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Sample records for albany shaker road

  1. The Shakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Penny, Comp.

    This document provides lesson plans designed for teaching fourth-grade students about the religious group known as the Shakers. Preceding each of the five lessons is a list of objectives, time required, background, materials needed, classroom procedures, and suggested follow-up activities. In Lesson A, a story is read and students are asked to…

  2. 16. 'Construction trains in rightofway in Shaker Boulevard. View from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'Construction trains in right-of-way in Shaker Boulevard. View from Woodhill Road.' Construction of sub-grade right-of-way on east side of city of Cleveland, just west of Shaker Square (Moreland Circle). 1915 - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. Characterizing electrodynamic shakers

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.

    1996-12-31

    An electrodynamic shaker is modeled as a mixed electrical/mechanical system with an experimentally derived two port network characterization. The model characterizes the shaker in a manner that the performance of the shaker with a mounted load (test item and fixture) can be predicted. The characterization depends on the measurements of shaker input voltage and current, and on the acceleration of the shaker armature with several mounted loads. The force into the load is also required, and can be measured directly or inferred from the load apparent mass.

  4. Brighter Choices in Albany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During much of the previous nine years, Tom Carroll had overseen the launch of eight charter schools in Albany. All of Tom Carroll's Albany charter schools made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). Not only that, they had become the best schools in the city. Tom Carroll now runs the Foundation for Education Reform & Accountability (FERA), which…

  5. 13. View of Picking Shakers, Steam Picking Shaker (right), Lamp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Picking Shakers, Steam Picking Shaker (right), Lamp Picking Shaker (right) Photograph taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  6. 15. April 1963 SPIRAL STAIRS AND EGGSHELL DORMER Shaker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. April 1963 SPIRAL STAIRS AND EGG-SHELL DORMER - Shaker Centre Family Trustees' Office, South side of Village Road, North of U.S. Route 68 & State Route 33 intersection, Shakertown, Mercer County, KY

  7. Albany v 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-14

    The Albany code is a general purpose finite element code for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). Albany is a research code that demonstrates how a PDE code can be built by interfacing many of the open-source software libraries that are released under Sandia's Trilinos project. Part of the mission of Albany is to be a testbed for new Trilinos libraries, to refine their methods, usability, and interfaces. Albany also serves as a demonstration code on how to build an application code against an installed Trilinos project. Because of this, Albany is a desirable starting point for new code development efforts that wish to make heavy use of Trilinos. The physics solved in Albany are currently only very academic problems, such as heat transfer, linear elasticity, and nonlinear elasticity. Albany includes hooks to optimization and uncertainty quantification algorithms, including those in the Dakota toolkit.

  8. Shaker Oats: Fortifying Musicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmes, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how an experiment in a class she taught called Minority Musics of North America developed into a surprisingly successful and flexible teaching tool known as "Shaker Oats," created to encourage the concepts of ensemble and community. Most music educators in the United States today are familiar with…

  9. Albany v. 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andrew; Phipps, Eric; Ostien, Jakob; Hansen, Glen; Mota, Alejandro; Foulk, James; Jones, Reese; Littlewood, David; Muller, Richard; Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Tezaur, Irina K.; Perego, Mauro; Bradley, Andrew M.; Foucar, James; Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas E.; Spotz, William; Demeshko, Irina; Siefert, Christopher; Overfelt, James R.; Bova, Steven W.; Smith, Tom; Tuminaro, Ray; Granzow, Brian; Ibanez, Dan; Seol, Seegyoung; Bloomfield, Max; Sun, WaiChing; Chen, Qiushi; Cortial, Julien

    2016-01-13

    The Albany code is a general-purpose finite element code for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). Albany is a research code that demonstrates how a PDE code can be built by interfacing many of the open-source software libraries that are released under Sandia's Trilinos project. Part of the mission of Albany is to be a testbed for new Trilinos libraries, to refine their methods, usability, and interfaces. Albany includes hooks to optimization and uncertainty quantification algorithms, including those in Trilinos as well as those in the Dakota toolkit. Because of this, Albany is a desirable starting point for new code development efforts that wish to make heavy use of Trilinos. Albany is both a framework and the host for specific finite element applications. These applications have project names, and can be controlled by configuration option when the code is compiled, but are all developed and released as part of the single Albany code base, These include LCM, QCAD, FELIX, Aeras, and ATO applications.

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Date of Photograph and Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Date of Photograph and Photographer Not Indicated, Probably 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Old Second House, Albany Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Dwelling House, Albany Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. The Gift of Shaker Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terri, Salli

    1975-01-01

    Article focused on the development and the music of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, commonly called Shakers, since their arrival in the United States on August 6, 1774. (RK)

  13. Fuel assembly shaker and truck test simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-09-30

    This study continues the modeling support of the SNL shaker table task from 2013 and includes analysis of the SNL 2014 truck test campaign. Detailed finite element models of the fuel assembly surrogate used by SNL during testing form the basis of the modeling effort. Additional analysis was performed to characterize and filter the accelerometer data collected during the SNL testing. The detailed fuel assembly finite element model was modified to improve the performance and accuracy of the original surrogate fuel assembly model in an attempt to achieve a closer agreement with the low strains measured during testing. The revised model was used to recalculate the shaker table load response from the 2013 test campaign. As it happened, the results remained comparable to the values calculated with the original fuel assembly model. From this it is concluded that the original model was suitable for the task and the improvements to the model were not able to bring the calculated strain values down to the extremely low level recorded during testing. The model needs more precision to calculate strains that are so close to zero. The truck test load case had an even lower magnitude than the shaker table case. Strain gage data from the test was compared directly to locations on the model. Truck test strains were lower than the shaker table case, but the model achieved a better relative agreement of 100-200 microstrains (or 0.0001-0.0002 mm/mm). The truck test data included a number of accelerometers at various locations on the truck bed, surrogate basket, and surrogate fuel assembly. This set of accelerometers allowed an evaluation of the dynamics of the conveyance system used in testing. It was discovered that the dynamic load transference through the conveyance has a strong frequency-range dependency. This suggests that different conveyance configurations could behave differently and transmit different magnitudes of loads to the fuel even when traveling down the same road at

  14. Pyroshock testing-electrodynamic shakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallwood, David O.

    2002-05-01

    Far field pyroshock (accelerations less than a few hundred grams, and bandwidths less than a few kHz) can be simulated on electrodynamic shakers. Typically, the specification is in terms of the shock response spectrum (SRS). Wave forms are synthesized which will match the required SRS. The process is not unique, as many wave forms can have essentially the same SRS. Sometimes additional restrictions are placed on the synthesized wave form. Most common are restrictions on the duration of the wave form. The process of synthesizing wave forms, which will match an SRS and conform to the limitations of electrodynamic shakers, will be described. The methods used to reproduce these wave forms on the shaker will then be discussed.

  15. An introduction to shaker shock simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of shakers in shock testing is addressed. A brief review of the shock response spectrum is given with its applications to test specification. The capabilities and limitations of shaker shock simulations are discussed with regard to both classical pulses and transient vibration inputs. Methods for performing shaker shock simulations are presented. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 49 CFR 372.201 - Albany, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Albany, N.Y., within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or foreign commerce, not under... combined areas defined in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, and (e) All of any municipality...

  17. Building productive relationships with movers and shakers.

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Reid, R A; Piland, N F

    1991-04-01

    Movers and shakers often demonstrate capabilities that health care managers should recognize before attempting to build productive relationships with them. First, the charisma associated with outstanding leaders is reflected in superior communication skills and presence. Next, a broad experiential base coupled with penetrating analytical skills allows movers and shakers to earn exceptional authority and power. Third, movers and shakers are able to focus on strategic visions. Movers and shakers work through other team members to select and implement solutions that are consistent with organizational mission statements. Fourth, their entrepreneurial mindset enables them to take calculated risks and design creative solutions in response to formidable challenges. Finally, movers and shakers are not reticent to face facts and make tough decisions. Not all movers and shakers possess all of these characteristics equally. Nor are they all concerned about the same issues. As individuals, they bring differing interests and capabilities to health care organizations. Health care managers may strive to cultivate one or more of these characteristics themselves. Self-improvement begins with identifying personal deficiencies and systematically planning to overcome them. Until health care managers mature into movers and shakers, they can coopt the influence and power associated with movers and shakers. By establishing a trusting relationship and using borrowed power constructively, they can earn the respect and confidence of movers and shakers. A third approach promotes power transfer through a continuing viable relationship. Health care managers may need to use some combination of these methods. Additionally, they can consider tailoring various methods into a coordinated strategy. Health care managers have a variety of promising strategies available for building productive relationships with movers and shakers. Pursuit of these strategies may improve personal prospects and promote

  18. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 121--Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular Research, Inc.; Subzone 121A (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production); Rensselaer, NY On September...

  19. The Interstate-40 bridge shaker project

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, R.L.; Nusser, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    New Mexico State University organized an effort to perform static and dynamic damage-detection tests on the Interstate-40 bridge over the Rio Grande at Albuquerque. The opportunity was available because the 425-ft-long bridge was soon to be replaced. Sandia National Laboratories was asked to provide and operate a shaker that could exert 1000-lb peak amplitude forces for both sinusoidal and random excitations between 2 and 20 Hz. Two Sandia departments collaborated to design and build the shaker, using existing major components connected with Sandia-designed and -fabricated hardware. The shaker was installed and operated successfully for a series of five modal and sinusoidal response tests.

  20. Woman's Place in the Harvard Shaker Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danker, Anita

    1986-01-01

    Describes the practical and spiritual lives of Shaker women at the mid-nineteenth century height of the utopian community located at Harvard, Massachusetts. Also provides an extensive bibliography and general history of this religion. (JDH)

  1. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, July 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, July 1927, INTERIOR VIEW WITH HERB PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, INTERIOR VIEW WITH HERB PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cottage, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ARCH KETTLE IN KITCHEN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.D., WEST (FRONT) ELEVATION, Gift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.D., WEST (FRONT) ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family Main Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, INTERIOR, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Woodshed, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, LAUNDRY SHEET PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Washhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 4, Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4, Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, REAR (SOUTH), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cow & Hay Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  14. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, BASEMENT DOOR, WEST (REAR) ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, Late 1920's or 1930's, KITCHEN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cow & Hay Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ATTIC - BUILT-IN DRAWERS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family Main Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, SEWING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, GUEST ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, LADDER IN ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family Main Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Ash House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, DOOR HINGE, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cow & Hay Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, BEAM CONSTRUCTION IN ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, STOVE IN SEWING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, FROM NORTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cow & Hay Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, EXTERIOR FROM WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Woodshed, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, WEST (MAIN) ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, FROM NORTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cottage, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  14. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, MAIN ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, September 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, September 1927, GENERAL VIEW FROM EAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTHWEST CORNER OF MEETING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, July 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, July 1927, INTERIOR WITH PRINTING PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, SOUTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Main Dwelling House (first), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Ministry's House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (first), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, September 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, September 1927, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Mill, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Dwelling House (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  10. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, SOUTH END OF MEETING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, SOUTHERN ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, MAIN ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, MAIN ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, LAUNDRY BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, November 1927, DETAIL OF IRON DOOR LATCH, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, MAIN ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, EAST ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VISITORS' GALLERY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, SMALL NORTHEAST ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Ministry's House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH c. 1920's, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, VIEW FROM SOUTHEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, LAUNDRY BUILDING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, LAUNDRY BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, MAIN ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING SOUTH c. 1920's - LEFT, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, LOFT WITH TYPE COMPOSER'S DESK, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, GENERAL VIEW, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Schoolhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 10. Shaker Rapid Transit Tracks on Cleveland city streets, East ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Shaker Rapid Transit Tracks on Cleveland city streets, East Side, prior to opening of sub-grade tracks into Terminal Tower project, 1927. - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. The Shakers--More than Makers of Fine Furniture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roccanova, John

    2004-01-01

    Mention the Shakers and many people think immediately of the fine pieces of furniture made by this group in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Shaker's philosophy, religious beliefs, and daily lifestyle greatly influenced the design and construction of their furniture and other crafts. While studying and building Shaker-style pieces, students…

  18. 1. General view showing Green Road, end of the line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view showing Green Road, end of the line turnabout at Shaker Blvd. Line. In the distance can be seen graded right-of-way, with poles, for 1937 expansion that was never constructed. - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Modal Characterization of a Piezoelectric Shaker Table

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    course of this thesis effort. I would also like to thank Dr. Tommy George and all of the helpful people in the Turbine Engine Fatigue Facility at the...Lithography SDOF Single Degree of Freedom σy Yield Strength t Time or Thickness T Piezoelectric Shaker Table Bolt Torque TEFF Turbine Engine Fatigue...Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Turbine Engine Fatigue Facility (TEFF) conducts structural characterization studies pertaining to turbine engine

  20. Nose-Hoover dynamics in a shaker.

    PubMed

    Faou, Erwan

    2006-05-14

    We introduce a new class of systems based on the Nose-Hoover equations. We show that we can add time-dependent terms without destroying the measure and energy conservation properties of the initial system. These "shakers" are typically pseudoperiodic in time, i.e., depend on a collection of harmonic oscillators. We show by numerical examples that it strengthens the sampling properties of the initial system with respect to the Gibbs measure and helps the computation of averages in the canonical ensemble.

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Date of Photograph and Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Date of Photograph and Photographer Not Indicated, Probably 1920's, GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family (General Views), Albany Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Date of Photograph and Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Date of Photograph and Photographer Not Indicated, Probably 1920's, GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family (General Views), Albany Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. Piezoelectric Shaker Development for High Frequency Calibration of Accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Bev; Harper, Kari K.; Vogl, Gregory W.

    2010-05-28

    Calibration of vibration transducers requires sinusoidal motion over a wide frequency range with low distortion and low cross-axial motion. Piezoelectric shakers are well suited to generate such motion and are suitable for use with laser interferometric methods at frequencies of 3 kHz and above. An advantage of piezoelectric shakers is the higher achievable accelerations and displacement amplitudes as compared to electro-dynamic (ED) shakers. Typical commercial ED calibration shakers produce maximum accelerations from 100 m/s{sup 2} to 500 m/s{sup 2}. Very large ED shakers may produce somewhat higher accelerations but require large amplifiers and expensive cooling systems to dissipate heat. Due to the limitations in maximum accelerations by ED shakers at frequencies above 5 kHz, the amplitudes of the generated sinusoidal displacement are frequently below the resolution of laser interferometers used in primary calibration methods. This limits the usefulness of ED shakers in interferometric based calibrations at higher frequencies.Small piezoelectric shakers provide much higher acceleration and displacement amplitudes for frequencies above 5 kHz, making these shakers very useful for accelerometer calibrations employing laser interferometric measurements, as will be shown in this paper. These piezoelectric shakers have been developed and used at NIST for many years for high frequency calibration of accelerometers. This paper documents the construction and performance of a new version of these shakers developed at NIST for the calibration of accelerometers over the range of 3 kHz to 30 kHz and possibly higher. Examples of typical calibration results are also given.

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-141- Salem Albany #2)

    SciTech Connect

    Barndt, Shawn L.

    2003-04-04

    Vegetation Management for the Salem Albany #2 115 kV transmission line from Salem Substation to Albany Substation. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads, switch platforms, microwave beam paths, and around tower structures of the subject transmission line corridor that may impede the operation and maintenance of the identified transmission lines. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  5. Constitutive Activation of the Shaker Kv Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sukhareva, Manana; Hackos, David H.; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2003-01-01

    In different types of K+ channels the primary activation gate is thought to reside near the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. In the Shaker Kv channel the gate is closed at negative membrane voltages, but can be opened with membrane depolarization. In a previous study of the S6 activation gate in Shaker (Hackos, D.H., T.H. Chang, and K.J. Swartz. 2002. J. Gen. Physiol. 119:521–532.), we found that mutation of Pro 475 to Asp results in a channel that displays a large macroscopic conductance at negative membrane voltages, with only small increases in conductance with membrane depolarization. In the present study we explore the mechanism underlying this constitutively conducting phenotype using both macroscopic and single-channel recordings, and probes that interact with the voltage sensors or the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. Our results suggest that constitutive conduction results from a dramatic perturbation of the closed-open equilibrium, enabling opening of the activation gate without voltage-sensor activation. This mechanism is discussed in the context of allosteric models for activation of Kv channels and what is known about the structure of this critical region in K+ channels. PMID:14557403

  6. RadNet Air Data From Albany, NY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Albany, NY from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. 15. Arched, concrete bridge along elevated rightofway of Shaker Rapid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Arched, concrete bridge along elevated right-of-way of Shaker Rapid Transit through the east side of city of Cleveland, labelled: 'View Toward West Along Northerly Side Arches at E. 90th St. and Westerly.' 1914. - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Modeling and study of nonlinear effects in electrodynamic shakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Abhishek; Tiwari, Nachiketa

    2017-02-01

    An electrodynamic shaker is inherently a nonlinear electro-mechanical system. In this work, we have developed a lumped parameter model for the entire electromechanical system, developed an approach to non-destructively determine these parameters, and predict the nonlinear response of the shaker. This predicted response has been validated using experimental data. Through such an approach, we have been able to accurately predict the resulting distortions in the response of the shaker and other nonlinear effects like DC offset in the displacement response. Our approach offers a key advantage vis-à-vis other approaches which rely on techniques involving Volterra Series expansions or techniques based on blackbox models like neural networks, which is that in our approach, apart from predicting the response of the shaker, the model parameters obtained have a physical significance and changes in the parameters can be directly mapped to modification in key design parameters of the shaker. The proposed approach is also advantageous in one more way: it requires measurement of only four parameters, voltage, current, displacement and acceleration for estimating shaker model parameters non-destructively. The proposed model can be used for the design of linearization controllers, prototype testing and simulation of new shaker designs as well as for performance prediction of shakers under testing conditions.

  9. A wide-frequency-range air-jet shaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Robert W

    1957-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a simple air-jet shaker. Its force can be calibrated statically and appears to be constant with frequency. It is relatively easy to use, and it has essentially massless characteristics. This shaker is applied to define the unstable branch of a frequency-response curve obtained for a nonlinear spring with a single degree of freedom.

  10. Influence of multi-holed shakers on salting on food.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, H; Smith, A M; Wills, R B

    1984-06-01

    In a study of 2241 Australian adults consuming main meals at a cafeteria, single-and multi-holed (5, 9, 13) salt shakers were weighed before and after use. For all hole numbers, salt use increased linearly with an increase in hole area to a maximum value of 1.1-1.2 g which was the same irrespective of hole number. For a given hole area multi-holed shakers decreased salt use compared with single-holed shakers suggesting that multi-holed shakers are easier for consumers to control. However the greatest restriction in salt use (0.37 g per meal) is obtained by use of a single-holed shaker of 3 mm2 hole area.

  11. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...; Albany Molecular Research, Inc., Subzone 121A, (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production), Rensselaer, NY... originally approved by the Board in 1994 for the production of bulk pharmaceutical chemicals and... an active pharmaceutical ingredient, dexpramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate, under...

  12. Geology of the Albany West quadrangle, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wait, Robert L.

    1962-01-01

    The Albany West Quadrangle is near the east edge of the Dougherty Plain of southwestern Georgia, an area of karst topography. The Ocala limestone (uppoer Eocene) underlies the quadrangle and crops out along the Flint River and its tributaries and sinkholes. Sinkholes of two ages are developed in the limestone. A gravelly argillaceous sand of Pliocene(?) age is exposed in ditches near the Flint River and in a sinkhole in the western part of the quadrangle. Reddish brown, argillaceous, older Pleistocene sand, believed to be part of a marine terrace deposit above altitude 160 feet, overlies the Pliocene(?) and is exposed in a sinkhole. River terraces are present along the Flint River at altitudes of 175 and 200 feet. Accumulations of dune sand east of the Flint River are believed to have been derived from the earliest river-terrace deposit. The quadrangle is covered by a mixture of reddish-brown, argillaceous, older Pleistocene sand, and residuum containing siliceous boulders from the Ocala limestone, which has been mapped as residuum.

  13. Evaluation of a six-DOF electrodynamic shaker system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Danny Lynn; Smallwood, David Ora

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes the preliminary evaluation of a 6 degree of freedom electrodynamic shaker system. The 8 by 8 inch (20.3 cm) table is driven by 12 electrodynamic shakers producing motion in all 6 rigid body modes. A small electrodynamic shaker system suitable for small component testing is described. The principal purpose of the system is to demonstrate the technology. The shaker is driven by 12 electrodynamic shakers each with a force capability of about 50 lbs (220 N). The system was developed through an informal cooperative agreement between Sandia National Laboratories, Team Corp. and Spectral Dynamics Corporation. Sandia provided the laboratory space and some development funds. Team provided the mechanical system, and Spectral Dynamics provided the control system. Spectral Dynamics was chosen to provide the control system partly because of their experience in MIMO control and partly because Sandia already had part of the system in house. The shaker system was conceived and manufactured by TEAM Corp. Figure 1 shows the overall system. The vibration table, electrodynamic shakers, hydraulic pumps, and amplifiers are all housed in a single cabinet. Figure 2 is a drawing showing how the electrodynamic shakers are coupled to the table. The shakers are coupled to the table through a hydraulic spherical pad bearing providing 5 degrees of freedom and one stiff degree of freedom. The pad bearing must be preloaded with a static force as they are unable to provide any tension forces. The horizontal bearings are preloaded with steel springs. The drawing shows a spring providing the vertical preload. This was changed in the final design. The vertical preload is provided by multiple strands of an O-ring material as shown in Figure 4. Four shakers provide excitation in each of the three orthogonal axes. The specifications of the shaker are outlined in Table 1. Four shakers provide inputs in each of the three orthogonal directions. By choosing the phase relationships

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY SHOWING SMALL BARN AND SUPERINTENDENT'S HOUSE, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, FROM BARN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, GENERAL VIEW OF 'QUADRANGLE' OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's or 1930's GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, FROM BARN - closer-up, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

    1980-02-01

    The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

  1. What to consider when evaluating shaker screen performance

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1986-10-01

    Parameters most often used by manufacturers of shale shakers and shale shaker screens to judge and compare screen performance are discussed. They include screen conductance, separation efficiency and other methods by which screen performance is evaluated. The article also demonstrates that the D/sub 50/ cut point can be misleading if used alone to judge separation efficiency. And finally, field data provide comparisons of market grade and layered screen performance.

  2. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD..., based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE/EIS-0457, March 2012). BPA has decided... will continue to operate at 115 kV. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling...

  3. Albany-Laramie Counties Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Albany-Laramie Counties area of Wyoming, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general…

  4. Properties of shaker-type potassium channels in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Gambale, F; Uozumi, N

    2006-03-01

    Potassium (K(+)), the most abundant cation in biological organisms, plays a crucial role in the survival and development of plant cells, modulation of basic mechanisms such as enzyme activity, electrical membrane potentials, plant turgor and cellular homeostasis. Due to the absence of a Na(+)/K(+) exchanger, which widely exists in animal cells, K(+) channels and some type of K(+) transporters function as K(+) uptake systems in plants. Plant voltage-dependent K(+) channels, which display striking topological and functional similarities with the voltage-dependent six-transmembrane segment animal Shaker-type K(+) channels, have been found to play an important role in the plasma membrane of a variety of tissues and organs in higher plants. Outward-rectifying, inward-rectifying and weakly-rectifying K(+) channels have been identified and play a crucial role in K(+) homeostasis in plant cells. To adapt to the environmental conditions, plants must take advantage of the large variety of Shaker-type K(+) channels naturally present in the plant kingdom. This review summarizes the extensive data on the structure, function, membrane topogenesis, heteromerization, expression, localization, physiological roles and modulation of Shaker-type K(+) channels from various plant species. The accumulated results also help in understanding the similarities and differences in the properties of Shaker-type K(+) channels in plants in comparison to those of Shaker channels in animals and bacteria.

