Albany shale group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1981-01-01

    Mo??ssbauer parameters were obtained for four Illinois Basin shales and their corresponding < 2??m clay fractions from wells drilled through the New Albany Shale Group in Henderson, Tazewell, and Effingham counties in Illinois and Christian County in Kentucky. Off-gas analysis indicated that the Illinois cores were in an area of low gas potential, while the Kentucky core was in an area of moderate-to-good potential. Iron-rich dolomite (ankerite) was found in the Kentucky core but not in the Illinois cores. In the Kentucky core, gas content could be correlated with the ankerite in the bulk sample, the Mo??ssbauer M (2) species in the clay fraction, and a ferrous iron species in the clay fraction. The location of the greatest concentration of natural gas in the Kentucky core could be predicted by following the changes in percentage concentration of these iron species when plotted against the depth of burial of the core sample. ?? 1981.

  1. "An Event Of No Ordinary Interest" - The Inauguration of Albany's Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, Ian R.; Rice, Norman S.; Bain, Christine A.

    1999-06-01

    The inauguration of the Dudley Observatory was a watershed in mid-nineteenth-century American science; most American scientists of any note attended the event, which took place in Albany in 1856 August at the close of the Annual Meeting of the AAAS. New York artist Tompkins Matteson's painting of the event, which includes more than 160 portraits, has been widely reproduced; however, an accompanying identification key created decades later is quite erroneous and misleading. A new key, which identifies 58 of the country's leading scientists and New York business and political figures, has been prepared, and, in conjunction with what is currently known about the painting's history, is detailed. Dudley Observatory's plan to sell time to New York cities and railroads was highlighted at the inauguration ceremony; an engraved marble tablet linking the electrical clock depicted in Matteson's painting to the facility's mean-time distribution system is discussed.

  2. Design and Evaluation of Ybco Cable for the Albany Hts Cable Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Ito, H.; Masuda, T.; Sato, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Albany Cable Project's aim is to develop a 350 meter long HTS cable system with a capacity of 800 A at 34.5 kV, located between two substations in the National Grid Power Company's grid. In-grid use of BSCCO HTS cable began on July 20, 2006, and successful long-term operation proceeded as planned. The cable system consists of two cables, one 320 meters long and the other 30 meters, a cable-to-cable splice in a vault, two terminations, and a cooling system. In Phase-II of the Albany project, this autumn, the 30-meter section will be replaced with YBCO cable. The test manufacturing and evaluation of YBCO cable has been carried out using SuperPower's YBCO wires in order to confirm the credibility of the cable design. No degradation of the critical current was found at any stage of manufacture. The fault-current test, involving a 1-meter sample carrying 23 kA at 38 cycles, was conducted under open-bath conditions. The temperature increases at the conductor and shield were comparable to those of the BSCCO core, and no Ic degradation was found after the fault-current test. After the design suitability was confirmed, a 30-meter YBCO cable was manufactured. The critical current of the conductor and the shield were approximately 2.6 kA and 2.4 kA, respectively, almost the same as the design values, considering the wire's Ic and the effect of the magnetic field. The AC loss of the sample cable was 0.34 W/m/phase at 800 Arms and 60 Hz. Following favorable shipping test results, the YBCO cable was shipped to the United States, and arrived at the site in June 2007.

  3. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the... Guard Districts and the ocean areas lying west of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  4. 49. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM ROOF OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM ROOF OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RIVER TERMINAL, November 27, 1934. SHOOFLY BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT OF M STREET BRIDGE. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; Altamont Creek at left between railroad and bridge; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  6. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; note collision walls, provision for two tracks; view to north-northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  7. In situ calcium carbonate dissolution in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Feely, R. A.; Sabine, Chris; Lee, K.; Millero, F. J.; Lamb, M. F.; Greeley, D.; Bullister, J.L.; Key, Robert; Peng, T.-H.; Kozyr, Alexander; Ono, Tsueno

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years researchers have been working to synthesize the WOCE/ JGOFS global CO2 survey data to better understand carbon cycling processes in the oceans. The Pacific Ocean data set has over 35,000 sample locations with at least two carbon parameters, oxygen, nutrients, CFC tracers, and hydrographic parameters. In this paper we estimate the in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates in the Pacific Ocean water column. Calcium carbonate dissolution rates ranging from 0.01 1.1 mmol kg1 yr1 are observed in intermediate and deepwater beginning near the aragonite saturation horizon. In the North Pacific Intermediate Water between 400 and 800 m, CaCO3 dissolution rates are more than 7 times faster than observed in middle and deep water depths (average = 0.051 mmol kg1 yr1). The total amount of CaCO3 that is dissolved within the Pacific is determined by integrating excess alkalinity throughout the water column. The total inventory of CaCO3 added by particle dissolution in the Pacific Ocean, north of 40S, is 157 Pg C. This amounts to an average dissolution rate of approximately 0.31 Pg C yr1. This estimate is approximately 74% of the export production of CaCO3 estimated for the Pacific Ocean. These estimates should be considered to be upper limits for in situ carbonate dissolution in the Pacific Ocean, since a portion of the alkalinity increase results from inputs from sediments.

  8. Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.; McCranie, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission has conducted water resources investigations and monitored groundwater conditions and availability in the Albany, Georgia, area since 1977. This report presents an overview of hydrologic conditions, water quality, and groundwater studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2009. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2009 data. During 2009, groundwater-level data were collected in 29 wells in the Albany area to monitor water-level trends in the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Providence aquifers. Groundwater-level data from 21 of the 29 wells indicated an increasing trend during 2008–09. Five wells show no trend due to lack of data and three wells have decreasing trends. Period-of-record water levels (period of record ranged between 1957–2009 and 2003–2009) declined slightly in 10 wells and increased slightly in 4 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer; declined in 1 well and increased in 2 wells tapping the Claiborne aquifer; declined in 4 wells and increased in 2 wells tapping the Clayton aquifer; and increased in 1 well tapping the Providence aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples collected during 2009 from 12 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of a well field located southwest of Albany indicate that overall concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen increased slightly from 2008 in 8 wells. A maximum concentration of 12.9 milligrams per liter was found in a groundwater sample from a well located upgradient from the well field. The distinct difference in chemical constituents of water samples collected from the Flint River and samples collected from wells located in the well-field area southwest of Albany indicates that little water exchange occurs between the Upper Floridan aquifer and Flint River where the river flows adjacent to, but downgradient of, the well field. Water

  9. RNA science and its applications-a look toward the future: Albany, NY USA, November 3-4, 2011.

    PubMed

    Breaker, Ronald R; Conklin, Douglas S; Gold, Larry; Söll, Dieter; Montimurro, Jennifer S; Agris, Paul F

    2012-08-01

    On November 3-4, 2011, the Symposium RNA Science and its Applications: A look toward the Future was held at the University at Albany-SUNY in the capital of New York State. Unique to this Symposium's format were panel discussions following each of the four platform sessions: RNA Technological Innovation: Analysis, Delivery, Nanotechnologies, IT; Infectious and other diseases: The future of small molecule intervention; RNA Discovery and Innovation: Cell and Molecular Biology; and Cancer and Neurological Disease: The future of small RNAs as therapeutics and tools of investigation. The meeting was organized by Thomas Begley, Marlene Belfort, Daniele Fabris, Melinda Larsen, Pan T.X. Li, Albert Millis, Li Niu, David Shub, and Carla Theimer of The RNA Institute at University at Albany-SUNY, Paul F. Agris, Director, and Jennifer S. Montimurro, Program Manager. PMID:22858674

  10. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1980-06-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

  11. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  12. Flow model of the Hudson River estuary from Albany to New Hamburg, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedfast, David A.

    1982-01-01

    A one-dimensional transient-flow-simulation model was developed to represent a 76-mile reach of the tidal Hudson River between Albany and New Hamburg, N.Y. The river 's direction of flow reverses four times daily as a result of tidal influence, and this process produces complex current patterns and retards the rate at which the river can flush out pollutants. In the model, the reach studied is treated as two subreaches to incorporate differences in channel conditions and to simplify model calibration. This report provides all stage (water-level) and discharge data that were used to calibrate and verify the model and compares the model results with measured data. The model accurately simulated observed flows, but further calibration based upon additional prototype flow measurements would improve simulation of the flow magnitude and phasing of the tide reversal under low-flow conditions. The model can be used to calculate instantaneous stage, velocity, and discharge for any location in the reach and can also be used to calculate net volume flux between tide reversals. (USGS)

  13. Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yanjian; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-07-01

    Benzothiazole and its derivatives (collectively referred to BTHs) are used widely in many consumer (e.g., textiles) and industrial (e.g., rubber) products. Very little is known about the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air and the inhalation exposure of humans to these substances. In this study, 81 indoor air samples collected from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, in 2014 were analyzed for BTHs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BTHs were found in all indoor air samples, and the overall concentrations in bulk air (vapor plus particulate phases) were in the range of 4.36-2229 ng/m(3) (geometric mean: 32.7 ng/m(3)). The highest concentrations (geometric mean: 148 ng/m(3)) were found in automobiles, followed by homes (49.5)>automobile garages (46.0)>public places, e.g., shopping malls (24.2)>barbershops (18.9) >offices (18.8)>laboratories (15.1). The estimated geometric mean daily intake (EDI) of BTHs for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults through indoor air inhalation from homes was 27.7, 26.3, 17.9, 10.5, and 7.77 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The estimated contribution of indoor air to total BTHs intake was approximately 10%. This is the first study on the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air. PMID:26954474

  14. Geothermal Heat Pump System for New Student Housing Project at the University at Albany Main Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Lnu, Indumathi

    2015-08-27

    University at Albany successfully designed, constructed and is operating a new student housing building that utilizes ground source heat pump (GSHP) for heating and cooling the entire 191,500SF building. The installed system consists of a well field with 150 bores, 450 feet deep and (189) terminal heat pump units for a total capacity of 358 Tons cooling and 4,300 MBtu/h heating. The building opened in Fall 2012. The annual energy use and cost intensity of the building, after the changes made during the first 2 years’ of operation is 57kBtu/SF/Year and $1.30/SF/Year respectively. This is approximately 50% lower than the other residential quads on campus, despite the fact that the quads are not air-conditioned. The total project cost from design through 3-years of operations is approximately $6 Million, out of which $5.7 Million is for construction of the GSHP system including the well field. The University received a $2.78 Million grant from the Department of Energy. The estimated utility cost savings, compared to a baseline building with conventional HVAC system, is approximately $185,000. The estimated simple payback, after grant incentives, is 15 years. Additionally, the project has created 8.5FTE equivalent jobs.

  15. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  16. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Malhotra, Mini; Xiong, Zeyu

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  17. Indoor air quality study in Agency Building Two, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The quality of the indoor environment and potential health conquences have become major concerns for occupants of office buildings. Increasing ventilation rates are often recommended as a potential solution for indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, whether real or perceived as real by occupants. To date, limited quantitative data have been collected to relate increased outdoor-air intake to commonly measured IAQ or comfort parameters. The purpose of this study, conducted by GEOMET Technologies, Inc. for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, was to quantitatively assess the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality and associated parameters in an occupied office building, and occupant perceptions of air quality and comfort in the building. The building studied, a 20-story office tower located at the Empire State Plaza in Albany, New York, has a total floor area of approximately 100,000 ft. The building is operated by the New York State Office of General Services (OGS). The air-distribution component of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the building consists of two air-handling units that serve the perimeter of the building through induction supply-air units and two other units that serve the core area of the building through ceiling diffusers. The perimeter system has separate zones that serve the north and south sides of the building, and the core system is zoned to individually serve the upper and lower halves of the building.

  18. New Albany shale flash pyrolysis under hot-recycled-solid conditions: Chemistry and kinetics, II

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Morris, C.J.

    1990-11-01

    The authors are continuing a study of recycle retorting of eastern and western oil shales using burnt shale as the solid heat carrier. Stripping of adsorbed oil from solid surfaces rather than the primary pyrolysis of kerogen apparently controls the release rate of the last 10--20% of hydrocarbons. Thus, the desorption rate defines the time necessary for oil recovery from a retort and sets the minimum hold-time in the pyrolyzer. A fluidized-bed oil shale retort resembles a fluidized-bed cat cracker in this respect. Recycled burnt shale cokes oil and reduces yield. The kerogen H/C ratio sets an upper limit on yield improvements unless external hydrogen donors are introduced. Steam can react with iron compounds to add to the H-donor pool. Increased oil yield when New Albany Shale pyrolyzes under hot-recycled-solid, steam-fluidization conditions has been confirmed and compared with steam retorting of acid-leached Colorado oil shale. In addition, with retorted, but unburnt, Devonian shale present at a recycle ratio of 3, the authors obtain 50% more oil-plus-gas than with burnt shale present. Procedures to make burnt shale more like unburnt shale can realize some increase in oil yield at high recycle ratios. Reduction with H{sub 2} and carbon deposition are possibilities that the authors have tested in the laboratory and can test in the pilot retort. Also, eastern spent shale burned at a high temperature (775 C, for example) cokes less oil than does spent shale burned at a low temperature (475 C). Changes in surface area with burn temperature contribute to this effect. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated. PMID:25947420

  20. The New Albany Shale Petroleum System, Illinois Basin - Data and Map Image Archive from the Material-Balance Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.; Henry, M.E.; Lewan, M.D.; Pitman, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The data files and explanations presented in this report were used to generate published material-balance approach estimates of amounts of petroleum 1) expelled from a source rock, and the sum of 2) petroleum discovered in-place plus that lost due to 3) secondary migration within, or leakage or erosion from a petroleum system. This study includes assessment of cumulative production, known petroleum volume, and original oil in place for hydrocarbons that were generated from the New Albany Shale source rocks.More than 4.00 billion barrels of oil (BBO) have been produced from Pennsylvanian-, Mississippian-, Devonian-, and Silurian-age reservoirs in the New Albany Shale petroleum system. Known petroleum volume is 4.16 BBO; the average recovery factor is 103.9% of the current cumulative production. Known petroleum volume of oil is 36.22% of the total original oil in place of 11.45 BBO. More than 140.4 BBO have been generated from the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin. Approximately 86.29 billion barrels of oil that was trapped south of the Cottage Grove fault system were lost by erosion of reservoir intervals. The remaining 54.15 BBO are 21% of the hydrocarbons that were generated in the basin and are accounted for using production data. Included in this publication are 2D maps that show the distribution of production for different formations versus the Rock-Eval pyrolysis hydrogen-indices (HI) contours, and 3D images that show the close association between burial depth and HI values.The primary vertical migration pathway of oil and gas was through faults and fractures into overlying reservoir strata. About 66% of the produced oil is located within the generative basin, which is outlined by an HI contour of 400. The remaining production is concentrated within 30 miles (50 km) outside the 400 HI contour. The generative basin is subdivided by contours of progressively lower hydrogen indices that represent increased levels of

  1. 76 FR 25685 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). e. Name of Project: Rollins Transmission Line Project. f..., Senior Project Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 5555 Florin Perkins Road, Sacramento, CA,...

  2. Gas hazard assessment in a densely inhabited area of Colli Albani Volcano (Cava dei Selci, Roma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, M. L.; Badalamenti, B.; Cavarra, L.; Scalzo, A.

    2003-04-01

    The northwestern flank of the Colli Albani, a Quaternary volcanic complex near Rome, is characterised by high pCO 2 values and Rn activities in the groundwater and by the presence of zones with strong emission of gas from the soil. The most significant of these zones is Cava dei Selci where many houses are located very near to the gas emission site. The emitted gas consists mainly of CO 2 (up to 98 vol%) with an appreciable content of H 2S (0.8-2%). The He and C isotopic composition indicates, as for all fluids associated with the Quaternary Roman and Tuscany volcanic provinces, the presence of an upper mantle component contaminated by crustal fluids associated with subducted sediments and carbonates. An advective CO 2 flux of 37 tons/day has been estimated from the gas bubbles rising to the surface in a small drainage ditch and through a stagnant water pool, present in the rainy season in a topographically low central part of the area. A CO 2 soil flux survey with an accumulation chamber, carried out in February-March 2000 over a 12 000 m 2 surface with 242 measurement points, gave a total (mostly conductive) flux of 61 tons/day. CO 2 soil flux values vary by four orders of magnitude over a 160-m distance and by one order of magnitude over several metres. A fixed network of 114 points over 6350 m 2 has been installed in order to investigate temporal flux variations. Six surveys carried out from May 2000 to June 2001 have shown large variations of the total CO 2 soil flux (8-25 tons/day). The strong emission of CO 2 and H 2S, which are gases denser than air, produces dangerous accumulations in low areas which have caused a series of lethal accidents to animals and one to a man. The gas hazard near the houses has been assessed by continuously monitoring the CO 2 and H 2S concentration in the air at 75 cm from the ground by means of two automatic stations. Certain environmental parameters (wind direction and speed; atm P, T, humidity and rainfall) were also

  3. Inorganic ground-water chemistry at an experimental New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in situ gasification site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branam, T.D.; Comer, J.B.; Shaffer, N.R.; Ennis, M.V.; Carpenter, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental in situ gasification of New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) has been conducted in Clark County. Analyses of ground water sampled from a production well and nine nearby monitoring wells 3 months after a brief in situ gasification period revealed changes in water chemistry associated with the gasification procedure. Dissolved iron, calcium and sulphate in ground water from the production well and wells as much as 2 m away were significantly higher than in ground water from wells over 9 m away. Dissolved components in the more distant wells are in the range of those in regional ground water. Thermal decomposition of pyrite during the gasification process generated the elevated levels of iron and sulphate in solution. High concentrations of calcium indicate buffering by dissolution of carbonate minerals. While iron quickly precipitates, calcium and sulphate remain in the ground water. Trends in the concentration of sulphate show that altered ground water migrated mostly in a south-westerly direction from the production well along natural joints in the New Albany Shale. ?? 1991.

  4. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  5. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  6. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  7. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  8. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  12. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  13. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  15. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  16. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  19. 33 CFR 80.1144 - Bodega and Tomales Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bodega and Tomales Bay, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1144 Bodega and Tomales Bay, CA. (a... of Bodega Harbor North Breakwater to Bodega Harbor Entrance Light 1....

  20. 33 CFR 80.1144 - Bodega and Tomales Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bodega and Tomales Bay, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1144 Bodega and Tomales Bay, CA. (a... of Bodega Harbor North Breakwater to Bodega Harbor Entrance Light 1....

  1. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Dana Point Jetty Light 6 to Dana Point Breakwater Light 5....

  2. 33 CFR 80.1120 - Port Hueneme, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Hueneme, CA. 80.1120 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1120 Port Hueneme, CA. (a) A line drawn from Port Hueneme East Jetty Light 4 to Port Hueneme West Jetty Light 3....

  3. 46 CFR 7.115 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 7.115 Section 7.115 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.115 Santa Catalina Island, CA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Lion Head...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1150 - Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. 80.1150... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1150 Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. A line drawn from Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 4 to Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 3....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1112 - Newport Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport Bay, CA. 80.1112 Section 80.1112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1112 Newport Bay, CA. A line drawn from...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1148 - Noyo River, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noyo River, CA. 80.1148 Section 80.1148 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1148 Noyo River, CA. A line drawn from...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1106 - Mission Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mission Bay, CA. 80.1106 Section 80.1106 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1106 Mission Bay, CA. A line drawn from...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1130 - San Luis Obispo Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, CA. 80.1130 Section 80.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1130 San Luis Obispo Bay, CA. A line drawn...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1146 - Albion River, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albion River, CA. 80.1146 Section 80.1146 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1146 Albion River, CA. A line drawn on an...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1132 - Estero-Morro Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estero-Morro Bay, CA. 80.1132 Section 80.1132 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1132 Estero-Morro Bay, CA. A line drawn...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Pillar Point Harbor Light 6 to Pillar Point Harbor Entrance Light....

  6. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Pillar Point Harbor Light 6 to Pillar Point Harbor Entrance Light....

  7. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Dana Point Jetty Light 6 to Dana Point Breakwater Light 5....

  8. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  9. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  10. Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by13C CP/MAS NMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner-Zwanziger, U.; Lis, G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Late-stage magmatic processes at Albano Maar, Colli Albani, Italy: insights from FTIR analysis of leucites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, J. K.; Roberge, J.; Smith, V.; Giordano, G.; Tomlinson, E.; Menzies, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The recently erupted Albano Maar, one of the Via dei Laghi phreatomagmatic eruptions of Colli Albani, Italy have eruptive deposits that are K-foiditic (9wt% K2O) and silica under-saturated (48-52wt% SiO2). These compositions suggest the melts are low viscosity [1, 2], but they fuelled very explosive eruptions, namely the widespread large Peperino ignimbrite (phreato-Plinian) deposits. Therefore a question asked by researchers is how could these melts explode and would they, if they had not interacted with groundwater? Experimental work has shown that the melt chemistries at Colli Albani require a volatile saturated system [3]. Consequently the CO2 and H2O content of the melts are critical to understanding the petrogenetic processes at Albano Maar. Since the juvenile tephra clasts exhibit extensive late stage micro-crystallization (mainly leucite), analysis of glass is difficult and not representative as the majority of the volatile components may have exsolved from the melt. Melt inclusions are also commonly recrystallized and often leaky so here we unravel the complex volatile histories of the melts using the abundant leucite crystals, which have been shown to contain magmatic water in recent studies [4]. FTIR analysis of leucite phenocrysts and microcrysts within juvenile tephra clasts (syn-eruptive) of all the erupted units at Albano Maar provide an interesting insight into volatile variations and record a late stage CO2 fluxing event, which would have contributed to the explosive nature of the eruptions. This study has also allowed for an increased understanding of the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) that crucially record volatile speciation and fluxing in high level magmatic systems. [1] Freda et al., 2006, Bul Vol, 68, pp567-591 [2] Cross et al., 2011 IUGG abs [3] Freda et al., 2008, Lithos, pp397-415 [4] Ventura et al., 2008, Am Min, 93, pp1538-1544

  12. 78 FR 41391 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Amendment Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Amendment Accepted.... Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). e. Name of Project: Lower Drum Project. The four... and Electric Company, P.O. Box 770000, San Francisco, CA 94177-0001, (415) 973-4481, or email...

  13. 77 FR 70424 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... and Electric Company. e. Name of Project: Battle Creek. f. Location: On the mainstem Battle Creek, and... Coordinator, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 245 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105. Tel: (415)...