  5. Augmentation of deglutitive thyrohyoid muscle shortening by the Shaker Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn; Shaker, Reza

    2009-03-01

    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation.

  6. A case of shaker dog disease in a miniature dachshund.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Yoshiki; Iwakami, Etsuko; Goto, Masashi; Koie, Hiroshi; Watari, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeo; Takeuchi, Akira; Tokuriki, Mikihiko

    2004-09-01

    A male miniature Dachshund, twenty-two months of age, was referred with paroxysmal generalized tremors as a main clinical sign. There were no abnormalities in the neurological examination except the lack of bilateral menace responses, and in the magnetic resonance imaging of its brain. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid revealed a slight rise in protein concentration and an increase in the number of cells. This case with brown hair was diagnosed as the shaker dog disease, which has also been well known as "little white shakers" syndrome due to being found in small dogs with white hair, because the clinical signs were exactly analogous to the shaker dog disease, and the generalized tremors disappeared on the first day after the administration of prednisolone and diazepam.

  7. Capabilities of electrodynamic shakers when used for mechanical shock testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keegan, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a research task to investigate the capabilities of electrodynamic vibrators (shakers) to perform mechanical shock tests are presented. The simulation method employed was that of developing a transient whose shock response spectrum matched the desired shock response spectrum. Areas investigated included the maximum amplitude capabilities of the shaker systems, the ability to control the shape of the resultant shock response spectrum, the response levels induced at frequencies outside the controlled bandwidth, and the nonlinearities in structural response induced by a change in test level.

  8. Multiple Shaker Random Vibration Control--An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.

    1999-02-18

    The theory of the control of multiple shakers driving a single test item is reviewed. Several improvements that have been introduced since the original papers on the subject will be discussed. The improvements include: (1) specification of the control spectra; (2) the control of non-square systems (the number of shakers does not have to be equal to the number of control points); (3) the connection between sine testing, waveform control, and random control; (4) improvements in feedback control; (5) overlap-add versus time domain randomization; and (6) reproduction of non-Gaussian waveforms.

  9. Robert Newton Peck and Shaker Beliefs: A Day the Truth Would Die.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Raises issues about the obligation of an author to depict ethnic or religious groups such as the Shakers in accurate terms. Takes issues with Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die," charging that it presents an almost libelous picture of the Shakers. Reviews Shaker history and culture. (TB)

  10. Decolonizing the Choctaws: Teaching LeAnne Howe's "Shell Shaker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollrah, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    "Shell Shaker" (2001) by LeAnne Howe (Choctaw) is a novel that gives students an opportunity to learn that the history and culture of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma are alive today. Winner of the Before Columbus Foundation American Book Award in 2002, the novel deals with two parallel stories that converge in the present, one about the eighteenth…

  11. The Shaker High School Program for Visiting College Admissions Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Paul F.

    1978-01-01

    To achieve successful articulation between secondary school and college for students, guidance counselors and college admissions representatives are both involved in "the high school visit." Taking into consideration needs of all participants becomes of primary importance. This article highlights the Shaker High School program attempting to…

  12. Moral medicine: symbolic content in 19th century Shaker therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Idler, E L

    1989-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the symbolic meanings implicit in an ostensibly empirical therapeutic system. The Shakers, a celibate communal religious order founded in New York State in the mid 1770s, were practitioners of botanic medicine, as were many other Americans in the nineteenth century. This study analyzes the therapeutic properties of the herbs they produced (such as diuretic, stimulant, narcotic, emetic, astringent), using a classification scheme based on the location of the botanical substance's effect vis-à-vis body boundaries and surfaces. The Shakers' beliefs about the therapeutic properties of their herbs are compared with similar analyses of the properties given by two contemporary nineteenth century New England proponents of herbal medicine, botanist Constantine Rafinesque and sectarian practitioner Samuel Thomson. The comparison shows systematic variation in emphasis given to herbs which regulate internal body processes, or act through the openings of the body or on its surface. In this context Shaker medicine can be characterized as quickening, internal, and purifying in its effects on body processes, effects which are highly consistent with Shaker religious beliefs in active, physical worship, selflessness and spiritual purification by confession.

  13. Design of a piezoelectric shaker for centrifuge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canclini, J. G.; Henderson, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a prototype piezoelectric shaker and its development to date is described. Although certain design problems remain to be solved, the piezoelectric system shows promise for adaptation to a larger payload system, such as the proposed geotechnical centrifuge at the Ames Research Center.

  14. 7. INTERIOR, ROBERTS AND SCHAEFER SHAKER TABLE (LEFT), MARYLAND NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, ROBERTS AND SCHAEFER SHAKER TABLE (LEFT), MARYLAND NEW RIVER COAL COMPANY INSTALLED APRON CONVEYOR (RIGHT) USED TO CONVEY COAL TO THE BELKNAP CHORIDE WASHER, RETURN CHUTE FOR CLEANED COAL (FAR RIGHT), AND COAL STORAGE SILO (BACKGROUND), LOOKING WEST - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  15. Virtual Shaker Testing: Simulation Technology Improves Vibration Test Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricci, Stefano; Peeters, Bart; Fetter, Rebecca; Boland, Doug; Debille, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the field of vibration testing, the interaction between the structure being tested and the instrumentation hardware used to perform the test is a critical issue. This is particularly true when testing massive structures (e.g. satellites), because due to physical design and manufacturing limits, the dynamics of the testing facility often couples with the test specimen one in the frequency range of interest. A further issue in this field is the standard use of a closed loop real-time vibration control scheme, which could potentially shift poles and change damping of the aforementioned coupled system. Virtual shaker testing is a novel approach to deal with these issues. It means performing a simulation which closely represents the real vibration test on the specific facility by taking into account all parameters which might impact the dynamic behavior of the specimen. In this paper, such a virtual shaker testing approach is developed. It consists of the following components: (1) Either a physical-based or an equation-based coupled electro-mechanical lumped parameter shaker model is created. The model parameters are obtained from manufacturer's specifications or by carrying out some dedicated experiments; (2) Existing real-time vibration control algorithm are ported to the virtual simulation environment; and (3) A structural model of the test object is created and after defining proper interface conditions structural modes are computed by means of the well-established Craig-Bampton CMS technique. At this stage, a virtual shaker test has been run, by coupling the three described models (shaker, control loop, structure) in a co-simulation routine. Numerical results have eventually been correlated with experimental ones in order to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology.

  16. Modal parameter estimation via shaker vs speaker excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.J.; Burdick, R.B.

    1984-05-01

    When dynamically testing delicate laser components (e.g. an elliptical glass laser disc) it is often impossible to provide a direct contact excitation source such as an impact hammer or shaker. This is because of the delicate and/or brittle nature of the material from which the components are constructed. The alternate approach that is often used in a test of this type is to excite the component with an acoustic speaker. In this paper we describe a small series of tests in which we compare the modal parameters obtained by using a speaker as an excitation source with those obtained on the same object when the excitation was provided by a shaker.

  17. System Identification and Simulation of a Triaxial Shaker System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    methods. Results of the system identification process are discussed. Certain methods are found to produce models that are in good agreement with measured response data from the actual shaker system....implemented in the simulation. The first is a physically-based model derived from a finite element analysis together with a model-updating system ... identification scheme; the second is a parametric model without direct physical significance. The advantages and disadvantages of each model for this

  18. A study of multiple-shaker modal survey testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The principal objective was to examine and to assess the practical value of a method of multiple-shaker sinusoidal modal vibration testing known as Asher's method. Numerical studies which simulate the application of Asher's method and a unique experimental implementation of the method were completed. Another objective of the research was to develop and to demonstrate with numerical simulation a quantitative method for determining from transfer function data the number of dominant modes of vibration in sinusoidal structural response.

  19. What the electrical impedance can tell about the intrinsic properties of an electrodynamic shaker.

    PubMed

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges. In essence, the mechanical parts of the shaker leave a signature in the electrical impedance, and an interpretation of this signature using a simple model allows for drawing conclusions about the properties of the shaker. The theory developed (which is quite general so that it is usable also in other contexts) is applied to experimental data obtained for the minishaker commonly used in VEMP measurements. It is shown that the experimental conditions substantially influence the properties of the shaker. Relevant factors are, in particular, the spatial orientation of the shaker (upright, horizontal or upside-down) and the static force acting on the table of the shaker (which in a real measurement corresponds to the force by which the shaker is pressed against the test person's head). These results underline the desirability of a proper standardization of VEMP measurements. Direct measurements of displacement and acceleration prove the consistency of the conclusions derived from the electrical impedance.

  20. What the electrical impedance can tell about the intrinsic properties of an electrodynamic shaker

    PubMed Central

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges. In essence, the mechanical parts of the shaker leave a signature in the electrical impedance, and an interpretation of this signature using a simple model allows for drawing conclusions about the properties of the shaker. The theory developed (which is quite general so that it is usable also in other contexts) is applied to experimental data obtained for the minishaker commonly used in VEMP measurements. It is shown that the experimental conditions substantially influence the properties of the shaker. Relevant factors are, in particular, the spatial orientation of the shaker (upright, horizontal or upside-down) and the static force acting on the table of the shaker (which in a real measurement corresponds to the force by which the shaker is pressed against the test person’s head). These results underline the desirability of a proper standardization of VEMP measurements. Direct measurements of displacement and acceleration prove the consistency of the conclusions derived from the electrical impedance. PMID:28328999

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Photographer, Summer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Photographer, Summer 1930, DWELLING ROOM OF SISTER ANNA CASE, SECOND FLOOR, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.E. Winter, Photographer, 1930, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W.E. Winter, Photographer, 1930, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES (SUPERINTENDENT'S RESIDENCE AT RIGHT REAR), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Trustees' Office, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST (THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST (THE WOODEN STRUCTURE ATTACHED TO THE NORTH SIDE IS THE LAUNDRY, BUILDING #7, HABS #NY-3243), N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cannery, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, BUILT-IN DRAWERS ON THIRD FLOOR (SOUTHEAST ROOM), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES (SUPERINTENDENT'S RESIDENCE AT RIGHT REAR), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Trustees' Office, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW WITH BROOM SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW WITH BROOM SHOP IN FOREGROUND AND SEED HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, July 1940, FROM EAST OF COW SHEDS AND STORAGE WING, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cow & Hay Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, LAUNDRY DRYERS - FIRST FLOOR (NOW OWNED BY THE NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Washhouse, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, WEST SIDE (WITH STORAGE BARN, BUILDING #13 TO LEFT), Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Cow & Hay Barn, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  10. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, N.E. Baldwin, Photographer, November 1939, INTERIOR: WITH CLOTHES PRESS DOOR, CHIMNEY CLOSETS AND CHIMNEY CLEAN-OUT, AND BUILT-IN CHEST OF DRAWERS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker West Family Main Dwelling House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING SOUTH - LEFT, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH - RIGHT, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.J. Stein, Photographer, October 1927, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING SOUTH - RIGHT, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's. GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH - CLOSE-UP, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. What's shakin', dude? Effective use of modal shakers.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Randall Lee

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of modal testing is usually to provide an estimate of a linear structural dynamics model. Typical uses of the experimental modal model are (1) to compare it with a finite element model for model validation or updating; (2) to verify a plant model for a control system; or (3) to develop an experimentally based model to understand structural dynamic responses. Since these are some common end uses, for this article the main goal is to focus on excitation methods to obtain an adequate estimate of a linear structural dynamics model. The purpose of the modal test should also provide the requirements that will drive the rigor of the testing, analysis, and the amount of instrumentation. Sometimes, only the natural frequencies are required. The next level is to obtain relative mode shapes with the frequencies to correlate with a finite element model. More rigor is required to get accurate critical damping ratios if energy dissipation is important. At the highest level, a full experimental model may require the natural frequencies, damping, modal mass, scaled shapes, and, perhaps, other terms to account for out-of-band modes. There is usually a requirement on the uncertainty of the modal parameters, whether it is specifically called out or underlying. These requirements drive the meaning of the word 'adequate' in the phrase 'adequate linear estimate' for the structural dynamics model. The most popular tools for exciting structures in modal tests are shakers and impact hammers. The emphasis here will be on shakers. There have been many papers over the years that mention some of the advantages and issues associated with shaker testing. One study that is focused on getting good data with shakers is that of Peterson. Although impact hammers may seem very convenient, in many cases, shakers offer advantages in obtaining a linear model. The best choice of excitation device is somewhat dependent on the test article and logistical considerations. These considerations will

  16. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+) channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    PubMed

    Jegla, Timothy; Marlow, Heather Q; Chen, Bihan; Simmons, David K; Jacobo, Sarah M; Martindale, Mark Q

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone) provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+) channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1), Shaw (Kv3) and Shal (Kv4). In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+) channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+) channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2) family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  17. An Analysis of Shaker Education: The Life and Death of an Alternative Educational System, 1774-1950.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Frank G.; Roberts, Arthur D.

    This study investigates the Shaker educational system, analyzes the development of Shaker schools, and examines the innovative practices that the Shakers used to ready children for the world of their time. Originating in England among illiterate working class people, the movement was established in New England in 1774. Basic characteristics of the…

  18. Movers and shakers: evolution and development of the mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Brad

    2008-01-15

    Groundbreaking research in a wide variety of organisms has begun to address fundamental questions regarding the evolutionary origin of mesoderm and how patterning of this emergent tissue layer has played a central role in the diversification of metazoan body plans. However, attempts to synthesize this growing body of research have been limited. To address this perceived gap, a symposium entitled "Movers and Shakers: The Evolution and Development of Mesoderm" was held at the 2006 Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology Conference in Orlando, Florida. The papers derived from this symposium cover a broad range of organisms and approaches. It was our intention that integration of the data and methodologies from these diverse research programs would generate new hypotheses and collaborative efforts to decipher fundamental questions of mesoderm development and evolution.

  19. Electrostatic domino effect in the Shaker K channel turret.

    PubMed

    Broomand, Amir; Osterberg, Fredrik; Wardi, Tara; Elinder, Fredrik

    2007-10-01

    Voltage-gated K channels are regulated by extracellular divalent cations such as Mg(2+) and Sr(2+), either by screening of fixed negative surface charges, by binding directly or close to the voltage sensor, or by binding to the pore. Different K channels display different sensitivity to divalent cations. For instance, 20 mM MgCl(2) shifts the conductance versus voltage curve, G(V), of the Kv1-type Shaker channel with 14 mV, while the G(V) of Kv2.1 is shifted only with 7 mV. This shift difference is paralleled with different working ranges. Kv1-type channels open at approximately -20 mV and Kv2.1 channel open at approximately +5 mV. The aim of this study was to identify critical residues for this Mg(2+)-induced G(V) shift by introducing Kv2.1 channel residues in the Shaker K channel. The K channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. We found that three neutral-to-positive amino-acid residue exchanges in the extracellular loops connecting transmembrane segments S5 and S6 transferred the Mg(2+)-shifting properties. The contributions of the three residues were additive, and thus independent of each other, with the contributions in the order 425 > 419 > 451. Charging 425 and 419 not only affect the Mg(2+)-induced G(V) shift with 5-6 mV, but also shifts the G(V) with 17 mV. Thus, a few strategically placed surface charges clearly modulate the channel's working range. Residue 425, located at some distance away from the voltage sensor, was shown to electrostatically affect residue K427, which in turn affects the voltage sensor S4-thus, an electrostatic domino effect.

  20. Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Spacecraft Multi-DOF Shaker Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pray, Carl; Blelloch, Paul; Thomas, Gareth; McNelis, Mark; Suarez, Vicente; Otten, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Finite element enforced response analysis was performed on a three axis expander head shaker table to aid in the design of the table structure and vibration control system. The payload for this shaker system is a generic spacecraft with a multitude of flexible modes across a broad frequency band. A Craig-Bampton representation of the spacecraft was used to expedite analysis of multiple shaker table designs. The analysis examines the required forces in the actuators for a constant amplitude base acceleration sine sweep test, the resulting forces in the spacecraft and table attachment restraints, and the resulting accelerations on the spacecraft structure. The results show the spacecraft response is very high at the spacecraft center of gravity (CG) due to the high CG offset and cantilever effect of the low frequency spacecraft bending modes. The high response can be addressed by "notching" the input vibration levels to avoid over-testing the spacecraft. At frequencies above 25 Hz, the spacecraft modal effective masses are very small, and the response of the shaker table dominates the response. Anti-resonances of the shaker table in the frequency range of interest reduce the acceleration output and require much higher actuator forces to achieve the acceleration specification. These effects may require stiffening the shaker structure to move the modes out of the test frequency range or increasing the shaker table damping.

  1. Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Spacecraft Multi-DOF Shaker Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pray, Carl; Blelloch, Paul; Thomas, Gareth; McNelis, Mark; Suarez, Vicente; Otten, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Finite element enforced response analysis was performed on a multiple degree of freedom expander head shaker table to aid in the design of the table structure and vibration control system. The payload for this shaker system is a spacecraft with a multitude of flexible modes across a broad frequency band. A Craig-Bampton representation of the spacecraft was used to expedite analysis of multiple shaker table designs. The analysis examines the required forces in the actuators for a constant amplitude base acceleration sine sweep test, the resulting forces in the spacecraft and table attachment restraints, and the resulting accelerations on the spacecraft structure. The results show the spacecraft response at low frequencies is very high near the tip due to the low order spacecraft bending and axial modes. The high response can be addressed by notching the input vibration levels to avoid overtesting the spacecraft. At frequencies above 25 Hz, the spacecraft modal effective masses are very small, and the response of the shaker table dominates the response. Anti-resonances of the shaker table in the frequency range of interest reduce the acceleration output and require much higher actuator forces to achieve the acceleration specification. These effects may require stiffening the shaker structure to move the modes out of the test frequency range or increasing the shaker table damping.

  2. New Tables For IABG's 320kN Shaker System: Design And Procurement Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartl, Ralf

    2012-07-01

    For more than 25 years IABG is operating its 320kN vibration system in testing of space and non-space applications. The vibration system is a multi shaker system, using four electrodynamic shakers, driving a 3x3m2 head expander and a 3x3m2 slip table. During the recent years a modernisation program of the shaker system has been implemented. The purpose of this program was to exchange system components, which have reached their expected duration of life, as well as to exchange components which did no longer fulfil the state-of-the-art requirements in testing and thus to adapt the vibration system to future challenges. Two major components of the shaker system, which have been covered during the modernisation program, are the shaker tables (the head expander and the slip table). Being the direct interface of a vibration test facility to a specimen, the shaker tables are crucial regarding the shaker system overall performance. And this fact applies even more for shaker systems with large tables, because there are no off-the-shelf solutions in this area. During the recent 5 years IABG specified, designed and procured a new head expander and a new slip table for the 320kN shaker system. This paper describes the overall process investigating on the following listed aspects: - general requirements for the tables - definition of boundary conditions and guidance principles - specific areas of interest - definition of the table material and the manufacturing method - design solutions - challenges during manufacturing - results - table properties

  3. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Albany Area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission to monitor ground-water quality and availability since 1977. This report presents an overview of ground-water conditions and studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2007. Historical data are also presented for comparison with 2007 data. Ongoing monitoring activities include continuous water-level recording in 24 wells and monthly water-level measurements in 5 wells. During 2007, water levels in 21 of the continuous-recording wells were below normal, corresponding to lower than average rainfall. Ground-water samples collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that nitrate levels have decreased or remained about the same since 2006. Water samples were collected from the Flint River and wells at the Albany wellfield, and data were plotted on a trilinear diagram to show the percent composition of selected major cations and anions. Ground-water constituents (major cations and anions) of the Upper Floridan aquifer at the Albany wellfield are distinctly different from those in the water of the Flint River. To improve the understanding of the ground-water flow system and nitrate movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer, the USGS is developing a ground-water flow model in the southwestern Albany area of Georgia. The model is being calibrated to simulate periods of dry (October 1999) and relatively wet (March 2001) hydrologic conditions. Preliminary water-level simulations indicate a generally good fit to measured water levels.

  4. Note: A kinematic shaker system for high amplitude, low frequency vibration testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Anand; Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2015-11-01

    This note describes a shaker system capable of high peak-velocity, large amplitude, low frequency, near-sinusoidal excitation that has been constructed and employed in experiments on the inhibition of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using acceleration modulation. The production of high peak-velocity vibration is of interest in parametric excitation problems of this type and reaches beyond the capabilities of standard electromagnetic shakers. The shaker system described employs a kinematic linkage to two counter-rotating flywheels, driven by a variable-speed electrical motor, producing peak-to-peak displacements of 15.24 cm to a platform mounted on two guide rails. In operation, this shaker has been demonstrated to produce peak speeds of up to 3.7 m/s without failure.

  5. Note: A kinematic shaker system for high amplitude, low frequency vibration testing.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Anand; Poese, Matthew E; Smith, Robert W M; Garrett, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    This note describes a shaker system capable of high peak-velocity, large amplitude, low frequency, near-sinusoidal excitation that has been constructed and employed in experiments on the inhibition of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using acceleration modulation. The production of high peak-velocity vibration is of interest in parametric excitation problems of this type and reaches beyond the capabilities of standard electromagnetic shakers. The shaker system described employs a kinematic linkage to two counter-rotating flywheels, driven by a variable-speed electrical motor, producing peak-to-peak displacements of 15.24 cm to a platform mounted on two guide rails. In operation, this shaker has been demonstrated to produce peak speeds of up to 3.7 m/s without failure.

  6. Modeling and Experimental Analysis of Piezoelectric Shakers for High-Frequency Calibration of Accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, Gregory W.; Harper, Kari K.; Payne, Bev

    2010-05-28

    Piezoelectric shakers have been developed and used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for decades for high-frequency calibration of accelerometers. Recently, NIST researchers built new piezoelectric shakers in the hopes of reducing the uncertainties in the calibrations of accelerometers while extending the calibration frequency range beyond 20 kHz. The ability to build and measure piezoelectric shakers invites modeling of these systems in order to improve their design for increased performance, which includes a sinusoidal motion with lower distortion, lower cross-axial motion, and an increased frequency range. In this paper, we present a model of piezoelectric shakers and match it to experimental data. The equations of motion for all masses are solved along with the coupled state equations for the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, additional electrical elements like inductors, capacitors, and resistors are added to the piezoelectric actuator for matching of experimental and theoretical frequency responses.

  7. Polarized expression of Shaker channels in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J; Cruz-Vera, L R; García-Villegas, M R; Cereijido, M

    2002-12-01

    The polarized distribution of ion channels into an apical or a basolateral domain is a fundamental feature of the transporting-epithelial phenotype. To study the molecular motifs of the channel that may serve as addressing signal(s), as well as the cellular mechanisms that interpret it and deliver the protein accordingly, we study the fate of transfected ShIR K+ channels (a non-inactivating Shaker channel) tagged with an HA epitope, as well as several other deletants and mutants. Surface expression is triggered by Ca2+-activated cell-cell contacts, through a cascade including a phospholipase C, a protein kinase C, and the cytoskeleton of actin and tubulin, and is partially impaired by suppressing N-glycosylation with tunicamycin. Using domain-specific biotinylation we show that the channel is delivered preferentially to the basolateral domain thanks to a segment between amino acids 571 and 613, and is retained on the membrane surface due to a region involving the last three amino acids (threonine, aspartic acid, valine, TDV) of the COOH terminal. Its association with the cytoskeleton seems to take the form of a scaffold comprising actin, a-actinin, b-tubulin, mLin7 and CASK. We also observe that membrane expression of ShIR channels depends entirely on its sequence of amino acids and the conformation that the molecule may adopt, but not on its ability to translocate K+ across the membrane.

  8. 76 FR 75602 - Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc. (HAL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and...

  9. High temperature corrosion research at the Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Matthes, Steven A.; Chinn, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Severe Environment Corrosion and Erosion Research Facility (SECERF) at the Albany Research Center is operational. SECERF consists of 6 modules that share the availability of up to 10 different gases to produce environments for high temperature corrosion and erosion research. Projects to be conducted in the modules include: corrosion sensors for fossil energy systems, thermal gradient effects on high temperature corrosion, the development of sulfidation resistant alloys, determination of the effects of ash on the corrosion of metals and alloys in coal and waste combustion and coal gasification environments, high temperature erosion-corrosion of metals, and molten slag effects on refractories. Results from two areas, the effect of ash deposits on alloy corrosion and thermal gradient effects on the corrosion of metals, will be highlighted. Ash produced in coal gasifiers, coal combustors, and waste combustors, when deposited on metal surfaces, provides sites for corrosion attack and contributes chemical species that participate in the corrosion reaction. Results are presented for the corrosion of 304L stainless steel, that was either uncoated or coated with ash or with ash containing NaCl or Na2SO4, in air-water vapor mixtures at 600 C. The presence of high heat fluxes and temperature gradients in many fossil energy systems creates the need for an understanding of their effects on corrosion and oxidation. Such information would be useful for both improved alloy design and for better translation of isothermal laboratory results to field use. Temperature gradients in a solid oxide result in two changes that modify diffusion within the oxide. The first is when a gradient in point defect concentration is created within the oxide, for example, where more vacancies are expected at a higher temperature. The second change is when the presence of a temperature gradient biases the diffusion jump of an atom. Results of tests are presented for cobalt with metal surface

  10. 77 FR 73648 - Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 238 (Tuesday, December 11, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 73648] [FR Doc No: 2012-29846] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2696-033-NY] Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Final...

  11. Test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments within the Colli Albani region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Calcara, M.

    In this paper we discuss some geochemical data gathered by discrete and continuous monitoring during the 1995-1996 period, carried out for earthquake prediction test-experiments throughout the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, seat of seismicity, selecting some gas discharge sites with peri-volcanic composition. In particular we stressed the results obtained at the continuous geochemical monitoring station (GMS I, BAR site), designed by ING for geochemical surveillance of seismic events. The 12/6/1995 (M=3.6-3.8) Roma earthquake together with the 3/11/1995 (M=3.1) Tivoli earthquake was the most energetic events within the Colli Albani - Roma area, after the beginning of the continuous monitoring (1991) up today: strict correlation between these seismic events and fluid geochemical anomalies in groundwater has been discovered (temperature, Eh, 222Rn, CO 2, NH 3). Separation at depth of a vapour phase, rich in reducing-acidic gases (CO 2, H 2S, etc...), from a hyper-saline brine, within the deep geothermal reservoir is hypothesised to explain the geochemical anomalies: probably the transtensional episodes accompanying the seismic sequences caused an increasing and/or triggering of the phase-separation process and fluid migration, on the regional scale of the Western sector of the Colli Albani, beyond the seismogenic depth (2-4 Km) up to surface. We draw the state of art of GMS II monitoring prototype and the selection criteria of test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments in the Colli Albani region.

  12. Science Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Resources in the University Libraries SUNY/Albany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osielski, Mary Y., Comp.

    This bibliography is a guide to sources of information in the field of science fiction which are available in the University Libraries at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany. Other libraries may find it useful as a reference tool for expanding their science fiction collections. Emphasis is on works which deal primarily with science…

  13. 76 FR 79271 - Genesee & Wyoming Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Genesee & Wyoming Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption-Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The Board is... original and 10 copies of all pleadings referring to Docket No. FD 35568, to: Surface Transportation...

  14. DOE Closeout Report from SUNY Albany High Energy Physics to Department of Energy Office of Science.

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Jesse; Jain, Vivek

    2014-08-15

    A report from the SUNY Albany Particle Physics Group summarizing our activities on the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. We summarize our work: on data analysis projects, on efforts to improve detector performance, and on service work to the experiment.

  15. Budgeting for Nonconsumable Items at Marine Corps Logistics Base, Albany, Georgia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    15 1. Piimary Inventory Control Activity . 15 2. Secondary Inventory Control Activity . 16 *F BUDGETING 16 G. SUMMAFY...Marine Corps, the Inventory Control Point, Marine Corps Logistics Base, Albany, Georgia has been desig- nated as the proqram manager for the...concerning control systems was conducted. D. THESIS ORGAN IZATION Chapter II provides a description of the Nonconsumable Items Program. Included is the

  16. Groundwater Conditions and Studies in the Albany Area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been working cooperatively with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission to monitor groundwater quality and availability since 1977. This report presents an overview of groundwater conditions and studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2008. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2008 data. Ongoing monitoring activities include continuous water-level recording in 24 wells and periodic water-level measurements in 5 wells. During 2008, water levels in 10 of the continuous-recording wells were below normal, corresponding to lower than average rainfall. Groundwater samples collected from 25 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that nitrate levels during 2008 were similar to values from 2007, with a maximum of 12.5 milligrams per liter at one well. Water samples collected from the Flint River and wells at the Albany well field were analyzed and plotted on a trilinear diagram to show the percent composition of selected major cations and anions. Groundwater constituents (major cations and anions) of the Upper Floridan aquifer at the Albany well field remain distinctly different from those in the water of the Flint River. To improve the understanding of the groundwater-flow system and nitrate movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing a groundwater-flow model in the Albany area of southwestern Georgia. The model is being calibrated to simulate periods of dry (October 1999) hydrologic conditions. Preliminary results of particle tracking indicate that water flows to the well field from the northwest.

  17. Fatigue Analysis Before and After Shaker Exercise: Physiologic Tool for Exercise Design

    PubMed Central

    White, Kevin T.; Easterling, Caryn; Roberts, Niles; Shaker, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the Shaker exercise induces fatigue in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening muscles and sternocleidomastoid (SCM), with the SCMs fatiguing earliest. The aim of this study was to measure fatigue induced by the isometric portion of the Shaker exercise by measuring the rate of change in the median frequency (MF rate) of the power spectral density (PSD) function, which is interpreted as proportional to the rate of fatigue, from surface electromyography (EMG) of suprahyoid (SHM), infrahyoid (IHM), and SCM. EMG data compared fatigue-related changes from 20-, 40-, and 60-s isometric hold durations of the Shaker exercise. We found that fatigue-related changes were manifested during the 20-s hold. The findings confirm that the SCM fatigues initially and as fast as or faster than the SHM and IHM. In addition, upon completion of the exercise protocol, the SCM had a decreased MF rate, implying improved fatigue resistance, while the SHM and IHM showed increased MF rates, implying that these muscles increased their fatiguing effort. We conclude that the Shaker exercise initially leads to increased fatigue resistance of the SCM, after which the exercise loads the less fatigue-resistant SHM and IHM, potentiating the therapeutic effect of the Shaker exercise regimen with continued exercise performance. PMID:18369673

  18. A Procedure for Accurately Measuring the Shaker Overturning Moment During Random Vibration Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeri, Reza D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: For large system level random vibration tests, there may be some concerns about the shaker's capability for the overturning moment. It is the test conductor's responsibility to predict and monitor the overturning moment during random vibration tests. If the predicted moment is close to the shaker's capability, test conductor must measure the instantaneous moment at low levels and extrapolate to higher levels. That data will be used to decide whether it is safe to proceed to the next test level. Challenge: Kistler analog formulation for computing the real-time moment is only applicable to very limited cases in which we have 3 or 4 load cells installed at shaker interface with hardware. Approach: To overcome that limitation, a simple procedure was developed for computing the overturning moment time histories using the measured time histories of the individual load cells.

  19. The design concept of the 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker at ESTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkman, P. W.; Kretz, D.

    1992-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has decided to extend its test facilities at the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) at Noordwijk, The Netherlands, by implementing a 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker. This shaker will permit vibration testing of large payloads in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. Conventional single axis sine and random vibration modes can be applied without the need for a configuration change of the test set-up for vertical and lateral excitations. Transients occurring during launch and/or landing of space vehicles can be accurately simulated in 6-degrees-of-freedom. The performance requirements of the shaker are outlined and the results of the various trade-offs, which are investigated during the initial phase of the design and engineering program are provided. Finally, the resulting baseline concept and the anticipated implementation plan of the new test facility are presented.

  20. Effect of solution flow produced by rotary shaker on protein crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Ryota; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Kawahara, Hisato; Maki, Syou; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kitatani, Tomoya; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Takatomo; Mori, Yusuke

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between the flow produced by a rotary shaker and protein crystallization. Lysozyme was crystallized in a solution stirred by a rotary shaker at 50 rpm. The number of crystals grown in the stirring environment was less than that of the quiescent environment. We confirmed the improvement of resolution and mosaicity of crystals grown in the stirring by X-ray diffraction measurement. We estimated that mean speed of the flow by a rotary shaker at 50 rpm was about 2×10 -6 m/s, and the Reynolds number of this flow was 4×10 -4. The magnitude of the Reynolds number was only twice as large as that of the quiescent environment. These results indicate that such a slight flow can influence protein crystallization.

  1. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the Shale Shaker House during an offshore drilling operation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A B; Larsen, E; Hansen, L V; Lyngsaae, M; Kunze, H

    1991-12-01

    During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud.

  2. Shaker and Shal Mediate Transient Calcium-Independent Potassium Current in a Drosophila Flight Motoneuron

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Ionic currents underlie the firing patterns, excitability, and synaptic integration of neurons. Despite complete sequence information in multiple species, our knowledge about ion channel function in central neurons remains incomplete. This study analyzes the potassium currents of an identified Drosophila flight motoneuron, MN5, in situ. MN5 exhibits four different potassium currents, two fast-activating transient ones and two sustained ones, one of each is calcium activated. Pharmacological and genetic manipulations unravel the specific contributions of Shaker and Shal to the calcium independent transient A-type potassium currents. α-dendrotoxin (Shaker specific) and phrixotoxin-2 (Shal specific) block different portions of the transient calcium independent A-type potassium current. Following targeted expression of a Shaker dominant negative transgene in MN5, the remaining A-type potassium current is α-dendrotoxin insensitive. In Shal RNAi knock down the remaining A-type potassium current is phrixotoxin-2 insensitive. Additionally, barium blocks calcium-activated potassium currents but also a large portion of phrixotoxin-2-sensitive A-type currents. Targeted knock down of Shaker or Shal channels each cause identical reduction in total potassium current amplitude as acute application of α-dendrotoxin or phrixotoxin-2, respectively. This shows that the knock downs do not cause upregulation of potassium channels underlying other A-type channels during development. Immunocytochemistry and targeted expression of modified GFP-tagged Shaker channels with intact targeting sequence in MN5 indicate predominant axonal localization. These data can now be used to investigate the roles of Shaker and Shal for motoneuron intrinsic properties, synaptic integration, and spiking output during behavior by targeted genetic manipulations. PMID:19828724

  3. A Community Documents Its History: A Brief Account of the Shaker Historical Society and the Elizabeth Nord Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Bonnie J.

    This paper provides a detailed account of the inception and growth both of the Shaker Historical Society and its museum and library in Shaker Heights, Ohio. It analyzes secondary sources of information and history, primary sources such as eyewitness accounts, records, annual reports, unpublished histories, and museum circulation records. Library…

  4. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (psshakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake. PMID:27668747

  5. Results of the radiological survey at 1052 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL208)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1052 Central Avenue in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 26, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story block and frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and a 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/17.5 m wide by 43.5 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Results of the radiological survey at 1054 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL211)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1054 Central Avenue in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 27, 1986. The commercial property consists of a two-story frame and block building located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt drive connects the working areas to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the building is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/13 m wide by 43 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Results of the radiological survey at 1110 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL215)

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1110 Central Avenue in Albany, New York (AL215) was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 4, 1987. This commercial property consists of a one-story concrete block office building (Building 1), a one-story concrete block warehouse (Building 2), and four connected storage buildings constructed variously of wood, metal, or concrete block. The structures are situated on an irregularly shaped lot. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 10-m grid network established for measurements outside the buildings is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/45 m wide by 98 m deep. Two views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Pansy Street, Albany, New York (AL162)

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 7 Pansy Street in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 16, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame and stone house and a separate garage located on an irregular shaped lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/30 m wide by 35 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Air bearing provides friction-free support for shaker system slip table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoff, R. W.

    1966-01-01

    Air bearing system supports a shaker system slip table with minimum friction. At each corner of a square of grooves made on the table, a hole is drilled through the table and fitted with air connections. Air pressure is simultaneously fed to the four fittings forming an air bearing.

  10. A Diagnostic Analysis of Black-White GPA Disparities in Shaker Heights, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F.

    2001-01-01

    This quantitative case study explores how race, family background, attitudes, and behaviors are related to achievement disparities among middle school and high school students in Shaker Heights, Ohio. The purpose is to inform the search for ways of raising achievement and reducing disparities. The focal measure of achievement in this study is the…

  11. Teachers Guide to the Shakers at Pleasant Hill. A Resource Unit for Elementary Teachers. Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakertown at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, Inc., Harrodsburg.

    The guide provides activities for use with children in grades four through six before and after a field trip to Shakertown at Pleasant Hill. Established as a Shaker community in 1805, Pleasant Hill now has 27 buildings restored and open for public use. The study of Pleasant Hill can be used as an example of rural or village life in nineteenth…

  12. Shaker Table Experiments with Rare Earth Elements Sorption from Geothermal Brine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  13. Two-Dimensional Flood-Inundation Model of the Flint River at Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Dyar, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    Potential flow characteristics of future flooding along a 4.8-mile reach of the Flint River in Albany, Georgia, were simulated using recent digital-elevation-model data and the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element surface-water modeling system for two-dimensional flow in the horizontal plane (FESWMS-2DH). Simulated inundated areas, in 1-foot (ft) increments, were created for water-surface altitudes at the Flint River at Albany streamgage (02352500) from 192.5-ft altitude with a flow of 123,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to 179.5-ft altitude with a flow of 52,500 ft3/s. The model was calibrated to match actual floods during July 1994 and March 2005 and Federal Emergency Management Administration floodplain maps. Continuity checks of selected stream profiles indicate the area near the Oakridge Drive bridge had lower velocities than other areas of the Flint River, which contributed to a rise in the flood-surface profile. The modeled inundated areas were mapped onto monochrome orthophoto imagery for use in planning for future floods. As part of a cooperative effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, the City of Albany, and Dougherty County, Georgia, conducted this study.

  14. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando; Naranjo, David

    2015-08-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K(+) across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K(+) transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker's reported ∼ 20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼ 0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K(+) is set to ∼ 4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼ 8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K(+)], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼ 200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of

  15. Vibration Response Models of a Stiffened Aluminum Plate Excited by a Shaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical models of structural-acoustic interactions are of interest to aircraft designers and the space program. This paper describes a comparison between two energy finite element codes, a statistical energy analysis code, a structural finite element code, and the experimentally measured response of a stiffened aluminum plate excited by a shaker. Different methods for modeling the stiffeners and the power input from the shaker are discussed. The results show that the energy codes (energy finite element and statistical energy analysis) accurately predicted the measured mean square velocity of the plate. In addition, predictions from an energy finite element code had the best spatial correlation with measured velocities. However, predictions from a considerably simpler, single subsystem, statistical energy analysis model also correlated well with the spatial velocity distribution. The results highlight a need for further work to understand the relationship between modeling assumptions and the prediction results.

  16. Hydrogeology, chemical quality, and availability of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, D.W.; Gill, H.E.; Longsworth, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Large withdrawals of groundwater in the 1500 sq mi Albany area of southwestern Georgia have lowered water levels in deep aquifers as much as 140 ft. This study was conducted to evaluate the development potential of the shallow Upper Floridan aquifer as an alternate source of groundwater, especially for public supply. The Upper Floridan stores and transmits large quantities of water, mainly in a zone of high permeability in the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from < 10,000 sq ft/day northwest of Albany, to as much as 150 ,000 sq ft/day south and southeast of Albany. Twenty-eight years of agricultural and industrial pumping has not produced a long-term decline of the water level in the Upper Floridan; the aquifer system remains at equilibrium. The Upper Floridan yields hard, calcium bicarbonate-type water but concentrations do not exceed State drinking water standards. In most of the study area , contaminants applied to or spilled on the land surface eventually can be expected to percolate through the overburden and reach the aquifer. Thus, it is important that wells be sited away from areas that have been used for the storage and disposal of potential contaminants and, probably to a lesser extent, the application of agricultural chemicals. In the area of greatest development potential east of the Flint River, wells may penetrate major groundwater conduits. By limiting drawdown during well development and during production, the likelihood of causing sinkholes to form can be minimized. Closed depressions, or sinks, throughout the Dougherty Plain probably are unsuitable as well sites, because (1) they are subject to flooding, (2) they collect water from upgradient areas and could concentrate potential contaminants, (3) water probably percolates through their bottoms and could transport contaminants into the aquifer, and (4) the depressions may overlie limestone cavities filled with sand or clay that could interfere with well yield

  17. Building America Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  18. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  19. Spontaneous shaker rat mutant – a new model for X-linked tremor/ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Karla P.; Paul, Sharan; Calì, Tito; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Karan, Sukanya; Frizzarin, Martina; Ames, Darren; Zanni, Ginevra; Brini, Marisa; Dansithong, Warunee; Milash, Brett; Scoles, Daniel R.; Carafoli, Ernesto; Pulst, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The shaker rat is an X-linked recessive spontaneous model of progressive Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration exhibiting a shaking ataxia and wide stance. Generation of Wistar Furth (WF)/Brown Norwegian (BN) F1 hybrids and genetic mapping of F2 sib-sib offspring using polymorphic markers narrowed the candidate gene region to 26 Mbp denoted by the last recombinant genetic marker DXRat21 at 133 Mbp to qter (the end of the long arm). In the WF background, the shaker mutation has complete penetrance, results in a stereotypic phenotype and there is a narrow window for age of disease onset; by contrast, the F2 hybrid phenotype was more varied, with a later age of onset and likely non-penetrance of the mutation. By deep RNA-sequencing, five variants were found in the candidate region; four were novel without known annotation. One of the variants caused an arginine (R) to cysteine (C) change at codon 35 of the ATPase, Ca2+ transporting, plasma membrane 3 (Atp2b3) gene encoding PMCA3 that has high expression in the cerebellum. The variant was well supported by hundreds of overlapping reads, and was found in 100% of all affected replicas and 0% of the wild-type (WT) replicas. The mutation segregated with disease in all affected animals and the amino acid change was found in an evolutionarily conserved region of PMCA3. Despite strong genetic evidence for pathogenicity, in vitro analyses of PMCA3R35C function did not show any differences to WT PMCA3. Because Atp2b3 mutation leads to congenital ataxia in humans, the identified Atp2b3 missense change in the shaker rat presents a good candidate for the shaker rat phenotype based on genetic criteria, but cannot yet be considered a definite pathogenic variant owing to lack of functional changes. PMID:27013529

  20. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Paul E.; Koenig, Greg John; Uncapher, William Leonard; Grey, Carissa; Engelhardt, Charles; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  1. Material-balance assessment of the New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Henry, M.E.; Higley, D.K.; Pitman, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    The New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin is a well-constrained system from which petroleum charges and losses were quantified through a material-balance assessment. This petroleum system has nearly 90,000 wells penetrating the Chesterian section, a single New Albany Shale source rock accounting for more than 99% of the produced oil, well-established stratigraphic and structural frameworks, and accessible source rock samples at various maturity levels. A hydrogen index (HI) map based on Rock-Eval analyses of source rock samples of New Albany Shale defines the pod of active source rock and extent of oil generation. Based on a buoyancy-drive model, the system was divided into seven secondary-migration catchments. Each catchment contains a part of the active pod of source rock from which it derives a petroleum charge, and this charge is confined to carrier beds and reservoirs within these catchments as accountable petroleum, petroleum losses, or undiscovered petroleum. A well-constrained catchment with no apparent erosional or leakage losses is used to determine an actual petroleum charge from accountable petroleum and residual migration losses. This actual petroleum charge is used to calibrate the other catchments in which erosional petroleum losses have occurred. Petroleum charges determined by laboratory pyrolysis are exaggerated relative to the actual petroleum charge. Rock-Eval charges are exaggerated by a factor of 4-14, and hydrouspyrolysis charges are exaggerated by a factor of 1.7. The actual petroleum charge provides a more meaningful material balance and more realistic estimates of petroleum losses and remaining undiscovered petroleum. The total petroleum charge determined for the New Albany-Chesterian system is 78 billion bbl, of which 11.4 billion bbl occur as a accountable in place petroleum, 9 billion bbl occur as residual migration losses, and 57.6 billion bbl occur as erosional losses. Of the erosional losses, 40 billion bbl

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Albany Quadrangle, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M T; Truesdell, D B

    1982-09-01

    The Albany 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m for uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Areas of favorable geology and aeroradioactivity anomalies were examined and sampled. Most Triassic and Jurassic sediments in the Connecticut Basin, in the central part of the quadrangle, were found to be favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. Some Precambrian units in the southern Green Mountains of Vermont were found favorable for uranium deposits in veins in metamorphic rocks.

  3. Ground-water-quality data for Albany and surrounding areas, Southwest Georgia, 1951-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie; Easoz, Jamie A.; Priest, Sherlyn

    2002-01-01

    This report presents ground-water-quality data from the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Upper Cretaceous aquifers in the Albany and surrounding areas of southwest Georgia. Water-quality data from about 186 wells in Baker, Calhoun, Dougherty, Lee, Mitchell, Terrell, and Worth Counties are presented for the period from 1951 through 1999. The data include field water-quality parameters collected during 1951-99, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds collected during 1981-97, inorganic compounds collected during 1951-99, trace metals collected during 1964-99, radiochemicals collected during 1993-95, herbicides and insecticides collected during 1980-97, and recovery data for laboratory surrogate compounds (used for quality control and quality assurance for organic samples) collected during 1993-97. Ground-water quality data are presented in tables by data type and arranged by well number. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, well location, stratigraphy, and formation water-bearing properties. Ground-water-quality data are presented in text files and in a data base that includes geographic and tabular data. Data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the quality of ground water in Albany, Ga., and surrounding areas. Although some of these data may have been published in previous reports associated with water-resources investigations, water-quality data are compiled as a useful resource.

  4. 77 FR 60418 - Town of Stuyvesant, New York and Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Stuyvesant, New York and Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  5. 76 FR 38383 - Albany Engineering Corporation, Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation, Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting On July 12, 2011, Office of Energy Projects staff will participate in a...

  6. 76 FR 74116 - Alabama & Florida Railway Co., Inc. d/b/a Ripley & New Albany Railroad Co.-Acquisition and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... Tennessee Railroad, LLC Alabama & Florida Railway Co., Inc. d/b/a Ripley & New Albany Railroad Co. (RNA), a... Ripley, a distance of 22.54 miles in Union and Tippah Counties, Miss. RNA states that it proposes to... amended notice was filed on November 14, 2011. RNA certifies that its projected annual revenues as...

  7. 75 FR 34049 - FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake, Oregon and Goldendale, WA) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final...

  8. A Selected Bibliography of Books on Women in the Libraries of the State University of New York at Albany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzer, Elizabeth M., Comp.; Applebaum, Hannah B., Comp.