  14. 10. 'Southern Pacific Company, 6th Crossing of Sacramento River, One ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 'Southern Pacific Company, 6th Crossing of Sacramento River, One 208'-10-1/2' C. to C. End Pins S. Tr. Thro. Skew Span, Scale 1' = 10', The Phoenix Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa., April 12, 1901, Drg. 45' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 301.85, Milepost 301.85, Pollard Flat, Shasta County, CA

  15. 15. 'Southern Pacific R.R., One 236'0' Bet. End Pins S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Southern Pacific R.R., One 236'-0' Bet. End Pins S. Tr. Thro'. Draw Bridge over Sacramento River at Tehama, The Phoenix Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa., Jan'y 19th 98, Dwg. 585.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  16. 26. BUILDING PLANS FOR MENTONE POWER HOUSE, PACIFIC LIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BUILDING PLANS FOR MENTONE POWER HOUSE, PACIFIC LIGHT AND POWER CO., OCT. 7, 1903. R.S. MASSON, CONSULTING ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, SAN FRANCISCO AND LOS ANGELES. SCE drawing no. 52306. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Results of the radiological survey of State of New York land between 80--110 Yardboro Avenue, Albany, New York (AL151)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property between 80--110 Yardboro Avenue, Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated June 8, 1986. The property consists of a vacant parcel with not structures on a rectangular lot. A concrete slab extends onto the lot from the property to the east. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 20-m grid network established for measurements are shown. The rectangular area included in the radiological survey was /approximately/120 m wide by 34 m deep. Two views of the property are shown. The red brick building partially showing in the background is the former NL Industries Plant. 13 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Tectonic and flexural significance of Middle Devonian graben-fill sequence in new Albany shale, central Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Mellon, C. )

    1989-08-01

    The third tectonic phase of the Acadian orogeny began in the late Middle Devonian, and the sedimentary record of that event is largely restricted to the deeper, more proximal portions of the Appalachian foreland and Illinois intercratonic basins. Much of the intervening area, on and near the Cincinnati arch, was uplifted and subjected to erosion by movement on the peripheral bulge accompanying the initiation of the third tectonic phase. However, bulge movement also reactivated basement fault systems in Kentucky and created a series of grabens that were filled with eroded sediments and debris flows from adjacent horsts. Although rarely preserved, a buried Devonian graben along Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky, reveals such a sequence. The graben is bounded by upthrown blocks of Middle Devonian Boyle Dolomite, which also floors the graben. Within the graben a black-shale unit, apparently absent elsewhere, conformably overlies the Boyle and grades upward into debris-flow deposits represented by the Duffin breccia facies of the New Albany Shale. The Duffin contains clasts of the shale, as well as of chert, silicified fossils, and fine to boulder-size dolostone clasts eroded from the Boyle high on the flanks of the graben. The underlying shale also exhibits evidence of penecontemporaneous soft-sediment deformation related to the debris-flow emplacement of Boyle residue in the graben and due to later loading by the Duffin.

  19. Occurrence of benzophenone-3 in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yanjian; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-15

    Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a widespread environmental contaminant and an estrogenic compound. Very little is known with regard to the occurrence in indoor air and the inhalation exposure of humans to BP-3. In this study, 81 indoor air samples were collected from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, in 2014 and analyzed for BP-3 by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BP-3 was found in all indoor air samples and the overall concentrations in bulk air (vapor plus particulate phases) were in the range of 0.19-72.0 ng/m(3) (geometric mean: 2.67 ng/m(3)). The highest concentrations (geometric mean: 10.7 ng/m(3)) were found in cars, followed by barber shops (6.57) ˃ public places (5.75)>homes (3.27) ˃ offices (1.96) ˃ garages (1.04) ˃ laboratories (0.47). The estimated geometric mean daily intake (EDI) of BP-3 for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults through indoor air inhalation from homes was 1.83, 1.74, 1.18, 0.69, and 0.51 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. Although high concentrations of BP-3 were measured in some microenvironments, the estimated contribution of indoor air to total BP-3 intake was <5% of the total BP-3 intake in humans. This is the first survey on the occurrence of BP-3 in indoor air. PMID:26282764

  20. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  1. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  2. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  3. Trans-Pacific Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A trans-Pacific section along latitude 24.5°N is planned for 1985, with the field program tentatively scheduled for April 17 to June 27. The purpose of the expedition is to measure the transport of heat by ocean currents, to determine the net transport of water masses and estimate the meridional general circulation of the North Pacific, and to improve the mapping of tracer distributions in the deep North Pacific.Approximately 200 surface-to-bottom CTD/rosette stations will be occupied across the width of the ocean, with maximum station spacing of 80 km over abyssal plains, closing to 30-50 km over rough topography and boundaries. Water samples will be collected and analyzed on board for salinity, oxygen, and nutrients.

  4. Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June 29, 1960 (University of California, Santa Barbara, Map and Imagery Collection) PORTION OF IRVINE RANCH SHOWING SITE CA-2275-A IN LOWER LEFT QUADRANT AND SITE CA-2275-B IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT (see separate photograph index for 2275-B) - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  5. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  6. The Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The articles in this special edition were compiled to provide information to Canadian social studies teachers about Pacific Rim countries. Section 1, entitled "The Big Picture and Future Interests," contains: (1) "Social Studies for the 21st Century" (J. Tucker); (2) "Culture and Communication: A Perspective on Asian Studies for Tomorrow's…

  7. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  8. The South Pacific superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Fischer, Karen M.

    Seafloor depths in a broad area of French Polynesia are 250 to 750 m shallower than lithosphere of the same age in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. The area of shallow seafloor also correlates with a region of high density of volcanoes, low seismic velocity in the upper mantle, and a reduction in the thickness of the elastic plate supporting the volcanoes. The Marquesas fracture zone marks an abrupt transition between normal lithosphere to the north which follows the thermal subsidence curve for a 125-km-thick plate and shallow lithosphere to the south which behaves as though it is only 75-km thick. This age dependence in the French Polynesian depth anomalies, the low elastic plate thickness, and the change in depth at the Marquesas fracture zone, a lithospheric discontinuity, require elevated temperatures in the lithosphere. The pattern and amplitude of the depth anomaly is not consistent with the notion that it results from lithospheric thinning beneath a number of overlapping hot spot swells. Rather, we propose that hot spot traces cluster in this region because the lithosphere is already thinner and more vulnerable to magma penetration. The reduction in the thickness of the thermal plate is presumably due to enhanced small-scale convection resulting from the thermal and/or chemical effect of a broad mantle up welling beneath the South Pacific as imaged by seismic tomography. The morphologic and petrologic characteristics of this superswell resemble those that existed in the mid-Cretaceous over H. W. Menard's Darwin Rise, a region of the Pacific which includes the Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Marshall Islands, Magellan Seamounts, and Wake Guyots. We propose that the South Pacific superswell is the modern-day equivalent of the Darwin Rise, and that it may be merely an extreme example of global variability in lithospheric thermal structure as a function of temperature, chemistry, and/or state-of-stress in the upper mantle.

  9. Hydrogeology of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the vicinity of the Marine Corps Logistics Base near Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Navy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an investigation to describe the hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of the Marine Corps Logistics Base, southeast and adjacent to Albany, Georgia. The study area encompasses about 90 square miles in the Dougherty Plain District of the Coastal Plain physiographic province, in Dougherty and Worth Counties-the Marine Corps Logistics Base encompasses about 3,600 acres in the central part of the study area. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the shallowest, most widely used source of drinking water for domestic use in the Albany area. The hydrogeologic framework of this aquifer was delineated by description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose the aquifer; evaluation of the lithologic and hydrologic heterogeneity of the aquifer; comparison of the geologic and hydrogeologic setting beneath the base with those of the surrounding area; and determination of ground-water-flow directions, and vertical hydraulic conductivities and gradients in the aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is composed of the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and is divided into an upper and lower water-bearing zone. The aquifer is confined below by the Lisbon Formation and is semi-confined above by a low-permeability clay layer in the undifferentiated overburden. The thickness of the aquifer ranges from about 165 feet in the northeastern part of the study area, to about 325 feet in the southeastern part of the study area. Based on slug tests conducted by a U.S. Navy contractor, the upper water-bearing zone has low horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.0224 to 2.07 feet per day) and a low vertical hydraulic conductivity (0.0000227 to 0.510 feet per day); the lower water-bearing zone has a horizontal hydraulic conductivity that ranges from 0.0134 to 2.95 feet per day. Water-level hydrographs of continuously monitored wells on the Marine Corps Logistics Base show excellent correlation between

  10. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... dangers associated with the pyrotechnics. Unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering... pyrotechnics used in these fireworks displays, the safety zones are necessary to provide for the safety of... pyrotechnics over the water. The Coast Guard has granted the event sponsor a marine event permit for...

  11. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for paleoredox conditions during deposition of the Devonian-Mississippian New Albany Shale, southern Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beier, J. A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The upper part of the New Albany Shale is divided into three members. In ascending order, these are (1) the Morgan Trail Member, a laminated brownish-black shale; (2) the Camp Run Member, an interbedded brownish-black and greenish-gray shale; and (3) the Clegg Creek Member, also a laminated brownish-black shale. The Morgan Trail and Camp Run Members contain 5% to 6% total organic carbon (TOC) and 2% sulfide sulfur. Isotopic composition of sulfide in these members ranges from -5.0% to -20.0%. C/S plots indicate linear relationships between abundances of these elements, with a zero intercept characteristic of sediments deposited in a non-euxinic marine environment. Formation of diagenetic pyrite was carbon limited in these members. The Clegg Creek Member contains 10% to 15% TOC and 2% to 6% sulfide sulfur. Isotopic compositions of sulfide range from -5.0% to -40%. The most negative values occur in the uppermost Clegg Creek Member and are characteristic of syngenetic pyrite, formed within an anoxic water column. Abundances of carbon and sulfur are greater and uncorrelated in this member, consistent with deposition in as euxinic environment. In addition, DOP (degree of pyritization) values suggest that formation of pyrite was generally iron limited throughout Clegg Creek deposition, but sulfur isotopes indicate that syngenetic (water-column) pyrite becomes an important component in the sediment only in the upper part of the member. At the top of the Clegg Creek Member, a zone of phosphate nodules and trace-metal enrichment coincides with maximal TOC values. During euxinic deposition, phosphate and trace metals accumulated below the chemocline because of limited vertical circulation in the water column. Increased productivity would have resulted in an increased flux of particulate organic matter to the sediment, providing an effective sink for trace metals in the water column. Phosphate and trace metals released from organic matter during early diagenesis resulted in

  12. Characterization of fractures and flow zones in a contaminated shale at the Watervliet Arsenal, Albany County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Flow zones in a fractured shale in and near a plume of volatile organic compounds at the Watervliet Arsenal in Albany County, N. Y. were characterized through the integrated analysis of geophysical logs and single- and cross-hole flow tests. Information on the fracture-flow network at the site was needed to design an effective groundwater monitoring system, estimate offsite contaminant migration, and evaluate potential containment and remedial actions. Four newly drilled coreholes and four older monitoring wells were logged and tested to define the distribution and orientation of fractures that intersected a combined total of 500 feet of open hole. Analysis of borehole-wall image logs obtained with acoustic and optical televiewers indicated 79 subhorizontal to steeply dipping fractures with a wide range of dip directions. Analysis of fluid resistivity, temperature, and heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeter logs obtained under ambient and short-term stressed conditions identified 14 flow zones, which consist of one to several fractures and whose estimated transmissivity values range from 0.1 to more than 250 feet squared per day. Cross-hole flow tests, which were used to characterize the hydraulic connection between fracture-flow zones intersected by the boreholes, entailed (1) injection into or extraction from boreholes that penetrated a single fracture-flow zone or whose zones were isolated by an inflatable packer, and (2) measurement of the transient response of water levels and flow in surrounding boreholes. Results indicate a wellconnected fracture network with an estimated transmissivity of 80 to 250 feet squared per day that extends for at least 200 feet across the site. This interconnected fracture-flow network greatly affects the hydrology of the site and has important implications for contaminant monitoring and remedial actions.

  13. The Albano Maar Lake high resolution bathymetry and dissolved CO 2 budget (Colli Albani volcano, Italy): Constrains to hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, Marco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Esposito, Alessandra; Giordano, Guido; Lelli, Matteo; Tarchini, Luca

    2008-04-01

    The Albano Lake is the deepest volcanic lake in Italy (- 167 m) and fills the youngest maar of the quiescent Colli Albani volcano. The lake has undergone significant level changes and lahar generating overflows occurred about 5800 yrs B.P. and likely in 398 b.C., when Romans excavated a tunnel drain through the maar wall. Hazardous lake rollovers and CO 2 release are still possible because the Albano volcano shows active ground deformation, gas emission and periodic seismic swarms. On November 2005, the first high resolution bathymetric survey of the Albano Lake was performed. Here we present the results provided by a Digital Elevation Model and 2-D and 3-D images of the crater lake floor, which is made by coalescent and partly overlapping craters and wide flat surfaces separated by some evident scarps. Submerged shorelines are identified at depths between - 20 m and - 41 m and indicate the occurrence of significant lake level changes, likely between 7.1 and 4.1 ka. The current lake volume is ~ 447.5 × 10 6 m 3 and the total quantity of dissolved CO 2 is 6850 t estimated by chemical analyses of samples collected on May 2006. A decrease of nearly one order of magnitude of the CO 2 dissolved in the lake water below - 120 m, observed from December 1997 to May 2006 (from 4190 to 465 t respectively), has been attributed to lake water overturn. The observed oscillations of the dissolved CO 2 concentrations justify the efforts of monitoring the chemical and physical characteristics of the lake. At present the quantity of dissolved CO 2 is very far from saturation and Nyos-type events cannot presently occur.

  14. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  15. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  16. 46 CFR 7.120 - Mexican/United States border to Point Fermin, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mexican/United States border to Point Fermin, CA. 7.120 Section 7.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.120 Mexican/United States border to Point Fermin, CA. (a) A line...

  17. Prehispanic agriculture and climate on the Pacific slope of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Wilcut

    The relationship between agriculture and social complexity is a complicated one through both time and space; this is no less true in prehispanic Mesoamerica. Human occupation of the Pacific Coast of Gualtemala prior to Spanish contact was affected by humans' relationship with their physical environment, including the vegetation and climate. I examined multiple lines of evidence, including phytolith, pollen, and settlement data, seeking to detect changes within the paleoenviromental, paleoclimatic, and socio-cultural records from the Middle and Late Formative (1000 BC to AD 150) through the Classic (AD 150 to 600) and Post-Classic (ca. AD 1000) periods. This work reveals that social complexity on the Pacific Slope of Gualtemala developed alongside agricultural intensification. More significantly, however, it also reveals that while there was a population "collapse" on the Pacific Slope at the end of the Late Formative period, there was not the correlating drought or decline in agriculture seen in other areas of the Maya homeland.

  18. Modeling the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A.; O'Brien, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Two numerical models utilizing primitive equations (two momentum equations and a mass continuity equation) simulate the oceanography of the Pacific Ocean from 20{degrees}S to 50{degrees}N. The authors examine the abundant model data through visualization , by animating the appropriate model fields and viewing the time history of each model simulation as a color movie. The animations are used to aid understanding of ocean circulation.

  19. Northeast Pacific flatfish management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Exploitation of northeast Pacific flatfish effectively began in the late 1800s with the fishery for Pacific halibut. Harvest of other flatfish occurred on a limited, local basis until foreign fishing fleets came to the area in the late 1950s. When US and Canadian fishermen replaced the foreign fleets in the 1970s and 1980s, a conservation-based management system designed to control foreign fishing was applied to the domestic fleet. Flatfish stock assessment is based on scientific surveys, both trawl and longline, and on catch-age models. In Alaskan waters since 1989 and since 1996 in Canadian waters, mandatory observers collect data on species composition, discards of flatfish and other groundfish, and catch and discards of prohibited species. Fishermen pay observer costs. Most biomass and harvest occurs in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands area. Many northeast Pacific flatfish are near record-high abundance, an order of magnitude higher than 20 years ago. Exploitation rates based on F35% or F0.1 generate acceptable biological catch of more than 1 million mt, but annual harvest reaches only 300,000 mt. Total groundfish harvest is limited by an optimum yield limit of 2 million mt in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, where the acceptable biological catch is 3 million mt, and by limits on amounts of Pacific halibut and other prohibited species bycatch. Most flatfish are relatively low-value species, and fishermen chose to fish for more valuable species. A large, powerful fleet which developed under open access in the US saw fishing time decline and economic problems increase as catching capacity grew, while Canada stabilized its fleet with limited entry and catch restrictions for individual vessels.

  20. The Pacific RANET Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  1. 78 FR 46325 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC785 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific... Subcommittee of the Pacific Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will convene a teleconference... Groundfish Subcommittee teleconference. Council address: Pacific Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite...

  2. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  3. Vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Jon K

    2011-08-01

    Calcium transporters that mediate the removal of Ca(2+) from the cytosol and into internal stores provide a critical role in regulating Ca(2+) signals following stimulus induction and in preventing calcium toxicity. The vacuole is a major calcium store in many organisms, particularly plants and fungi. Two main pathways facilitate the accumulation of Ca(2+) into vacuoles, Ca(2+)-ATPases and Ca(2+)/H(+) exchangers. Here I review the biochemical and regulatory features of these transporters that have been characterised in yeast and plants. These Ca(2+) transport mechanisms are compared with those being identified from other vacuolated organisms including algae and protozoa. Studies suggest that Ca(2+) uptake into vacuoles and other related acidic Ca(2+) stores occurs by conserved mechanisms which developed early in evolution. PMID:21310481

  4. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  5. Pacific neogene stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, John; Beu, Alan; Blueford, Joyce R.; Chinzei, Kiyotaka; Hornibrook, Norcutt; Ingle, James; Steininger, Fritz; Tsuchi, Ryuichi

    The Fourth International Congress of Pacific Neogene Stratigraphy, was held July 29-31, 1987, at the University of California, Berkeley. This very successful congress was organized by the Regional Committee on Pacific Neogene Stratigraphy (RCPNS) of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Geological Correlation Program (IGCP) Project 246 “Pacific Neogene Events in Time and Space.” The meeting was attended by 180 scientists from 16 different countries, and more than 90 presentations were made, on topics ranging from paleoclimatology, biostratigraphy, regional stratigraphy and geologic history, new techniques in stratigraphy, evolutionary studies, and modern biofacies and sediment relationships.A. R. Edwards of the New Zealand Geological Survey (Lower Hutt, New Zealand) spoke on climatic events that he recognizes in the late Neogene strata of New Zealand. The carbon isotope shift during chron 6 (6.3-6.5 Ma) is identified in the sequence at Blind River (Marlborough, New Zealand). The extinction of ˜25% of New Zealand molluscan genera during the latest Micoene (Kapitean Stage) accompanied the greatly accelerated diversification of planktonic foraminifera lineages at this time. The New Zealand events are also coeval with the Messinian “salinity crisis” in the Mediterranean. A series of events (extinctions of Mollusca, appearance of glacial rock types, foraminifera speciation, and nannofossil appearances) in New Zealand late Pliocene rocks reflect the climatic deterioration. One type of sub-Antarctic molluscan fauna abruptly appeared in central North Island at 2.4 m.y., coeval with the onset of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  6. Decadal changes in South Pacific sea surface temperatures and the relationship to the Pacific decadal oscillation and upper ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Dassié, Emilie P.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2015-04-01

    Decadal changes in Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and upper ocean heat content (OHC) remain poorly understood. We present an annual average composite coral Sr/Ca-derived SST time series extending back to 1791 from Fiji, Tonga, and Rarotonga (FTR) in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) sensitive region of the southwest Pacific. Decadal SST maxima between 1805 and 1830 Common Era (C.E.) indicate unexplained elevated SSTs near the end of the Little Ice Age. The mean period of decadal SST variability in this region has a period near 25 years. Decades of warmer (cooler) FTR SST co-occur with PDO negative (positive) phases since at least ~1930 C.E. and positively correlate with South Pacific OHC (0-700 m). FTR SST is also inversely correlated with decadal changes in equatorial Pacific SST as measured by coral Sr/Ca. Collectively, these results support the fluctuating trade wind-shallow meridional overturning cell mechanism for decadal modulation of Pacific SSTs and OHC.

  7. The Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Tagica, K

    1993-03-01

    Population education in the Pacific region is summarized in terms of awareness and commitment, curriculum and instructional materials development, integration into the school curricula, training programs, and evaluation research. Several population education issues of current concern relate to the increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that are associated with life styles and diet, and the rising incidence of AIDS and teenage pregnancy. In the Pacific region, many countries have advanced population programs and policies, while some still do not even have a population policy. The issue of balancing population and resources is a topic that has not been sufficiently addressed in resource-poor countries. There is wide variance in awareness and commitment to population education in the Pacific region. Commitment and continuous support are crucial to population education projects. Lack of support is sometimes due to changing government personnel and lack of awareness of policy makers. Population education is not the same as family planning or sex education, and traditionally is spread through seminars and workshops by part time project personnel unconnected to the entire educational apparatus. Presently, only 8 population projects are functioning in the region, with 2-3 in the planning stages. Materials development in the Pacific region has been devoted to the secondary school level, yet awareness is increasing that sexuality, family health, and the environment should be introduced at the primary level. A popular strategy is to integrate population issues into the existing curriculum, such as in Fiji, the Marshall Islands, and Kiribati, which also have teacher training curriculum. In most countries sex education is still a controversial topic, and materials are developed by teacher committees working after school rather in a curriculum development unit. AIDS has pushed this topic into the public sector. A chart is provided for each country and

  8. Pacific rim lures explorationists

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, L.

    1991-09-01

    The Pacific Rim has been far and away the most attractive hunting ground for explorationists in the past year. Observers point to political initiatives coupled with a growing demand as igniting the region's numerous hydrocarbon possibilities. This paper describes some of the new incentives and the resultant exploration results and developments in China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Vietnam. A major sign of the region's political maturity is the willingness for the countries involved to solve the longstanding disputes over the claims in hydrocarbon-prone South China Sea.

  9. Earth - Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft early Dec. 12, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.6 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. The Pacific Ocean covers virtually all of the visible disk of the Earth in this picture. The glint of the Sun reflected from smooth water is near the center. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earths rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  10. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Worcester, Peter F; Spindel, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    A series of long-range acoustic propagation experiments have been conducted in the North Pacific Ocean during the last 15 years using various combinations of low-frequency, wide-bandwidth transmitters and horizontal and vertical line array receivers, including a 2-dimensional array with a maximum vertical aperture of 1400 m and a horizontal aperture of 3600 m. These measurements were undertaken to further our understanding of the physics of low-frequency, broadband propagation and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. In this volume some of the results are presented. In the present paper the central issues these experiments have addressed are briefly summarized. PMID:15810685

  11. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  13. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  14. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  15. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  16. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  17. Pacific Northwest: paradise lost

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.V.