    This bibliography is limited to books, cataloged government documents, and whole or special issues of periodicals on women in the University Libraries of the State University of New York at Albany. The selection of items for inclusion in the bibliography has been as broad as possible except in the areas specified below. Books in the area of…

  9. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (<4) streams and groundwater draining New Albany Shale watersheds become fixed by reactions that increase pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are

  10. Ground water in the Corvallis-Albany area, central Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Frank J.

    1974-01-01

    The Corvallis-Albany area is part of the alluvial plain that lies between the Cascade and Coast Ranges in the central Willamette Valley in northwestern Oregon. As used in this report, the Corvallis-Albany area consists of approximately 210 square miles and includes a part of the lower foothills of the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Volcanic and marine sedimentary units exposed in the foothills range in age from Eocene to Oligocene or Miocene. The volcanic rocks are primarily pillow lavas and basalt flows, which yield only small quantities of water generally adequate for domestic and stock use. Marine-deposited sandstone, siltstone, and shale of the older sedimentary units are fine grained, poorly permeable, and generally yield small volumes of water to wells. In the valley plain the older units are overlain by Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits. The alluvial deposits (sand and gravel) of the valley plain contain the most productive aquifers in the area and are considered to be the only units feasible for large-scale development of ground-water supplies. Aquifers in the area are recharged principally by direct infiltration of precipitation. Most of the precipitation (about 38 in. per yr avg) occurs during late autumn and winter. Ground water is discharged naturally from the area by seepage and spring flow to streams, by evapotranspiration, by underflow, and artificially through wells. During 1971 the seasonal decline of water levels from winter to late summer averaged about 10 feet for the alluvial deposits. The seasonal change of storage in that year was estimated to be about 130,000 acre-feet. Of this volume, about 14,000 acre-feet was pumped from wells; the rest (about 116,000 acre-feet) was discharged through seeps and springs by evapotranspiration. The difference between pumpage and natural discharge indicates that a great quantity of additional water is available for development. The storage capacity of the alluvial aquifers in the area is estimated to be

  11. High throughput preparation of fly genomic DNA in 96-well format using a paint-shaker.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael; Nagy, Olga; Lang, Claus; Orgogozo, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Sample homogenization is an essential step for genomic DNA extraction, with multiple downstream applications in Molecular Biology. Genotyping hundreds or thousands of samples requires an automation of this homogenization step, and high throughput homogenizer equipment currently costs 7000 euros or more. We present an apparatus for homogenization of individual Drosophila adult flies in 96-well micro-titer dishes, which was built from a small portable paint-shaker (F5 portable paint-shaker, Ushake). Single flies are disrupted in each well that contains extraction buffer and a 4-mm metal ball. Our apparatus can hold up to five 96-well micro-titer plates. Construction of the homogenizer apparatus takes about 3-4 days, and all equipment can be obtained from a home improvement store. The total material cost is approximately 700 euros including the paint-shaker. We tested the performance of our apparatus using the ZR-96 Quick-gDNA™ kit (Zymo Research) homogenization buffer and achieved nearly complete tissue homogenization after 15 minutes of shaking. PCR tests did not detect any cross contamination between samples of neighboring wells. We obtained on average 138 ng of genomic DNA per fly, and DNA quality was adequate for standard PCR applications. In principle, our tissue homogenizer can be used for isolation of DNA suitable for library production and high throughput genotyping by Multiplexed Shotgun Genotyping (MSG), as well as RNA isolation from single flies. The sample adapter can also hold and shake other items, such as centrifuge tubes (15-50 mL) or small bottles.

  12. Molecular simulation of the interaction of kappa-conotoxin-PVIIA with the Shaker potassium channel pore.

    PubMed

    Moran, O

    2001-12-01

    Molecular simulation techniques were appplied to predict the interaction of the voltage-dependent Shaker potassium channel with the channel-blocking toxin kappa-conotoxin-PVIIA (PVIIA). A structural thee-dimensional model of the extracellular vestibule of the potassium channel was constructed based on structural homologies with the bacterial potassium channel Kcsa, whose structure has been solved by X-ray crystallography. The docking of the PVIIA molecule was obtained by a geometric recognition algorithm, yielding 100 possible conformations. A series of residue-residue distance restraints, predicted from mutation-cycle experiments, were used to select a small set of a plausible channel-toxin complex models among the resulting possible conformations. The four final conformations, with similar characteristics, can explain most of the single-point mutation experiments done with this system. The models of the Shaker-PVIIA interaction predict two clusters of amino acids, critical for the binding of the toxin to the channel. The first cluster is the amino acids R2, I3, Q6 and K7 that form the plug of the toxin that interacts with the entrance to the selectivity filter of the channel. The second cluster of residues, R22, F23, N24 and K25, interacts with a channel region near to the external entrance of the pore vestibule. The consistency of the obtained models and the experimental data indicate that the Shaker-PVIIA complex model is reasonable and can be used in further biological studies such as the rational design of blocking agents of potassium channels and the mutagenesis of both toxins and potassium channels.

  13. High throughput preparation of fly genomic DNA in 96-well format using a paint-shaker

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Michael; Nagy, Olga; Lang, Claus; Orgogozo, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Sample homogenization is an essential step for genomic DNA extraction, with multiple downstream applications in Molecular Biology. Genotyping hundreds or thousands of samples requires an automation of this homogenization step, and high throughput homogenizer equipment currently costs 7000 euros or more. We present an apparatus for homogenization of individual Drosophila adult flies in 96-well micro-titer dishes, which was built from a small portable paint-shaker (F5 portable paint-shaker, Ushake). Single flies are disrupted in each well that contains extraction buffer and a 4-mm metal ball. Our apparatus can hold up to five 96-well micro-titer plates. Construction of the homogenizer apparatus takes about 3–4 days, and all equipment can be obtained from a home improvement store. The total material cost is approximately 700 euros including the paint-shaker. We tested the performance of our apparatus using the ZR-96 Quick-gDNA™ kit (Zymo Research) homogenization buffer and achieved nearly complete tissue homogenization after 15 minutes of shaking. PCR tests did not detect any cross contamination between samples of neighboring wells. We obtained on average 138 ng of genomic DNA per fly, and DNA quality was adequate for standard PCR applications. In principle, our tissue homogenizer can be used for isolation of DNA suitable for library production and high throughput genotyping by Multiplexed Shotgun Genotyping (MSG), as well as RNA isolation from single flies. The sample adapter can also hold and shake other items, such as centrifuge tubes (15–50 mL) or small bottles. PMID:26818699

  14. The isolated voltage sensing domain of the Shaker potassium channel forms a voltage-gated cation channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Blunck, Rikard

    2016-01-01

    Domains in macromolecular complexes are often considered structurally and functionally conserved while energetically coupled to each other. In the modular voltage-gated ion channels the central ion-conducting pore is surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSDs). Here, the energetic coupling is mediated by interactions between the S4-S5 linker, covalently linking the domains, and the proximal C-terminus. In order to characterize the intrinsic gating of the voltage sensing domain in the absence of the pore domain, the Shaker Kv channel was truncated after the fourth transmembrane helix S4 (Shaker-iVSD). Shaker-iVSD showed significantly altered gating kinetics and formed a cation-selective ion channel with a strong preference for protons. Ion conduction in Shaker-iVSD developed despite identical primary sequence, indicating an allosteric influence of the pore domain. Shaker-iVSD also displays pronounced 'relaxation'. Closing of the pore correlates with entry into relaxation suggesting that the two processes are energetically related. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18130.001 PMID:27710769

  15. A comparative study of different factors involved in mass cultivation of rhizobia, using shakers and fermentors.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S L

    1978-01-01

    Growth was proportionally linear to increasing load of inoculum although an inoculum load of 6 to 8% was optimum to obtain uniform number of viable cells, beyond which the number of viable cells did not increase. From the point of view of contamination with other microorganisms and the nodulating ability of cultures, fermentor cultures were better than shake cultures. When growth of Rhizobium was studied in relation to unit of mannitol consumed, it was observed that fermentors are more economical for culturing rhizobia than shakers.

  16. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K+ across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K+ transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker’s reported ∼20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K+ is set to ∼4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K+], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of the maximum

  17. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  18. Characterization of the oil shale of the New Albany Shale in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leininger, R.K.; Hailer, J.G.; Shaffer, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1920's chemical and mineralogic characterization of the New Albany Shale (Mississippian-Devonian) in Indiana showed the dark shale to be rich in organic material and have commercial possibilities. Projects in the 1960's resulted in disparaging descriptions of exiguous fossil record, monotonous mineralogy, and intractable chemistry. Since 1978 expanded efforts have yielded much new information but new problems as well. Although organic carbon and total sulfur show positive correlation, two nearly exclusive populations exist. Material high in organic carbon is more depleted in C13 than material with less organic carbon. A bed usually at the top of the unit hosts anomalous accumulations of heavy metals and contains concentrations in similar ratios to those of sea water except for Mo and Pb and shows very negative ??S34. Heat content as Btu/lb, organic carbon (total less inorganic), and Fischer assay oil-yields generally correlate, but one is not an accurate predictor of the others.

  19. "An Event Of No Ordinary Interest" - The Inauguration of Albany's Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, Ian R.; Rice, Norman S.; Bain, Christine A.

    1999-06-01

    The inauguration of the Dudley Observatory was a watershed in mid-nineteenth-century American science; most American scientists of any note attended the event, which took place in Albany in 1856 August at the close of the Annual Meeting of the AAAS. New York artist Tompkins Matteson's painting of the event, which includes more than 160 portraits, has been widely reproduced; however, an accompanying identification key created decades later is quite erroneous and misleading. A new key, which identifies 58 of the country's leading scientists and New York business and political figures, has been prepared, and, in conjunction with what is currently known about the painting's history, is detailed. Dudley Observatory's plan to sell time to New York cities and railroads was highlighted at the inauguration ceremony; an engraved marble tablet linking the electrical clock depicted in Matteson's painting to the facility's mean-time distribution system is discussed.

  20. Correlation of natural gas content to iron species in the New Albany shale group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1981-01-01

    Mo??ssbauer parameters were obtained for four Illinois Basin shales and their corresponding < 2??m clay fractions from wells drilled through the New Albany Shale Group in Henderson, Tazewell, and Effingham counties in Illinois and Christian County in Kentucky. Off-gas analysis indicated that the Illinois cores were in an area of low gas potential, while the Kentucky core was in an area of moderate-to-good potential. Iron-rich dolomite (ankerite) was found in the Kentucky core but not in the Illinois cores. In the Kentucky core, gas content could be correlated with the ankerite in the bulk sample, the Mo??ssbauer M (2) species in the clay fraction, and a ferrous iron species in the clay fraction. The location of the greatest concentration of natural gas in the Kentucky core could be predicted by following the changes in percentage concentration of these iron species when plotted against the depth of burial of the core sample. ?? 1981.

  1. Hydrogeology and water quality of the upper Floridan aquifer, western Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Lisa M.; Warner, Debbie; Dawson, Barbara J.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected to refine the hydrogeologic framework conceptual model of the Upper Floridan aquifer, and to qualitatively evaluate the potential of human activities to impact water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the western Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water age dating was conducted by using chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and tritium concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer to determine if recharge and possible contaminant migration to the aquifer is recent or occurred prior to the introduction of CFCs and tritium in the early 1950's into the global natural water system. Data were collected from core holes and wells installed during this study and previously existing wells in the Albany area. Hydrogeologic data collected during this study compare well to the regional hydrogeologic conceptual model developed during previous studies. However, the greater data density available from this study shows the dynamic and local variability in the hydrologic character of the Upper Floridan aquifer in more detail. The occurrence of sediment sizes from clay to gravel in the overburden, the absence of overburden because of erosion or sinkhole collapse, and large areas lacking surface drainage west of the Flint River provide potential areas for recharge and contaminant migration from the surface to the Upper Floridan aquifer throughout the study area. Ground-water ages generally range from 9 to 34 years, indicating that recharge consisting of 'modern' water (post early-1950's) is present in the aquifer. Ground-water ages and hydraulic heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer have an irregular distribution, indicating that localized areas of recharge to the aquifer are present in the study area. Generally, water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is calcium-bicarbonate rich, having low concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is oxygenated, having dissolved

  2. Hidden Markov Model Analysis of Intermediate Gating Steps Associated with the Pore Gate of Shaker Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Vankataramanan, Lalitha; Sigworth, Fred J.

    2001-01-01

    Cooperativity among the four subunits helps give rise to the remarkable voltage sensitivity of Shaker potassium channels, whose open probability changes tenfold for a 5-mV change in membrane potential. The cooperativity in these channels is thought to arise from a concerted structural transition as the final step in opening the channel. Recordings of single-channel ionic currents from certain other channel types, as well as our previous recordings from T442S mutant Shaker channels, however, display intermediate conductance levels in addition to the fully open and closed states. These sublevels might represent stepwise, rather than concerted, transitions in the final steps of channel activation. Here, we report a similar fine structure in the closing transitions of Shaker channels lacking the mutation. Describing the deactivation time course with hidden Markov models, we find that two subconductance levels are rapidly traversed during most closing transitions of chimeric, high conductance Shaker channels. The lifetimes of these levels are voltage-dependent, with maximal values of 52 and 22 μs at −100 mV, and the voltage dependences of transitions among these states suggest that they arise from equivalent conformational changes occurring in individual subunits. At least one subconductance level is found to be traversed in normal conductance Shaker channels. We speculate that voltage-dependent conformational changes in the subunits give rise to changes in a “pore gate” associated with the selectivity filter region of the channel, producing the subconductance states. As a control for the hidden Markov analysis, we applied the same procedures to recordings of the recovery from N-type inactivation in Shaker channels. These transitions are found to be instantaneous in comparison. PMID:11696611

  3. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Stein, Matthias; Elinder, Fredrik; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins. PMID:26751683

  4. DLG differentially localizes Shaker K+-channels in the central nervous system and retina of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cañada, C; Koh, Y H; Budnik, V; Tejedor, F J

    2002-09-01

    Subcellular localization of ion channels is crucial for the transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system. Here we show that Discs-Large (DLG), a member of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinases) family in Drosophila, co-localizes with Shaker potassium channels (Sh Kch) in most synaptic areas of the adult brain and in the outer membrane of photoreceptors. However, DLG is absent from axonal tracts in which Sh channels are concentrated. Truncation of the C-terminal of Sh (including the PDZ binding site) disturbs its pattern of distribution in both CNS and retina, while truncation of the guanylate kinase/C-terminal domain of DLG induces ectopic localization of these channels to neuronal somata in the CNS, but does not alter the distribution of channels in photoreceptors. Immunocytochemical, membrane fractionation and detergent solubilization analysis indicate that the C-terminal of Sh Kch is required for proper trafficking to its final destination. Thus, several major conclusions emerge from this study. First, DLG plays a major role in the localization of Sh channels in the CNS and retina. Second, localization of DLG in photoreceptors but not in the CNS seems to depend on its interaction with Sh. Third, the guanylate kinase/C-terminal domain of DLG is involved in the trafficking of Shaker channels but not of DLG in the CNS. Fourth, different mechanisms for the localization of Sh Kch operate in different cell types.

  5. Inhibition of single Shaker K channels by kappa-conotoxin-PVIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, David

    2002-01-01

    kappa-Conotoxin-PVIIA (kappa-PVIIA) is a 27-residue basic (+4) peptide from the venom of the predator snail Conus purpurascens. A single kappa-PVIIA molecule interrupts ion conduction by binding to the external mouth of Shaker K channels. The blockade of Shaker by kappa-PVIIA was studied at the single channel level in membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes. The amplitudes of blocked and closed events were undistinguishable, suggesting that the toxin interrupts ion conduction completely. Between -20 and 40 mV kappa-PVIIA increased the latency to the first opening by one order of magnitude in a concentration-independent fashion. Because kappa-PVIIA has higher affinity for the closed channels at high enough concentration to block >90% of the resting channels, the dissociation rate could be estimated from the analysis of the first latency. At 0 mV, the dissociation rate was 20 s(-1) and had an effective valence of 0.64. The apparent closing rate increased linearly with [kappa-PVIIA] indicating an association rate of 56 microM(-1) s(-1). The toxin did not modify the fraction of null traces. This result suggests that the structural rearrangements in the external mouth contributing to the slow inactivation preserve the main geometrical features of the toxin-receptor interaction. PMID:12023223

  6. Slow Inactivation in Shaker K Channels Is Delayed by Intracellular Tetraethylammonium

    PubMed Central

    González-Pérez, Vivian; Neely, Alan; Tapia, Christian; González-Gutiérrez, Giovanni; Contreras, Gustavo; Orio, Patricio; Lagos, Verónica; Rojas, Guillermo; Estévez, Tania; Stack, Katherine; Naranjo, David

    2008-01-01

    After removal of the fast N-type inactivation gate, voltage-sensitive Shaker (Shaker IR) K channels are still able to inactivate, albeit slowly, upon sustained depolarization. The classical mechanism proposed for the slow inactivation observed in cell-free membrane patches—the so called C inactivation—is a constriction of the external mouth of the channel pore that prevents K+ ion conduction. This constriction is antagonized by the external application of the pore blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA). In contrast to C inactivation, here we show that, when recorded in whole Xenopus oocytes, slow inactivation kinetics in Shaker IR K channels is poorly dependent on external TEA but severely delayed by internal TEA. Based on the antagonism with internally or externally added TEA, we used a two-pulse protocol to show that half of the channels inactivate by way of a gate sensitive to internal TEA. Such gate had a recovery time course in the tens of milliseconds range when the interpulse voltage was −90 mV, whereas C-inactivated channels took several seconds to recover. Internal TEA also reduced gating charge conversion associated to slow inactivation, suggesting that the closing of the internal TEA-sensitive inactivation gate could be associated with a significant amount of charge exchange of this type. We interpreted our data assuming that binding of internal TEA antagonized with U-type inactivation (Klemic, K.G., G.E. Kirsch, and S.W. Jones. 2001. Biophys. J. 81:814–826). Our results are consistent with a direct steric interference of internal TEA with an internally located slow inactivation gate as a “foot in the door” mechanism, implying a significant functional overlap between the gate of the internal TEA-sensitive slow inactivation and the primary activation gate. But, because U-type inactivation is reduced by channel opening, trapping the channel in the open conformation by TEA would also yield to an allosteric delay of slow inactivation. These results

  7. Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.; McCranie, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission has conducted water resources investigations and monitored groundwater conditions and availability in the Albany, Georgia, area since 1977. This report presents an overview of hydrologic conditions, water quality, and groundwater studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2009. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2009 data. During 2009, groundwater-level data were collected in 29 wells in the Albany area to monitor water-level trends in the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Providence aquifers. Groundwater-level data from 21 of the 29 wells indicated an increasing trend during 2008–09. Five wells show no trend due to lack of data and three wells have decreasing trends. Period-of-record water levels (period of record ranged between 1957–2009 and 2003–2009) declined slightly in 10 wells and increased slightly in 4 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer; declined in 1 well and increased in 2 wells tapping the Claiborne aquifer; declined in 4 wells and increased in 2 wells tapping the Clayton aquifer; and increased in 1 well tapping the Providence aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples collected during 2009 from 12 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of a well field located southwest of Albany indicate that overall concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen increased slightly from 2008 in 8 wells. A maximum concentration of 12.9 milligrams per liter was found in a groundwater sample from a well located upgradient from the well field. The distinct difference in chemical constituents of water samples collected from the Flint River and samples collected from wells located in the well-field area southwest of Albany indicates that little water exchange occurs between the Upper Floridan aquifer and Flint River where the river flows adjacent to, but downgradient of, the well field. Water

  8. Conformational changes in the C terminus of Shaker K+ channel bound to the rat Kvβ2-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Olga; Accardi, Alessio; Gutierrez, David; Lau, Adrian; Rigney, Mike; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2003-01-01

    We studied the structure of the C terminus of the Shaker potassium channel. The 3D structures of the full-length and a C-terminal deletion (ΔC) mutant of Shaker were determined by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The difference map between the full-length and the truncated channels clearly shows a compact density, located on the sides of the T1 domain, that corresponds to a large part of the C terminus. We also expressed and purified both WT and ΔC Shaker, assembled with the rat Kvβ2-subunit. By using a difference map between the full-length and truncated Shaker α–β complexes, a conformational change was identified that shifts a large part of the C terminus away from the membrane domain and into close contact with the β-subunit. This conformational change, induced by the binding of the Kvβ2-subunit, suggests a possible mechanism for the modulation of the K+ voltage-gated channel function by its β-subunit. PMID:14569011

  9. Contribution of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions to the membrane integration of the Shaker K+ channel voltage sensor domain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Sato, Yoko; Hessa, Tara; von Heijne, Gunnar; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kodama, Itsuo; Sakaguchi, Masao; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2007-05-15

    Membrane-embedded voltage-sensor domains in voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v) channels) contain an impressive number of charged residues. How can such highly charged protein domains be efficiently inserted into biological membranes? In the plant K(v) channel KAT1, the S2, S3, and S4 transmembrane helices insert cooperatively, because the S3, S4, and S3-S4 segments do not have any membrane insertion ability by themselves. Here we show that, in the Drosophila Shaker K(v) channel, which has a more hydrophobic S3 helix than KAT1, S3 can both insert into the membrane by itself and mediate the insertion of the S3-S4 segment in the absence of S2. An engineered KAT1 S3-S4 segment in which the hydrophobicity of S3 was increased or where S3 was replaced by Shaker S3 behaves as Shaker S3-S4. Electrostatic interactions among charged residues in S2, S3, and S4, including the salt bridges between E283 or E293 in S2 and R368 in S4, are required for fully efficient membrane insertion of the Shaker voltage-sensor domain. These results suggest that cooperative insertion of the voltage-sensor transmembrane helices is a property common to K(v) channels and that the degree of cooperativity depends on a balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic forces.

  10. Hitchcock versus Shaker Chairs: Artifacts to Teach about the Rise and Rejection of Industrialism in the Young Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    Students in elementary gifted class use discovery to learn about life in industrial New England. Taking multiple days to analyze this topic, students use artifacts (chairs), discussion, and primary sources to explore the politics of the 1830s. They examine the workings of Hitchcockville, Connecticut, and a Massachusetts Shaker colony. Students…

  11. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1980-06-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney Francisco; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; López-Valenzuela, José Angel; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease but little is known about the role that free-living animals play as carriers of this pathogen. Moreover, the primary route of infection in the wild needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the source and the route of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (S. Albany) infection in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo. A total of 267 samples were analyzed including 220 fecal samples from zoo animals, 15 fecal samples from rodents, 5 pooled samples each of two insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana), and 22 samples of animal feed. We detected S. Albany in 28 (10.5%) of the samples analyzed, including in samples from raw chicken meat. Characterization of isolates was performed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates shared a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile, indicating a possible common origin. These data suggest that the infected meat consumed by the wild felines was the primary source of infection in this zoo. It is likely that the pathogen was shed in the feces and disseminated by insects and rats to other locations in the zoo.

  13. Cross talk between activation and slow inactivation gates of Shaker potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Panyi, Gyorgy; Deutsch, Carol

    2006-11-01

    This study addresses the energetic coupling between the activation and slow inactivation gates of Shaker potassium channels. To track the status of the activation gate in inactivated channels that are nonconducting, we used two functional assays: the accessibility of a cysteine residue engineered into the protein lining the pore cavity (V474C) and the liberation by depolarization of a Cs(+) ion trapped behind the closed activation gate. We determined that the rate of activation gate movement depends on the state of the inactivation gate. A closed inactivation gate favors faster opening and slower closing of the activation gate. We also show that hyperpolarization closes the activation gate long before a channel recovers from inactivation. Because activation and slow inactivation are ubiquitous gating processes in potassium channels, the cross talk between them is likely to be a fundamental factor in controlling ion flux across membranes.

  14. Transient response of a plate convolved with a mechanical shaker using high speed optical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, C.; Sanchez Preciado, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transient response analysis is widely used in mechanical systems; with a single stimulation the mechanical behavior of the system could be characterized. Commonly, the entrance used in transient systems is a delta function, due to the possibility of stimulate the system in a wide range of frequencies. Unfortunately, the Dirac function is not easy to achieve. For this work we stimulated a mechanical shaker with a step function obtaining a Gaussian-type displacement of the spike. The spike is then used as the entrance signal for a square elastic plate. The measurement of the convolved transient response of an elastic plate is obtained by means of a high speed camera working at 10,000 fps with an out of plane speckle interferometer. Experimental results are shown.