    1980-04-18

    An influx of new residents to the Pacific Northwest is changing social patterns and is endangering the region's valued wilderness and resources. A growing population and a feeling that the national govenment is more exploitive than conserving of its resources combines with a political tension between progressive populism and conservative Mormon influences to make residents wary of either newcomers or new prosperity. The abundant hydro power is threatened as power demand increases and utilities, industries, and the state and local governments compete for their fair share. A plan to restructure the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been introduced in Congress to give it a single appointed administrator with the authority to decide how power will be distributed and which new power sources to develop. Concern about the two national nuclear waste repositories at Hanford and Idaho Falls led to a six-month moratorium at Hanford to warn the government that the site was not intended to be a permanent solution. A legislative proposal to set up regional nuclear parks will not relieve the Pacific Northwest's problems for some time. Leaders blame the policymakers for looking on the area as too remote and underpopulated to worry about. 18 references (DCK)

  18. Temperature effects on Ca2+ cycling in scombrid cardiomyocytes: a phylogenetic comparison.

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Lipnick, Michael S; Shiels, Holly A; Block, Barbara A

    2011-04-01

    Specialisations in excitation-contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca(2+) handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca(2+) channel current (I(Ca)), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content (ssSR(load) and maxSR(load)). Current-voltage relations, peak I(Ca) density and charge density of I(Ca) were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. I(Ca) density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SR(load) was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). I(Ca) and SR(load) were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca(2+) entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca(2+) storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190

  19. Teaching about the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Presents ERIC Digest No. 43 which examines the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim," reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum, and useful strategies for teaching about that part of the world. Lists references, including ERIC resources, used in the digest's preparation. (GEA)

  20. Teaching about the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) the meaning of the term Pacific Rim, (2) the reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum, and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. Provides a list of reference and ERIC resources dealing with this subject. (GEA)

  1. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  2. The North Pacific Gyre Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; di Lorenzo, E.

    2007-12-01

    Discussion of North Pacific Decadal decadal variability has focused primarily on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the leading mode of sea surface temperature anomalies north of the tropics. The PDO appears to result from a superposition of SST pattern forced by the North Pacific atmosphere due to its intrinsic dynamics and teleconnected from the tropics, with a regional impact of the ocean circulation in the frontal regions associated with the Kuroshio/Oyashio and their extensions into the interior. Recent modeling, however, suggest that previously unexplained decadal changes of salinity, nutrient upwelling and chlorophyl in the California Current are not dominated by the PDO. Rather, these are associated with a mode of variability associated with wind driven changes of the North Pacific Gyre. Consideration of this mode variability may thus be important to understand present and future variations of the North Pacific ecosystem, and in the interpretation of climate proxies.

  3. Using benthic foraminiferal B/Ca to constrain the effect of dissolution on key Pliocene Mg/Ca temperature records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The state of the Pliocene tropical Pacific is currently the subject of heated debate. The debate hinges on the veracity of planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca temperatures from the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP) and the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) that show Pliocene WPWP temperatures similar to today but a warmer Pliocene EEP, resulting in a much reduced east-west gradient [Wara et al., 2005]. These findings form the basis of the "permanent El Niño-like state" paradigm of Pliocene climate. However, recent studies using organic biomarker proxies produce temperature records that indicate a WPWP cooling trend since the Pliocene that differs markedly from Mg/Ca-temperature records [O'Brien et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2014]. Though much of the debate has focused on changes in seawater Mg/Ca, spatial variations in proxy agreement point to dissolution as a key factor. Dissolution, which imparts a cool bias to Mg/Ca temperatures, varies across ocean basins depending on Δ[CO32-], the difference from the carbonate ion concentration needed for calcite saturation. By necessity, dissolution corrections use the modern value of Δ[CO32-] for the entire record, so it is possible that Pliocene proxy discrepancies could stem from varying Δ[CO32-] over time. Here we present benthic foraminiferal B/Ca data (a proxy for Δ[CO32-]) from the EEP and WEP spanning the past 5 Myr, to constrain the effect of dissolution on Pliocene Mg/Ca records. To account for possible changes in seawater B/Ca, we present paired epifaunal-infaunal B/Ca data. Infaunal species are much less sensitive to Δ[CO32-] than epifaunal species, but would still record long-term changes in seawater B/Ca. The true Δ[CO32-] can thus be calculated from the epifaunal-infaunal B/Ca difference [Brown et al., 2011]. Our study is the first to apply this approach downcore; by accounting for long-term changes in seawater, it greatly expands use of the B/Ca proxy and enables a first attempt at correcting for time

  4. Roving the Pacific: Pacific Manuscripts Bureau Microfilming in the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidment, Ewan

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of microfilming by the Pacific Manuscripts Bureau (PMB), a non-profit organization established in 1968 to identify and preserve archives, manuscripts, and rare printed documents relating to the South Pacific Islands. Describes a 1997 PMB microfilming expedition to Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. (PEN)

  5. High precision calcium isotope analysis using 42Ca-48Ca double-spike TIMS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, L.; Zhou, L.; Gao, S.; Tong, S. Y.; Zhou, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Double spike techniques are widely used for determining calcium isotopic compositions of natural samples. The most important factor controlling precision of the double spike technique is the choice of appropriate spike isotope pair, the composition of double spikes and the ratio of spike to sample(CSp/CN). We propose an optimal 42Ca-48Ca double spike protocol which yields the best internal precision for calcium isotopic composition determinations among all kinds of spike pairs and various spike compositions and ratios of spike to sample, as predicted by linear error propagation method. It is suggested to use spike composition of 42Ca/(42Ca+48Ca) = 0.44 mol/mol and CSp/(CN+ CSp)= 0.12mol/mol because it takes both advantages of the largest mass dispersion between 42Ca and 48Ca (14%) and lowest spike cost. Spiked samples were purified by pass through homemade micro-column filled with Ca special resin. K, Ti and other interference elements were completely separated, while 100% calcium was recovered with negligible blank. Data collection includes integration time, idle time, focus and peakcenter frequency, which were all carefully designed for the highest internal precision and lowest analysis time. All beams were automatically measured in a sequence by Triton TIMS so as to eliminate difference of analytical conditions between samples and standards, and also to increase the analytical throughputs. The typical internal precision of 100 duty cycles for one beam is 0.012‒0.015 ‰ (2δSEM), which agrees well with the predicted internal precision of 0.0124 ‰ (2δSEM). Our methods improve internal precisions by a factor of 2‒10 compared to previous methods of determination of calcium isotopic compositions by double spike TIMS. We analyzed NIST SRM 915a, NIST SRM 915b and Pacific Seawater as well as interspersed geological samples during two months. The obtained average δ44/40Ca (all relative to NIST SRM 915a) is 0.02 ± 0.02 ‰ (n=28), 0.72±0.04 ‰ (n=10) and 1

  6. Temperature effects on Ca2+ cycling in scombrid cardiomyocytes: a phylogenetic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190

  7. 76 FR 9001 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); March 4-10, 2011 Pacific Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA221 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); March 4-10, 2011 Pacific Council Meetings AGENCY: NMFS, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council and its...

  8. 78 FR 13641 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); March 5-11, 2013 Pacific Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC527 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); March 5-11, 2013 Pacific Council Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Pacific Council and its advisory entities will hold public meetings. DATES: The...

  9. 75 FR 63441 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); November 3-9, 2010, Pacific Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ68 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); November 3- 9, 2010, Pacific Council Meeting AGENCY: NMFS, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council and its...

  10. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael, M.; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Secretory patterns of catecholamines in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Nozawa, Aoi; Ueda, Keiichi; Bungo, Takashi; Terao, Hiromi; Asahina, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-15

    Catecholamines (CAs), namely adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA), are secreted by the sympathoadrenal system and participate in a diverse array of functions, e.g., heat production, cardiovascular regulation, stress response and so on. However, little is known regarding peripheral CA fluctuations in cetaceans; nevertheless aquatic animals like them have needed to modify their physiological response especially for thermoregulation in water and oxygen economy during diving. To understand CA dynamism in cetaceans, diurnal changes in serum A, NA, and DA concentrations were measured during the winter and summer solstices in four Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). The average serum NA concentration was much higher than the average A and DA concentrations, and all concentrations were higher than those reported in other cetacean species. No distinct diurnal fluctuations were observed in CA concentrations in either solstice, suggesting inhibition of the decrease in CA concentrations during nocturnal periods by the unique sleep pattern of dolphins. All the serum CA concentrations were negatively correlated with water temperature as body temperatures were, indicating that the sympathoadrenal system might be more active during winter than in summer season, suggesting a role of CA in thermoregulation. PMID:22405705

  12. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  13. 21 CFR 102.46 - Pacific whiting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacific whiting. 102.46 Section 102.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 102.46 Pacific whiting. “Pacific whiting” or “North Pacific whiting” is the common or usual name...

  14. 21 CFR 102.46 - Pacific whiting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacific whiting. 102.46 Section 102.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 102.46 Pacific whiting. “Pacific whiting” or “North Pacific whiting” is the common or usual name...

  15. 21 CFR 102.46 - Pacific whiting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacific whiting. 102.46 Section 102.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 102.46 Pacific whiting. “Pacific whiting” or “North Pacific whiting” is the common or usual name...

  16. 21 CFR 102.46 - Pacific whiting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacific whiting. 102.46 Section 102.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 102.46 Pacific whiting. “Pacific whiting” or “North Pacific whiting” is the common or usual name...

  17. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  18. Cenozoic reconstruction of southwest Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Y.Y.; Kroenke, L.W.

    1986-07-01

    Poles of opening and spreading rates for some of the well-studied marginal basins in the southwest Pacific have been redetermined. Times of opening range from Late Cretaceous-Paleocene in the Tasman basin to middle Pliocene in the Bismarck Sea. The observed magnetic lineations in most of these basins show a relatively short duration of opening and relatively small area of total opening. Most of the smaller basins are bounded by troughs and arcuate island chains, some of which are inferred to be trenches and volcanic arcs situated along paleoconvergent boundaries. At least four successive paleoconvergent boundaries are believed to have formed between the Pacific and the Indian-Australian plates during the Cenozoic. Combining the newly determined poles of opening, spreading rates, and paleoplate boundary locations, a series of palinspastic maps of the southwest Pacific have been constructed for these times, relative to a fixed hot-spot frame of reference for both the Pacific and Indian-Australian plates.

  19. Stratocumulus Clouds, eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This sheet of closed-cell stratocumulus clouds was sighted in the eastern Pacific Ocean (13.5N, 141.0W) southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. This cloud sheet has a distinctive fracture zone that separates an older cloud layer (right side of scene) from a newly formed layer (left). Stratocumulus cloud sheets originate over the cold waters of the California current and migrate westward over the Pacific Ocean.

  20. Rehabilitation services for the Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M H; Barker, J C

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Rehabilitation Research and Training Center was created to help meet the challenges of rehabilitating people in rural remote communities in the United States-associated Pacific. We describe the center, the special region it serves, some of its many programs, and some of the ways it is helping communities in this region provide services that are appropriate and sensitive to the culture, the environment, and the disability. PMID:8351905

  1. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy. PMID:22184673

  2. Modelling Changes of the Paleogene Ca Budget Using Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabich, S.; Gussone, N. C.; Vollmer, C.; Palike, H.; Rabe, K.; Teichert, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the earth's climate as well as the oceanic chemical and isotopic evolution in the past is one of the main aims in earth science. Ca as one of the major elements in the ocean is especially important. Its variation in concentration are controlled by different factors including the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere, continental weathering and Ca carbonate sedimentation. We used samples from IODP Exp. 320/321 to establish a δ44/40Ca paleo-seawater record between 45 and 25 Ma and model changes in the Ca budget through time. Our results show differences in the Eocene and Oligocene Ca isotope record of benthic foraminifers. The δ44/40Ca values during the Eocene are relatively constant with no significant fluctuations during phases of large short term CCD fluctuations[1]. The Oligocene is characterized by sediments with uniformly high carbonate content and increasing δ44/40Ca towards the late Oligocene. Past seawater δ44/40Ca values (Fig. 1) were calculated from the measured benthic foraminifer record applying the calibration for Gyroidinoides spp.[2]. The Ca budget during the Eocene is relatively constant and not affected by short term CCD fluctuations, indicating that they are too small to alter the isotopic Ca budget. The Oligocene, in contrast is characterized by a general increase in δ44/40Ca seawater values and a continuously deep CCD[1]. This is consistent with a massive long term (>1Ma) CaCO3 deposition and decreasing Ca concentration in the ocean water. To examine the preservation (dissolution and recrystallization) of the foraminifer test through time, we studied additionally the changes in the crystallographic orientations trough time by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. As a final step we use our δ44/40Ca seawater record to run a combined Ca and C model showing the effect of Ca weathering input, carbonate remobilization and dolomitization on the Ca and carbonate system of seawater [1]. [1]Pälike H

  3. 78 FR 56658 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC864 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific...

  4. 77 FR 17459 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB107 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific...

  5. Sea surface temperature variability in the southwest tropical Pacific since AD 1649

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, Kristine L.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Taylor, Frederick W.; Lin, Ke; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2012-11-01

    A prime focus of research is differentiating the contributions of natural climate variability from those that are anthropogenically forced, especially as it relates to climate prediction. The short length of instrumental records, particularly from the South Pacific, hampers this research, specifically for investigations of decadal to centennial scale variability. Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction derived from highly reproducible records of strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) in corals from New Caledonia to investigate natural SST variability in the southwest tropical Pacific from AD 1649-1999. Our results reveal periods of warmer and colder temperatures of the order of decades during the Little Ice Age that do not correspond to long-term variations in solar irradiance or the 11-year sunspot cycle. We suggest that solar variability does not explain decadal to centennial scale SST variability in reconstructions from the southwest tropical Pacific. Our SST reconstruction covaries with the Southern Hemisphere Pacific decadal oscillation and the South Pacific decadal oscillation, from which SST anomalies in the southwest Pacific are linked to precipitation anomalies in the western tropical Pacific. We find that decadal scale SST variability has changed in strength and periodicity after 1893, suggesting a shift in natural variability for this location.

  6. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to describe synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the systems leading to this variability; implement satellite analysis procedures in support of this effort, and to incorporate additional satellite information into operational analysis forecast systems at the National Meteorological Center (NMC). Composite satellite radiance patterns describe features detectable well before the development of synoptic scale tropical plumes. These typical features were extracted from historical files of Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiance observations for a pair of tropical plumes which developed during January 1989. Signals were inserted into the NMC operational medium range forecast model and a suite of model integrations were conducted. Many of the 48 h model errors of the historical forecasts were eliminated by the inclusion of more complete satellite observations. Three studies in satellite radiance analysis progressed. An analysis which blended TOVS moisture channels, OLR observations and European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model analysis to generate fields of total precipitable water comparable to those estimated from Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) mu-wave observations. This study demonstrated that a 10 y climatology of precipitable water over the oceans is feasible, using available infrared observations (OLR and TOVS) and model analysis (ECMWF, NMC or similar quality). The estimates are sensitive to model quality and the estimating model must be updated with operational model changes. Coe developed a set of tropical plume and ITCZ composites from TOVS observations, and from NMC and ECMWF analyses which had been passed through a radiative transfer model to simulate TOVS radiances. The composites have been completed as well as many statistical diagnostics of individual TOVS channels. Analysis of the computations is commencing. Chung has initiated a study of the

  7. Tropospheric Ozone Over the North Pacific from Ozonesdonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Harris, J. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Liu, H. Y.; Voemel, H.; Chan, C. Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Brackett, V. G.; Chang, W. L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the TRACE-P mission, ozone vertical profile measurements were made at a number of locations in the North Pacific. At most of the sites there is also a multi-year record of ozonesonde observations. From seven locations in the western Pacific (Hong Kong; Taipei; Jeju Island, Korea; and Naha, Kagoshima, Tsukuba, and Sapporo, Japan), a site in the central Pacific (Hilo, HI), and a site on the west coast of the U.S. (Trinidad Head, CA) both a seasonal and event specific picture of tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific emerges. At all of the sites there is a pronounced spring maximum through the troposphere. There are, however, differences in the timing and strength of this feature. Over Japan the northward movement of the jet during the spring and summer influences the timing of the seasonal maximum. The ozone profiles suggest that transport of ozone rich air from the stratosphere plays a strong role in the development of this maximum. During March and April at Hong Kong ozone is enhanced in a layer that extends from the lower free troposphere into the upper troposphere that likely has its origin in biomass burning in northern Southeast Asia and equatorial Africa. During the winter the Pacific subtropical sites (latitude -25N) are dominated by air with a low-latitude, marine source that gives low ozone amounts particularly in the upper troposphere. In the summer in the boundary layer at all of the sites marine air dominates and ozone amounts are generally quite low (less than 25 ppb). The exception is near large population centers (Tokyo and Taipei but not Hong Kong) where pollution events can give amounts in excess of 80 ppb. During the TRACE-P intensive campaign period (February-April 2001) tropospheric ozone amounts were rather typical of those seen in the long-term records of the stations with multi-year soundings.

  8. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  9. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  10. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  11. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  12. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  13. Three-dimensional crustal structure of a craton rim: Preliminary results from passive seismic imaging of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Spaggiari, Catherine V.; Gessner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Western Australia consists of two Archaean cratons (Yilgarn and Pilbara) and a number of Proterozoic orogens surrounding them that attest to past continental collisions. While the former feature seismically fast crust of average thickness (around 35 km) and a usually well defined Moho overlying a thick mantle lithospheric keel, the latter have been significantly less well studied and appear to be less uniform in terms of their crustal architecture. Thicker crust and a more fuzzy Moho are two common characteristics of these belts. The Albany-Fraser orogen, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Yilgarn craton, has been interpreted as an old suture zone from the collision of the West Australian craton (Yilgarn and Pilbara already welded together) with the Mawson craton (southern Australia and part of Antarctica today). Newer evidence, however, might point at an original rift or backarc setting of the units. It is a complex amalgam of different structures that vary significantly along its strike, featuring heavily reworked parts of the outermost Yilgarn craton as well as younger units accreted or intruded significantly later. Two major deformation stages at 1345-1260 Ma and 1214-1140 Ma have been deduced for these, the first of which has been associated with the aforementioned collision/backarc rifting itself, while the second phase is commonly interpreted as intracratonic reworking due to a major thermal event. No large-scale tectonic overprint has occurred in the region since the second deformation phase, which means that the originally emplaced units have been unusually well preserved until the present day. However, surface outcrops of rocks are very rare, so that most knowledge about extent and geometric configuration of different rock suites comes from the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data. The eastern end of the Albany-Fraser orogen, in all likelihood corresponding to the Mawson craton's westernmost edge, is hidden beneath the limestones of the

  14. Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  15. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  16. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  17. Climate proxies from Sr/Ca of coccolith calcite: calibrations from continuous culture of Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather M.; Rosenthal, Yair; Falkowski, Paul

    2002-03-01

    Continuous culture of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi reveals that coccolith Sr/Ca ratios depend on temperature and growth rate. At a constant temperature of 18°C, coccolith Sr/Ca ratios increased nearly 15% as growth rate increased from 0.1 to 1.5 divisions per day and calcification rate increased from 1.5 to 50 pg calcite per cell per day. When temperature increased from 7 to 26°C, Sr/Ca ratios increased by more than 25% (i.e., 1%/1°C), although the range in growth and calcification rates was the same as for experiments at constant temperature. The temperature dependence of Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths is consistent with that observed in planktonic foraminifera and abiogenic calcites, suggesting that it is controlled by thermodynamic processes. However, the positive correlation of coccolith Sr/Ca with temperature contrasts with field studies in the equatorial Pacific, where Sr/Ca ratios are highest at the locus of maximum upwelling and productivity despite depressed temperatures. This paradox may reflect different calcification rate effects between E. huxleyi and the other species dominating assemblages in the equatorial Pacific sediments, which may be resolved by new techniques for separation of monospecific coccolith samples from sediments. Models of crystal growth indicate that kinetic effects on Sr partitioning in calcite due to surface enrichment could explain the Sr/Ca variations observed in constant temperature experiments but not the larger amplitude calcification rate effects observed in equatorial Pacific sediments. Despite the dual influence of temperature and growth rate on coccolith Sr/Ca, coccolith Sr/Ca correlates with "b," the slope of the dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in biomarkers (ɛ p) on CO 2(aq) at a range of growth rates and temperatures. Consequently, using coccolith Sr/Ca in combination with alkenone ɛ p may improve paleo-CO 2 determinations.

  18. Home Reef, South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the South Pacific, south of Late Island along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga, a new volcanic island Home Reef is being re-born. The island is thought to have emerged after a volcanic eruption in mid-August that has also spewed large amounts of floating pumice into Tongan waters and sweeping across to Fiji about 350 km (220 miles) to the west of where the new island has formed. In 2004 a similar eruption created an ephemeral island about 0.5 by 1.5 km (0.3 by 0.9 miles) in size; it was no longer visible in an ASTER image acquired November 2005. This simulated natural color image shows the vegetation-covered stratovolcanic island of Late in the upper right. Home Reef is found in the lower left. The two bluish plumes are hot seawater that is laden with volcanic ash and chemicals; the larger one can be traced for more than 14 km (8.4 miles) to the east. The image was acquired October 10, 2006 and covers an area of 24.3 by 30.2 km. It is located at 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  19. Mitochondrial Ca2+-induced Ca2+ Release Mediated by the Ca2+ Uniporter

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Mayte; Alonso, Maria Teresa; Albillos, Almudena; García-Sancho, Javier; Alvarez, Javier

    2001-01-01

    We have reported that a population of chromaffin cell mitochondria takes up large amounts of Ca2+ during cell stimulation. The present study focuses on the pathways for mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux. Treatment with protonophores before cell stimulation abolished mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and increased the cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) peak induced by the stimulus. Instead, when protonophores were added after cell stimulation, they did not modify [Ca2+]c kinetics and inhibited Ca2+ release from Ca2+-loaded mitochondria. This effect was due to inhibition of mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange, because blocking this system with CGP37157 produced no further effect. Increasing extramitochondrial [Ca2+]c triggered fast Ca2+ release from these depolarized Ca2+-loaded mitochondria, both in intact or permeabilized cells. These effects of protonophores were mimicked by valinomycin, but not by nigericin. The observed mitochondrial Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release response was insensitive to cyclosporin A and CGP37157 but fully blocked by ruthenium red, suggesting that it may be mediated by reversal of the Ca2+ uniporter. This novel kind of mitochondrial Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release might contribute to Ca2+ clearance from mitochondria that become depolarized during Ca2+ overload. PMID:11160823

  20. Little and Large: Implications for Preservation of Radiogenic-Pb in Titanite. An example from the Albany-Fraser Orogen, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Titanite typically contains more non-radiogenic Pb than zircon, nonetheless it can preserve useful age information that complements geochronology from other datable phases. Titanite is more reactive than zircon and it interacts more readily with other major phases. As a result titanite dates frequently indicate the time of cooling below a blocking temperature (in reality an interval). The role of titanite grain size is important as it has a bearing on the extent to which titanite U-Pb ages reflect diffusive Pb loss or pristine formation ages. We demonstrate that titanite collected through the Albany-Fraser Orogen, across an uplifted refractory lower crustal block, can record thermal overprints apparently lacking in the zircon record. Two zones of the Albany-Fraser Orogen are the Biranup and Fraser Zones, each with a distinctive Proterozoic history but unequivocally part of the reworked margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. A dichotomy exists in the zircon geochronology record of this area, in that within the older Biranup Zone, Stage II overprinting (1225-1140 Ma) is widespread whereas in the younger Fraser Zone, Stage I (1345-1260 Ma) is dominant, with Stage II apparently absent. Although, most metamorphic titanite in the Fraser Zone records an age of 1307 ± 17 Ma, reflecting closure to radiogenic-Pb mobility after Stage I metamorphism, small titanite grains reveal Stage II overprinting with a mean reset age of 1205 ± 16 Ma. In contrast, titanite from metasediments within the Biranup Zone principally record ages of 1203 ± 6 Ma and 1153 ± 27 Ma reflecting cooling after prolonged Stage II metamorphism. Thermochronological modelling indicates that small titanite grains in the Fraser Zone would be reset during Stage II overprinting at temperatures of 695-725°C. Larger titanite crystals would not be reset by this thermal overprint. This result is similar to phase equilibrium modelling from the Biranup Zone that indicates temperatures of 670-680 °C during Stage II

  1. Evaluation of Floodplain Modifications to Reduce the Effect of Floods Using a Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Flint River at Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Potential flow characteristics of future flooding along a 4.8-mile reach of the Flint River in Albany, Georgia, were simulated using recent digital-elevation-model data and the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element surface-water modeling system for two-dimensional flow in the horizontal plane (FESWMS-2DH). The model was run at four water-surface altitudes at the Flint River at Albany streamgage (02352500): 181.5-foot (ft) altitude with a flow of 61,100 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 184.5-ft altitude with a flow of 75,400 ft3/s, 187.5-ft altitude with a flow of 91,700 ft3/s, and 192.5-ft altitude with a flow of 123,000 ft3/s. The model was run to measure changes in inundated areas and water-surface altitudes for eight scenarios of possible modifications to the 4.8-mile reach on the Flint River. The eight scenarios include removing a human-made peninsula located downstream from Oglethorpe Boulevard, increasing the opening under the Oakridge Drive bridge, adding culverts to the east Oakridge Drive bridge approach, adding culverts to the east and west Oakridge Drive bridge approaches, adding an overflow across the oxbow north of Oakridge Drive, making the overflow into a channel, removing the Oakridge Drive bridge, and adding a combination of an oxbow overflow and culverts on both Oakridge Drive bridge approaches. The modeled inundation and water-surface altitude changes were mapped for use in evaluating the river modifications. The most effective scenario at reducing inundated area was the combination scenario. At the 187.5-ft altitude, the inundated area decreased from 4.24 square miles to 4.00 square miles. The remove-peninsula scenario was the least effective with a reduction in inundated area of less than 0.01 square miles. In all scenarios, the inundated area reduction increased with water-surface altitude, peaking at the 187.5-ft altitude. The inundated area reduction then decreased at the gage altitude of 192.5 ft.

  2. Incorporating surface indicators of reservoir permeability into reservoir volume calculations: Application to the Colli Albani caldera and the Central Italy Geothermal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; De Benedetti, Arnaldo Angelo; Bonamico, Andrea; Ramazzotti, Paolo; Mattei, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The Quaternary Roman Volcanic Province extends for over 200 km along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Italian peninsula and is composed of several caldera complexes with significant associated geothermal potential. In spite of the massive programs of explorations conducted by the then state-owned ENEL and AGIP companies between the 1970s and 1990s, and the identification of several high enthalpy fields, this resource remains so far unexploited, although it occurs right below the densely populated metropolitan area of Roma capital city. The main reason for this failure is that deep geothermal reservoirs are associated with fractured rocks, the secondary permeability of which has been difficult to predict making the identification of the most productive volumes of the reservoirs and the localisation of productive wells uncertain. As a consequence, almost half of the many exploration deep bore-holes drilled in the area reached a dry target. This work reviews available data and re-assesses the geothermal potential of caldera-related systems in Central Italy, by analysing in detail the case of the Colli Albani caldera system, the closest to Roma capital city. A GIS based approach identifies the most promising reservoir volumes for geothermal exploitation and uses an improved volume method approach for the evaluation of geothermal potential. The approach is based on a three dimensional matrix of georeferenced spatial data; the A axis accounts for the modelling of the depth of the top of the reservoirs based on geophysical and direct data; the B axis accounts for the thermal modelling of the crust (i.e. T with depth) based on measured thermal gradients. Both A and B data are necessary but not sufficient to identify rock volumes actually permeated by geothermal fluids in fractured reservoirs. We discuss the implementation of a C axis that evaluates all surface data indicating permeability in the reservoir and actual geothermal fluid circulation. We consider datasets on: i

  3. 76 FR 58472 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA716 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Pacific Northwest Crab Industry Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Pacific...

  4. Routes of Ca2+ Shuttling during Ca2+ Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-01-01

    In some cell types, Ca2+ oscillations are strictly dependent on Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of Ca2+ influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal Ca2+ influx played a pivotal role. However, when the Ca2+ transport across the plasma membrane by the “lanthanum insulation method” was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced Ca2+ oscillations, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal Ca2+ exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular Ca2+. However, in a physiological situation, the Ca2+-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for Ca2+ oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous Ca2+ changes were observed in the mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous Ca2+ signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a Ca2+-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of Ca2+ ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three Ca2+ shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during Ca2+ oscillations: Ca2+ shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers. PMID:26396196

  5. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Diabetes Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian Americans are 20 percent less likely ... Diagnosed with Diabetes Ratio vs. General Population Asians/Pacific Islanders 7.8 1.1 U.S. General Public ...

  6. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Cancer Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans generally have lower cancer rates ... At a glance - Top Cancer Sites for Asian/Pacific Islander (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  7. 78 FR 61840 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC914 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific... Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council and its advisory entities will hold public meetings. DATES: The Pacific Council and its advisory entities will...

  8. 76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA517 Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY... Pacific Insular Areas other than American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. DATES:...

  9. 78 FR 32626 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC710 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific... Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council and its advisory entities will hold public meetings. DATES: The Pacific Council and its advisory entities will...

  10. 75 FR 13731 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV42 National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9-15, 2010 Pacific Council Meeting AGENCY: National...: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council and its advisory entities will hold...

  11. 78 FR 61839 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC909 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council... at 11 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) on Wednesday, October 23, 2013, and recess at 2 p.m. PDT,...

  12. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX57 Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... determined that Pacific bluefin tuna, (Thunnus orientalis) which is jointly managed by the Pacific...

  13. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at the Office of the 24th Wing Historian, Howard Air Force Base, Republic of Panama). Photographer unknown. View of U.S. Army Air Corps over Fort Amador. - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Evidence for the non-influence of salinity variability on the coral Sr/Ca paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, M.; Corrège, T.; Dassié, E. P.; Le Cornec, F.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of salinity in the incorporation of trace elements in the skeleton of calcareous organisms is still poorly known. Studies on foraminiferal Mg/Ca thermometry have suggested a bias due to Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) variations, leading to potential erroneous estimation of Mg/Ca-based Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Culture experiments seem to indicate that in three coral species (not including the widely used Porites genus), salinity does not influence the Sr/Ca thermometer. In this study, we test the salinity effect on coral Sr/Ca-based SST reconstructions at monthly and interannual timescales in open-ocean environmental conditions, using a large spatial compilation of published coral data (mainly based on the Porites genus) originating from the Western Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the China Sea and the Red Sea and adding a new Eastern Pacific coral Sr/Ca record from the Clipperton atoll. We use simple and multiple regressions between Sr/Ca on one hand and SST and SSS on the other hand at the various sites. We find no evidence for a salinity bias on the Sr/Ca SST proxy for the two studied timescales. This study reinforces the use of coral Sr/Ca as a reliable paleothermometer.

  15. The Pacific Rim: New Geographic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Douglas A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the vital development of the Pacific Rim. Advocates integrating the study of this region into social studies curricula. Criticizes the Eurocentric bias that results in ignoring the Pacific Rim's geography, history, literature, and languages. Reports on social studies programs, primarily in Alaska schools, where study of the Pacific Rim…

  16. Small-Angle and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS/USANS) Study of New Albany Shale: A Treatise on Microporosity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bahadur, Jitendra; Radlinski, Andrzej P.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2014-12-17

    We applied small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques to study the microstructure of several New Albany shales of different maturity. It has been established that the total porosity decreases with maturity and increases somewhat for post-mature samples. A new method of SANS data analysis was developed, which allows the extraction of information about the size range and number density of micropores from the relatively flat scattering intensity observed in the limit of the large scattering vector Q. Macropores and significant number of mesopores are surface fractals, and their structure can be described in terms of themore » polydisperse spheres (PDSP) model. The model-independent Porod invariant method was employed to estimate total porosity, and the results were compared with the PDSP model results. It has been demonstrated that independent evaluation of incoherent background is crucial for accurate interpretation of the scattering data in the limit of large Q-values. Moreover, pore volumes estimated by the N2 and CO2 adsorption, as well as via the mercury intrusion technique, have been compared with those measured by SANS/USANS, and possible reasons for the observed discrepancies are discussed.« less

  17. Local Wood Demand, Land Cover Change and the State of Albany Thicket on an Urban Commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, M. M.; Shackleton, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  18. Creating Larger and Better Connected Protected Areas Enhances the Persistence of Big Game Species in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Balme, Guy A.; Smith, Robert J.; Goodman, Peter S.; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  19. Albany/FELIX: A parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-27

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, alongmore » with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.« less

  20. On the scalability of the Albany/FELIX first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver for large-scale simulations of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tezaur, Irina K.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Perego, Mauro; Salinger, Andrew G.; Price, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the scalability of the recently developed Albany/FELIX finite-element based code for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. We focus our analysis on the performance of two possible preconditioners for the iterative solution of the sparse linear systems that arise from the discretization of the governing equations: (1) a preconditioner based on the incomplete LU (ILU) factorization, and (2) a recently-developed algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner, constructed using the idea of semi-coarsening. A strong scalability study on a realistic, high resolution Greenland ice sheet problem reveals that, for a given number of processor cores, the AMG preconditionermore » results in faster linear solve times but the ILU preconditioner exhibits better scalability. A weak scalability study is performed on a realistic, moderate resolution Antarctic ice sheet problem, a substantial fraction of which contains floating ice shelves, making it fundamentally different from the Greenland ice sheet problem. Here, we show that as the problem size increases, the performance of the ILU preconditioner deteriorates whereas the AMG preconditioner maintains scalability. This is because the linear systems are extremely ill-conditioned in the presence of floating ice shelves, and the ill-conditioning has a greater negative effect on the ILU preconditioner than on the AMG preconditioner.« less

  1. Albany/FELIX: A parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-27

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.

  2. Albany/FELIX: a parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.

  3. Local wood demand, land cover change and the state of Albany Thicket on an urban commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stickler, M M; Shackleton, C M

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients. PMID:25371193

  4. Small-Angle and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS/USANS) Study of New Albany Shale: A Treatise on Microporosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, Jitendra; Radlinski, Andrzej P.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2014-12-17

    We applied small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques to study the microstructure of several New Albany shales of different maturity. It has been established that the total porosity decreases with maturity and increases somewhat for post-mature samples. A new method of SANS data analysis was developed, which allows the extraction of information about the size range and number density of micropores from the relatively flat scattering intensity observed in the limit of the large scattering vector Q. Macropores and significant number of mesopores are surface fractals, and their structure can be described in terms of the polydisperse spheres (PDSP) model. The model-independent Porod invariant method was employed to estimate total porosity, and the results were compared with the PDSP model results. It has been demonstrated that independent evaluation of incoherent background is crucial for accurate interpretation of the scattering data in the limit of large Q-values. Moreover, pore volumes estimated by the N2 and CO2 adsorption, as well as via the mercury intrusion technique, have been compared with those measured by SANS/USANS, and possible reasons for the observed discrepancies are discussed.

  5. Structural controls on gold mineralization on the margin of the Yilgarn craton, Albany-Fraser orogen: The Tropicana deposit, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Tom G.; Doyle, Mark G.

    2014-10-01

    The Tropicana gold deposit is located adjacent to the margin of the Yilgarn craton in the Albany-Fraser orogen, Western Australia. The deposit is hosted in granulite facies quartzo-feldspathic gneisses of the Archean Tropicana Gneiss. Ore bodies comprise biotite-pyrite alteration concentrated in shear zones that formed during NE-SW shortening in the late Archean, and clearly postdate the formation and deformation of high-grade gneiss fabrics (D1 and D2). The orientation of the ore bodies is controlled by the shear zones that are in turn localised by the gneissic banding. Mineralization also involved solution and coeval microfracturing and veining of more competent pegmatitic units. The mineralizing event (D3) was followed by at least two further deformations, which reactivated and overprinted the biotite fabrics with sericite and chlorite, created new shear zones, and affected gold distribution. D5 consisted of dextral shear on ∼E-W shear zones, which subdivide the deposit into five major structural domains. The importance of structurally controlled permeability at Tropicana is similar in cratonic lode gold deposits, as is the protracted deformation/fluid flow history. Like Renco mine in Zimbabwe, Tropicana gold deposit was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow peripheral to the craton: economic gold mineralization was clearly post-peak metamorphism.

  6. Creating larger and better connected protected areas enhances the persistence of big game species in the maputaland-pondoland-albany biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T B; Balme, Guy A; Smith, Robert J; Goodman, Peter S; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  7. Occurrence of phthalate diesters in particulate and vapor phases in indoor air and implications for human exposure in Albany, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tri Manh; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-04-01

    Phthalate diesters are used as plasticizers in a wide range of consumer products. Because phthalates have been shown in laboratory animal studies to be toxic, human exposure to these chemicals is a matter of concern. Nevertheless, little is known about inhalation exposure to phthalates in the United States. In this study, occurrence of nine phthalates was determined in 60 indoor air samples collected in 2014 in Albany, New York, USA. Airborne particulate and vapor phase samples were collected from various sampling locations by use of a low-volume air sampler. The median concentrations of nine phthalates in air samples collected from homes, offices, laboratories, schools, salons (hair and nail salons), and public places were 732, 143, 170, 371, 2600, and 354 ng/m(3), respectively. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was found at the highest concentrations, which ranged from 4.83 to 2250 ng/m(3) (median 152) followed by di-n-butyl phthalate, which ranged from 4.05 to 1170 ng/m(3) (median 63.3). The median inhalation exposure dose to phthalates was estimated at 0.845, 0.423, 0.203, 0.089, and 0.070 µg/kg-bw/d for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults, respectively. Inhalation is an important pathway of human exposure to DEP. PMID:25702083

  8. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  9. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  10. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  11. America's Stake in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Paul

    Countries of the Western Pacific allied with the United States--Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan--are seriously threatened by Soviet expansion and Sino-Soviet rivalry. At present when the United States military resources are stretched thin, responsibility for defense of these prosperous free states should be assumed by the states…

  12. Pacific Educational Research Journal, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kathleen, Ed.; Lai, Morris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal features theoretical, empirical, and applied research with implications for and relevance to education in the Pacific area. This volume contains: (1) "Community Perceptions of Culture and Education on Moloka'i" (Lois A. Yamauchi, William L. Greene, Katherine T. Ratliffe, and Andrea K. Ceppi); (2) "Academic Performance of Asian…

  13. Pacific Educational Research Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kathleen F.; Lai, Morris K.

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this issue vary widely in method, content, and sample size, but come together to produce a valuable collection of knowledge about education in the Pacific Basin, with emphasis on issues of under-representation. The articles are: (1) "Effects of a Culturally Competent School-Based Intervention for At-Risk Hawaiian Students" (Douglas C.…

  14. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  15. Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Yoshie; Ogawa, Koichi; Takahara, Yuji; Takasu, Keiko; Royer, Sebastien; Hasegawa, Minoru; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The CA1-projecting axons of CA3 pyramidal cells, called Schaffer collaterals, constitute one of the major information flow routes in the hippocampal formation. Recent anatomical studies have revealed the non-random structural connectivity between CA3 and CA1, but little is known regarding the functional connectivity (i.e. how CA3 network activity is functionally transmitted downstream to the CA1 network). Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. Specifically, synchronized bursts initiated from multiple hot spots in CA3 ensembles, and CA1 neurons located deeper in the pyramidal cell layer were recruited during earlier phases of the burst events. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals. Thus, CA3 axons innervate CA1 neurons in a highly topographical fashion. PMID:26036915

  16. UV - RIVERSIDE CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 112 is located in Riverside CA, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. o...

  17. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ..., CA (San Jose Industrial Lead) On April 4, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) and Santa Clara... petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10903 for UP to abandon its... obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial Lead between milepost 7.35 near Warm Springs...

  18. Temperature Gradient Reconstructions from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. L.; Ravelo, C.; Hovan, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Western and Eastern Equatorial Pacific (WEP and EEP) indicate the Equatorial Pacific was in a permanent El Niño-like state during the early Pliocene. Specifically, SST in the WEP was nearly the same as today, while SST in the EEP cold tongue region was 2-3 °C warmer than today. Climatic transitions recorded in the EEP are of particular interest due to the region’s sensitivity to changes in upwelling and thermocline depth, and due to its role in the global ocean heat balance. However, not much is known about the evolution of the EEP cold tongue. This study aims to reconstruct the east-west and north-south gradients within the EEP using new SST and sub-surface temperature records from ODP Sites 848, 849, and 853 and published paleoceanographic records from the EEP to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the EEP cold tongue from the Pliocene to Recent. Mg/Ca analyses on Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globorotalia tumida and alkenone analyses have been made to reconstruct east-west and north-south SST and thermocline depth, respectively. Currently, G. tumida Mg/Ca records have been generated for Sites 848 (most southern) and 853 (most northern) and G. sacculifer Mg/Ca and alkenone records have been generated for Site 848. This study compares new data to published data to achieve exceptional spatial coverage of the EEP cold tongue. Comparison of SST data to reconstructions of thermocline temperatures, paleoproductivity, and wind field strength will provide insight into the underlying causes of changes in the intensity and spatial extent of the cold tongue. Understanding these causes will aid in explaining the transition from the permanent El Niño-like state to modern conditions as climate cooled through the Pliocene.

  19. Subarctic Pacific evidence for a glacial deepening of the oceanic respired carbon pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, S. L.; Galbraith, E. D.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.; Francois, R.; Pedersen, T. F.; Dulski, P.; Thierstein, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of benthic foraminiferal cadmium:calcium (Cd/Ca) have indicated that the glacial-interglacial change in deep North Pacific phosphate (PO 4) concentration was minimal, which has been taken by some workers as a sign that the biological pump did not store more carbon in the deep glacial ocean. Here we present sedimentary redox-sensitive trace metal records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 882 (NW subarctic Pacific, water depth 3244 m) to make inferences about changes in deep North Pacific oxygenation - and thus respired carbon storage - over the past 150,000 yr. These observations are complemented with biogenic barium and opal measurements as indicators for past organic carbon export to separate the influences of deep-water oxygen concentration and sedimentary organic carbon respiration on the redox state of the sediment. Our results suggest that the deep subarctic Pacific water mass was depleted in oxygen during glacial maxima, though it was not anoxic. We reconcile our results with the existing benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca by invoking a decrease in the fraction of the deep ocean nutrient inventory that was preformed, rather than remineralized. This change would have corresponded to an increase in the deep Pacific storage of respired carbon, which would have lowered atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) by sequestering CO 2 away from the atmosphere and by increasing ocean alkalinity through a transient dissolution event in the deep sea. The magnitude of change in preformed nutrients suggested by the North Pacific data would have accounted for a majority of the observed decrease in glacial atmospheric pCO 2.

  20. TRPM7 and TRPM2 – Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Western Pacific ALS and PD?

    PubMed Central

    Hermosura, Meredith C.; Garruto, Ralph M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent findings implicating TRPM7 and TRPM2 in oxidative stress-induced neuronal death thrust these channels into the spotlight as possible therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we describe how the functional properties of TRPM7 and TRPM2 are interconnected with calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immune mechanisms, all principal suspects in neurodegeneration. We focus our discussion on Western Pacific Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinsonism Dementia (PD) because extensive studies conducted over the years strongly suggest that these diseases are ideal candidates for a gene-environment model of etiology. The unique mineral environment identified in connection with Western Pacific ALS and PD - low Mg2+ and Ca2+, yet high in transition metals, creates a condition that could affect the proper function of these two channels. PMID:17395433

  1. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  2. Circum-Pacific diatomite deposits

    SciTech Connect

    North, F.K.

    1986-07-01

    Deformed diatomites of assured identification are all Oligocene or younger. They are not to be interpreted with oceanic diatom oozes as analogs, nor with California's Monterey Formation as prototype. All examples, apart from the unique Monterey, are deposits of relatively shallow waters at convergent plate or microplate boundaries: in arc-trench gaps or (less importantly) in immediate back-arc belts. Tethyan examples, along a collision boundary, are now slivers in the late stages of external flysch along the fronts of Alpine thrust belts. Circum-Pacific examples, at ocean-continent subduction boundaries, are preserved only on mountainous islands or peninsulas, the uplift (not folding) of which has protected the diatomites and their overlying evaporites from subduction. The control is tectonic and volcanic, not by water temperature or eustatism. Preserved deposits appear to be restricted to particular segments of the Pacific boundary delineated by Benioff zones having some significant minimum dip. The unique Monterey Formation owes its spectacular development and preservation to the conversion of an arc-trench boundary to a transform boundary, at a triple junction, before the diatomite was deposited. The Monterey's importance as an oil source sediment does not stem from its true diatomite component. Other Circum-Pacific diatomites are of negligible significance to the petroleum geologist, but are potentially minable for other uses in Japan, the Philippines, and Peru, and possibly in Chile.

  3. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  4. Occurrence of bisphenols, bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs), and novolac glycidyl ethers (NOGEs) in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchuan; Wan, Yanjian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-05-01

    Bisphenols, bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs), and novolac glycidyl ethers (NOGEs) are used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. Despite the widespread application of these chemicals in household products, studies on their occurrence in indoor air are limited. In this study, 83 indoor air samples were collected in 2014 from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, to determine the concentrations of bisphenols, BADGEs (refer to BADGE and its derivatives), and NOGEs (refer to NOGE and its derivatives) and to calculate inhalation exposure to these compounds. Among eight bisphenols measured, BPA, BPF, and BPS were found in bulk air (i.e., vapor plus particulate phases), at geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 0.43, 0.69 and 0.09 ng m(-3), respectively. Among 11 BADGEs and NOGEs determined, BADGE·2H2O was the predominant compound found in indoor air (detection rate [DR]: 85.5%), at concentrations as high as 6.71 ng m(-3). Estimation of inhalation exposure to these chemicals for various age groups showed that teenagers had the highest exposure doses to BPA, BPF, BPS, and BADGE·2H2O at 5.91, 9.48, 1.24, and 3.84 ng day(-1), respectively. The body weight-normalized estimates of exposure were the highest for infants, with values at 0.24, 0.39, 0.05, and 0.16 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for BPA, BPF, BPS, and BADGE·2H2O, respectively. This is the first survey to report inhalation exposure to bisphenols, BADGEs, and NOGEs. PMID:26923236

  5. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warmer world: Insights from Marine Isotope Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.; Scott, G.; Bostock, H.; Bowen, M.; Crundwell, M.; Hayward, B. W.; Howard, W.; Martínez, J. I.; Moy, A.; Neil, H.; Sabaa, A.; Sturm, A.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoceanographic archives derived from 17 marine sediment cores reconstruct the response of the Southwest Pacific Ocean to the peak interglacial, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 125 ka). Paleo-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) estimates were obtained from the Random Forest model—an ensemble decision tree tool—applied to core-top planktonic foraminiferal faunas calibrated to modern SSTs. The reconstructed geographic pattern of the SST anomaly (maximum SST between 120 and 132 ka minus mean modern SST) seems to indicate how MIS 5e conditions were generally warmer in the Southwest Pacific, especially in the western Tasman Sea where a strengthened East Australian Current (EAC) likely extended subtropical influence to ca. 45°S off Tasmania. In contrast, the eastern Tasman Sea may have had a modest cooling except around 45°S. The observed pattern resembles that developing under the present warming trend in the region. An increase in wind stress curl over the modern South Pacific is hypothesized to have spun-up the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, with concurrent increase in subtropical flow in the western boundary currents that include the EAC. However, warmer temperatures along the Subtropical Front and Campbell Plateau to the south suggest that the relative influence of the boundary inflows to eastern New Zealand may have differed in MIS 5e, and these currents may have followed different paths compared to today.