  15. Function of Shaker potassium channels produced by cell-free translation upon injection into Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jarecki, Brian W.; Makino, Shin-ichi; Beebe, Emily T.; Fox, Brian G.; Chanda, Baron

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of membrane proteins that temporally orchestrate the ion flux critical for chemical and electrical signaling in excitable cells. Current methods to investigate the function of these channels rely on heterologous expression in living systems or reconstitution into artificial membranes; however these approaches have inherent drawbacks which limit potential biophysical applications. Here, we describe a new integrated approach combining cell-free translation of membrane proteins and in vivo expression using Xenopus laevis oocytes. In this method, proteoliposomes containing Shaker potassium channels are synthesized in vitro and injected into the oocytes, yielding functional preparations as shown by electrophysiological and fluorescence measurements within few hours. This strategy for studying eukaryotic ion channels is contrasted with existing, laborious procedures that require membrane protein extraction and reconstitution into synthetic lipid systems. PMID:23301161

  16. Domain and interdomain energetics underlying gating in Shaker-type Kv channels.

    PubMed

    Peyser, Alexander; Gillespie, Dirk; Roth, Roland; Nonner, Wolfgang

    2014-10-21

    To understand gating events with a time-base many orders-of-magnitude slower than that of atomic motion in voltage-gated ion channels such as the Shaker-type KV channels, a multiscale physical model is constructed from the experimentally well-characterized voltage-sensor (VS) domains coupled to a hydrophobic gate. The four VS domains are described by a continuum electrostatic model under voltage-clamp conditions, the control of ion flow by the gate domain is described by a vapor-lock mechanism, and the simple coupling principle is informed by known experimental results and trial-and-error. The configurational energy computed for each element is used to produce a total Hamiltonian that is a function of applied voltage, VS positions, and gate radius. We compute statistical-mechanical expectation values of macroscopic laboratory observables. This approach stands in contrast with molecular-dynamic models which are challenged by increasing scale, and kinetic models which assume a probability distribution rather than derive it from the underlying physics. This generic model predicts well the Shaker charge/voltage and conductance/voltage relations; the tight constraints underlying these results allow us to quantitatively assess the underlying physical mechanisms. The total electrical work picked up by the VS domains is an order-of-magnitude larger than the work required to actuate the gate itself, suggesting an energetic basis for the evolutionary flexibility of the voltage-gating mechanism. The cooperative slide-and-interlock behavior of the VS domains described by the VS-gate coupling relation leads to the experimentally observed bistable gating. This engineering approach should prove useful in the investigation of various elements underlying gating characteristics and degraded behavior due to mutation.

  17. The Block of Shaker K+ Channels by κ-Conotoxin Pviia Is State Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Terlau, Heinrich; Boccaccio, Anna; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Conti, Franco

    1999-01-01

    κ-conotoxin PVIIA is the first conotoxin known to interact with voltage-gated potassium channels by inhibiting Shaker-mediated currents. We studied the mechanism of inhibition and concluded that PVIIA blocks the ion pore with a 1:1 stoichiometry and that binding to open or closed channels is very different. Open-channel properties are revealed by relaxations of partial block during step depolarizations, whereas double-pulse protocols characterize the slower reequilibration of closed-channel binding. In 2.5 mM-[K+]o, the IC50 rises from a tonic value of ∼50 to ∼200 nM during openings at 0 mV, and it increases e-fold for about every 40-mV increase in voltage. The change involves mainly the voltage dependence and a 20-fold increase at 0 mV of the rate of PVIIA dissociation, but also a fivefold increase of the association rate. PVIIA binding to Shaker Δ6-46 channels lacking N-type inactivation or to wild phenotypes appears similar, but inactivation partially protects the latter from open-channel unblock. Raising [K+]o to 115 mM has little effect on open-channel binding, but increases almost 10-fold the tonic IC50 of PVIIA due to a decrease by the same factor of the toxin rate of association to closed channels. In analogy with charybdotoxin block, we attribute the acceleration of PVIIA dissociation from open channels to the voltage-dependent occupancy by K+ ions of a site at the outer end of the conducting pore. We also argue that the occupancy of this site by external cations antagonizes on binding to closed channels, whereas the apparent competition disappears in open channels if the competing cation can move along the pore. It is concluded that PVIIA can also be a valuable tool for probing the state of ion permeation inside the pore. PMID:10398696

  18. Membrane stretch accelerates activation and slow inactivation in Shaker channels with S3-S4 linker deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Tabarean, Iustin V; Morris, Catherine E

    2002-01-01

    At low P(open)(V) Shaker exhibits pronounced stretch-activation. Possible explanations for Shaker's sensitivity to tension include 1) Shaker channels are sufficiently distensible that stretch produces novel channel states and 2) Shaker channels expand in the plane of the membrane during voltage gating. For channels expressed in oocytes, we compared effects of patch stretch on Shaker and mutants that retain their voltage-gating ability but activate sluggishly because all or most of the S3-S4 linker has been deleted. Deletants had 10, 5, or 0 amino acid (aa) linkers, whereas wild-type is 31 aa. In deletants, though activation is exceptionally slow, slow inactivation is exceptionally quick; the resulting kinetic match was a bonus that allowed effects of stretch to be followed simultaneously in both processes. With the intact linker, an approximately 3 orders of magnitude mismatch in the two processes makes this impracticable. Standard stretch stimuli increased the rates and extent of activation by about the same degree in wild type and deletants, with effects especially pronounced near the foot of G(V). In deletants (where slow inactivation is strongly coupled to activation) stretch also accelerated slow inactivation. Maximum conductances were unaffected by stretch in all variants. In ramp clamp dose experiments, near-lytic patch stretch acted, for all variants, like a approximately 10 mV hyperpolarizing shift. These results suggested that, whether basal rates were high (wild type) or low (deletants), stretch acted by facilitating voltage-dependent activation. Channel activity was therefore simulated with/without "tension," tension being simulated via rate changes at voltage-dependent closed-closed transitions that might involve in-plane expansion (explanation 2). Simulated Delta P(open) arising from approximately 2 kT of "mechanical gating energy" mimicked experimental effects seen with comfortably sub-lytic stretch. PMID:12023221

  19. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  20. Organic geochemical characterization of the New Albany Shale group in the Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Dickerson, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Benzene extractable aliphatic hydrocarbons from the New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the total organic matter of the shale was characterized by solid state carbon-13 cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Core samples from a northwest-trending cross-section of the Illinois Basin were studied. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS) data indicate a regional variation of the aliphatic composition of the shale extracts. A positive, linear relationship between the two ratios, pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18, is indicated. The NMR results indicated that organic matter deposited in northwestern Illinois shale is relatively high in aliphatic hydrocarbon content while, in contrast, organic matter found in southeastern Illinois shale is relatively low in aliphatic hydrocarbon content. Our findings suggest that the organic variation of the shale is mainly due to the differences in thermal maturity of the shale organic matter and the use of pristane/n-C17 ratio as a thermal parameter in the study of oil may be extended to the study of the ancient sediments. ?? 1985.

  1. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  2. New aromatic biomarkers and possible maturity indicators found in New Albany Shale extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Wood, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons from benzene extracts of New Albany Shale were characterized. A biomarker that has a molecular weight of 546 and a structural configuration consistent with that of an alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbon (C40H66) was tentatively identified. It was found that the relative concentrations of the biomarker are indicative of differing levels of thermal maturity of the shale organic matter. A 40-carbon bicyclic carotenoid (C40H48) is proposed as the geochemical precursor of this biomarker. Thermal maturity of the shale organic matter can also be differentiated by observing differences in "fingerprints" as obtained by field-ionization mass spectrometry on the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. Using this technique, we found that the more mature shale samples from southeastern Illinois contain more low molecular weight extractable aromatic hydrocarbons and the less mature shale samples from northwestern Illinois contain more high molecular weight extractable aromatic hydrocarbons. It was demonstrated that field-ionization and tandem mass spectrometric techniques through fingerprint and individual compound identification, are useful for shale aromatic hydrocarbon fraction characterization and for thermal maturation interpretation. ?? 1986.

  3. Ground-water data in the Corvallis-Albany area, central Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.; Johnson, N.A.

    1972-01-01

    THE CORVALLIS-ALBANY AREA IS PART OF THE ALLUVIAL PLAIN THAT LIES BETWEEN THE CASCADE AND COAST RANGES IN THE CENTRAL WILLAMETTE VALLEY IN NORTHWESTERN OREGON. THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS (SAND AND GRAVEL) OF THE VALLEY PLAIN CONTAIN THE MOST PRODUCTIVE AQUIFERS IN THE AREA AND ARE CONSIDERED TO BE THE ONLY UNITS FEASIBLE FOR LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF GROUNDWATER SUPPLIES. DURING 1971 THE SEASONAL DECLINE OF WATER LEVELS FROM WINTER TO LATE SUMMER AVERAGED ABOUT 10 FEET FOR THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS. THE SEASONAL CHANGE OF STORAGE WAS ESTIMATED TO BE ABOUT 130,000 ACRE-FEET. OF THIS VOLUME, ABOUT 14,000 ACRE-FEET WAS PUMPED FROM WELLS; THE REST WAS DISCHARGED THROUGH SEEPS AND SPRINGS BY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PUMPAGE AND NATURAL DISCHARGE INDICATES THAT A GREAT QUANTITY OF ADDITIONAL WATER IS AVAILABLE FOR DEVELOPMENT. THE STORAGE CAPACITY OF THE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS IS ESTIMATED TO BE ABOUT 750,000 ACRE-FEET BETWEEN DEPTHS OF 10 AND 100 FEET. WATER FROM THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS IS CHEMICALLY SUITABLE FOR ALL USES, AS IS MOST OF THE WATER FROM PERCHED-WATER BODIES IN THE OLDER SEDIMENTARY AND VOLCANIC ROCKS.

  4. Training the public health workforce from Albany to Zambia: technology lessons learned along the way.

    PubMed

    Waltz, Edward C; Maniccia, Dayna M; Bryde, Regina L; Murphy, Kristin; Harris, Brett R; Waldenmaier, Mark N

    2010-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned by the University at Albany Center for Public Health Preparedness (UA-CPHP) in using three technologies to deliver preparedness training for public health professionals in New York State. These three technologies are: 1. Audience response system (ARS, or the "clicker" system)--Purchased to improve engagement of all participants in heterogeneous training audiences, it also markedly reduces staff time while improving training evaluation (cost: $4,500). 2. Satellite broadcast programs--UA-CPHP produced more than 50 broadcasts, which remain available as videostreams and/or podcasts. Viewership of archived programs sometimes surpasses that of the live event (cost estimate: $23,000 to $39,000). 3. Interactive online courses--Seventeen courses have registered more than 44,000 learners worldwide. The Pandemic Influenza course alone has reached more than 16,000 registrants from all 50 U.S. states and at least 56 other countries (cost estimate: $30,000 to $65,000). UA-CPHP's experience as a preparedness training center has confirmed that contemporary technology can be employed to improve and increase the reach of these training efforts. An additional finding was that, quite unintentionally, the intensive use of distance-based educational modalities designed to reach public health practitioners in New York State has afforded UA-CPHP a substantial national and international audience as well, and at no additional cost.

  5. Geothermal Heat Pump System for New Student Housing Project at the University at Albany Main Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Lnu, Indumathi

    2015-08-27

    University at Albany successfully designed, constructed and is operating a new student housing building that utilizes ground source heat pump (GSHP) for heating and cooling the entire 191,500SF building. The installed system consists of a well field with 150 bores, 450 feet deep and (189) terminal heat pump units for a total capacity of 358 Tons cooling and 4,300 MBtu/h heating. The building opened in Fall 2012. The annual energy use and cost intensity of the building, after the changes made during the first 2 years’ of operation is 57kBtu/SF/Year and $1.30/SF/Year respectively. This is approximately 50% lower than the other residential quads on campus, despite the fact that the quads are not air-conditioned. The total project cost from design through 3-years of operations is approximately $6 Million, out of which $5.7 Million is for construction of the GSHP system including the well field. The University received a $2.78 Million grant from the Department of Energy. The estimated utility cost savings, compared to a baseline building with conventional HVAC system, is approximately $185,000. The estimated simple payback, after grant incentives, is 15 years. Additionally, the project has created 8.5FTE equivalent jobs.

  6. The flora of the New Albany shale; Part 2, The Calamopityeae and their relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Charles B.

    1937-01-01

    Material referable to Calamopitys americana, Calamopitys foerstei, Stenomyelon muratum, Kalymma lirata, Kalymma resinosa, and Kalymma auriculata, from the upper portion of the New Albany shale in central Kentucky, is described. All these species are based on the internal structure of stems and petioles. The suggestion is made that the genus Stenomyelon should be included in the family Calamopityeae rather than in a separate family. Relationships of the several species and genera belonging to the Calamopityeae are discussed, and it is recommended that the name Calamopitys be restricted to manoxylic forms (C. saturni Unger, etc.), that Eristophyton be used for the pycnoxylic species which have in the past been placed in Calamopitys, and that Sphenoxylon be adopted for the American species which has been called Calamopitys eupunctata. It is pointed out that the Calamopityeae may be divided, naturally, into two major groups-a manoxylic, protostelic group and a pycnoxylic, medullated group. Stenomyelon is probably in the lineage of the more primitive Calamopityeae, and Endoxylon is presumably the most advanced type now known.

  7. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Malhotra, Mini; Xiong, Zeyu

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  8. The effects of excitation waveforms and shaker moving mass on the measured modal characteristics of a 2- by 5-foot aluminum plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.; Morales, Adolfo M.

    1988-01-01

    Ground vibration tests were conducted to compare and to investigate the effects of five excitation waveforms and the shaker moving mass (equipment and armature used to attach the shaker to the structure) on the experimental modal characteristics of a 2- by 5-ft aluminum plate using fast Fourier transform techniques. The five types of excitation waveforms studied were sine dwell, random, impact, sine sweep, and impulsive sine. The results showed that the experimental modal frequencies for all types of excitation were within 3 percent, while the modal damping data exhibited greater scatter. The sets of mode shapes obtained by the five types of excitation were consistent. The results of the shaker moving mass investigation on the 2- by 5-ft aluminum plate showed that modal frequency decreases and modal damping remains relatively constant with an increase in shaker moving mass. The generalized mass of the structure appears to decrease with an increase in shaker moving mass. In addition, it was seen that having a shaker near a node line can reduce some of the effects of the added shaker moving mass on the frequencies and the damping.

  9. Status of the intracellular gate in the activated-not-open state of shaker K+ channels.

    PubMed

    del Camino, Donato; Kanevsky, Max; Yellen, Gary

    2005-11-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ channels like Shaker use an intracellular gate to control ion flow through the pore. When the membrane voltage becomes more positive, these channels traverse a series of closed conformations before the final opening transition. Does the intracellular gate undergo conformational changes before channel opening? To answer this question we introduced cysteines into the intracellular end of the pore and studied their chemical modification in conditions favoring each of three distinct states, the open state, the resting closed state, and the activated-not-open state (the closed state adjacent to the open state). We used two independent ways to isolate the channels in the activated-not-open state. First, we used mutations in S4 (ILT; Smith-Maxwell, C.J., J.L. Ledwell, and R.W. Aldrich. 1998. J. Gen. Physiol. 111:421-439; Ledwell, J.L., and R.W. Aldrich. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 113:389-414) that separate the final opening step from earlier charge-movement steps. Second, we used the open channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which has been proposed to promote closure of the intracellular gate and thus specifically to stabilize the activated-not-open state of the channels. Supporting this proposed mechanism, we found that 4-AP enters channels only after opening, remaining trapped in closed channels, and that in the open state it competes with tetraethylammonium for binding. Using these tools, we found that in the activated-not-open state, a cysteine located at a position considered to form part of the gate (Shaker 478) showed higher reactivity than in either the open or the resting closed states. Additionally, we have found that in this activated state the intracellular gate continued to prevent access to the pore by molecules as small as Cd2+ ions. Our results suggest that the intracellular opening to the pore undergoes some rearrangements in the transition from the resting closed state to the activated-not-open state, but throughout this process the

  10. New Albany shale flash pyrolysis under hot-recycled-solid conditions: Chemistry and kinetics, II

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Morris, C.J.

    1990-11-01

    The authors are continuing a study of recycle retorting of eastern and western oil shales using burnt shale as the solid heat carrier. Stripping of adsorbed oil from solid surfaces rather than the primary pyrolysis of kerogen apparently controls the release rate of the last 10--20% of hydrocarbons. Thus, the desorption rate defines the time necessary for oil recovery from a retort and sets the minimum hold-time in the pyrolyzer. A fluidized-bed oil shale retort resembles a fluidized-bed cat cracker in this respect. Recycled burnt shale cokes oil and reduces yield. The kerogen H/C ratio sets an upper limit on yield improvements unless external hydrogen donors are introduced. Steam can react with iron compounds to add to the H-donor pool. Increased oil yield when New Albany Shale pyrolyzes under hot-recycled-solid, steam-fluidization conditions has been confirmed and compared with steam retorting of acid-leached Colorado oil shale. In addition, with retorted, but unburnt, Devonian shale present at a recycle ratio of 3, the authors obtain 50% more oil-plus-gas than with burnt shale present. Procedures to make burnt shale more like unburnt shale can realize some increase in oil yield at high recycle ratios. Reduction with H{sub 2} and carbon deposition are possibilities that the authors have tested in the laboratory and can test in the pilot retort. Also, eastern spent shale burned at a high temperature (775 C, for example) cokes less oil than does spent shale burned at a low temperature (475 C). Changes in surface area with burn temperature contribute to this effect. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Measured Vibration Effect of Numerous Sine Swept Harmonics on Random Shaker Applied to Effective Flight Model Representative Dummy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polome, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the performance methodology and the achieved results of a vibration test campaign. The test performed by shaker simulates an unusual acoustic excitation containing a harmonic serial superimposed on random noise seen by electronic flight equipment. The paper is focused on main experimental aspects resulting of “helicopter simulation” capability applied on (representative) dummy electronic equipment. Wide internal instrumentation shows that the equipment is effectively answering to the stimuli by resonances excitation.

  12. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-03-18

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated.

  13. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid, inhibits Shaker-related voltage-gated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Poling, J S; Rogawski, M A; Salem, N; Vicini, S

    1996-01-01

    Anandamide has been identified in porcine brain as an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand and is believed to be a counterpart to the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC). Here we report that anandamide directly inhibits (IC50, 2.7 muM) Shaker-related Kv1.2 K+ channels that are found ubiquitously in the mammalian brain. Delta 9-THC also inhibited Kv1.2 channels with comparable potency (IC50, 2.4 muM), as did several N-acyl-ethanolamides with cannabinoid receptor binding activity. Potassium current inhibition occurred through a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism and was not prevented by the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A. Utilizing excised patches of Kv1.2 channel-rich membrane as a rapid and sensitive bioassay, we found that phospholipase D stimulated the release of an endogenous anandamide-like K+ channel blocker from rat brain slices. Structure-activity studies were consistent with the possibility that the released blocker was either anandamide or another N-acyl-ethanolamide.

  17. Spectroscopic mapping of voltage sensor movement in the Shaker potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Glauner, K S; Mannuzzu, L M; Gandhi, C S; Isacoff, E Y

    1999-12-16

    Voltage-gated ion channels underlie the generation of action potentials and trigger neurosecretion and muscle contraction. These channels consist of an inner pore-forming domain, which contains the ion permeation pathway and elements of its gates, together with four voltage-sensing domains, which regulate the gates. To understand the mechanism of voltage sensing it is necessary to define the structure and motion of the S4 segment, the portion of each voltage-sensing domain that moves charged residues across the membrane in response to voltage change. We have addressed this problem by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer as a spectroscopic ruler to determine distances between S4s in the Shaker K+ channel in different gating states. Here we provide evidence consistent with S4 being a tilted helix that twists during activation. We propose that helical twist contributes to the movement of charged side chains across the membrane electric field and that it is involved in coupling voltage sensing to gating.

  18. Salting of food--a function of hole size and location of shakers.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, H; Maples, J; Wills, R B

    1983-01-27

    The establishment of an association between hypertension and the level of sodium in the diet has focused interest in many countries on the amount of salt added to food, with estimates of intake in western countries being in the range 6-14 g per person per day. As a result, many health authorities have advocated a decrease in salt consumption by the population in general, a common suggestion for achieving a meaningful reduction being to limit the amount of salt used at the table. It is generally assumed that salting habits are influenced by taste preference as shaped by socio-cultural determinants. However, from our observations of the rate of discretionary salt usage of over 1,900 people (mainly adults) consuming main meals in public institutions in Sydney, Australia, were suggest that salting is strongly influenced by the physical factor of mode of presentation of salt to the consumer, particularly the hole size of the salt shaker, and is not influenced by demographic variables.

  19. Mutations in a new scaffold protein Sans cause deafness in Jackson shaker mice.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Kohara, Yuki; Takada, Toyoyuki; Okamoto, Mieko; Taya, Choji; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tokano, Hisashi; Kitamura, Ken; Shimizu, Kunihiko; Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Kominami, Ryo; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

    2003-03-01

    The Jackson shaker (js) mouse carries a recessive mutation causing phenotypes such as deafness, abnormal behavior (circling and/or head-tossing) and degeneration of inner ear neuroepithelia. Two alleles have been identified so far, the original js and js(seal). A contig of three BAC clones was isolated by positional cloning. Two of the clones rescue the js phenotype by BAC transgenesis. Analysis of transcripts in an overlapping region of the two clones revealed a gene encoding a new scaffold-like protein, Sans, that showed mutations in the two js mutants. One was a guanine nucleotide insertion in the original js allele and the other a 7-base insertion in the js(seal) allele. Both insertions are predicted to inactivate the Sans protein by frameshift mutations resulting in a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal SAM domain. Cochlear hair cells in the js mutants show disorganized stereocilia bundles, and Sans were highly expressed in inner and outer hair cells of cochlea. The existence of major motifs, ankyrin repeats and a SAM domain suggests that Sans may have an important role in the development and maintenance of the stereocilia bundles through protein-protein interaction.

  20. Energetic role of the paddle motif in voltage gating of Shaker K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Ramu, Yajamana; Shin, Hyeon-Gyu; Yamakaze, Jayden; Lu, Zhe

    2013-05-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels underlie rapid electric signaling in excitable cells. Electrophysiological studies have established that the N-terminal half of the fourth transmembrane segment ((NT)S4) of these channels is the primary voltage sensor, whereas crystallographic studies have shown that (NT)S4 is not located within a proteinaceous pore. Rather, (NT)S4 and the C-terminal half of S3 ((CT)S3 or S3b) form a helix-turn-helix motif, termed the voltage-sensor paddle. This unexpected structural finding raises two fundamental questions: does the paddle motif also exist in voltage-gated channels in a biological membrane, and, if so, what is its function in voltage gating? Here, we provide evidence that the paddle motif exists in the open state of Drosophila Shaker voltage-gated K(+) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and that (CT)S3 acts as an extracellular hydrophobic 'stabilizer' for (NT)S4, thus biasing the gating chemical equilibrium toward the open state.