  6. Mid-Holocene climate in New Caledonia (southwest Pacific): coral and PMIP models monthly resolved results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Bustamante Rosell, Maria Gracia; Turcq, Bruno; Le Cornec, Florence; Mandeng-Yogo, Magloire; Caquineau, Sandrine; Cabioch, Guy

    2013-06-01

    The mid-Holocene climate is characterized by an insolation seasonality decrease in the Southern Hemisphere but measurements of its actual impact on monthly resolved sea surface temperature (SST) in the southwest Pacific region are still insufficient. A New Caledonian 5.5 ka cal BP coral provides a 20-year-long seasonally-resolved record of ocean surface conditions as inferred from coral Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca. Results were compared to monthly series of Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) model simulations. Anomalous stable isotope and U/Ca values are observed in a restricted area of the skeleton related to dissolution features. The mid-Holocene SST seasonal amplitude mean and variability are higher than presently in New Caledonia, the increased seasonal amplitude in the mid-Holocene being most probably due to the occurrence of colder winters. Other southwest Pacific mid-Holocene coral data showed also such an increased seasonal amplitude. This could mean that the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) was weaker or reached locations more northerly than at present, which could fit with northward shifts of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) during South Hemisphere winter. Inversely, strong rainfalls during the summer, deduced from the Ba/Ca signal and reconstructed sea surface salinity (SSS), were interpreted as reflecting pronounced southwestward shifts of the SPCZ in summer, as those occurring today during La Niña events. None of the six PMIP2 models used reproduce the proxy-based mid-Holocene increase of SST seasonal amplitude. Model maps show a less intense SPCZ in winter that would be consistent with higher SST seasonal amplitude. Finally, we stress the need for more seasonally-resolved data to validate this enhanced mid-Holocene SST seasonal amplitude in the southwest Pacific region and to better understand the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa). PMID:17756067

  8. 50 CFR 665.813 - Western Pacific longline fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Western Pacific longline fishing... PACIFIC Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries § 665.813 Western Pacific longline fishing restrictions. (a) (b... western Pacific pelagic MUS, owners and operators of vessels longer than 40 ft (12.2 m) registered for...

  9. Automation of the University of the South Pacific Library and the Pacific Information Centre. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Daniel

    The Pacific Information Center (PIC) was established in 1983 to identify, collect, and record information about materials from and relating to the South Pacific region. The project involves sharing access and information among countries in this region. PIC, which works in conjunction with the University of the South Pacific (USP) Library, receives…

  10. 78 FR 54594 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Scientific Aviation Services (Pacific Scientific) Seat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; Pacific Scientific Aviation Services (Pacific Scientific) Seat Restraint System Rotary Buckle...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the specified Pacific Scientific...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the Pacific... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at... Pacific Missile Range Facility range boats, beach markings including beach signs along the north and...

  12. Intracellular BK(Ca) (iBK(Ca)) channels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpreet; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia

    2012-12-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channel (BK(Ca)) is widely expressed at the plasma membrane. This channel is involved in a variety of fundamental cellular functions including excitability, smooth muscle contractility, and Ca(2+) homeostasis, as well as in pathological situations like proinflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer cell proliferation. Immunochemical, biochemical and pharmacological studies from over a decade have intermittently shown the presence of BK(Ca) in intracellular organelles. To date, intracellular BK(Ca) (iBK(Ca)) has been localized in the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and Golgi apparatus but its functional role remains largely unknown except for the mitochondrial BK(Ca) whose opening is thought to play a role in protecting the heart from ischaemic injury. In the nucleus, pharmacology suggests a role in regulating nuclear Ca(2+), membrane potential and eNOS expression. Establishing the molecular correlates of iBK(Ca), the mechanisms defining iBK(Ca) organelle-specific targeting, and their modulation are challenging questions. This review summarizes iBK(Ca) channels, their possible functions, and efforts to identify their molecular correlates. PMID:22930268

  13. Cardiac Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Masao

    2008-12-01

    The role of Ca2+ in cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling has been established by simultaneous measurements of contractility and Ca2+ transients by means of aequorin in intact myocardium and Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent dyes in single myocytes. The E-C coupling process can be classified into 3 processes: upstream (Ca2+ mobilization), central (Ca2+ binding to troponin C) and downstream mechanism (thin filament regulation and crossbridge cycling). These mechanisms are regulated differentially by various inotropic interventions. Positive force-frequency relationship and effects of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors and digitalis are essentially exerted via upstream mechanism. Alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation, endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and clinically available Ca2+ sensitizers, such as levosimendan and pimobendan, act by a combination of the upstream and central/downstream mechanism. The Frank-Starling mechanism and effects of Ca2+ sensitizers such as EMD 57033 and Org 30029 are primarily induced via the central/downstream mechanism. Whereas the upstream and central mechanisms are markedly suppressed in failing myocytes and under acidotic conditions, Ca2+ sensitizers such as EMD 57033 and Org 30029 can induce cardiotonic effects under such conditions. Ca2+ sensitizers have high therapeutic potential for the treatment of contractile dysfunction in congestive heart failure and ischemic heart diseases, because they have energetic advantages and less risk of Ca2+ overload and can maintain effectiveness under pathological conditions. PMID:18981594

  14. South Pacific Decadal Variability Since the 1790s and Changes in Earth Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wu, H. C.; Dassie, E. P.; Schrag, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in oceanic heat storage may be partly responsible for the most recent stall (or hiatus) in rising Earth surface temperatures since ~2000 C.E. Instrumental data indicates that this most recent stall is coincident with a phase reversal of the North Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The main locations for this heat exchange with the atmosphere appear to be the tropical and mid-latitude regions of the surface ocean, primarily in the Pacific. We have been investigating poorly understood decadal surface ocean variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region. Despite very sparse instrumental water temperature data in the South Pacific to define the decadal changes at the sea surface and in the upper water column, the available data suggests a disproportionately large role of the Southwest Pacific in decadal-scale changes in heat sequestration. We have generated coral Sr/Ca-derived sea surface temperature (SST) time-series extending back to 1791 C.E. from Fiji, Tonga and Rarotonga (FTR) in the SPCZ region of the subtropical Southwest Pacific and show that decadal-scale SST fluctuations in this broad region are concurrent with the PDO at least since ~1930 C.E. Beginning in the mid-20th century, when more reliable instrumental temperature and ocean heat content data exist, decades of warmer South Pacific subtropical SST co-occur with elevated South Pacific upper ocean (0-700m) heat content. These decadal-scale South Pacific warming events coincide with decadal-scale stalls or plateaus in rising global temperatures. Cross wavelet coherence analysis reveals an increase in the frequency of decadal SST variability from a period near 30 years throughout the 1800s to ~20 years in the later half of the 20th century. Our results provide strong supporting evidence that decadal-scale changes in global surface temperatures are in-part, related to heat storage in the upper water column in the subtropical Pacific. Our results also suggest that decadal-scale stalls

  15. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  16. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  17. Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Pacific Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Ishihara, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present the tectonic evolution of the Jurassic Pacific plate based on magnetic anomly lineations and abyssal hills. The Pacific plate is the largest oceanic plate on Earth. It was born as a microplate aroud the Izanagi-Farallon-Phoenix triple junction about 192 Ma, Early Jurassic [Nakanishi et al., 1992]. The size of the Pacific plate at 190 Ma was nearly half that of the present Easter or Juan Fernandez microplates in the East Pacific Rise [Martinez et at, 1991; Larson et al., 1992]. The plate boundary surrounding the Pacific plate from Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous involved the four triple junctions among Pacific, Izanagi, Farallon, and Phoenix plates. The major tectonic events as the formation of oceanic plateaus and microplates during the period occurred in the vicinity of the triple junctions [e.g., Nakanishi and Winterer, 1998; Nakanishi et al., 1999], implying that the study of the triple junctions is indispensable for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Pacific plate. Previous studies indicate instability of the configuration of the triple junctions from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (155-125 Ma). On the other hand, the age of the birth of the Pacific plate was determined assuming that all triple junctions had kept their configurations for about 30 m.y. [Nakanishi et al., 1992] because of insufficient information of the tectonic history of the Pacific plate before Late Jurassic.Increase in the bathymetric and geomagnetic data over the past two decades enables us to reveal the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction before Late Jurassic. Our detailed identication of magnetic anomaly lineations exposes magnetic bights before anomaly M25. We found the curved abyssal hills originated near the triple junction, which trend is parallel to magnetic anomaly lineations. These results imply that the configuration of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction had been RRR before Late Jurassic.

  18. 6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. 75 FR 81971 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA115 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland,...

  20. 78 FR 59657 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC890 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will hold a work session for the Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Policy...

  1. 75 FR 13731 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV41 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and Coastal Pelagic Species...

  2. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  3. 76 FR 16618 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA317 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery... Fisheries B. Crustacean Fisheries C. Precious Coral Fisheries D. Pacific Islands Regional Office...

  4. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  5. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  6. 77 FR 29593 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC027 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management... Harbor Convention Center, 236 Rezanof Drive, Kodiak, AK. Council address: North Pacific...

  7. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACING AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  9. 75 FR 1752 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT68 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council Ecosystem Committee. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council)...

  10. 78 FR 4391 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC447 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Meetings of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council and its advisory committees. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and its...

  11. 75 FR 49890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY19 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and Coastal Pelagic Species...

  12. 77 FR 14350 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB072 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of meetings of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Implementation Team. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  13. 76 FR 62377 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA750 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting (conference call). SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) Trawl Rationalization Regulatory Review Committee (TRREC) will convene...

  14. 77 FR 55193 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC182 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: Members of the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee Subcommittee on Coastal Pelagic...

  15. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING APPROACH SPAN AND HIGHWAY SPAN, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  16. 78 FR 25955 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC657 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT) will hold a conference call, which...

  17. 78 FR 70283 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Online Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC991 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Online... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of online webinar. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council's) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Groundfish Subcommittee will hold an...

  18. 75 FR 19942 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV86 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery... and Training Program and Western Pacific Community Demonstration Project Program for Council...

  19. 77 FR 51772 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC190 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council...-1871. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite...

  20. 15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 1920-22 PACIFIC AVE., WIEGAL COMPANY CANDY FACTORY (1904); 1924-26 PACIFIC AVE., CAMPBELL BUILDING (DAVIS BUILDING) (1890); 1928-30 PACIFIC AVE., REESE-CRANDALL & REDMAN BUILDING, (1890); 1932-36 PACIFIC AVE., MC DONALD & SMITH BUILDING (1890); 1938-48 PACIFIC AVE., F.S. HARMON COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1908), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  1. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  2. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. On the Timing of Glacial Terminations in the Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khider, D.; Ahn, S.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Lawrence, C.; Kienast, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms through which the climate system responds to orbital insolation changes requires establishing the timing of events imprinted on the geological record. In this study, we investigate the relative timing of the glacial terminations across the equatorial Pacific in order to identify a possible mechanism through which the tropics may have influenced a global climate response. The relative termination timing between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific was assessed from 15 published SST records based on Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca or alkenone thermometry. The novelty of our study lies in the accounting of the various sources of uncertainty inherent to paleoclimate reconstruction and timing analysis. Specifically, we use a Monte-Carlo process allowing sampling of possible realizations of the time series that are functions of the uncertainty of the benthic δ18O alignment to a global benthic curve, of the SST uncertainty, and of the uncertainty in the change point, which we use as a definition for the termination timing. We find that the uncertainty on the relative timing estimates is on the order of several thousand years, and stems from age model uncertainty (60%) and the uncertainty in the change point detection (40%). Random sources of uncertainty are the main contributor, and, therefore, averaging over a large datasets and/or higher resolution records should yield more precise and accurate estimates of the relative lead-lag. However, at this time, the number of records is not sufficient to identify any significant differences in the timing of the last three glacial terminations in SST records from the Eastern and Western Tropical Pacific.

  4. Dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate in equatorial Pacific sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Berelson, W.M.; Hammond, D.E.; McManus, J.; Kilgore, T.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Calcium carbonate dissolution exerts a major influence on the carbonate chemistry of seawater and is an important factor in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentration. The authors use a numerical model, based on an estimate of k determined from benthic chamber flux measurements, the distribution of CO3 2-in the water column and percent of CaCO3 in the sediments, to derive the total alkalinity flux from Pacific Ocean sediments. The significance of this budget is discussed as are the following questions: what is the rate of calcium carbonate dissolution on the deep sea floor what controls carbonate dissolution, organic carbon rain rates, or bottom water carbonate ion concentration what is the equations that relates carbonate dissolution to degree of undersaturation and what is the associate rate constant 43 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Pacific Voices: Educational Technologies for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouge, James; Boisvert, Precille; Rao, Kavita

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe how literacy-learning strategies and educational technology were integrated in Pacific island classrooms. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the unique context and setting of a five-year initiative that introduced educational technologies to classrooms in the Northern Pacific islands. Several of the literacy…

  6. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  7. Pacific Educational Computer Network Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. ALOHA System.

    The Pacific Educational Computer Network Feasibility Study examined technical and non-technical aspects of the formation of an international Pacific Area computer network for higher education. The technical study covered the assessment of the feasibility of a packet-switched satellite and radio ground distribution network for data transmission…

  8. Atlantic forcing of Pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Fred; Ikram, Farah; Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kang, In-Sik; No, Hyun-Ho; King, Martin P.; Giuliani, Graziano; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the Atlantic Ocean influence on equatorial Pacific decadal variability. Using an ensemble of simulations, where the ICTPAGCM ("SPEEDY") is coupled to the NEMO/OPA ocean model in the Indo-Pacific region and forced by observed sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic region, it is shown that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has had a substantial influence on the equatorial Pacific decadal variability. According to AMO phases we have identified three periods with strong Atlantic forcing of equatorial Pacific changes, namely (1) 1931-1950 minus 1910-1929, (2) 1970-1989 minus 1931-1950 and (3) 1994-2013 minus 1970-1989. Both observations and the model show easterly surface wind anomalies in the central Pacific, cooling in the central-eastern Pacific and warming in the western Pacific/Indian Ocean region in events (1) and (3) and the opposite signals in event (2). The physical mechanism for these responses is related to a modification of the Walker circulation because a positive (negative) AMO leads to an overall warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic. The warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic modifies the Walker circulation, leading to rising (sinking) and upper-level divergence (convergence) motion in the Atlantic region and sinking (rising) motion and upper-level convergence (divergence) in the central Pacific region.

  9. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific crabapple (Malus fusca (Raf.) C.K. Schneid.) is found in moist coastal habitats in the Pacific Northwest. It is one of four apple species native to North America. Malus fusca is culturally important to First Nations of the region who value and use the fruits of this species as food, bark...

  10. Atmospheric science: Pacific trade wind intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The unprecedented recent intensification of the Pacific trade winds cannot simply be explained by natural variability alone. Now research finds that the more local influence of sulfate aerosols of human and volcanic origin play a significant role, in addition to the Pacific's coupling to the Atlantic Ocean via the 'atmospheric bridge'.

  11. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  12. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  13. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  14. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  15. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  16. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  17. The Emerging Pacific: Reshaping World Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Steven L.; Wilson, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces a series of articles which emphasize the diversity and unity of the Pacific Rim nations. Examines the interests of the United States, USSR, Japan, and China in this part of the world and discusses how teachers might organize lessons on this region. States that the articles present a variety of ways of seeing the emerging Pacific. (GEA)

  18. Vision impairment in the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J E; Konyama, K; Taylor, H R

    2002-01-01

    The Western Pacific region is one of great diversity, containing the most populous country, China, and many small Pacific island countries. This review describes the prevalence of blindness and vision loss, illustrates the changing trends in the important causes of vision loss and blindness, and the stages of development of the delivery of eye care services across this region. PMID:12034678

  19. Pacific Region School Finance and Facilities Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Alice J., Ed.

    A study of school financing and facilities was conducted in the 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities of the United States. Data were collected from public departments of education in 9 of 10 entities served by the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory (PREL): American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States…

  20. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  1. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  2. Unlocking the Secrets of the Geodynamo: the Southwest Pacific Key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G. M.; Greve, A.; Kinger, R.; de Gelder, G.; Fitzsimons, S.; Howarth, J. D.; Hill, M. J.; Nilsson, A.; Sheppard, P.

    2014-12-01

    Three years ago we embarked on a project to boost the coverage of palaeosecular variation data from the Southwest Pacific region, and so to provide the means to enhance global and regional field models, dating tools derived from them, and understanding of features of the geodynamo, particularly beneath this region of the Earth's surface. Here we present our progress to date, including lake sediment records covering the entire Holocene, archaeomagnetic data from Maori cooking ("hangi") stones dating back to the earliest occupation of New Zealand, archaeointensities from Lapita pottery from the Pacific Islands (Fiji, Tonga and Papua New Guinea) dating back to ca 3000 BP, and palaeomagnetic directions and intensities from volcanic rocks and lava flows of the North Island of New Zealand. Central to the project is a composite lake sediment record, constrained by a high-resolution radiocarbon-based chronology, which provides a complete record of declination, inclination and relative palaeointensity for New Zealand through the Holocene. This is complemented by directions and absolute intensities from archaeological materials, most of which have associated radiocarbon age control, and lavas with 40Ar-39Ar age constraints, the rock magnetism and analytical details of which are discussed in accompanying posters. The overall picture reveals several large amplitude directional swings in the early Holocene magnetic field, followed by relatively low amplitude secular variation for several thousand years leading to the present trend to increasingly easterly declination and steep inclination as the south magnetic pole moves further off the Antarctic continent towards New Zealand.

  3. The Thermal Evolution of the Western Equatorial Pacific During the Midde and Early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, M. A.; Lea, D. W.; Spero, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Magnesium/calcium data from planktonic foraminifera in the equatorial Pacific sediment cores suggested that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST's) were about 3 deg.C colder than modern conditions during glacial episodes of the last 500 thousand years (ky). We have extended the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP) Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca and d18O records, from the Ontong Java Plateau, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 806B (0 19.11'N, 159 21.69'E, 2520m), back to 1.3 ma. For temperature conversion we used a G. ruber calibration based on core-tops from the tropical Pacific (Lea and Martin, 1996), which yields the following relationship: Mg/Ca(mmol/mol)= 0.30exp[0.089 X SST deg. C)]. Our SST record shows that the previously observed 3 deg C-colder SST's than modern conditions during glacial episodes are generally the rule for the entire 1.3 ma period. Glacial-interglacial temperature differences as great as 4 deg. C are observed, even in the Early Pleistocene (1-1.8 ma). Preliminary observations suggest the presence of ~40 Ky SST cycles during the Early Pleistocene, of similar amplitude to the dominant SST cycles seen in Late Pleistocene Tropical records. Early Pleistocene WEP SST's, as suggested by our record, oscillated between 26 and 30 deg. C. MIS 11 stands out as the most prominent feature of the WEP SST record. The potential bias on temperature estimates due to the influence of changes in lysocline depth (Farrell and Prell, 1989) and decrease preservation with depth (Lea et al., 2000) is ± 0.8 deg.C. Preliminary point to point comparison between the SST and the d18O records shows that Mg/Ca-based temperatures lead over d18O by about 3 ky as previously determined by Lea et al. (2000).

  4. Nutrition communication in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    White, Leticia; Saweri, Wila

    2007-09-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a scoping study to analyse and guide nutrition communication in some countries in the Pacific region. Nutrition is fundamental to achieving good health and preventing the rising prevalence of non-communicable disease. Dietary patterns are influenced by many factors and complex interactions, such as income, food prices, individual preference and beliefs, cultural traditions, as well as geographical, environmental and social factors. These interactions, the quantitative and qualitative changes in the diet, and the accompanying lifestyle changes seen in recent years, make a collaborative approach to behaviour change essential. This study suggests that by supporting nutritionists to promote nutrition, improve public awareness and by addressing key areas influencing nutrition communication, gains towards improving public health can be made at a regional level. PMID:19588610

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  6. Ba/Ca Reproducibility and Growth Banding in Gulf of Alaska Bamboo Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrato Marks, G.; LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sauthoff, W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Roark, E. B.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea bamboo corals have been proposed as deep-ocean paleoceanographic archives because of their longevity and radial growth bands. Previous work has shown that bamboo coral Ba/Ca is a promising proxy for seawater barium, however, validation of Ba/Ca reproducibility is required. In addition, the growth band formation mechanism is uncertain, with some proposing that crystal orientation causes banding visible under light microscopy. The objective of this study was to evaluate Ba/Ca reproducibility and characterize growth band crystal orientation. Visible bands measured with a petrographic microscope were used to align LA-ICP-MS data collected along three replicate radii of the calcitic internodes of two well-dated corals from the Gulf of Alaska (collected live at 720m and 643m; 48°3'N, 132°44'W). Ba/Ca signals smoothed to ~annual resolution were reproducible within each coral (r=0.6-0.7; p<0.0001; n=3 radii/coral), suggesting that Ba/Ca varies in response to the external environment on annual timescales. Ba/Ca in the 720m coral increased from 1977 to 1998, a warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) regime, possibly due to increased export production. The shallower coral (634m) revealed the inverse trend, suggesting variability in seawater barium dynamics with depth. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of visible growth bands showed a preferred crystal orientation that does not correspond to location of visible bands or elemental composition, suggesting that crystal orientation does not cause bamboo coral banding. Overall, results show that regional oceanic signals are recorded as reproducible Ba/Ca variability in these corals. Comparison of these data to other well-dated records from the northeast Pacific would determine whether the relationship between Ba/Ca and PDO is regional. Additional archives of trace element variability will strengthen our understanding of how rapid climate change impacts intermediate ocean biogeochemistry.

  7. CA125 in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Summary Twenty five years after its discovery, circulating CA125 antigen is recommended for clinical use in the US for ovarian cancer (OC) screening of high risk women with ovaries despite its limited sensitivity and specificity. Recent findings suggest that CA125 might also serve as a predictive marker for pre-invasive OC. Methods to quantify circulating CA125 evolved towards sensitive and reliable double determinant ELISA assays. The CA125 gene, MUC16, was cloned 20 years after the protein discovery and revealed a very complex and unusual glycoprotein structure suggesting an immunological role. Recent evidence points toward CA125 function in the induction of materno-fetal tolerance through the alteration of NK phenotype. Two receptors for CA125 have been described: mesothelin and galectin-1. The specific location and functional proprieties of CA125 make it a therapeutic target of choice; clinical trials have demonstrated that anti-CA125 injections are well tolerated and suggest a potential survival benefit. PMID:20477371

  8. The Mid-Pleistocene Transition In The Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Elizalde, M. A.; Lea, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    During the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) at ~950 kyr B.P., the climate of the Earth underwent profound changes. As suggested by foraminiferal oxygen isotopic records, high latitude climate switched from 41,000 years (kyr) to ~100 kyr dominant cycles at this time. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the MPT which involve high latitude northern hemisphere processes. Recent paleoclimate reconstructions, however, indicate that the tropics also experienced climate changes resembling those at high latitude but also with their own unique patterns, which cannot be fully explained by current hypotheses. A sea surface temperature (SST) record based on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca from the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) warm pool ODP Hole 806B reveals that glacial-interglacial (G-I) oscillations in SST also shifted from a period of 41 kyr to 100 kyr during the MPT. This observation is in agreement with the SST records from core MD97-2140, a site to the northwest of Hole 806B, and from ODP Hole 846 in the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue, which also show a shift in the dominant periodicity. Hole 806B SST average (27.8°C) and range (3°C) remained the same over the MPT with typical glacial and interglacial SSTs of 26°C and 29°C, respectively. Hole 806B SST lead foraminiferal d18O by 4± 3 kyr over the MPT in agreement with paired records from core MD97-2140 and Hole 846. SST cycles across the MPT have similar magnitude and are synchronous in both the western and the eastern equatorial Pacific but preceded changes in continental ice volume. Today, eastern equatorial Pacific SSTs are strongly influenced by wind-driven thermocline depth changes. In contrast, in the WEP, where the thermocline is very deep, SSTs are less likely to be affected by thermocline depth changes. The nature of tropical SST variability over the mid-Pleistocene transition is remarkably similar to late Pleistocene climate observations and implicates atmospheric greenhouse

  9. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-01-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m3. In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics. PMID:26213676

  10. Dynamic buffering of mitochondrial Ca2+ during Ca2+ uptake and Na+-induced Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Blomeyer, Christoph A.; Bazil, Jason N.; Stowe, David F.; Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Dash, Ranjan K.; Camara, Amadou K. S.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiac mitochondria, matrix free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) is primarily regulated by Ca2+ uptake and release via the Ca2+ uniporter (CU) and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCE) as well as by Ca2+ buffering. Although experimental and computational studies on the CU and NCE dynamics exist, it is not well understood how matrix Ca2+ buffering affects these dynamics under various Ca2+ uptake and release conditions, and whether this influences the stoichiometry of the NCE. To elucidate the role of matrix Ca2+ buffering on the uptake and release of Ca2+, we monitored Ca2+ dynamics in isolated mitochondria by measuring both the extra-matrix free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]e) and [Ca2+]m. A detailed protocol was developed and freshly isolated mitochondria from guinea pig hearts were exposed to five different [CaCl2] followed by ruthenium red and six different [NaCl]. By using the fluorescent probe indo-1, [Ca2+] and [Ca2+e]m were spectrofluorometrically quantified, and the stoichiometry of the NCE was determined. In addition, we measured NADH, membrane potential, matrix volume and matrix pH to monitor Ca2+-induced changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Our [Ca2+]e and [Ca2+]m measurements demonstrate that Ca2+ uptake and release do not show reciprocal Ca2+ dynamics in the extra-matrix and matrix compartments. This salient finding is likely caused by a dynamic Ca2+ buffering system in the matrix compartment. The Na+ - induced Ca2+ release demonstrates an electrogenic exchange via the NCE by excluding an electroneutral exchange. Mitochondrial bioenergetics were only transiently affected by Ca2+ uptake in the presence of large amounts of CaCl2, but not by Na+- induced Ca2+ release. PMID:23225099

  11. Pacific Rim and Pacific Plate Tectonism Associated With the Hawaiian Emperor Bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, A.; Kroenke, L. W.; Wessel, P.; Harada, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Widespread Pacific Rim and Pacific plate tectonism both appear to be closely associated with a pronounced change in Pacific absolute plate motion (APM) that occurred about 43 Ma as revealed by the Hawaiian Emperor Bend. In the Western Pacific prior to the change, as the Pacific plate moved toward the north, Proto Izu -- Bonin -- Mariana (IBM) subduction was already occurring by 49 Ma, perhaps as early as 52 Ma near the northern end of the Proto IBM, evidenced by the emplacement of boninites in the forearc (Cosca et al., 1998). If the Philippine Basin -- Pacific plate circuit is traced though the Coral Sea basin after closing the Ayu and Sorel troughs, it is evident that the alignment of the Proto IBM (Kyushu -- Palau) subduction zone roughly paralleled the Pacific APM during the initiation of subduction. At ~ 43 Ma, Proto-IBM Trench subduction rapidly increased, possibly causing the major change in Pacific (and Australia) APM that produced the prominent bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain. This change also produced a the minor bend in the Louisville chain, as the Pacific plate began to move west-northwestward, as well as at least five more noticeable bends in other seamount chains across the Central Pacific. In the Northeastern Pacific, the expansive magmatic activity, which occurred during the early stage of Aleutian Arc growth between 55--50 Ma, began to wane between 45 and 40 Ma (Scholl et al., 1987). After the 43 Ma change in Pacific APM, the Aleutian subduction zone began to accommodate dextral slip at its western end, as well as continuing convergence at its eastern end. To the south, in the Eastern Pacific, Ridge propagation began about 43 Ma both north and south of the Murray FZ (extending southward to the Clarion FZ). Much farther to the south, changes are also apparent in the Pacific -- Antarctic spreading pattern at ~43 Ma. In the Central Pacific, following the 43 Ma change in Pacific plate motion, intraplate subduction began along the Manus -- North

  12. Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Eddie

    2000-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment is Phase 2 of the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satcom Experiments following the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Experiment. It is a part of the Global Information Infrastructure-Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks Project (GII-GIBN). Provides global information infrastructure involving broadband satellites and terrestrial networks and access to information by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Collaboration of government, industry, and academic organizations demonstrate the use of broadband satellite links in a global information infrastructure with emphasis on astronomical observations, collaborative discussions and distance learning.

  13. Geological history of the western North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, A.G.; Heezen, B.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Bukry, D.; Douglas, R.G.; Garrison, R.E.; Kling, S.A.; Krasheninnikov, V.; Lisitzin, A.P.; Pimm, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    A considerable portion of the abyssal floor of the western North Pacific was already receiving pelagic sediment in late Jurassic time. Carbonate sediments were later replaced by abyssal clays as the basin deepened and bottom waters became more aggressive. The resulting facies boundary, which can be recognized on seismic profiles, is broadly transgressive; it ranges in age from mid-Cretaceous in the western Pacific to Oligocene in the central Pacific. Cherts are encountered at and below the major facies boundary and appear to have been formed by postdepositional processes.

  14. Underestimated risks of recurrent long-range ash dispersal from northern Pacific Arc volcanoes

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, A. J.; Abbott, P. M.; Albert, P. G.; Cook, E.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Ponomareva, V.; Svensson, A.; Davies, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Widespread ash dispersal poses a significant natural hazard to society, particularly in relation to disruption to aviation. Assessing the extent of the threat of far-travelled ash clouds on flight paths is substantially hindered by an incomplete volcanic history and an underestimation of the potential reach of distant eruptive centres. The risk of extensive ash clouds to aviation is thus poorly quantified. New evidence is presented of explosive Late Pleistocene eruptions in the Pacific Arc, currently undocumented in the proximal geological record, which dispersed ash up to 8000 km from source. Twelve microscopic ash deposits or cryptotephra, invisible to the naked eye, discovered within Greenland ice-cores, and ranging in age between 11.1 and 83.7 ka b2k, are compositionally matched to northern Pacific Arc sources including Japan, Kamchatka, Cascades and Alaska. Only two cryptotephra deposits are correlated to known high-magnitude eruptions (Towada-H, Japan, ca 15 ka BP and Mount St Helens Set M, ca 28 ka BP). For the remaining 10 deposits, there is no evidence of age- and compositionally-equivalent eruptive events in regional volcanic stratigraphies. This highlights the inherent problem of under-reporting eruptions and the dangers of underestimating the long-term risk of widespread ash dispersal for trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic flight routes. PMID:27445233

  15. Underestimated risks of recurrent long-range ash dispersal from northern Pacific Arc volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Bourne, A J; Abbott, P M; Albert, P G; Cook, E; Pearce, N J G; Ponomareva, V; Svensson, A; Davies, S M

    2016-01-01

    Widespread ash dispersal poses a significant natural hazard to society, particularly in relation to disruption to aviation. Assessing the extent of the threat of far-travelled ash clouds on flight paths is substantially hindered by an incomplete volcanic history and an underestimation of the potential reach of distant eruptive centres. The risk of extensive ash clouds to aviation is thus poorly quantified. New evidence is presented of explosive Late Pleistocene eruptions in the Pacific Arc, currently undocumented in the proximal geological record, which dispersed ash up to 8000 km from source. Twelve microscopic ash deposits or cryptotephra, invisible to the naked eye, discovered within Greenland ice-cores, and ranging in age between 11.1 and 83.7 ka b2k, are compositionally matched to northern Pacific Arc sources including Japan, Kamchatka, Cascades and Alaska. Only two cryptotephra deposits are correlated to known high-magnitude eruptions (Towada-H, Japan, ca 15 ka BP and Mount St Helens Set M, ca 28 ka BP). For the remaining 10 deposits, there is no evidence of age- and compositionally-equivalent eruptive events in regional volcanic stratigraphies. This highlights the inherent problem of under-reporting eruptions and the dangers of underestimating the long-term risk of widespread ash dispersal for trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic flight routes. PMID:27445233

  16. Glacial deep ocean sequestration of CO2 driven by the eastern equatorial Pacific biologic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Whitney; Marchitto, Thomas M.

    2013-09-01

    The potential influence of low latitude ocean primary productivity on glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has proven challenging to deduce using mass accumulation rates (MARs) of biogenic particulates in deep sea sediment cores. Benthic foraminiferal B/Ca serves as a proxy for past seawater calcite saturation state, and thereby provides a fresh perspective on this outstanding paleoceanographic problem. Here we employ Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi B/Ca in the Panama Basin region of the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) to investigate the nature of deep tropical Pacific carbon storage over the past 50 ka BP. We present evidence for persistently lower deep Panama Basin calcite saturation state, reflecting an increase in total carbon dioxide storage, during the last ice age relative to the Holocene. These results reflect the modification of inflowing deep waters by overlying export productivity, and support the concept of an invigorated glacial EEP soft-tissue pump possibly driven by oceanic nutrient (iron and silica) redistribution. Benthic Cibicidoides spp. carbon-13 is consistent with this conclusion by exhibiting substantially lighter values during glacial time, reflecting the accumulation of metabolic carbon dioxide in the deep tropical Pacific. Counterintuitively, downcore application of the Globorotalia menardii calcite fragmentation index (MFI) reveals enhanced glacial sedimentary calcite preservation in the Panama Basin. Together these results point towards a systematic decoupling of bottom water chemistry from biogenic burial fluxes: the crux of the aforementioned traditional paleoproductivity problem.

  17. Glacial deep ocean sequestration of CO2 driven by the eastern equatorial Pacific biologic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, W. C.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The potential influence of low latitude ocean primary productivity on glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has proven challenging to deduce using mass accumulation rates (MARs) of biogenic particulates in deep sea sediment cores. Benthic foraminiferal B/Ca serves as a proxy for past seawater calcite saturation state,and thereby provides a fresh perspective on this outstanding paleoceanographic problem. Here we employ Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi B/Ca in the Panama Basin region of the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) to investigate the nature of deep tropical Pacific carbon storage over the past 50 ka BP. We present evidence for persistently lower deep Panama Basin calcite saturation state, reflecting an increase in total carbon dioxide storage, during the last ice age relative to the Holocene. These results reflect the modification of inflowing deep waters by overlying export productivity, and support the concept of an invigorated glacial EEP soft-tissue pump possibly driven by oceanic nutrient (iron and silica) redistribution. Benthic Cibicidoides spp. carbon-13 is consistent with this conclusion by exhibiting substantially lighter values during glacial time, reflecting the accumulation of metabolic carbon dioxide in the deep tropical Pacific. Counterintuitively, downcore application of the Globorotalia menardii calcite fragmentation index (MFI) reveals enhanced glacial sedimentary calcite preservation in the Panama Basin. Together these results point towards a systematic decoupling of bottom water chemistry from biogenic burial fluxes: the crux of the aforementioned traditional paleoproductivity problem.

  18. Underestimated risks of recurrent long-range ash dispersal from northern Pacific Arc volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, A. J.; Abbott, P. M.; Albert, P. G.; Cook, E.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Ponomareva, V.; Svensson, A.; Davies, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    Widespread ash dispersal poses a significant natural hazard to society, particularly in relation to disruption to aviation. Assessing the extent of the threat of far-travelled ash clouds on flight paths is substantially hindered by an incomplete volcanic history and an underestimation of the potential reach of distant eruptive centres. The risk of extensive ash clouds to aviation is thus poorly quantified. New evidence is presented of explosive Late Pleistocene eruptions in the Pacific Arc, currently undocumented in the proximal geological record, which dispersed ash up to 8000 km from source. Twelve microscopic ash deposits or cryptotephra, invisible to the naked eye, discovered within Greenland ice-cores, and ranging in age between 11.1 and 83.7 ka b2k, are compositionally matched to northern Pacific Arc sources including Japan, Kamchatka, Cascades and Alaska. Only two cryptotephra deposits are correlated to known high-magnitude eruptions (Towada-H, Japan, ca 15 ka BP and Mount St Helens Set M, ca 28 ka BP). For the remaining 10 deposits, there is no evidence of age- and compositionally-equivalent eruptive events in regional volcanic stratigraphies. This highlights the inherent problem of under-reporting eruptions and the dangers of underestimating the long-term risk of widespread ash dispersal for trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic flight routes.

  19. The central role of the Hikurangi Plateau in the Cenozoic tectonics of New Zealand and the Southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyners, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent work involving relocation of New Zealand seismicity using a nationwide 3-D seismic velocity model has located the subducted western edge of the Hikurangi Plateau. Both the thickness (ca. 35 km) and the area of the plateau subducted in the Cenozoic (ca. 287,000 km2) are much larger than previously supposed. From ca. 45 Ma, the westernmost tip of the plateau controlled the transition at the Pacific/Australia plate boundary from subduction to the north to Emerald Basin opening to the south. At ca. 23 Ma, curvature of the subduction zone against the western flank of the buoyant plateau became extreme, and a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP fault) developed along the western edge of the plateau. This STEP fault corresponds to the Alpine Fault, and the resulting Pacific slab edge is currently defined by intermediate-depth seismicity under the northernmost South Island. Alpine STEP fault propagation was terminated at ca. 15 Ma, when the western edge of the plateau became parallel to the trench, and thus STEP fault formation was no longer favoured. Wholesale subduction of the plateau at the Hikurangi subduction zone began at ca. 10 Ma. The development of a subduction décollement above the plateau mechanically favoured deformation within the overlying Australian plate continental crust. This led to inception of the Marlborough fault system at ca. 7 Ma, and the North Island fault system at 1-2 Ma. At ca. 7 Ma, the western edge of the converging plateau again became more normal to the trench, and there is evidence supporting the development of a second STEP fault beneath the Taupo Volcanic Zone until ca. 3 Ma. Both episodes of STEP fault development at the plateau edge led to rapid slab rollback, and correspond closely with episodes of backarc basin opening to the north in the wider Southwest Pacific. The Cenozoic tectonics of New Zealand and the Southwest Pacific has been strongly influenced not only by the resistance to subduction of the buoyant Hikurangi

  20. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  1. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  2. 77 FR 62218 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC286 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) and its advisory entities will hold public meetings. DATES: The Pacific Council and...

  3. 17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 2102-2106 PACIFIC AVE., MORRIS MILLER BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2110 PACIFIC AVE., TACOMA DRY GOODS BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2114-16 PACIFIC AVE., HUNT & MOTTET COMPANY HEADQUARTERS (1907), BULLARD & HILL, ARCHITECTS. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  4. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  5. 76 FR 53414 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA661 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) and its advisory entities will hold public meetings. DATES: The Pacific Council and...

  6. 50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Western Pacific Community Development... PACIFIC General § 665.20 Western Pacific Community Development Program. (a) General. In accordance with.... (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...

  7. 76 FR 18534 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA344 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public...: (831) 420-3900. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council), 7700 NE..., NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center; telephone: (541) 961-8475; or Mr. John DeVore, Pacific...

  8. 50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Western Pacific Community Development... PACIFIC General § 665.20 Western Pacific Community Development Program. (a) General. In accordance with.... (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...

  9. 50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western Pacific Community Development... PACIFIC General § 665.20 Western Pacific Community Development Program. (a) General. In accordance with.... (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...

  10. 50 CFR 660.336 - Pacific whiting vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting vessel licenses. 660.336... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.336 Pacific whiting vessel licenses. (a) Pacific whiting vessel license—(1...(b) requires: (i) An owner of any vessel that catches Pacific whiting must hold a limited...

  11. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  12. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  13. Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest examines: (1) the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim"; (2) reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum; and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. The terms, Pacific Rim and Pacific Basin, are used. interchangeably; however, the "Rim" refers to those nations bordering the…

  14. 78 FR 32624 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... American Samoa Longline Fishery 2. Overfishing of Pacific Bluefin 3. Overfishing of North Pacific Western... Wrasse Status Review 3. Green Turtle Status Review 4. North Pacific Humpback Whale Petition 5. Shark... in the American Samoa Longline Fishery 2. Overfishing of Pacific Bluefin 3. Overfishing of...

  15. Pliocene climate change of the Southwest Pacific and the impact of ocean gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Cyrus; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The transition from the early Pliocene “Warmhouse” towards the present “Icehouse” climate and the role of Gateway dynamics are intensively debated. Both, the constrictions of the Central American Seaway and the Indonesian Gateway affected ocean circulation and climate during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we use combined δ18O and Mg/Ca ratios of planktonic foraminifera (marine protozoa) from surface and subsurface levels to reconstruct the thermal structure and changes in salinities from the Southwest Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 590B from 6.5 to 2.5 Ma. Our data suggest a gradual cooling of ~ 2 °C and freshening of the sea surface during ~ 4.6-4 Ma with an increased meridional temperature gradient between the West Pacific Warm Pool and the Southwest Pacific when the closing of the Central American Seaway reached a critical threshold. After ~ 3.5 Ma, the restricted Indonesian Gateway might have amplified the East Australian Current, allowing enhanced heat transport towards the Southwest Pacific with reduced meridional temperature gradients when the global climate gradually cooled. At the same time our data suggest a cooling and freshening of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) or/and an increased northward flow of SAMW towards Site 590B, possibly a first step towards the present Antarctic Frontal System.

  16. Decline of surface temperature and salinity in the western tropical Pacific Ocean in the Holocene epoch.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lowell; Cannariato, Kevin; Thunell, Robert; Haug, Gerald H; Koutavas, Athanasios; Lund, Steve

    2004-09-01

    In the present-day climate, surface water salinities are low in the western tropical Pacific Ocean and increase towards the eastern part of the basin. The salinity of surface waters in the tropical Pacific Ocean is thought to be controlled by a combination of atmospheric convection, precipitation, evaporation and ocean dynamics, and on interannual timescales significant variability is associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation cycles. However, little is known about the variability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on timescales of centuries to millennia. Here we combine oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca data from foraminifers retrieved from three sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific Ocean to reconstruct Holocene sea surface temperatures and salinities in the region. We find a decrease in sea surface temperatures of approximately 0.5 degrees C over the past 10,000 yr, whereas sea surface salinities decreased by approximately 1.5 practical salinity units. Our data imply either that the Pacific basin as a whole has become progressively less salty or that the present salinity gradient along the Equator has developed relatively recently. PMID:15343330

  17. Mid-Pliocene equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction: A multi-proxy perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth, which can be used to examine conditions predicted for the near future. An accurate spatial representation of the low-latitude Mid-Pliocene Pacific surface ocean is necessary to understand past climate change in the light of forecasts of future change. Mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies show a strong contrast between the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) regardless of proxy (faunal, alkenone and Mg/Ca). All WEP sites show small differences from modern mean annual temperature, but all EEP sites show significant positive deviation from present-day temperatures by as much as 4.4??C. Our reconstruction reflects SSTs similar to modern in the WEP, warmer than modern in the EEP and eastward extension of the WEP warm pool. The east-west equatorial Pacific SST gradient is decreased, but the pole to equator gradient does not change appreciably. We find it improbable that increased greenhouse gases (GHG) alone would cause such a heterogeneous warming and more likely that the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth is a combination of several forcings including both increased meridional heat transport and increased GHG. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  18. Mid-Pliocene equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction: a multi-proxy perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth, which can be used to examine conditions predicted for the near future. An accurate spatial representation of the low-latitude Mid-Pliocene Pacific surface ocean is necessary to understand past climate change in the light of forecasts of future change. Mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies show a strong contrast between the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) regardless of proxy (faunal, alkenone and Mg/Ca). All WEP sites show small differences from modern mean annual temperature, but all EEP sites show significant positive deviation from present-day temperatures by as much as 4.4°C. Our reconstruction reflects SSTs similar to modern in the WEP, warmer than modern in the EEP and eastward extension of the WEP warm pool. The east-west equatorial Pacific SST gradient is decreased, but the pole to equator gradient does not change appreciably. We find it improbable that increased greenhouse gases (GHG) alone would cause such a heterogeneous warming and more likely that the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth is a combination of several forcings including both increased meridional heat transport and increased GHG.

  19. The age and origin of the Pacific islands: a geological overview.

    PubMed

    Neall, Vincent E; Trewick, Steven A

    2008-10-27

    The Pacific Ocean evolved from the Panthalassic Ocean that was first formed ca 750 Ma with the rifting apart of Rodinia. By 160 Ma, the first ocean floor ascribed to the current Pacific plate was produced to the west of a spreading centre in the central Pacific, ultimately growing to become the largest oceanic plate on the Earth. The current Nazca, Cocos and Juan de Fuca (Gorda) plates were initially one plate, produced to the east of the original spreading centre before becoming split into three. The islands of the Pacific have originated as: linear chains of volcanic islands on the above plates either by mantle plume or propagating fracture origin, atolls, uplifted coralline reefs, fragments of continental crust, obducted portions of adjoining lithospheric plates and islands resulting from subduction along convergent plate margins. Out of the 11 linear volcanic chains identified, each is briefly described and its history summarized. The geology of 10 exemplar archipelagos (Japan, Izu-Bonin, Palau, Solomons, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Society, Galápagos and Hawaii) is then discussed in detail. PMID:18768382

  20. The impact of South Pacific extratropical forcing on ENSO and comparisons with the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Tseng, Yu-heng

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that North Pacific extratropical atmospheric variability influences ENSO via the seasonal footprinting mechanism (SFM). This study confirms that quadrapole sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the extratropical South Pacific triggered by mid-latitude South Pacific atmospheric variability may also have an additional influence on ENSO. The response of the evolution of the ENSO-related zonal wind and SST anomalies in the tropics to the South Pacific extratropical forcing is consistent with the SFM hypothesis. That is, the Pacific-South American (PSA) pattern of the South Pacific extratropical sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies imparts an SST footprint (i.e., a quadrapole SST pattern) onto the ocean during austral summer. This SST footprint subsequently forces the zonal wind anomalies along the equator in the following austral winter that ultimately result in ENSO events during the following austral summer via ocean-atmosphere coupling in the tropics. The present study demonstrates that the influences of extratropical atmospheric variability in the South Pacific and North Pacific on ENSO are different and relatively independent. It is possible that they may, together or separately, influence the occurrence of ENSO events, and the importance of the South Pacific forcing in initiating ENSO events is comparable with that of the North Pacific forcing. An empirical model was established to predict the Niño3.4 index based on the combined South Pacific and North Pacific signals, and results show that it can be used to produce skillful forecasts of the Niño3.4 index with a leading time of up to 1 year.