  1. Cortisone Dissociates the Shaker Family K Channels from their Beta Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.; Weng, J; Kabaleeswaran, V; Li, H; Cao, Y; Bholse, R; Zhou, M

    2008-01-01

    The Shaker family voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv1) are expressed in a wide variety of cells and are essential for cellular excitability. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of Kv1 channels lead to hyperexcitability and are directly linked to episodic ataxia and atrial fibrillation. All Kv1 channels assemble with {Beta} subunits (Kv{Beta}s), and certain Kv{Beta}s, for example Kv{Beta}1, have an N-terminal segment that closes the channel by the N-type inactivation mechanism. In principle, dissociation of Kv{Beta}1, although never reported, should eliminate inactivation and thus potentiate Kv1 current. We found that cortisone increases rat Kv1 channel activity by binding to Kv{Beta}1. A crystal structure of the K{Beta}v-cortisone complex was solved to 1.82-{angstrom}resolution and revealed novel cortisone binding sites. Further studies demonstrated that cortisone promotes dissociation of Kv{Beta}. The new mode of channel modulation may be explored by native or synthetic ligands to fine-tune cellular excitability.

  2. The New Albany Shale Petroleum System, Illinois Basin - Data and Map Image Archive from the Material-Balance Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.; Henry, M.E.; Lewan, M.D.; Pitman, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The data files and explanations presented in this report were used to generate published material-balance approach estimates of amounts of petroleum 1) expelled from a source rock, and the sum of 2) petroleum discovered in-place plus that lost due to 3) secondary migration within, or leakage or erosion from a petroleum system. This study includes assessment of cumulative production, known petroleum volume, and original oil in place for hydrocarbons that were generated from the New Albany Shale source rocks.More than 4.00 billion barrels of oil (BBO) have been produced from Pennsylvanian-, Mississippian-, Devonian-, and Silurian-age reservoirs in the New Albany Shale petroleum system. Known petroleum volume is 4.16 BBO; the average recovery factor is 103.9% of the current cumulative production. Known petroleum volume of oil is 36.22% of the total original oil in place of 11.45 BBO. More than 140.4 BBO have been generated from the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin. Approximately 86.29 billion barrels of oil that was trapped south of the Cottage Grove fault system were lost by erosion of reservoir intervals. The remaining 54.15 BBO are 21% of the hydrocarbons that were generated in the basin and are accounted for using production data. Included in this publication are 2D maps that show the distribution of production for different formations versus the Rock-Eval pyrolysis hydrogen-indices (HI) contours, and 3D images that show the close association between burial depth and HI values.The primary vertical migration pathway of oil and gas was through faults and fractures into overlying reservoir strata. About 66% of the produced oil is located within the generative basin, which is outlined by an HI contour of 400. The remaining production is concentrated within 30 miles (50 km) outside the 400 HI contour. The generative basin is subdivided by contours of progressively lower hydrogen indices that represent increased levels of

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): T, H, Agriculture and Nutrition Site, Operable Unit 1, Albany, GA, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    This decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit One for the T H Agriculture and Nutrition (THAN) Site, Albany, Georgia. This operable unit is the first of two that are planned for the Site. The first operable unit addresses the source of the contamination on the western parcel of the Site as well as the principle threat of groundwater contamination across the entire Site. While this remedy does address the principal threats at the Site, the second operable unit will involve continued study and remediation of a second source of contamination on the eastern parcel of the Site.

  4. Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by 13C CP/MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Lis, Grzegorz; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2005-01-01

    Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance.

  5. The Albany Two-Way Radio Conferences, 1955-1981: a retrospective look at a program providing interactive continuing medical education at a distance.

    PubMed

    Tulgan, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Despite early widespread recognition of the necessity of continuing medical education (CME) for practicing physicians and surgeons, medical schools and national medical organizations were slow to mobilize to address the need. One pioneering program, developed by the Albany Medical College in New York, not only provided CME, but did so in a live distance education format that allowed for interaction between the participants and the faculty presenters. The Albany Program commenced in 1955 using what was then state-of-the-art technology; it exemplified principles and practices that can be seen as the precursors for the distance education approaches used to reach physicians today. This short article describes the contributions of the Albany Two-Way Radio Conferences and places them in the context of developments in national organizations and policies in the 20th century.

  6. Gas hazard assessment in a densely inhabited area of Colli Albani Volcano (Cava dei Selci, Roma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, M. L.; Badalamenti, B.; Cavarra, L.; Scalzo, A.

    2003-04-01

    The northwestern flank of the Colli Albani, a Quaternary volcanic complex near Rome, is characterised by high pCO 2 values and Rn activities in the groundwater and by the presence of zones with strong emission of gas from the soil. The most significant of these zones is Cava dei Selci where many houses are located very near to the gas emission site. The emitted gas consists mainly of CO 2 (up to 98 vol%) with an appreciable content of H 2S (0.8-2%). The He and C isotopic composition indicates, as for all fluids associated with the Quaternary Roman and Tuscany volcanic provinces, the presence of an upper mantle component contaminated by crustal fluids associated with subducted sediments and carbonates. An advective CO 2 flux of 37 tons/day has been estimated from the gas bubbles rising to the surface in a small drainage ditch and through a stagnant water pool, present in the rainy season in a topographically low central part of the area. A CO 2 soil flux survey with an accumulation chamber, carried out in February-March 2000 over a 12 000 m 2 surface with 242 measurement points, gave a total (mostly conductive) flux of 61 tons/day. CO 2 soil flux values vary by four orders of magnitude over a 160-m distance and by one order of magnitude over several metres. A fixed network of 114 points over 6350 m 2 has been installed in order to investigate temporal flux variations. Six surveys carried out from May 2000 to June 2001 have shown large variations of the total CO 2 soil flux (8-25 tons/day). The strong emission of CO 2 and H 2S, which are gases denser than air, produces dangerous accumulations in low areas which have caused a series of lethal accidents to animals and one to a man. The gas hazard near the houses has been assessed by continuously monitoring the CO 2 and H 2S concentration in the air at 75 cm from the ground by means of two automatic stations. Certain environmental parameters (wind direction and speed; atm P, T, humidity and rainfall) were also

  7. Volcanology, history and myths of the Lake Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Benedetti, A. A.; Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; Diano, G.; Caprilli, E.; Paterne, M.

    2008-10-01

    The polygenetic Albano maar is the most recent centre of the Colli Albani volcano, located just few kilometres to the south-east of Roma. Presently the maar hosts a 167.5 m deep crater lake, the deepest in Europe. The maar is to be considered quiescent, as phreatic activity is documented throughout the Holocene. This paper illustrates the close relationships between the activity of the maar and the history of settlement in the Roman region as recorded in the geology, archaeology, history and legends of the area. Severe fluctuations of the groundwater table and catastrophic overflows of the Lake Albano from the maar rim had occurred prior to and after the early prehistoric settlements dated in the maar area at the Eneolithic times (ca. III millennium B.C.). Repeated lahars occurred along the northwestern slope of the maar filling in the paleodrainage network and forming a vast plain. Paleohydraulic analyses on fluvial and lahar deposits originated from the Holocene phreatic activity of the Albano maar indicate sediment-water flows in excess of hundreds of cubic metres per second. Absolute age determinations of the paleosoil underlying one of the most recent deposits of the lahar succession at 5800 ± 100 yr B.P. ( 14C CAL) are in perfect agreement with the age of the overlying Eneolithic age settlements. The last catastrophic overflow is described in the Roman literature as a consequence of the anger of Poseidon against the Romans in 398 B.C. for their war against the Etruscans. In 394 B.C. the Romans decided to prevent the repetition of such events by the excavation through the maar crater wall of a 1.5 km long drain tunnel, which is still operational, keeping the lake 70 m below the lowest point of the maar rim. This tunnel drain may be regarded as the first prevention device for volcanic hazard in history and shows an unprecedented development of the engineering technology under the pressure of hazard perception. The surprising and still largely unknown results

  8. Inorganic ground-water chemistry at an experimental New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in situ gasification site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branam, T.D.; Comer, J.B.; Shaffer, N.R.; Ennis, M.V.; Carpenter, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental in situ gasification of New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) has been conducted in Clark County. Analyses of ground water sampled from a production well and nine nearby monitoring wells 3 months after a brief in situ gasification period revealed changes in water chemistry associated with the gasification procedure. Dissolved iron, calcium and sulphate in ground water from the production well and wells as much as 2 m away were significantly higher than in ground water from wells over 9 m away. Dissolved components in the more distant wells are in the range of those in regional ground water. Thermal decomposition of pyrite during the gasification process generated the elevated levels of iron and sulphate in solution. High concentrations of calcium indicate buffering by dissolution of carbonate minerals. While iron quickly precipitates, calcium and sulphate remain in the ground water. Trends in the concentration of sulphate show that altered ground water migrated mostly in a south-westerly direction from the production well along natural joints in the New Albany Shale. ?? 1991.

  9. Age-Related Changes in Cochlear Gene Expression In Normal and Shaker 2 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tzy-Wen L.; Karolyi, I. Jill; MacDonald, James; Beyer, Lisa; Raphael, Yehoash; Kohrman, David C.; Camper, Sally A.

    2006-01-01

    The vertebrate cochlea is a complex organ optimized for sound transduction. Auditory hair cells, with their precisely arranged stereocilia bundles, transduce sound waves to electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain. Mutations in the unconventional myosin XV cause deafness in both human DFNB3 families and in shaker 2 (sh2) mice as a result of defects in stereocilia. In these mutant mice, hair cells have relatively normal spatial organization of stereocilia bundles but lack the graded, stair-step organization. We used sh2 mice as an experimental model to investigate the molecular consequences of the sh2 mutation in the Myo15 gene. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix GeneChips in deaf homozygous (sh2/sh2) mice at 3 weeks and 3 months of age, and in age-matched, normal-hearing heterozygotes (+/sh2) identified only a few genes whose expression was affected by genotype, but a large number with age-associated changes in expression in both normal mice and sh2/sh2 homozygotes. Microarray data analyzed using Robust Multiarray Average identified Aim1, Dbi, and Tm4sf3 as genes with increased expression in sh2/sh2 homozygotes. These increases were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genes exhibiting altered expression with age encoded collagens and proteins involved in collagen maturation, extracellular matrix, and bone mineralization. These results identified potential cellular pathways associated with myosin XV defects, and age-associated molecular events that are likely to be involved in maturation of the cochlea and auditory function. PMID:16794912

  10. Hydrogeologic evaluation of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    A cooperative study by the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan aquifer in an area southwest of Albany and west of the Flint River in Dougherty County, Ga. The study area lies in the Dougherty Plain district of the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In this area, the Upper Floridan aquifer is comprised of the upper Eocene Ocala Limestone, confined below by the middle Eocene Lisbon Formation, and semiconfined above by the undifferentiated Quaternary overburden. The overburden ranges in thickness from about 30 to 50 feet and consists of fine to coarse quartz sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay. The Upper Floridan aquifer has been subdivided into an upper water-bearing zone and a lower water-bearing zone based on differences in lithology and yield. In the study area, the upper water-bearing zone generally consists of dense, highly weathered limestone of low permeability and ranges in thickness from 40 to 80 feet. The lower water-bearing zone consists of hard, slightly weathered limestone that exhibits a high degree of secondary permeability that has developed along fractures and joints, and ranges in thickness from about 60 to 80 feet. Borehole geophysical logs and borehole video surveys indicate two areas of high permeability in the lower water-bearing zone-one near the top and one near the base of the zone. A wellfield consisting of one production well and five observation-well clusters (one deep, intermediate, and shallow well in each cluster) was constructed for this study. Spinner flowmeter tests were conducted in the production well between the depths of 110 and 140 feet below land surface to determine the relative percentages of water contributed by selected vertical intervals of the lower water-bearing zone. Pumping rates during these tests were 1,080, 2,200, and 3,400 gallons per minute. The results of these pumping tests show that the interval between

  11. Evaluation of Requirements for Militarization of 3-kW Free-Piston Stirling Engine Generator Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    AD _ o EVALUATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR •i MILITARIZATION OF 3-kW FREE-PISTON STIRLING ENGINE GENERATOR SET S Thomas J. Marusak Mechanical Technology ...PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Mechanical Technology Inc. AREA & WORK UNIT NUMSERS 968 Albany-Shaker Road Latham, NY 12110 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is developing the FPSE for stationary com- mercial applications in the size range below 10 kW. Because of the poten

  12. A Study to Determine the Interest in the Establishment of Catholic Two-Year Colleges for Laymen in the Diocese of Albany, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William Francis

    To determine the degree of interest in the establishment of 2-year Catholic lay colleges in the area of Albany, New York, (1) the literature pertaining to 2-year colleges was reviewed, (2) conferences were held with local, state, and national 2-year college officials, (3) interviews were conducted with the administrators of the six existing…

  13. Evolution of maurotoxin conformation and blocking efficacy towards Shaker B channels during the course of folding and oxidation in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    di Luccio, Eric; Matavel, Alessandra; Opi, Sandrine; Regaya, Imed; Sandoz, Guillaume; M'barek, Sarrah; Carlier, Edmond; Estève, Eric; Carrega, Louis; Fajloun, Ziad; Rochat, Hervé; Loret, Erwann; de Waard, Michel; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-mer scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts on various K(+) channels, including the voltage-gated Shaker B subtype. In the present study, we have investigated over 80 h: (1) the time-course of folding of synthetic MTX (sMTX) by CD analysis; (2) the kinetics of disulphide bridge formation by MS; and (3) the potency of MTX in blocking Shaker B currents during the combined process of its in vitro folding and oxidation. From the CD data, we show that stable secondary structures of sMTX evolve sequentially over time, with the appearance of the alpha-helix within 5 h, followed by the formation of the beta-sheet within 22 h. Using MS analysis, the sMTX intermediates were also found to appear sequentially from the least (one-disulphide-bridged sMTX) to the most oxidized species (native-like, four-disulphide-bridged sMTX). The time course of formation of secondary structures coincides mainly with the occurrence of one-disulphide-bridged sMTX for the alpha-helix and two- or three-disulphide-bridged sMTX for the beta-sheet. On-line electrophysiological recordings, which measure sMTX blocking efficacy on K(+) currents during its folding and oxidation, were performed on Shaker B channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Unexpectedly, the results demonstrate that sMTX is highly potent at the initial stage of oxidation, whereas its blocking activity can be transiently and dramatically reduced at later stages during the course of folding/oxidation before it reaches full bioactivity. These data suggest that formation of disulphide bridges can both physically stabilize and alter the bioactive three-dimensional structure of sMTX. PMID:11772414

  14. A thin rod is all that is needed to transmit vibrations from a shaker device (at bottom) and the win

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thin rod is all that is needed to transmit vibrations from a shaker device (at bottom) and the wingtip of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 research aircraft during ground vibration testing at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Wiring hanging down from the wingtip launcher rail transfer signals from accelerometers and other sensors mounted on the wing's upper surface to monitoring equipment. The tests help engineers determine if aerodynamically induced vibrations are controlled or suppressed during flight, and were the last major ground tests prior to the initiation of research flights.

  15. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  16. How Dramatic is the Unrest at Colli Albani, the Volcanic District 20 km from Rome (Italy)? Insights from SAR Interferometry and Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Di Filippo, M.; Di Nezza, M.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Moro, M.; Polcari, M.; Stramondo, S.; Ventura, G.

    2015-12-01

    Colli Albani (Italy) is an alkali-potassic volcanic district located about 20 km SE of Rome (3 M inhabitants) and lastly erupted 36 ka ago. Its eruptive activity is characterized by well-clustered, regularly spaced time cycles, with an average recurrence time of 45±5 ka. Since the modern volcanic activity at Colli Albani seems not particularly intense, scientists have interpreted this volcano to be quiescent. Therefore, unlike other Italian volcanoes, the area has not undergone extensive monitoring. However, a seismic swarm during 1989-1990 has been related to a local uplift of ca. 30 cm since the 1950's along a line crossing the western side of the volcano, giving rise to a debate about its possible interpretation in terms of unrest. Furthermore, recent geological investigations indicate a coupling of eruption history, uplift history, and changes in the regional stress field, pointing to the conclusion that Colli Albani is in unrest. As a result, an evaluation of the volcanic hazard of such a strongly inhabited and vulnerable area is needed. We present the results from the analysis of 20 years of SAR interferometry. The time series show a linear trending displacement (3 mm/yr maximum ground velocity) affecting the western flank of the volcano. In addition, results from gravimetric surveys conducted during 2005-2007 reveal a different behavior between the eastern and western sectors. In an attempt of understanding the dynamics of Colli Albani from the available geodetic and gravimetric data, we build a finite element model incorporating local structural and lithological features, such as mapped faults and elastic discontinuities. Our results suggest that magma is accumulating beneath the Colli Albani western flank, where uplift and positive microgravity anomalies are observed and where the recent seismic swarm took place. Our model constrains the location and geometry of the magmatic source, which is below the vents responsible for the last eruptive activity

  17. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Sawvel, Russell A; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a

  18. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System

    PubMed Central

    Sawvel, Russell A.; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a companion

  19. Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by13C CP/MAS NMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner-Zwanziger, U.; Lis, G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): T H Agriculture and Nutrition Site, Dougherty County, Albany, GA, April 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected Remedial Action for the Operable Unit Two for the T H Agriculture & Nutrition (THAN) Site, Albany, Georgia. The second operable unit addresses the source of the contamination on the eastern parcel of the Site. The major components of the selected remedy for operable unit two include: the excavation of all soil contaminated with organics necessary to meet performance standards; the staging and preconditioning of soil for low temperature thermal desorption treatment; the treatment of excavated soil by low temperature thermal desorption; the placement of treated, decontaminated soil back to the site; periodic sampling of treated soil during the treatment process to verify the effectiveness of the remedy; air monitoring to ensure safety of nearby residents and workers; groundwater monitoring to ensure that metals contaminated remaining in the subsurface soil will not result in contaminated groundwater migrating offsite in concentrations which exceed groundwater protection standards; and deed restrictions to prevent residential use of the property.

  1. Geohydrology and evaluation of water-resource potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Albany area, southwestern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, L.J.; Davis, G.S.; Strain, G.A.; Herndon, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Albany area of southwestern Georgia, the Upper Floridan aquifer lies entirely within the Dougherty Plain district of the Coastal Plain physiographic province, and consists of the Ocala Limestone of late Eocene age. The aquifer is divided throughout most of the study area into an upper and a lower lithologic unit, which creates an upper and a lower water-bearing zone. The lower waterbearing zone consists of alternating layers of sandy limestone and medium-brown, recrystallized dolomitic limestone, and ranges in thickness from about 50 ft to 100 ft. It is highly fractured and exhibits well-developed permeability by solution features that are responsible for transmitting most of the ground water in the aquifer. Transmissivity of the lower water-bearing zone ranges from about 90,000 to 178,000 ft2/d. The upper water-bearing zone is a finely crystallized-to-oolitic, locally dolomitic limestone having an average thickness of about 60 ft. Transmissivities are considerably less in the upper water-bearing zone than in the lower water-bearing zone. The Upper Floridan aquifer is overlain by about 20-120 ft of undifferentiated overburden consisting of fine-to-coarse quartz sand and noncalcareous clay. A clay zone about 10-30 ft thick may be continuous throughout the southwestern part of the Albany area and, where present, causes confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer and creates perched ground water after periods of heavy rainfall. The Upper Floridan aquifer is confined below by the Lisbon Formation, a mostly dolomitic limestone that contains trace amounts of glauconite. The Lisbon Formation is at least 50 ft thick in the study area and acts as an impermeable base to the Upper Floridan aquifer. The quality of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is suitable for most uses; wells generally yield water of the hard, calcium-bicarbonate type that meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Primary or Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations. The water

  2. Ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer, southwestern Albany area, Georgia, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    During 1997, the Dougherty County Health Department sampled more than 700 wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Dougherty County, Georgia, and determined that nitrate as nitrogen (hereinafter called nitrate) concentrations were above 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in 12 percent of the wells. Ten mg/L is the Georgia primary drinking-water standard. The ground-water flow system is complex and poorly understood in this predominantly agricultural area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Albany Water, Gas and Light Commission - conducted a study to better define ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Florida aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water levels were measured in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia, during May 1998 and March 1999 (spring), and October 1998 and September 1999 (fall). Groundwater levels measured in 75 wells open only to the Upper Floridan aquifer were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for those four time periods. These maps show that ground water generally flows from northwest to southeast at gradients ranging from about 2 to greater than 10 feet per mile. During spring and fall 1998, ground-water levels were high and mounding of the potentiometric surface occurred in the central part of the study area, indicating a local recharge area. Water levels declined from December through February, and by March 1999 the mound in the potentiometric surface had dissipated. Of the 75 wells in the potentiometric network, 24 were selected for a water-quality network. These 24 wells and 1 spring were sampled during fall 1998 and spring 1999. Samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, selected minor constituents, selected nutrients, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). Water-quality field measurements - such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance (SC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) - were taken at each well. During August 2000, a ground-water sample was collected

  3. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  4. Geochemical constraints on the origin and volume of gas in the New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian), eastern Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strapoc, D.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.; Hasenmueller, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study involved analyses of kerogen petrography, gas desorption, geochemistry, microporosity, and mesoporosity of the New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the eastern part of the Illinois Basin. Specifically, detailed core analysis from two locations, one in Owen County, Indiana, and one in Pike County, Indiana, has been conducted. The gas content in the locations studied was primarily dependent on total organic carbon content and the micropore volume of the shales. Gas origin was assessed using stable isotope geochemistry. Measured and modeled vitrinite reflectance values were compared. Depth of burial and formation water salinity dictated different dominant origins of the gas in place in the two locations studied in detail. The shallower Owen County location (415-433 m [1362-1421 ft] deep) contained significant additions of microbial methane, whereas the Pike County location (832-860 m [2730-2822 ft] deep) was characterized exclusively by thermogenic gas. Despite differences in the gas origin, the total gas in both locations was similar, reaching up to 2.1 cm3/g (66 scf/ton). Lower thermogenic gas content in the shallower location (lower maturity and higher loss of gas related to uplift and leakage via relaxed fractures) was compensated for by the additional generation of microbial methane, which was stimulated by an influx of glacial melt water, inducing brine dilution and microbial inoculation. The characteristics of the shale of the Maquoketa Group (Ordovician) in the Pike County location are briefly discussed to provide a comparison to the New Albany Shale. Copyright ??2010. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Late-stage magmatic processes at Albano Maar, Colli Albani, Italy: insights from FTIR analysis of leucites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, J. K.; Roberge, J.; Smith, V.; Giordano, G.; Tomlinson, E.; Menzies, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The recently erupted Albano Maar, one of the Via dei Laghi phreatomagmatic eruptions of Colli Albani, Italy have eruptive deposits that are K-foiditic (9wt% K2O) and silica under-saturated (48-52wt% SiO2). These compositions suggest the melts are low viscosity [1, 2], but they fuelled very explosive eruptions, namely the widespread large Peperino ignimbrite (phreato-Plinian) deposits. Therefore a question asked by researchers is how could these melts explode and would they, if they had not interacted with groundwater? Experimental work has shown that the melt chemistries at Colli Albani require a volatile saturated system [3]. Consequently the CO2 and H2O content of the melts are critical to understanding the petrogenetic processes at Albano Maar. Since the juvenile tephra clasts exhibit extensive late stage micro-crystallization (mainly leucite), analysis of glass is difficult and not representative as the majority of the volatile components may have exsolved from the melt. Melt inclusions are also commonly recrystallized and often leaky so here we unravel the complex volatile histories of the melts using the abundant leucite crystals, which have been shown to contain magmatic water in recent studies [4]. FTIR analysis of leucite phenocrysts and microcrysts within juvenile tephra clasts (syn-eruptive) of all the erupted units at Albano Maar provide an interesting insight into volatile variations and record a late stage CO2 fluxing event, which would have contributed to the explosive nature of the eruptions. This study has also allowed for an increased understanding of the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) that crucially record volatile speciation and fluxing in high level magmatic systems. [1] Freda et al., 2006, Bul Vol, 68, pp567-591 [2] Cross et al., 2011 IUGG abs [3] Freda et al., 2008, Lithos, pp397-415 [4] Ventura et al., 2008, Am Min, 93, pp1538-1544

  6. Vehicular road influence areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  7. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  8. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  9. Reappraisal of the geothermal potential at Colli Albani volcano (Italy): a new approach to the volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Ramazzotti, P.; Bonamico, A.; Mattei, M.