  1. Satellite Tracks Double Eastern Pacific Hurricanes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Aug. 27 to Aug. 30, 2016, shows the movement of Category 4 Hurricane Madeline approaching Hawaii in the Central Pacific Ocean and Category ...

  2. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  3. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  4. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  5. Agriculture and biotechnology in Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Shigaki, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific countries are small in land mass and therefore represent one of the most fragile ecosystems. Due to the isolation of these island counties, these are home to unique species of plants and animals as well as crop varieties and landraces. Biosafety issues in the Pacific countries, therefore, require special attention to take these factors into account. The issues are shared with other small island nations such as the Caribbean countries. Although most Pacific countries do not have scientific capacity to develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), they are inadvertently introduced from the developed world. As the countries do not have appropriate capacity to monitor the introduction and commerce of GMO's, it is imperative to establish biosafety legislation and capacity by pooling the resources within the Pacific countries. PMID:25412740

  6. Pacific Basin Communication Study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Users' meeting summary report, chronology of visits, economic data for forum countries, techniques used in the study, communication choices, existing resources in the Pacific Basin, and warc 79 region 3 rules and regulations were presented in volume 2.

  7. Pacific Northwest and Alaska bioenergy program glossary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    A glossary of terms for the bioenergy program of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska is presented. A table with physical constants for individual gases most frequently found in fuel gases is also presented in this publication.

  8. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... death was 79.6 years; how- ever, blacks, American Indian/ Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders had younger ... 2011 show that among low-income preschool children, American Indians/Alaskan Natives have an obesity rate of 17. ...

  9. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  10. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  11. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  12. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific...

  13. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  14. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  15. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific...

  16. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  17. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  18. Decreased oxygen concentration in the glacial abyssal subarctic Pacific - evidence for enhanced oceanic carbon sequestration during cold periods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, S. L.; Galbraith, E. D.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.; Francois, R.; Pedersen, T. F.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca have indicated that the glacial-interglacial change in deep North Pacific PO4 concentration was minimal, which has been taken by some workers as a sign that the biological pump did not store more carbon in the deep glacial ocean. Here we present sedimentary redox- sensitive trace metal (Mn, Mo, U) records from ODP Site 882 (NW subarctic Pacific, water depth 3,244 m) to make inferences about changes in deep North Pacific oxygenation - and thus respired carbon storage - across glacial Terminations I and II. These observations are complemented with 230Th-normalized biogenic barium and opal measurements as indicators for past organic carbon export to separate the influences of deep-water oxygen concentration and sedimentary organic carbon respiration on the redox state of the sediment. Our results suggest that the deep subarctic Pacific water mass was depleted in oxygen during glacial maxima, though it was not anoxic. We reconcile our results with the existing benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca by invoking a decrease in the fraction of the deep ocean nutrient inventory that was preformed, rather than remineralized. This change would have corresponded to an increase in the deep Pacific storage of respired carbon, which would have lowered atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by sequestering CO2 away from the atmosphere and by increasing ocean alkalinity through a transient dissolution event in the deep sea. Preliminary calculations show that the magnitude of change in preformed nutrients suggested by the North Pacific data would have accounted for a substantial portion of the observed decrease in glacial atmospheric pCO2.

  19. Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

  20. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  1. Aerosol in the Pacific troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of near real-time optical techniques is emphasized for the measurement of mid-tropospheric aerosol over the Central Pacific. The primary focus is on measurement of the aerosol size distribution over the range of particle diameters from 0.15 to 5.0 microns that are essential for modeling CO2 backscatter values in support of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) program. The measurement system employs a LAS-X (Laser Aerosol Spectrometer-PMS, Boulder, CO) with a custom 256 channel pulse height analyzer and software for detailed measurement and analysis of aerosol size distributions. A thermal preheater system (Thermo Optic Aerosol Descriminator (TOAD) conditions the aerosol in a manner that allows the discrimination of the size distribution of individual aerosol components such as sulfuric acid, sulfates and refractory species. This allows assessment of the relative contribution of each component to the BCO2 signal. This is necessary since the different components have different sources, exhibit independent variability and provide different BCO2 signals for a given mass and particle size. Field activities involve experiments designed to examine both temporal and spatial variability of these aerosol components from ground based and aircraft platforms.

  2. Death in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Prior, I A; Foulkes, M A; Eyles, E F

    1980-05-28

    The pattern of mortality and the influence of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and body mass on mortality is examined in 1980 adults in four contrasting South Pacific populations. Three of the populations are Polynesian: Pakapuka, an isolated coral atoll, Rarotonga, a less isolated volcanic island, and the New Zealand Maoris, and they are compared with a New Zealand caucasian sample. The baseline examinations were performed in 1963-64 and the cardiovascular risk factors and associated disease were found to be more prevalent in Polynesians with increasing westernisation. The dead or alive status was ascertained in 1974 for 99 percent of the subjects. The age standardised 10-11 year death rates also increased with increasing westernisation from 11.7 percent in Pukapukan men to 26.7 percent in Maori men. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis of survivorship data demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between baseline serum cholesterol and mortality in the New Zealand Maoris. Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the population differences in mortality and it was found that the variables studied do not explain these differences. This study demonstrates the adverse effect of esternisation on the health of Polynesians and suggests that the relationsip between risk factors and mortality differs between populations. PMID:6931320

  3. Hypersonic trans-Pacific flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Aeronautics Design Program at The Ohio State University was to design a vehicle for hypersonic passenger flight across the Pacific Ocean. The specifications were as follows: (1) hypersonic flight; (2) range of 8000 nm; (3) passenger seating greater than 250; (4) operation from 15000 ft runways Mach number and altitude of operation were at the discretion of the design teams as were the propulsion system and type of fuel. The advanced aeronautics design sequence established specifically for this program consisted of a three quarter sequence as follows: Fall: ME 694 Senior Design Seminar - one quarter hour. Designers and specialists met one hour each week for ten weeks on relevant flight vehicle design topics. Winter: ME 515H Flight Vehicle Design - four quarter hours. Three design teams of six students each performed preliminary design studies of hypersonic configurations and potential propulsion systems. Each team's results were summarized in a final presentation to NASA Lewis Research Center personnel. The presentations resulted in the selection of the most promising design for additional development. Spring: AAE 516H Advanced Flight Vehicle Design - four quarter hrs. The class was reorganized to focus upon the specific design selected from the Winter configuration studies. Detailed analyses of thermal protection systems, costs, mission refinements, etc., completed the design task and final presentations were made to NASA Lewis Research Center staff.

  4. Assessing the volcanic hazard for Rome: 40Ar/39Ar and In-SAR constraints on the most recent eruptive activity and present-day uplift at Colli Albani Volcanic District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Jicha, B. R.; Palladino, D. M.; Polcari, M.; Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Florindo, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data which allow us to refine the recurrence time for the most recent eruptive activity occurred at Colli Albani Volcanic District (CAVD) and constrain its geographic area. Time elapsed since the last eruption (36 kyr) overruns the recurrence time (31 kyr) in the last 100 kyr. New interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, covering the years 1993-2010, reveal ongoing inflation with maximum uplift rates (>2 mm/yr) in the area hosting the most recent (<200 ka) vents, suggesting that the observed uplift might be caused by magma injection within the youngest plumbing system. Finally, we frame the present deformation within the structural pattern of the area of Rome, characterized by 50 m of regional uplift since 200 ka and by geologic evidence for a recent (<2000 years) switch of the local stress-field, highlighting that the precursors of a new phase of volcanic activity are likely occurring at the CAVD.

  5. Neogene ice volume and ocean temperatures: Insights from infaunal foraminiferal Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lear, Caroline H.; Coxall, Helen K.; Foster, Gavin L.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Mawbey, Elaine M.; Rosenthal, Yair; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Thomas, Ellen; Wilson, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic continental-scale glaciation is generally assumed to have initiated at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition, yet its subsequent evolution is poorly constrained. We reconstruct changes in bottom water temperature and global ice volume from 0 to 17 Ma using δ18O in conjunction with Mg/Ca records of the infaunal benthic foraminifer, O. umbonatus from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 806 (equatorial Pacific; ~2500 m). Considering uncertainties in core top calibrations and sensitivity to seawater Mg/Ca (Mg/Ca)sw, we produce a range of Mg/Ca-temperature-Mg/Casw calibrations. Our favored exponential temperature calibration is Mg/Ca = 0.66 ± 0.08 × Mg/Casw0.27±0.06 × e(0.114±0.02 × BWT) and our favored linear temperature calibration is Mg/Ca = (1.21 ± 0.04 + 0.12 ± 0.004 × BWT (bottom water temperature)) × (Mg/Casw-0.003±0.02) (stated errors are 2 s.e.). The equations are obtained by comparing O. umbonatus Mg/Ca for a Paleocene-Eocene section from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 690 (Weddell Sea) to δ18O temperatures, calculated assuming ice-free conditions during this peak warmth period of the Cenozoic. This procedure suggests negligible effect of Mg/Casw on the Mg distribution coefficient (DMg). Application of the new equations to the Site 806 record leads to the suggestion that global ice volume was greater than today after the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (~14 Ma). ODP Site 806 bottom waters cooled and freshened as the Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient increased, and climate cooled through the Pliocene, prior to the Plio-Pleistocene glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. The records indicate a decoupling of deep water temperatures and global ice volume, demonstrating the importance of thresholds in the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet.

  6. 78 FR 39992 - Safety Zone; Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display... in support of The Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Event on July 27, 2013. This safety zone is...

  7. Can Diploastrea heliopora be an Alternate Coral Climate Archive in the Indo-Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, R. D. P.; Goodkin, N.; Siringan, F. P.; Hughen, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    While climate events in the climatically important Indo-Pacific have been captured in Porites geochemical proxies, very few of these records extend more than 100 years, thus preventing reconstruction of multi-centennial climate variability. Century scale paleoclimate records may be stored in Diploastrea heliopora, a massive slow-growing long-lived coral prevalent in the region. Thus far, Diploastrea's δ18O has revealed multi-decadal to multi-century long records in the region. However, since δ18O is a combined proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity, an independent SST proxy would be more advantageous. To evaluate the geochemistry of Diploastrea, adjacent Porites and Diploastrea cores were collected from Palaui Island, Philippines, and analyzed for Sr/Ca. An offset of about 0.20 mmol/mol is observed between the colonies, likely due to the greater Sr uptake of the slow-growing coral. Least-squares linear regressions of monthly Diploastrea and Porites Sr/Ca to SST reveal significant correlations (p-values < 0.0001). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is one of the climatically important processes impacting SST in the region. Winter Sr/Ca for both corals significantly correlates with PDO (p-values = 0.02) indicating promise for Diploastrea as a climate archive, particularly in the absence of multi-century long records from Porites.

  8. CaPTC Biennial Meetings

    Cancer.gov

    CaPTC hosts the 'Biennial Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men' conference to address the growing global public health problem of prostate cancer among Black men in industrialized and developing countries.

  9. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project, Central Arizona Project, and Parker-Davis Project--Rate Order No. WAPA... Western Area Power Administration (Western) Transmission Projects to Enter into WestConnect's...

  10. Selected Bibliography on Asian and Pacific American Children and Families. Asian Pacific American Education Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This is an annotated bibliography of recent articles, books, and scholarly papers on Asian and Pacific American children and families. Works are divided by topical area, with a primary focus on literature related to the education of Asian/Pacific American children. There are four main topical divisions: (1) education; (2) family; (3) mental…

  11. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  12. 77 FR 54575 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 34381). Western is extending the existing transmission service rates to allow sufficient... service rates via publication of a Federal Register notice on June 11, 2012 (77 FR 34381). The... Area Power Administration Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project--Rate Order No....

  13. Thermocline Temperature Variability Reveals Shifts in the Tropical Pacific Mean State across Marine Isotope Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, J. E.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) is one of the most dynamic oceanographic regions, making it a critical area for understanding past climate change. Despite this, there remains uncertainty on the climatic evolution of the EEP through the last glacial period. According to the ocean dynamical thermostat theory, warming (cooling) of the tropical Pacific Ocean may lead to a more La Niña (El Niño)-like mean state due to zonally asymmetric heating and subsequent easterly (westerly) wind anomalies at the equator (Clement and Cane, 1999). Attempts to understand these feedbacks on millennial timescales across Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) have proven to be fruitful in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) (Stott et al., 2002), yet complimentary, high-resolution records from the EEP are lacking. To provide a more complete understanding of the feedback mechanisms of the dynamical thermostat across periods of abrupt climate change, we reconstruct thermocline temperature variability across MIS 3 from a sediment core located in the EEP, directly within the equatorial cold tongue upwelling region (core MV1014-02-17JC). Temperature anomalies in thermocline waters of the EEP are integrally linked to the ENSO system, with large positive and negative anomalies recorded during El Niño and La Niña events, respectively. Mg/Ca ratios in the thermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei were measured at 2 cm intervals, resulting in a temporal resolution of <200 years. Preliminary results across Interstadials 5-7 reveal warmer thermocline temperatures (an increase in Mg/Ca of .25 ± .02 mmol/mol) during periods of cooling following peak Interstadial warmth over Greenland, as seen from the NGRIP δ18O record. Thus, periods of cooling over Greenland appear to correspond to an El Niño-like mean state in the tropical Pacific, in line with predictions of an ocean dynamical thermostat. Interestingly, Heinrich Event 3 corresponds to cooler thermocline

  14. Eastern Tropical Pacific Mean State and Variability During the Past 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustic, G. T.; Koutavas, A.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; Linsley, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamical changes in the tropical Pacific are hypothesized to have exerted an important influence on climate of the past millennium. However, direct proxy evidence in support of this hypothesis from the Eastern Tropical Pacific remains sparse. Here we present a unique 1000+ year continuous record of oceanic mixed layer temperature and its variability from a sediment multi-core collected in 2009 near the Galápagos Islands. The study location sits in the center of action of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a major driver of tropical and global climate variability. We analyzed Mg/Ca ratios of multiple specimens of the mixed-layer dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber to reconstruct mean sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 1000 years. We also analyzed δ18O from individual specimens of G. ruber from the same samples to assess mixed layer temperature variability during the same period. Both the multi-shell Mg/Ca and single-shell δ18O reveal statistically significant and systematic changes during the past millennium. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ~1100-1400 CE) features a sustained period of ~1°C cooler mean surface temperatures and reduced variability (by up to 35%) compared to the late 20th century. Little Ice Age (LIA) mean mixed layer temperatures were comparatively warmer and much more variable than the MCA. Intervals with greater variability than modern, as well as intervals with lower than modern variability are both present in the LIA. The most recent sediment interval corresponding to the period 1985-2009 CE has the highest mean SST of the past 1000 years, although it is within error of temperatures from ~1000 CE. An estimate of the zonal SST gradient of the tropical Pacific based on this Mg/Ca data and similar data from the western Pacific supports a pattern of enhanced zonal gradient during the MCA and reduced gradient during the LIA. We explore the implications of these results for tropical Pacific dynamics in the context of

  15. Measuring past changes in ENSO variance using Mg/Ca measurements on individual planktic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchitto, T. M.; Grist, H. R.; van Geen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Previous work in Soledad Basin, located off Baja California Sur in the eastern subtropical Pacific, supports a La Niña-like mean-state response to enhanced radiative forcing at both orbital and millennial (solar) timescales during the Holocene. Mg/Ca measurements on the planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides indicate cooling when insolation is higher, consistent with an ';ocean dynamical thermostat' response that shoals the thermocline and cools the surface in the eastern tropical Pacific. Some, but not all, numerical models simulate reduced ENSO variance (less frequent and/or less intense events) when the Pacific is driven into a La Niña-like mean state by radiative forcing. Hypothetically the question of ENSO variance can be examined by measuring individual planktic foraminiferal tests from within a sample interval. Koutavas et al. (2006) used d18O on single specimens of Globigerinoides ruber from the eastern equatorial Pacific to demonstrate a 50% reduction in variance at ~6 ka compared to ~2 ka, consistent with the sense of the model predictions at the orbital scale. Here we adapt this approach to Mg/Ca and apply it to the millennial-scale question. We present Mg/Ca measured on single specimens of G. bulloides (cold season) and G. ruber (warm season) from three time slices in Soledad Basin: the 20th century, the warm interval (and solar low) at 9.3 ka, and the cold interval (and solar high) at 9.8 ka. Each interval is uniformly sampled over a ~100-yr (~10-cm or more) window to ensure that our variance estimate is not biased by decadal-scale stochastic variability. Theoretically we can distinguish between changing ENSO variability and changing seasonality: a reduction in ENSO variance would result in narrowing of both the G. bulloides and G. ruber temperature distributions without necessarily changing the distance between their two medians; while a reduction in seasonality would cause the two species' distributions to move closer together.

  16. Age differences between Atlantic and Pacific benthic d18O change at terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Because a large fraction of benthic δ18O change is due to global ice volume change, benthic δ18O is often used as stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. These applications require the assumptions that δ18O change is rapidly transmitted throughout the deep ocean and that the effects of hydrographic changes are in phase with ice volume. Recently, Skinner and Shackleton [2005] found that the timing of benthic δ18O change at the last termination differed by 4500 years between two sites in the Atlantic and Pacific. Based on Mg/Ca paleothermometry, they argued that these age discrepancies resulted from a late temperature increase in the Pacific and millennial-scale circulation changes in the Atlantic. Do these results imply that benthic δ18O change may not accurately record the timing of terminations? We compare benthic δ18O records from 34 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific to evaluate the impact of ocean mixing rates and deep water changes on the relative timing of terminations recorded in benthic δ18O. Statistical analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic δ18O suggests an Atlantic lead over Pacific benthic δ18O change for all terminations of the last 600 kyr. The magnitude of sedimentation rate change suggests an average termination age difference of 1000-1500 years between the Atlantic and Pacific, consistent with or slightly greater than the delay expected due to ocean mixing rates, given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North Atlantic.

  17. What Maintains the Central North Pacific Genetic Discontinuity in Pacific Herring?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Lin, Longshan; Gao, Tianxiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasunori; Grant, W. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring show an abrupt genetic discontinuity in the central North Pacific that represents secondary contact between refuge populations previously isolated during Pleistocene glaciations. Paradoxically, high levels of gene flow produce genetic homogeneity among ocean-type populations within each group. Here, we surveyed variability in mtDNA control-region sequences (463 bp) and nine microsatellite loci in Pacific herring from sites across the North Pacific to further explore the nature of the genetic discontinuity around the Alaska Peninsula. Consistent with previous studies, little divergence (ΦST  = 0.011) was detected between ocean-type populations of Pacific herring in the North West Pacific, except for a population in the Yellow Sea (ΦST  = 0.065). A moderate reduction in genetic diversity for both mtDNA and microsatellites in the Yellow Sea likely reflects founder effects during the last colonization of this sea. Reciprocal monophyly between divergent mtDNA lineages (ΦST  = 0.391) across the Alaska Peninsula defines the discontinuity across the North Pacific. However, microsatellites did not show a strong break, as eastern Bering Sea (EBS) herring were more closely related to NE Pacific than to NW Pacific herring. This discordance between mtDNA and microsatellites may be due to microsatellite allelic convergence or to sex-biased dispersal across the secondary contact zone. The sharp discontinuity between Pacific herring populations may be maintained by high-density blocking, competitive exclusion or hybrid inferiority. PMID:23300525

  18. Nocturnal location and activity of Pacific coast bottlenose dolphins determined by a sonobuoy array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Eric S.; Defran, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    Pacific coast bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) move offshore, presumably to feed as the sun sets [Hanson and Defran (1993), Ward (1998), Day (1998)] and are most often found inshore on the surfline at sunrise. The purpose of this research was to document their activity and location during nocturnal hours. A sonobuoy array was deployed in a triangle configuration centered approximately 500 m from the mean low low water line at Torrey Pines State Beach, CA. Surveys were conducted for 11 nights between October 1999 and November 1999 and for 21 nights between August 2000 and December 2000. Dolphin vocalizations were detected on 26 of 33 nights.