    2012-04-01

    High enthalpy geothermal reservoirs are usually associated with fractured rocks. Secondary permeability is however difficult to be predicted thus making it difficult to locate the most productive volumes of the reservoirs. The calculation of the energetic potential in geothermal areas suffers of the large uncertainties associated with secondary permeability issues, facing the task of the interplay between stratification and fracturing on the anisotropic distribution of secondary permeability. The object of this work is the research and informatization of available data for the Colli Albani (Latium, Central Italy) geothermal system, in order to propose a qualitative approach and quantitative identification and description of geothermal systems, applied to the Colli Albani area as a case history. The identification of the rock volumes most promising in terms of industrial exploitation needs the definition of an evaluation matrix. The considered data can be placed in a three dimensional matrix with A axis that accounts for the modeling of the depth of the top of the reservoirs based on geophysical and direct data, and a B axis that accounts for the thermal modeling of the crust (i.e. T with depth) based on measured thermal gradients. Both A and B data are strongly influenced by the geological model therefore, as for the case of Colli Albani, there is certainly a lot of scope into revising existing geological reconstructions of the reservoirs in Central Italy and accordingly reconsidering the interpolation and modeling of both thermal and geophysical data. For the scope of this work, we have taken into account the maps descriptive the thermal structure and the deep distribution of the top of the geothermal reservoirs produced by ENEL and AGIP between the 1970s and 1990s for Cental Italy, and we have detailed the internal structure of the substrate, considering more recent direct and indirect data on the nature of the substratum. Finally, we discuss the implementation

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Georgia Water Science Center and Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission Cooperative Water Program-Summary of Activities, July 2005 through June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission to monitor ground-water quality and availability since 1977. This report presents the findings for July 2005 through June 2006 and summarizes the ground-water and surface-water conditions for 2005. Water levels in 14 wells were continuously monitored in Dougherty County, Georgia. Water levels in 12 of those wells were above normal, one was normal, and one was below normal. Ground-water samples collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that nitrate levels have increased in 13 wells and decreased in two wells from a year earlier. A sample also was collected from the Flint River. A trilinear diagram showing the percent composition of selected major cations and anions indicates that the ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer at the Albany wellfield is distinctly different from the water quality of the Flint River. To improve the understanding of the ground-water flow system and nitrate movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer, the USGS is developing a ground-water flow model in the southwest Albany area, Georgia.

  11. Seerley Road Fire Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  14. K+ Conduction and Mg2+ Blockade in a Shaker Kv-Channel Single Point Mutant with an Unusually High Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Moscoso, Cristian; Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Márquez-Miranda, Valeria; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Valencia, Ignacio; Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; González-Nilo, Fernando; Naranjo, David

    2012-01-01

    Potassium channels exhibit a large diversity of single-channel conductances. Shaker is a low-conductance K-channel in which Pro475→Asp, a single-point mutation near the internal pore entrance, promotes 6- to 8-fold higher unitary current. To assess the mechanism for this higher conductance, we measured Shaker-P475D single-channel current in a wide range of symmetrical K+ concentrations and voltages. Below 300 mM K+, the current-to-voltage relations (i-V) showed inward rectification that disappeared at 1000 mM K+. Single-channel conductance reached a maximum of ∼190 pS at saturating [K+], a value 4- to 5-fold larger than that estimated for the native channel. Intracellular Mg2+ blocked this variant with ∼100-fold higher affinity. Near zero voltage, blockade was competitively antagonized by K+; however, at voltages >100 mV, it was enhanced by K+. This result is consistent with a lock-in effect in a single-file diffusion regime of Mg2+ and K+ along the pore. Molecular-dynamics simulations revealed higher K+ density in the pore, especially near the Asp-475 side chains, as in the high-conductance MthK bacterial channel. The molecular dynamics also showed that K+ ions bound distally can coexist with other K+ or Mg2+ in the cavity, supporting a lock-in mechanism. The maximal K+ transport rate and higher occupancy could be due to a decrease in the electrostatic energy profile for K+ throughout the pore, reducing the energy wells and barriers differentially by ∼0.7 and ∼2 kT, respectively. PMID:22995492

  15. EIAV-based retinal gene therapy in the shaker1 mouse model for usher syndrome type 1B: development of UshStat.

    PubMed

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Binley, Katie; Lad, Yatish; Ellis, Scott; Widdowson, Peter; Iqball, Sharifah; Scripps, Vicky; Kelleher, Michelle; Loader, Julie; Miskin, James; Peng, You-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Cheung, Linda; Delimont, Duane; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1B is a combined deaf-blindness condition caused by mutations in the MYO7A gene. Loss of functional myosin VIIa in the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and/or photoreceptors leads to blindness. We evaluated the impact of subretinally delivered UshStat, a recombinant EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing human MYO7A, on photoreceptor function in the shaker1 mouse model for Usher type 1B that lacks a functional Myo7A gene. Subretinal injections of EIAV-CMV-GFP, EIAV-RK-GFP (photoreceptor specific), EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) or EIAV-CMV-Null (control) vectors were performed in shaker1 mice. GFP and myosin VIIa expression was evaluated histologically. Photoreceptor function in EIAV-CMV-MYO7A treated eyes was determined by evaluating α-transducin translocation in photoreceptors in response to low light intensity levels, and protection from light induced photoreceptor degeneration was measured. The safety and tolerability of subretinally delivered UshStat was evaluated in macaques. Expression of GFP and myosin VIIa was confirmed in the RPE and photoreceptors in shaker1 mice following subretinal delivery of the EIAV-CMV-GFP/MYO7A vectors. The EIAV-CMV-MYO7A vector protected the shaker1 mouse photoreceptors from acute and chronic intensity light damage, indicated by a significant reduction in photoreceptor cell loss, and restoration of the α-transducin translocation threshold in the photoreceptors. Safety studies in the macaques demonstrated that subretinal delivery of UshStat is safe and well-tolerated. Subretinal delivery of EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) rescues photoreceptor phenotypes in the shaker1 mouse. In addition, subretinally delivered UshStat is safe and well-tolerated in macaque safety studies These data support the clinical development of UshStat to treat Usher type 1B syndrome.

  16. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology.

  17. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  18. Measuring evapotranspiration using an eddy covariance system over the Albany Thicket of the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwate, O.; Mantel, Sukhmani K.; Palmer, Anthony R.; Gibson, Lesley A.

    2016-10-01

    Determining water and carbon fluxes over a vegetated surface is important in a context of global environmental changes and the fluxes help in understanding ecosystem functioning. Pursuant to this, the study measured evapotranspiration (ET) using an eddy covariance (EC) system installed over an intact example of the Albany Thicket (AT) vegetation in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Environmental constraints to ET were also assessed by examining the response of ET to biotic and abiotic factors. The EC system comprised of an open path Infrared Gas Analyser and Sonic anemometer and an attendant weather station to measure bi-meteorological variables. Post processing of eddy covariance data was conducted using EddyPro software. Quality assessment of fluxes was also performed and rejected and missing data were filled using the method of mean diurnal variations (MDV). Much of the variation in ET was accounted for by the leaf area index (LAI, p < 0.001, 41%) and soil moisture content (SWC, p < 0.001, 32%). Total measured ET during the experiment was greater than total rainfall received owing to the high water storage capacity of the vegetation and the possibility of vegetation accessing ground water. Most of the net radiation was consumed by sensible heat flux and this means that ET in the area is essentially water limited since abundant energy was available to drive turbulent transfers of energy. Understanding the environmental constraints to ET is crucial in predicting the ecosystem response to environmental forces such as climate change.

  19. Fate of perchlorate in a man-made reflecting pond following a fireworks display in Albany, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Oldi, John F; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-11-01

    Perchlorate is a widespread contaminant in aquatic environments. Despite this, the aquatic environmental fate of perchlorate released from fireworks displays is not well known. In the present study, we examined the fate of perchlorate in man-made reflecting ponds, from 2008 to 2010, following three fireworks displays in Albany, New York, USA. Immediately after the fireworks display, perchlorate in pond waters increased significantly, with concentrations from 30 to 1,480 times higher than the baseline values. Perchlorate concentrations in pond water increased from 0.11 µg/L to up to 519 µg/L, following the fireworks display in 2008. Perchlorate concentrations in pond water decreased at a first-order kinetic degradation rate, with a mean k(obs) value of 0.026 d⁻¹ and an average half-life of 29 d. The rate of perchlorate deposition into water bodies following fireworks displays was estimated to range from 670 to 2,620 g/ha. We also estimated the perchlorate ingestion rate by the inhalation of aerosols of pond water by people frequently near the ponds. The estimated daily intake of perchlorate through the ingestion of aerosols was 32% (226 ng/kg body wt), 13% (92 ng/kg body wt), and 6% (42 ng/kg body wt) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose for infants, children, and adults, respectively.

  20. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  1. Tectonic and flexural significance of Middle Devonian graben-fill sequence in new Albany shale, central Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Mellon, C. )

    1989-08-01

    The third tectonic phase of the Acadian orogeny began in the late Middle Devonian, and the sedimentary record of that event is largely restricted to the deeper, more proximal portions of the Appalachian foreland and Illinois intercratonic basins. Much of the intervening area, on and near the Cincinnati arch, was uplifted and subjected to erosion by movement on the peripheral bulge accompanying the initiation of the third tectonic phase. However, bulge movement also reactivated basement fault systems in Kentucky and created a series of grabens that were filled with eroded sediments and debris flows from adjacent horsts. Although rarely preserved, a buried Devonian graben along Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky, reveals such a sequence. The graben is bounded by upthrown blocks of Middle Devonian Boyle Dolomite, which also floors the graben. Within the graben a black-shale unit, apparently absent elsewhere, conformably overlies the Boyle and grades upward into debris-flow deposits represented by the Duffin breccia facies of the New Albany Shale. The Duffin contains clasts of the shale, as well as of chert, silicified fossils, and fine to boulder-size dolostone clasts eroded from the Boyle high on the flanks of the graben. The underlying shale also exhibits evidence of penecontemporaneous soft-sediment deformation related to the debris-flow emplacement of Boyle residue in the graben and due to later loading by the Duffin.

  2. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  4. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  5. Hydrogeology of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the vicinity of the Marine Corps Logistics Base near Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Navy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an investigation to describe the hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of the Marine Corps Logistics Base, southeast and adjacent to Albany, Georgia. The study area encompasses about 90 square miles in the Dougherty Plain District of the Coastal Plain physiographic province, in Dougherty and Worth Counties-the Marine Corps Logistics Base encompasses about 3,600 acres in the central part of the study area. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the shallowest, most widely used source of drinking water for domestic use in the Albany area. The hydrogeologic framework of this aquifer was delineated by description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose the aquifer; evaluation of the lithologic and hydrologic heterogeneity of the aquifer; comparison of the geologic and hydrogeologic setting beneath the base with those of the surrounding area; and determination of ground-water-flow directions, and vertical hydraulic conductivities and gradients in the aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is composed of the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and is divided into an upper and lower water-bearing zone. The aquifer is confined below by the Lisbon Formation and is semi-confined above by a low-permeability clay layer in the undifferentiated overburden. The thickness of the aquifer ranges from about 165 feet in the northeastern part of the study area, to about 325 feet in the southeastern part of the study area. Based on slug tests conducted by a U.S. Navy contractor, the upper water-bearing zone has low horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.0224 to 2.07 feet per day) and a low vertical hydraulic conductivity (0.0000227 to 0.510 feet per day); the lower water-bearing zone has a horizontal hydraulic conductivity that ranges from 0.0134 to 2.95 feet per day. Water-level hydrographs of continuously monitored wells on the Marine Corps Logistics Base show excellent correlation between

  6. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  7. Characterization of fractures and flow zones in a contaminated shale at the Watervliet Arsenal, Albany County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Flow zones in a fractured shale in and near a plume of volatile organic compounds at the Watervliet Arsenal in Albany County, N. Y. were characterized through the integrated analysis of geophysical logs and single- and cross-hole flow tests. Information on the fracture-flow network at the site was needed to design an effective groundwater monitoring system, estimate offsite contaminant migration, and evaluate potential containment and remedial actions. Four newly drilled coreholes and four older monitoring wells were logged and tested to define the distribution and orientation of fractures that intersected a combined total of 500 feet of open hole. Analysis of borehole-wall image logs obtained with acoustic and optical televiewers indicated 79 subhorizontal to steeply dipping fractures with a wide range of dip directions. Analysis of fluid resistivity, temperature, and heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeter logs obtained under ambient and short-term stressed conditions identified 14 flow zones, which consist of one to several fractures and whose estimated transmissivity values range from 0.1 to more than 250 feet squared per day. Cross-hole flow tests, which were used to characterize the hydraulic connection between fracture-flow zones intersected by the boreholes, entailed (1) injection into or extraction from boreholes that penetrated a single fracture-flow zone or whose zones were isolated by an inflatable packer, and (2) measurement of the transient response of water levels and flow in surrounding boreholes. Results indicate a wellconnected fracture network with an estimated transmissivity of 80 to 250 feet squared per day that extends for at least 200 feet across the site. This interconnected fracture-flow network greatly affects the hydrology of the site and has important implications for contaminant monitoring and remedial actions.

  8. Modelling evapotranspiration using the modified Penman-Monteith equation and MODIS data over the Albany Thicket in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwate, O.; Mantel, Sukhmani K.; Palmer, Anthony R.; Gibson, Lesley A.

    2016-10-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the least understood components of the water cycle, particularly in data scarce areas. In a context of climate change, evaluating water vapour fluxes of a particular area is crucial to help understand dynamics in water balance. In data scarce areas, ET modelling becomes vital. The study modelled ET using the Penman-Monteith- Leuning (PML) equation forced by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) and MODIS albedo with ancillary meteorological data from an automatic weather station. The study area is located on the Albany Thicket (AT) biome of South Africa and the dominant plant species is Portulacaria afra. The biggest challenge to the implementation of the PML is the parameterisation of surface and stomatal conductance. We tested the use of volumetric soil water content (fswc), precipitation and equilibrium evaporation ratio (fzhang) and soil drying after precipitation (f) approaches to account for the fraction (f) of evaporation from the soil. ET from the model was validated using an eddy covariance system (EC). Post processing of eddy covariance data was implement using EddyPro software. The fdrying method performed better with a root mean square observations standard deviation ratio (RSR) of 0.97. The results suggest that modelling ET over the AT vegetation is delicate owing to strong vegetation phenological control of the ET process. The convergent evolution of the vegetation has resulted in high plant available water than the model can detect. It is vital to quantify plant available water in order to improve ET modelling in thicket vegetation.

  9. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for paleoredox conditions during deposition of the Devonian-Mississippian New Albany Shale, southern Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beier, J. A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The upper part of the New Albany Shale is divided into three members. In ascending order, these are (1) the Morgan Trail Member, a laminated brownish-black shale; (2) the Camp Run Member, an interbedded brownish-black and greenish-gray shale; and (3) the Clegg Creek Member, also a laminated brownish-black shale. The Morgan Trail and Camp Run Members contain 5% to 6% total organic carbon (TOC) and 2% sulfide sulfur. Isotopic composition of sulfide in these members ranges from -5.0% to -20.0%. C/S plots indicate linear relationships between abundances of these elements, with a zero intercept characteristic of sediments deposited in a non-euxinic marine environment. Formation of diagenetic pyrite was carbon limited in these members. The Clegg Creek Member contains 10% to 15% TOC and 2% to 6% sulfide sulfur. Isotopic compositions of sulfide range from -5.0% to -40%. The most negative values occur in the uppermost Clegg Creek Member and are characteristic of syngenetic pyrite, formed within an anoxic water column. Abundances of carbon and sulfur are greater and uncorrelated in this member, consistent with deposition in as euxinic environment. In addition, DOP (degree of pyritization) values suggest that formation of pyrite was generally iron limited throughout Clegg Creek deposition, but sulfur isotopes indicate that syngenetic (water-column) pyrite becomes an important component in the sediment only in the upper part of the member. At the top of the Clegg Creek Member, a zone of phosphate nodules and trace-metal enrichment coincides with maximal TOC values. During euxinic deposition, phosphate and trace metals accumulated below the chemocline because of limited vertical circulation in the water column. Increased productivity would have resulted in an increased flux of particulate organic matter to the sediment, providing an effective sink for trace metals in the water column. Phosphate and trace metals released from organic matter during early diagenesis resulted in

  10. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C

  11. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  12. Characterization of fractures and flow zones in a contaminated shale at the Watervliet Arsenal, Albany County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Flow zones in a fractured shale in and near a plume of volatile organic compounds at the Watervliet Arsenal in Albany County, N. Y. were characterized through the integrated analysis of geophysical logs and single- and cross-hole flow tests. Information on the fracture-flow network at the site was needed to design an effective groundwater monitoring system, estimate offsite contaminant migration, and evaluate potential containment and remedial actions.Four newly drilled coreholes and four older monitoring wells were logged and tested to define the distribution and orientation of fractures that intersected a combined total of 500 feet of open hole. Analysis of borehole-wall image logs obtained with acoustic and optical televiewers indicated 79 subhorizontal to steeply dipping fractures with a wide range of dip directions. Analysis of fluid resistivity, temperature, and heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeter logs obtained under ambient and short-term stressed conditions identified 14 flow zones, which consist of one to several fractures and whose estimated transmissivity values range from 0.1 to more than 250 feet squared per day.Cross-hole flow tests, which were used to characterize the hydraulic connection between fracture-flow zones intersected by the boreholes, entailed (1) injection into or extraction from boreholes that penetrated a single fracture-flow zone or whose zones were isolated by an inflatable packer, and (2) measurement of the transient response of water levels and flow in surrounding boreholes. Results indicate a wellconnected fracture network with an estimated transmissivity of 80 to 250 feet squared per day that extends for at least 200 feet across the site. This interconnected fracture-flow network greatly affects the hydrology of the site and has important implications for contaminant monitoring and remedial actions.

  13. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  14. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  15. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  16. The Road Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  17. Intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal domain of the Shaker voltage-activated K+ channel modulates its interaction with scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magidovich, Elhanan; Orr, Irit; Fass, Deborah; Abdu, Uri; Yifrach, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-embedded voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv) with intracellular scaffold proteins, such as the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein, is mediated by the channel C-terminal segment. This interaction underlies Kv channel clustering at unique membrane sites and is important for the proper assembly and functioning of the synapse. In the current study, we address the molecular mechanism underlying Kv/PSD-95 interaction. We provide experimental evidence, based on hydrodynamic and spectroscopic analyses, indicating that the isolated C-terminal segment of the archetypical Shaker Kv channel (ShB-C) is a random coil, suggesting that ShB-C belongs to the recently defined class of intrinsically disordered proteins. We show that isolated ShB-C is still able to bind its scaffold protein partner and support protein clustering in vivo, indicating that unfoldedness is compatible with ShB-C activity. Pulldown experiments involving C-terminal chains differing in flexibility or length further demonstrate that intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal segment of the Shaker channel modulates its interaction with the PSD-95 protein. Our results thus suggest that the C-terminal domain of the Shaker Kv channel behaves as an entropic chain and support a “fishing rod” molecular mechanism for Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins. The importance of intrinsically disordered protein segments to the complex processes of synapse assembly, maintenance, and function is discussed. PMID:17666528

  18. Interactions of the H5 pore region and hydroxylamine with N-type inactivation in the Shaker K+ channel.

    PubMed Central

    Yool, A J; Schwarz, T L

    1995-01-01

    Mutations at sites in the H5 region of the Shaker B K+ channel were used to analyze the influence of the pore on N-type inactivation. Single-channel and two-electrode voltage clamp analyses showed that mutations at residues T441 and T442, which are thought to lie at the internal mouth of the pore, produced opposite effects on inactivation: the inactivated state is stabilized by T441S and destabilized by T442S. In addition, an ammonium derivative, hydroxylamine (OH-(NH3)+), appears to bind in the pore region of T441S and further decreases the rate of recovery from N-type inactivation. This effect relies on the presence of the amino-terminal. The effect of hydroxylamine on the T441S mutation of this K+ channel shows several properties analogous to those of local anesthetics on the Na+ channel. These results can be interpreted to suggest that part of the H5 region contributes to the receptor for the inactivation particle and that a hydroxylamine ion trapped near that site can stabilize their interaction. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:7696498

  19. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  20. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  1. Can we prevent road rage?

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  2. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  3. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  4. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  5. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  6. Evidence for intersubunit interactions between S4 and S5 transmembrane segments of the Shaker potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Neale, Edward J; Elliott, David J S; Hunter, Malcolm; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2003-08-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels are transmembrane proteins made up of four subunits, each comprising six transmembrane (S1-S6) segments. S1-S4 form the voltage-sensing domain and S5-S6 the pore domain with its central pore. The sensor domain detects membrane depolarization and transmits the signal to the activation gates situated in the pore domain, thereby leading to channel opening. An understanding of the mechanism by which the sensor communicates the signal to the pore requires knowledge of the structure of the interface between the voltage-sensing and pore domains. Toward this end, we have introduced single cysteine mutations into the extracellular end of S4 (positions 356 and 357) in conjunction with a cysteine in S5 (position 418) of the Shaker channel and expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes. We then examined the propensity of each pair of engineered cysteines to form a metal bridge or a disulfide bridge, respectively, by examining the effect of Cd2+ ions and copper phenanthroline on the K+ conductance of a whole oocyte. Both reagents reduced currents through the S357C,E418C double mutant channel, presumably by restricting the movements necessary for coupling the voltage-sensing function to pore opening. This inhibitory effect was seen in the closed state of the channel and with heteromers composed of S357C and E418C single mutant subunits; no effect was seen with homomers of any of the single mutant channels. These data indicate that the extracellular end of S4 lies in close proximity to the extracellular end of the S5 of the neighboring subunit in closed channels.

  7. Coupled Motions between Pore and Voltage-Sensor Domains: A Model for Shaker B, a Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Treptow, Werner; Maigret, Bernard; Chipot, Christophe; Tarek, Mounir

    2004-01-01

    A high-resolution crystal structure of KvAP, an archeabacterial voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, complexed with a monoclonal Fab fragment has been recently determined. Based on this structure, a mechanism for the activation (opening) of Kv channels has been put forward. This mechanism has since been criticized, suggesting that the resolved structure is not representative of the family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Here, we propose a model of the transmembrane domain of Shaker B, a well-characterized Kv channel, built by homology modeling and docking calculations. In this model, the positively charged S4 helices are oriented perpendicular to the membrane and localized in the groove between segments S5 and S6 of adjacent subunits. The structure and the dynamics of the full atomistic model embedded in a hydrated lipid bilayer were investigated by means of two large-scale molecular dynamics simulations under transmembrane-voltage conditions known to induce, respectively, the resting state (closed) and the activation (opening) of voltage-gated channels. Upon activation, the model undergoes conformational changes that lead to an increase of the hydration of the charged S4 helices, correlated with an upward translation and a tilting of the latter, concurrently with movements of the S5 helices and the activation gate. Although small, these conformational changes ultimately result in an alteration of the ion-conduction pathway. Our findings support the transporter model devised by Bezanilla and collaborators, and further underline the crucial role played by internal hydration in the activation of the channel. PMID:15454436

  8. Role of hydrophobic and ionic forces in the movement of S4 of the Shaker potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David J S; Neale, Edward J; Munsey, Tim S; Bannister, John P; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2012-12-01

    Voltage-gated ion (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+)) channels contain a pore domain (PD) surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSD). Each VSD is made up of four transmembrane helices, S1-S4. S4 contains 6-7 positively charged residues (arginine/lysine) separated two hydrophobic residues, whereas S1-S3 contribute to two negatively charged clusters. These structures are conserved among all members of the voltage-gated ion channel family and play essential roles in voltage gating. The role of S4 charged residues in voltage gating is well established: During depolarization, they move out of the membrane electric field, exerting a mechanical force on channel gates, causing them to open. However, the role of the intervening hydrophobic residues in voltage sensing is unclear. Here we studied the role of these residues in the prototypical Shaker potassium channel. We have altered the physicochemical properties of both charged and hydrophobic positions of S4 and examined the effect of these modifications on the gating properties of the channel. For this, we have introduced cysteines at each of these positions, expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes, and examined the effect of in situ addition of charge, via Cd(2+), on channel gating by two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results reveal a face of the S4 helix (comprising residues L358, L361, R365 and R368) where introduction of charge at hydrophobic positions destabilises the closed state and removal of charges from charged positions has an opposite effect. We propose that hydrophobic residues play a crucial role in limiting gating to a physiological voltage range.