  19. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates. PMID:24215381

  20. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  1. Building operational research capacity in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Viney, K.; Brostrom, R.; Gounder, S.; Khogali, M.; Kishore, K.; Kool, B.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Manzi, M.; Marais, B.; Marks, G.; Linh, N. N.; Ram, S.; Reid, S.; Roseveare, C.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Van den Bergh, R.; Harries, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Operational research (OR) in public health aims to investigate strategies, interventions, tools or knowledge that can enhance the quality, coverage, effectiveness or performance of health systems. Attention has recently been drawn to the lack of OR capacity in public health programmes throughout the Pacific Islands, despite considerable investment in implementation. This lack of ongoing and critical reflection may prevent health programme staff from understanding why programme objectives are not being fully achieved, and hinder long-term gains in public health. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) has been collaborating with Pacific agencies to conduct OR courses based on the training model developed by The Union and Médecins Sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg in 2009. The first of these commenced in 2011 in collaboration with the Fiji National University, the Fiji Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization and other partners. The Union and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community organised a second course for participants from other Pacific Island countries and territories in 2012, and an additional course for Fijian participants commenced in 2013. Twelve participants enrolled in each of the three courses. Of the two courses completed by end 2013, 18 of 24 participants completed their OR and submitted papers by the course deadline, and 17 papers have been published to date. This article describes the context, process and outputs of the Pacific courses, as well as innovations, adaptations and challenges. PMID:26477282

  2. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Processing by a Unit of Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter and Na(+)/Ca(2+) Exchanger Supports the Neuronal Ca(2+) Influx via Activated Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Strokin, Mikhail; Reiser, Georg

    2016-06-01

    The current study demonstrates that in hippocampal neurons mitochondrial Ca(2+) processing supports Ca(2+) influx via ionotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors. We define mitochondrial Ca(2+) processing as Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) combined with subsequent Ca(2+) release via mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). Our tool is to measure the Ca(2+) influx rate in primary hippocampal co-cultures, i.e. neurons and astrocytes, by fluorescent digital microscopy, using a Fura-2-quenching method where we add small amounts of Mn(2+) in the superfusion medium. Thus, Ca(2+) influx is measured with Mn(2+) in the bath. Ru360 as inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake through MCU strongly reduces the rate of Ca(2+) influx in Glu-stimulated primary hippocampal neurons. Similarly, the Ca(2+) influx rate in Glu-stimulated neurons declines after suppression of potential-dependent MCU, when we depolarize mitochondria with rotenone. With inhibition of Ca(2+) release from mitochondria via NCX using CGP-37157 the Ca(2+) influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)- and kainate-sensitive receptors is slowed down. Working jointly as mitochondrial Ca(2+) processing unit, MCU and NCX, apparently sustain the Ca(2+) throughput of activated Glu-sensitive receptors. Our results revise the role frequently attributed to mitochondria in neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis, where mitochondria function mainly as Ca(2+) buffer, and prevent excessively high cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration increase during neuronal activity. The mechanism to control Ca(2+) influx in neurons, as discovered in this study, highlights mitochondrial Ca(2+) processing as a promising pharmacological target. We discuss this pathway in relation to the endoplasmic reticulum-related mechanisms of Ca(2+) processing. PMID:26842930

  3. The Influence of Ca2+ Buffers on Free [Ca2+] Fluctuations and the Effective Volume of Ca2+ Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Seth H.; Smith, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. Ca2+ binding proteins (Ca2+ buffers) play an important role in regulating Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Buffers typically slow [Ca2+] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of Ca2+ domains. Because fluctuations in [Ca2+] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain’s physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [Ca2+] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning Ca2+ signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free Ca2+ influx with passive exchange of both Ca2+ and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of Ca2+ and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [Ca2+] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of Ca2+ signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [Ca2+] fluctuations during periods of Ca2+ influx, whereas stationary (immobile) Ca2+ buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of Ca2+ influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [Ca2+] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid Ca2+ buffers on [Ca2+] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ buffers alter the dynamics of [Ca2+] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that Ca2+ buffers do not suppress intrinsic domain [Ca2

  4. Mg/Ca composition of benthic foraminifera Miliolacea as a new tool of paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadekov, Aleksey Yu.; Bush, Flora; Kerr, Joanna; Ganeshram, Raja; Elderfield, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The Mg/Ca compositions of benthic foraminifera from the superfamily Miliolacea have been studied to explore the use of these high-Mg foraminifera as a proxy for deep ocean conditions. Taxonomic analyses, relative abundance, and depth distributions of different Miliolacea species were carried out on a collection of core top samples, covering a depth range of 131 m to 2530 m, along the Australian coast of the Timor Sea. Pyrgo sp., composed of Pyrgo sarsi and Pyrgo murrhina, was found to be the most suitable for proxy studies. Mg/Ca values of this group of foraminifera show a strong correlation with bottom water temperatures and carbonate ion saturation described by the linear relationship: Mg/Ca = 2.53(±0.22) × BWT + 0.129(±0.023) × Δ[CO32-] + 4.63(±0.53), within the -1°C to 8°C temperature range. Absolute Mg/Ca values of Pyrgo sp. calcite and their temperature sensitivity are similar to those observed for inorganic calcite, suggesting that Mg composition of Pyrgo sp. calcite is mainly controlled by inorganic processes. The Mg/Ca composition of Pyrgo sp. calcite provides a new tool for reconstructing both water temperature and carbonate ion saturation when combined with other proxies for one of these parameters. A down core record from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific has been generated to illustrate how Mg/Ca values can be used for paleoclimate studies. This down core record shows large changes in Pacific bottom waters [CO32-] across glacial-interglacial transition, implying an increase in [CO32-] during the glacial period.

  5. Tropical Pacific climate trends since 1960

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posmentier, Eric S.; Cane, Mark A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Merchant ship observations appear to indicate an increase in the strength of the surface winds in the tropical Pacific and elsewhere in recent decades. Here, trends in tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and sea level, which has repeatedly been shown to be closely related to the winds, are investigated. The results suggest that sea levels since 1960 have been rising oceanwide at about 3.5 cm/decade, while simultaneously tilting about 2 cm/decade higher in the east and lower in the west, and that surface temperatures have been rising about 0.6 C/decade. These results are not consistent with the apparent wind change; rather, they support the contention that the apparent wind changes are an artifact introduced by changes in measurement technique, and suggest that tropical Pacific winds may have actually decreased in strength.

  6. Multiproxy reconstruction of tropical Pacific Holocene temperature gradients and water column structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuszewski, J. A.; Oppo, D.; Huang, K.; Dubois, N.; Galy, V.; Mohtadi, M.; Herbert, T.; Rosenthal, Y.; Linsley, B. K.

    2012-12-01

    consider records from organic (sterol abundances) and inorganic proxies (Mg/Ca and δ18O of 3 planktonic foraminiferal species, % G. bulloides) to reconstruct zonal tropical Pacific (sub)surface temperature and stratification gradients over the Holocene. A benefit of using this approach is that it enables us to combine the strengths of each individual proxy to derive more robust records. We will compare our records with published paleoproxy and model studies in the Pacific and Indo-Pacific regions. Armed with this information, we aim to better understand mean state changes in the tropical Pacific over the Holocene. 1 Ropelewski, C. F. & Halpert, M. S. Monthly Weather Review 115, 1606-1626 (1987). 2 Collins, M. et al. Nature Geoscience 3, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1868 (2010). 3 Koutavas, A., Lynch-Steiglitz, J., Marchitto, T. & Sachs, J. Science 297, 226-230 (2002). 4 Moy, C. M., Seltzer, G. O., Rodbell, D. T. & Anderson, D. M. Nature 420, 162-165 (2002). 5 Conroy, J. L., Overpeck, J. T., Cole, J. E., Shanahan, T. M. & Steinitz-Kannan, M. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 1166-1180 (2008). 6 Makou, M. C., Eglinton, T. I., Oppo, D. W. & Hughen, K. A. Geology 38, 43-46 (2010). 7 Karnauskas, K., Smerdon, J., Seager, R. & Gonzalez-Rouco, J. Journal of Climate, doi: 10.1178/JCLI-D-1111-00421.00421 (2012 (in press)). 8 Clement, A., Seager, R. & Cane, M. Paleoceanography 14, 441-456 (2000).

  7. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, P K; Gregg, J L; Hart, L M; Moffitt, S; Brenner, R; Stick, K; Coonradt, E; Otis, E O; Vollenweider, J J; Garver, K A; Lovy, J; Meyers, T R

    2016-04-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20-32% in 2007 to 0-3% during 2009-13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host-pathogen relationship. PMID:25828232

  8. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, Tilden R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  9. Effects of Ca antagonists on Ca fluxes in resistance vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Cauvin, C.; Saida, K.; van Breemen, C.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have examined contractions and /sup 45/Ca fluxes induced by norepinephrine (NE) and 80 mM potassium (high K) depolarization and their inhibition by dilitazem in rabbit mesenteric resistance vessels. Contraction induced by both NE and high K depended almost completely on extracellular Ca. Dose-response curves for diltiazem inhibition of NE (10(-5) M) and high K contractions showed ED50 values of 1 X 10(-8) and 6 X 10(-7) M, respectively, indicating that the receptor-operated channel (ROC) was more sensitive than the potential-operated channel (POC) to the action of diltiazem. Diltiazem (10(-6) M) was shown to inhibit NE- and 80 mM K-stimulated /sup 45/Ca influx effectively by 87 +/- 15 and 85 +/- 10%, respectively. Comparison of these data to those obtained from aorta suggest that although the sensitivity of the POC is approximately the same in aorta and mesenteric resistance vessels, the sensitivity of the ROC is much greater in the latter. This increased sensitivity is paralleled by a greatly decreased role of intracellular Ca release in NE contraction in mesenteric resistance vessels.

  10. Bayerotrochus delicatus, a new species of pleurotomariid from Yap Seamount, near Palau, Western Pacific (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Shuqian; Wei, Peng

    2016-01-01

    A new pleurotomariid species, Bayerotrochus delicatus sp. nov., collected from the Yap Seamount, near Palau, Western Pacific (8°51'N, 137°47'E), is described and illustrated. The generic assignment is based on morphology and molecular evidence. The new species is characterized by a small, depressed trochoid shell sculptured with delicate spiral threads and axial riblets; the shell surface is lustrous orange mottled with iridescence. The radula has a formula of R + 3 + 23 + (ca. 30) + (ca. 65) + 9. These features can separate Bayerotrochus delicatus sp. nov. from its congeners. To determine the relationships of Bayerotrochus delicatus sp. nov. with other pleurotomariids, a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was established using available sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI) from this study and GenBank. PMID:27615927

  11. High-Resolution Mg/Ca Ratios in a Coralline Red Alga as a Proxy for Bering Sea Temperature Variations and Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, J.; Steffen, H.; Kronz, A.; Steneck, R. S.; Adey, W.; Lebednik, P. A.

    2009-05-01

    We present the first continuous high-resolution record of Mg/Ca variations within an encrusting coralline red alga of the species Clathromorphum nereostratum from Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands. Mg/Ca ratios of individual growth increments were analyzed by measuring a single point electron microprobe transect yielding a resolution of 15 samples/year on average, generating a continuous record from 1830 to 1967 of algal Mg/Ca variations. Results show that Mg/Ca ratios in the high-Mg calcite skeleton display pronounced annual cyclicity and archive late spring to late fall sea surface temperature (SST) corresponding to the main season of algal growth. Mg/Ca values correlate well to local SST (ERSSTJun-Nov, 1902-1967; r = 0.73 for 5-year mean), as well as to an air temperature record from the same region. Our data correlate well to a shorter Mg/Ca record from a second site, corroborating the ability of the alga to reliably record regional environmental signals. In addition, Mg/Ca ratios relate well to a 29-year stable oxygen isotope time series measured on the same sample, which provides additional support for the use of Mg as a paleotemperature proxy in coralline red algae, that is, unlike stable oxygen isotopes, not influenced by salinity fluctuations. High spatial correlation to large-scale SST variability in the North Pacific is observed, with patterns of strongest correlation following the direction of major oceanographic features (i.e., the signature of the Alaska Current and the Alaskan Stream), which play a key role in the exchange of water masses between the North Pacific and the Bering Sea through Aleutian Island passages. The time series further displays significant teleconnections with the signature of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the northeast Pacific and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  12. Pacific Basin Communications Study, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Communications Study describes and assesses extent telecommunications systems in the Pacific Islands region. The study examines user needs in terms of the development of social services and commercial activities. Alternative technological solutions to communications problems are proposed and described. Recommendations include the augmentation and improvement of existing systems allowing for increased communications capacity. Regional cooperation will be required to accommodate the specific, unique requirements of individual nations. Questions of financing, implementation, management, costs and benefits of a regional telecommunications system are discussed.

  13. P/Ca in Gastropod Shells as a Nutrient Proxy in Tropical Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, E. L.; Tao, K.; Robbins, J.; O'Dea, A.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient status and its stability play key roles in the maintenance of marine ecosystems, both in modern and ancient oceans. Modern coral reef communities in the Caribbean are being threatened by anthropogenic input of nutrients whereas one to two million years ago, communities in this same region experienced dramatic overturn of corals and mollusks with the uplift of the Central American Isthmus and subsequent reduction of upwelling-derived nutrients. Thus the ability to record past and present nutrient delivery is paramount for understanding the role of environmental change in controlling past and future biodiversity. To test trace element chemistries in gastropod shells as nutrient proxies, we measured the trace element (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Fe, P, and U ) and stable isotopic (δ18O, δ13C) compositions of 11 modern Conus specimens collected from upwelling and non-upwelling regions in the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Four Caribbean shells represent non-upwelling conditions, while seven Pacific shells record conditions of seasonal upwelling (Gulf of Panama) or shoaling of the thermocline (Gulf of Chiriquí). Shells were serially sampled around the spire at 2-3 mm intervals, providing roughly monthly resolution. Shallow-dwelling Pacific specimens show large seasonal range in δ18O (>2‰) reflecting upwelling during the dry season and freshening during the rainy season. In contrast, shallow-dwelling Caribbean specimens show small δ18O range (mostly ≤1‰) indicating limited seasonal upwelling and freshening. For trace element analyses, about 100 μg of carbonate powder was dissolved in 2 ml of 2% HNO3 and analyzed on a high resolution, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS). Among the wide array of trace elements analyzed, only Sr/Ca shows a significant correlation with upwelling intervals, as indicated by high δ18O. This reflects the positive relationship between Sr/Ca and temperature in Conus shells (Sosdian et al., 2006, G3, Q11023

  14. Timing in Cellular Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, Michael J.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signals are generated across a broad time range. Kinetic considerations impact how information is processed to encode and decode Ca2+ signals, the choreography of responses that ensure specific and efficient signaling and the overall temporal gearing such that ephemeral Ca2+ signals have lasting physiological value. The reciprocal importance of timing for Ca2+ signaling, and Ca2+ signaling for timing is exemplified by the altered kinetic profiles of Ca2+ signals in certain diseases and the likely role of basal Ca2+ fluctuations in the perception of time itself. PMID:18786382

  15. Ca2+ waves in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Izu, Leighton T.; Xie, Yuanfang; Sato, Daisuke; Bányász, Tamás; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ waves were probably first observed in the early 1940s. Since then Ca2+ waves have captured the attention of an eclectic mixture of mathematicians, neuroscientists, muscle physiologists, developmental biologists, and clinical cardiologists. This review discusses the current state of mathematical models of Ca2+ waves, the normal physiological functions Ca2+ waves might serve in cardiac cells, as well as how the spatial arrangement of Ca2+ release channels shape Ca2+ waves, and we introduce the idea of Ca2+ phase waves that might provide a useful framework for understanding triggered arrhythmias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Calcium Signaling in Heart’. PMID:23220129

  16. 77 FR 31327 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC039 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  17. 77 FR 2961 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA945 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Meeting of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council Golden King...

  18. 76 FR 80890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA895 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  19. 77 FR 31329 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC046 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  20. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  1. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  5. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. 76 FR 22081 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of its Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) that is... report to provide advice to the Pacific Council's Ecosystem Plan Development Team, in advance of the...

  8. 77 FR 49781 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Lion Protection Measures EIS (77 FR 22750, April 17, 2012). Information on EIS development, potential... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public committee meeting. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  9. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is ... women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  10. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  11. 75 FR 28785 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW59 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific...

  12. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ... group is the Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander population. According to the combined 2008 to ...

  13. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information How to Talk to Your ... Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Asthma ...

  14. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... for the U.S. Live births for Asian or Pacific Islander population Number of births: 282,723 Births ...

  15. 77 FR 58527 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC248 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  16. 77 FR 31327 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC041 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  17. 1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW DOWNSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  18. 2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW UPSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  19. 78 FR 13867 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC524 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) Ecosystem Committee will meet by teleconference in Anchorage, AK. DATES:...

  20. 75 FR 51240 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Council Meeting Agenda and Workload Planning H. Ecosystem Management 1. Ecosystem Fishery Management Plan... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY28 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  1. 78 FR 47675 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Committee and Ad Hoc Trawl Groundfish...

  2. 78 FR 2371 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC436 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice, public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  3. 77 FR 65535 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC314 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  4. 77 FR 67633 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC349 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  5. 75 FR 2488 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... pertinent information for Pacific hake/whiting, work with the Stock Assessment Team to make necessary...) for Pacific hake/ whiting will hold a work session that is open to the public. DATES: The Joint...

  6. 78 FR 49253 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committe will meet in Sacramento, California. The Committee is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation...

  7. 76 FR 30107 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Shallow-Set Longline Fishery for Swordfish 2. Overfishing of Pacific Bluefin ] 3. ABC for Hawaii Squid.... Overfishing of Pacific Bluefin 5. WCPFC Conservation and Management Measure for Bigeye Tuna a. Catch...

  8. Barium in hemipelagic sediment of the northwest Pacific: Coupling with biogenic carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Sangmin; Han, Sang-Joon; Taira, Asahiko

    2002-11-01

    Geochemical analyses were performed on three cores of hemipelagic sediment from the northwest Pacific Ocean (eastern edge of Shikoku Basin) dating from the last interglacial and glacial periods. The objective of this work is to delineate the relations between excess sedimentary barium [Ba(ex)] content and biogenic opal, carbonate, and organic carbon contents. Calculated Ba(ex) values show variable degrees of correlation with biogenic sediment fractions. The mass accumulation rate (MAR) of Ba(ex) covaries with the MARs of biogenic fractions, and in particular, with the MAR of biogenic carbonate (r2 = 0.68) and TOC (R2 = 0.50). Variable relations between barium and biogenic fractions in hemipelagic sediment provide detailed insight into the behavior of sedimentary barium. It appears that a significant proportion of the barium is affiliated with the carbonate fractions. Based on this strong correlation, carbonate dissolution rates of the last glacial to interglacial periods are estimated. Assuming that the MARs of carbonate and Ba(ex) covary, variation of the Ba/Ca ratio in sediments reflects the extent of postdepositional carbonate dissolution. The record of sedimentary Ba/Ca ratios exhibits striking difference between sediment of the glacial and interglacial periods, with a higher positive correlation during glacial intervals and a lower correlation during interglacial intervals; this pattern is the result of enhanced carbonate dissolution during interglacial times. Sedimentary Ba/Ca ratios may, therefore, be a useful tool for estimating the relative extent of carbonate dissolution. Ba(ex) curves and patterns in sedimentary Ba/Ca ratios resemble the established Pacific carbonate dissolution record (i.e., enhanced dissolution during interglacial times and reduced dissolution during glacial times) as suggested by previous studies. Variations in sedimentary Ba/Ca ratios strongly support an interpretation of pronounced glacial-interglacial fluctuation in carbonate

  9. Large Ca2+-dependent facilitation of CaV2.1 channels revealed by Ca2+ photo-uncaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Rong; Adams, Paul J; Yue, David T

    2015-01-01

    Key points CaV2.1 channels constitute a dominant Ca2+ entry pathway into brain neurons, triggering downstream Ca2+-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. CaV2.1 is itself modulated by Ca2+, resulting in activity-dependent enhancement of channel opening termed Ca2+-dependent facilitation (CDF). Real-time Ca2+ imaging and Ca2+ uncaging here reveal that CDF turns out to be strikingly faster, more Ca2+ sensitive, and larger than anticipated on previous grounds. Robust resolution of the quantitative profile of CDF enables deduction of a realistic biophysical model for this process. These results suggest that CaV2.1 CDF would figure most prominently in short-term synaptic plasticity and cerebellar Purkinje cell rhythmicity. Abstract CaV2.1 (P-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels constitute a major source of neuronal Ca2+ current, strongly influencing rhythmicity and triggering neurotransmitter release throughout the central nervous system. Fitting with such stature among Ca2+ entry pathways, CaV2.1 is itself feedback regulated by intracellular Ca2+, acting through calmodulin to facilitate channel opening. The precise neurophysiological role of this calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF) remains uncertain, however, in large measure because the very magnitude, Ca2+ dependence and kinetics of CDF have resisted quantification by conventional means. Here, we utilize the photo-uncaging of Ca2+ with CaV2.1 channels fluxing Li+ currents, so that voltage-dependent activation of channel gating is no longer conflated with Ca2+ entry, and CDF is then driven solely by light-induced increases in Ca2+. By using this strategy, we now find that CDF can be unexpectedly large, enhancing currents by as much as twofold at physiological voltages. CDF is steeply Ca2+ dependent, with a Hill coefficient of approximately two, a half-maximal effect reached by nearly 500 nm Ca2+, and Ca2+ on/off kinetics in the order of milliseconds to tens of milliseconds. These properties were

  10. Angular dependence in proton-proton correlation functions in central 40Ca + 40Ca and 48Ca + 48Ca reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzl, V.; Kilburn, M. A.; Chajęcki, Z.; Henzlova, D.; Lynch, W. G.; Brown, D.; Chbihi, A.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Danielewicz, P.; Desouza, R. T.; Famiano, M.; Herlitzius, C.; Hudan, S.; Lee, Jenny; Lukyanov, S.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Vander Molen, A.; Verde, G.; Wallace, M. S.; Youngs, M.

    2012-01-01

    The angular dependence of proton-proton correlation functions is studied in central 40Ca+40Ca and 48Ca+48Ca nuclear reactions at E/A=80 MeV. Measurements were performed with the High Resolution Array (HiRA) complemented by the 4π Array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. A striking angular dependence in the laboratory frame is found within proton-proton correlation functions for both systems that greatly exceeds the measured and expected isospin dependent difference between the neutron-rich and neutron-deficient systems. Sources measured at backward angles reflect the participant zone of the reaction, while much larger sources observed at forward angles reflect the expanding, fragmenting, and evaporating projectile remnants. The decrease of the size of the source with increasing momentum is observed at backward angles while a weaker trend in the opposite direction is observed at forward angles. The results are compared to the theoretical calculations using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model.

  11. STIM Is a Ca2+ Sensor Essential for Ca2+-Store-Depletion-Triggered Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Jen; Kim, Man Lyang; Heo, Won Do; Jones, Joshua T.; Myers, Jason W.; Ferrell, James E.; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ signaling in nonexcitable cells is typically initiated by receptor-triggered production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores [1]. An elusive signaling process senses the Ca2+ store depletion and triggers the opening of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels [2–5]. The resulting sustained Ca2+ signals are required for many physiological responses, such as T cell activation and differentiation [6]. Here, we monitored receptor-triggered Ca2+ signals in cells transfected with siRNAs against 2,304 human signaling proteins, and we identified two proteins required for Ca2+-store-depletion-mediated Ca2+ influx, STIM1 and STIM2 [7–9]. These proteins have a single transmembrane region with a putative Ca2+ binding domain in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Ca2+ store depletion led to a rapid translocation of STIM1 into puncta that accumulated near the plasma membrane. Introducing a point mutation in the STIM1 Ca2+ binding domain resulted in prelocalization of the protein in puncta, and this mutant failed to respond to store depletion. Our study suggests that STIM proteins function as Ca2+ store sensors in the signaling pathway connecting Ca2+ store depletion to Ca2+ influx. PMID:16005298

  12. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  13. Asian/Pacific American Education Agenda for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian/Pacific American Concerns Staff (ED), Washington, DC.

    This program offers fourteen resolutions with corresponding strategies for improving education for Asian and Pacific Americans. These strategies are specifically directed to the Asian/Pacific American Concerns Staff and other Asian/Pacific American organizations. Issues addressed include: (1) insufficient State and Federal funding for bilingual…

  14. 78 FR 43860 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC770 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council... September Pacific Council meeting, summarizing the number and content of proposals; and (2) produce a...

  15. 76 FR 23996 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration North Pacific Fishery Management Council Public Meeting ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and.... Council address: North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 605 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 306, Anchorage,...

  16. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  17. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  18. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  20. Is the Sun Setting on the Pacific Rim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Contends that the growing political and emotional split between the United States and Japan, the Pacific's two most powerful nations, may sever the unity of the Pacific Rim. Presents statistics, such as literacy and population growth rates, as well as economic data for thirteen Pacific Rim nations. (GEA)