  9. Interactions of amino terminal domains of Shaker K channels with a pore blocking site studied with synthetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic peptides of the five alternative NH2-terminal sequences of Shaker when applied to the cytoplasmic side of ShB channels that have an NH2-terminal deletion (ShB delta 6-46) block the channel with potencies correlated with the rate of inactivation in the corresponding variant. These peptides share no sequence similarity and yet three out of the five have apparent dissociation constants between 2 and 15 microM, suggesting that the specificity requirements for binding are low. To identify the primary structural determinants required for effective block of ShB delta 6-46, we examined the effects of substitutions made to the 20 residue ShB peptide on association and dissociation rates. Nonpolar residues within the peptide appear to be important in stabilizing the binding through hydrophobic interactions. Substitutions to leucine-7 showed there was a clear correlation between hydrophobicity and the dissociation rate constant (koff) with little effect on the association rate constant (kon). Substituting charged residues for hydrophobic residues within the region 4-8 disrupted binding. Within the COOH-terminal half of the peptide, substitutions that increased the net positive charge increased kon with relatively small changes in koff, suggesting the involvement of long-range electrostatic interactions in increasing the effective concentration of the peptide. Neutralizing charged residues produced small changes in koff. Charges within the region 12-20 act equivalently; alterations which conserved net charge produced little effect on either kon or koff. The results are consistent with this region of the peptide having an extended conformation and suggest that when bound this region makes few contacts with the channel protein and remains relatively unconstrained. Analogous mutations within the NH2-terminal domain of the intact ShB channel produced qualitatively similar effects on blocking and unblocking rates. PMID:8133245

  10. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  11. Structural model of the outer vestibule and selectivity filter of the Shaker voltage-gated K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Durell, S R; Guy, H R

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of structural models were developed of the outer vestibule and ion-selective portion of the voltage-gated Shaker K+ channel. Some features of these models are similar to those that we have developed previously [Durrel S. R. and Guy H. R. (1992) Biophys. J. 62, 238-250; Guy H. R. (1990) In Monovalent Cations in Biological Systems (Pasternak C. A., Ed.), pp. 31-58, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL; Guy H. R. and Durell S. R. (1994) In Molecular Evolution of Physiological processes (Fambrough D., Ed.), pp. 197-212, The Rockefeller University Press, NY; Guy H. R. and Durell S. R. (1995) In Ion Channels and Genetic Diseases (Dawson D., Ed.), pp. 1-16, The Rockefeller University Press, NY] and other features were modified to make the models more consistent with recent experimental findings. The first part of the P segment is postulated, as always, to form a short alpha helix that spans only the outer portion of the membrane. The helix is tilted so that its C-terminal is nearer the pore than its N-terminal. The latter part of the P segment, P2, is postulated to have a relatively elongated conformation that is positioned approximately parallel to the axis of the pore. Four of the P2 segments assemble to form an ion-selective region that has two narrow regions; one formed by the Y445 side-chains at the outer entrance of the pore and one formed by the backbone of the T442 residues near the innermost part of the P segments. The S6 segment is postulated to form two alpha helices. The first S6 helix packs next to the P segments in our models. The NMR structures of two scorpion toxins, charybdotoxin and agitoxin 2, have been docked into the models of the outer vestibules. The shape of the outer vestibule has been modeled so that specific toxin-channel residue-residue interactions correspond to those that have been identified experimentally.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-140- SalemAlbany1)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherer, Brett M.

    2003-04-04

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of- way, access roads, switch platforms, microwave beam paths, and around tower structures of the subject transmission line corridor that may impede the operation and maintenance of the identified transmission lines. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  13. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Movers and shakers.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Behind the scenes, in the boardrooms or on the barricades--they're moulding the future of health care. And that's why they're here. In this series of profiles, Canada's rising stars speak out on their careers, the issues and what makes them tick.

  15. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  16. The carpenter fork bed, a new - and older - Black-shale unit at the base of the New Albany shale in central Kentucky: Characterization and significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Norby, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Black shales previously interpreted to be Late Devonian cave-fill or slide deposits are shown to be much older Middle Devonian black shales only preserved locally in Middle Devonian grabens and structural lows in central Kentucky. This newly recognized - and older -black-shale unit occurs at the base of the New Albany Shale and is named the Carpenter Fork Bed of the Portwood Member of the New Albany Shale after its only known exposure on Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky; two other occurrences are known from core holes in east-central Kentucky. Based on stratigraphic position and conodont biostratigraphy, the unit is Middle Devonian (Givetian: probably Middle to Upper P. varcus Zone) in age and occurs at a position represented by an unconformity atop the Middle Devonian Boyle Dolostone and its equivalents elsewhere on the outcrop belt. Based on its presence as isolated clasts in the overlying Duffin Bed of the Portwood Member, the former distribution of the unit was probably much more widespread - perhaps occurring throughout western parts of the Rome trough. Carpenter Fork black shales apparently represent an episode of subsidence or sea-level rise coincident with inception of the third tectophase of the Acadian orogeny. Deposition, however, was soon interrupted by reactivation of several fault zones in central Kentucky, perhaps in response to bulge migration accompanying start of the tectophase. As a result, much of central Kentucky was uplifted and tilted, and the Carpenter Fork Bed was largely eroded from the top of the Boyle, except in a few structural lows like the Carpenter Fork graben where a nearly complete record of Middle to early Late Devonian deposition is preserved.

  17. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  18. A simple and robust protocol for high-yield expression of perdeuterated proteins in Escherichia coli grown in shaker flasks.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mengli; Huang, Ying; Yang, Renbin; Craigie, Robert; Clore, G M

    2016-10-01

    We present a simple, convenient and robust protocol for expressing perdeuterated proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells in shaker flasks that reduces D2O usage tenfold and d7-glucose usage by 30 %. Using a modified M9 medium and optimized growth conditions, we were able to grow cells in linear log phase to an OD600 of up to 10. Inducing the cells with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside at an OD600 of 10, instead of less than 1, enabled us to increase the cell mass tenfold per unit volume of cell culture. We show that protein expression levels per cell are the same when induced at an OD600 between 1 and 10 under these growth conditions. Thus, our new protocol can increase protein yield per unit volume of cell culture tenfold. Adaptation of E. coli from H2O-based to D2O-based medium is also key for ensuring high levels of protein expression in D2O. We find that a simple three-step adaptation approach-Luria-Bertani (LB) medium in H2O to LB in D2O to modified-M9 medium in D2O is both simple and reliable. The method increases the yield of perdeuterated proteins by up to tenfold using commonly available air shakers without any requirement for specialized fermentation equipment.

  19. Analysis of triazine herbicides using an up-and-down-shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pai-Shan; Haung, Wan-Yun; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-04-01

    In dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, a few hundred microliters to a few milliliters of water-miscible dispersive solvent are commonly used to assist emulsification in aqueous samples. In the present study, a consistent and automatic up-and-down-shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UDSA-DLLME) that does not require a dispersive solvent was developed. The enrichment factors (EFs) of the targets obtained using the automatic shaker were 361-1391 for UDSA-DLLME, 51-77 for ultrasonication, and 298-922 for vortexing. The linearity of the method was in the range 0.2-200μgL(-1), and its limit of detections was within 0.02-0.04μgL(-1). The intraday and interday relative standard deviations ranged from 5.7 to 10.0% and 5.5 to 10.3%, respectively. The relative recoveries of river and lake samples spiked with 2.0μgL(-1) of triazines were 94.2-102.2% and 98.5-104.1%, respectively. The technique provided high repeatability and recovery. No matrix interference from river and lake water was observed. The method also achieved high EFs compared with those obtained through other emulsification methods such as vortexing and ultrasonication. UDSA-DLLME is an alternative sample preparation technique with good performance.

  20. Vitiligo road map.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian W; Schwartz, Robert A; Hercogová, Jana; Valle, Yan; Lotti, Torello M

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder stemming from melanocyte loss or dysfunction. It has a complex, multifaceted etiology. We constructed a "vitiligo road map," consisting of basic science, clinical, and treatment components, in order to better portray our current understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and reflect upon novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for future research. The melanocyte map elaborates on the molecular processes and intracellular signaling pathways initiated by various external autocrine/paracrine factors in representing normal melanocyte homeostatic functions modulating its viability, proliferation, differentiation, dendricity, migration, and melanogenic processes. This vitiligo map identifies known inducers/triggers of vitiligo onset and progression that cultivate a microenvironment for melanocyte disappearance, real or functional. This map describes the molecular mechanisms of currently utilized clinical and experimental treatments of vitiligo that facilitate repigmentation.

  1. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  2. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. Physiological profiles of elite off-road and road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Zawadzki, K M; Kearney, J T; Shannon, M P; Disalvo, D

    1997-08-01

    There are minimal scientific data describing international caliber off-road cyclists (mountain bikers), particularly as they compare physiologically with international caliber road cyclists. Elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) Cross-Country Team were compared with elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States Cycling Federation (USCF) National Road Team. Submaximal and maximal exercise responses were evaluated during the "championship" phase of the training year when athletes were in peak condition. All physiological tests were conducted at 1860 m. Among the female athletes, physiological responses at lactate threshold (LT) and during maximal exercise (MAX) were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists demonstrated a significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (16%) and relative (10%) maximal aerobic power, and 2) MAX heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the USCF athletes (6%). Among the male athletes, physiological responses at LT and MAX were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (18%) and relative (16%) power at LT, and 2) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (12%) and relative (10%) power at MAX. These data suggest that, in general, elite off-road cyclists possess physiological profiles that are similar to elite road cyclists.

  4. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  5. Road traffic injuries: a stocktaking.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh

    2008-08-01

    Once we accept that road traffic injury control is a public health problem, and that we have an ethical responsibility to arrange for the safety of individuals, then it follows that health and medical professionals have to assume responsibility for participating in efforts to control this pandemic. Over 1.2 million people die of road traffic crashes annually. Road traffic injuries are among the second to the sixth leading causes of death in the age groups 15-60 years in all countries around the world. Control of road traffic injuries is going to require very special efforts as patterns are different in high- and lower-income countries, and while some countermeasures are applicable internationally, others will need further research and innovation. We will need to focus on the safety of pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists, speed control, and prevention of driving under the influence of alcohol.

  6. Road Rage: What's Driving It?

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-07-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators.

  7. Perceived density of road maps.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Chassidim, Hadas; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael; Rogatka, Efrat; Amzaleg, Ohad

    2014-11-01

    Maps should be designed so that users can comprehend and use the information. Display decisions, such as choosing the scale at which an area is shown, depend on properties of the displayed information such as the perceived density (PD) of the information. Taking a psychophysical approach we suggest that the PD of information in a road map is related to the scale and properties of the mapped area. 54 participants rated the PD of 60 maps from different regions. We provide a simple model that predicts the PD of electronic road map displays, using the logarithm of the number of roads, the logarithm of the number of junctions and the length of the shown roads. The PD model was cross-validated using a different set of 60 maps (n = 44). The model can be used for automatically adjusting display scales and for evaluating map designs, considering the required PD to perform a map-related task.

  8. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  9. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  10. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  11. Three-dimensional crustal structure of a craton rim: Preliminary results from passive seismic imaging of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Spaggiari, Catherine V.; Gessner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Western Australia consists of two Archaean cratons (Yilgarn and Pilbara) and a number of Proterozoic orogens surrounding them that attest to past continental collisions. While the former feature seismically fast crust of average thickness (around 35 km) and a usually well defined Moho overlying a thick mantle lithospheric keel, the latter have been significantly less well studied and appear to be less uniform in terms of their crustal architecture. Thicker crust and a more fuzzy Moho are two common characteristics of these belts. The Albany-Fraser orogen, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Yilgarn craton, has been interpreted as an old suture zone from the collision of the West Australian craton (Yilgarn and Pilbara already welded together) with the Mawson craton (southern Australia and part of Antarctica today). Newer evidence, however, might point at an original rift or backarc setting of the units. It is a complex amalgam of different structures that vary significantly along its strike, featuring heavily reworked parts of the outermost Yilgarn craton as well as younger units accreted or intruded significantly later. Two major deformation stages at 1345-1260 Ma and 1214-1140 Ma have been deduced for these, the first of which has been associated with the aforementioned collision/backarc rifting itself, while the second phase is commonly interpreted as intracratonic reworking due to a major thermal event. No large-scale tectonic overprint has occurred in the region since the second deformation phase, which means that the originally emplaced units have been unusually well preserved until the present day. However, surface outcrops of rocks are very rare, so that most knowledge about extent and geometric configuration of different rock suites comes from the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data. The eastern end of the Albany-Fraser orogen, in all likelihood corresponding to the Mawson craton's westernmost edge, is hidden beneath the limestones of the

  12. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  13. Evaluation of Floodplain Modifications to Reduce the Effect of Floods Using a Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Flint River at Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Potential flow characteristics of future flooding along a 4.8-mile reach of the Flint River in Albany, Georgia, were simulated using recent digital-elevation-model data and the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element surface-water modeling system for two-dimensional flow in the horizontal plane (FESWMS-2DH). The model was run at four water-surface altitudes at the Flint River at Albany streamgage (02352500): 181.5-foot (ft) altitude with a flow of 61,100 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 184.5-ft altitude with a flow of 75,400 ft3/s, 187.5-ft altitude with a flow of 91,700 ft3/s, and 192.5-ft altitude with a flow of 123,000 ft3/s. The model was run to measure changes in inundated areas and water-surface altitudes for eight scenarios of possible modifications to the 4.8-mile reach on the Flint River. The eight scenarios include removing a human-made peninsula located downstream from Oglethorpe Boulevard, increasing the opening under the Oakridge Drive bridge, adding culverts to the east Oakridge Drive bridge approach, adding culverts to the east and west Oakridge Drive bridge approaches, adding an overflow across the oxbow north of Oakridge Drive, making the overflow into a channel, removing the Oakridge Drive bridge, and adding a combination of an oxbow overflow and culverts on both Oakridge Drive bridge approaches. The modeled inundation and water-surface altitude changes were mapped for use in evaluating the river modifications. The most effective scenario at reducing inundated area was the combination scenario. At the 187.5-ft altitude, the inundated area decreased from 4.24 square miles to 4.00 square miles. The remove-peninsula scenario was the least effective with a reduction in inundated area of less than 0.01 square miles. In all scenarios, the inundated area reduction increased with water-surface altitude, peaking at the 187.5-ft altitude. The inundated area reduction then decreased at the gage altitude of 192.5 ft.

  14. Little and Large: Implications for Preservation of Radiogenic-Pb in Titanite. An example from the Albany-Fraser Orogen, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Titanite typically contains more non-radiogenic Pb than zircon, nonetheless it can preserve useful age information that complements geochronology from other datable phases. Titanite is more reactive than zircon and it interacts more readily with other major phases. As a result titanite dates frequently indicate the time of cooling below a blocking temperature (in reality an interval). The role of titanite grain size is important as it has a bearing on the extent to which titanite U-Pb ages reflect diffusive Pb loss or pristine formation ages. We demonstrate that titanite collected through the Albany-Fraser Orogen, across an uplifted refractory lower crustal block, can record thermal overprints apparently lacking in the zircon record. Two zones of the Albany-Fraser Orogen are the Biranup and Fraser Zones, each with a distinctive Proterozoic history but unequivocally part of the reworked margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. A dichotomy exists in the zircon geochronology record of this area, in that within the older Biranup Zone, Stage II overprinting (1225-1140 Ma) is widespread whereas in the younger Fraser Zone, Stage I (1345-1260 Ma) is dominant, with Stage II apparently absent. Although, most metamorphic titanite in the Fraser Zone records an age of 1307 ± 17 Ma, reflecting closure to radiogenic-Pb mobility after Stage I metamorphism, small titanite grains reveal Stage II overprinting with a mean reset age of 1205 ± 16 Ma. In contrast, titanite from metasediments within the Biranup Zone principally record ages of 1203 ± 6 Ma and 1153 ± 27 Ma reflecting cooling after prolonged Stage II metamorphism. Thermochronological modelling indicates that small titanite grains in the Fraser Zone would be reset during Stage II overprinting at temperatures of 695-725°C. Larger titanite crystals would not be reset by this thermal overprint. This result is similar to phase equilibrium modelling from the Biranup Zone that indicates temperatures of 670-680 °C during Stage II

  15. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  16. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  17. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  18. On the scalability of the Albany/FELIX first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver for large-scale simulations of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets

    DOE PAGES

    Tezaur, Irina K.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Perego, Mauro; ...

    2015-01-01

    We examine the scalability of the recently developed Albany/FELIX finite-element based code for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. We focus our analysis on the performance of two possible preconditioners for the iterative solution of the sparse linear systems that arise from the discretization of the governing equations: (1) a preconditioner based on the incomplete LU (ILU) factorization, and (2) a recently-developed algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner, constructed using the idea of semi-coarsening. A strong scalability study on a realistic, high resolution Greenland ice sheet problem reveals that, for a given number of processor cores, the AMG preconditionermore » results in faster linear solve times but the ILU preconditioner exhibits better scalability. A weak scalability study is performed on a realistic, moderate resolution Antarctic ice sheet problem, a substantial fraction of which contains floating ice shelves, making it fundamentally different from the Greenland ice sheet problem. Here, we show that as the problem size increases, the performance of the ILU preconditioner deteriorates whereas the AMG preconditioner maintains scalability. This is because the linear systems are extremely ill-conditioned in the presence of floating ice shelves, and the ill-conditioning has a greater negative effect on the ILU preconditioner than on the AMG preconditioner.« less

  19. Small-Angle and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS/USANS) Study of New Albany Shale: A Treatise on Microporosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, Jitendra; Radlinski, Andrzej P.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2014-12-17

    We applied small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques to study the microstructure of several New Albany shales of different maturity. It has been established that the total porosity decreases with maturity and increases somewhat for post-mature samples. A new method of SANS data analysis was developed, which allows the extraction of information about the size range and number density of micropores from the relatively flat scattering intensity observed in the limit of the large scattering vector Q. Macropores and significant number of mesopores are surface fractals, and their structure can be described in terms of the polydisperse spheres (PDSP) model. The model-independent Porod invariant method was employed to estimate total porosity, and the results were compared with the PDSP model results. It has been demonstrated that independent evaluation of incoherent background is crucial for accurate interpretation of the scattering data in the limit of large Q-values. Moreover, pore volumes estimated by the N2 and CO2 adsorption, as well as via the mercury intrusion technique, have been compared with those measured by SANS/USANS, and possible reasons for the observed discrepancies are discussed.

  20. Albany/FELIX: a parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.

  1. Small-Angle and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS/USANS) Study of New Albany Shale: A Treatise on Microporosity

    DOE PAGES

    Bahadur, Jitendra; Radlinski, Andrzej P.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; ...

    2014-12-17

    We applied small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques to study the microstructure of several New Albany shales of different maturity. It has been established that the total porosity decreases with maturity and increases somewhat for post-mature samples. A new method of SANS data analysis was developed, which allows the extraction of information about the size range and number density of micropores from the relatively flat scattering intensity observed in the limit of the large scattering vector Q. Macropores and significant number of mesopores are surface fractals, and their structure can be described in terms of themore » polydisperse spheres (PDSP) model. The model-independent Porod invariant method was employed to estimate total porosity, and the results were compared with the PDSP model results. It has been demonstrated that independent evaluation of incoherent background is crucial for accurate interpretation of the scattering data in the limit of large Q-values. Moreover, pore volumes estimated by the N2 and CO2 adsorption, as well as via the mercury intrusion technique, have been compared with those measured by SANS/USANS, and possible reasons for the observed discrepancies are discussed.« less

  2. Creating Larger and Better Connected Protected Areas Enhances the Persistence of Big Game Species in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Balme, Guy A.; Smith, Robert J.; Goodman, Peter S.; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  3. Creating larger and better connected protected areas enhances the persistence of big game species in the maputaland-pondoland-albany biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T B; Balme, Guy A; Smith, Robert J; Goodman, Peter S; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes.

  4. Local Wood Demand, Land Cover Change and the State of Albany Thicket on an Urban Commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, M. M.; Shackleton, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  5. Albany/FELIX: A parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-27

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.

  6. Albany/FELIX: A parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; ...

    2015-04-27

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, alongmore » with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.« less

  7. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  8. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  9. Building lunar roads - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  10. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  11. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  12. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  15. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  16. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  17. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  18. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  20. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  1. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increases in impervious surface area lead to declines in chemical and biological indicators of water quality .Roads are an important aspect of impervious surface, and distance to roads is an indicator of the potential threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although roads a...

  2. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  3. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segment road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.

  4. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    AUBAKIROVA, Alma; KOSSUMOV, Alibek; IGISSINOV, Nurbek

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000), which was higher (P<0.05) than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000). High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30–39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50–59 years old and 70–79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Tdec=−2.4%), men (Tdec=−2.3%) and women (Tdec=−1.4%). When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000), average (between 18.3 and 24.00/0000) and high (from 24.00/0000 and above). Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000), Mangistau region (25.90/0000), Zhambyl region (27.30/0000), Almaty region (29.30/0000) and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000). Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents. PMID:23641400

  5. Perception of road accident causes.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; Yannis, George

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical two-dimensional model on prevalence and risk was developed. The objective of this study was to validate this model empirically to answer three questions: How do European drivers perceive the importance of several causes of road accidents? Are there important differences in perceptions between member states? Do these perceptions reflect the real significance of road accident causes? Data were collected from 23 countries, based on representative national samples of at least 1000 respondents each (n=24,372). Face-to-face interviews with fully licensed, active car drivers were conducted using a questionnaire containing closed answer questions. Respondents were asked to rate 15 causes of road accidents, each using a six-point ordinal scale. The answers were analyzed by calculating Kendall's tau for each pair of items to form lower triangle similarity matrices per country and for Europe as a whole. These matrices were then used as the input files for an individual difference scaling to draw a perceptual map of the 15 items involved. The hypothesized model on risk and prevalence fits the data well and enabled us to answer the three questions of concern. The subject space of the model showed that there are no relevant differences between the 23 countries. The group space of the model comprises four quadrants, each containing several items (high perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items; high perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items; low perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items and low perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items). Finally, perceptions of the items driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs and medicines and driving using a handheld or hands-free mobile phone are discussed with regard to their real significance in causing road accidents. To conclude, individual difference scaling offers some promising possibilities to study drivers' perception of road accident causes.

  6. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, N. E. Baldwin, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, N. E. Baldwin, Photographer November 1939, COLLECTION OF SHAKER FURNITURE, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family, Dwelling House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  7. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, N. E. Baldwin, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, N. E. Baldwin, Photographer June 1938, SHAKER-MADE CENTRIFUGAL DRYER, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Washhouse (second), Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  8. 2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUTOFF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD). NOTE FORESTA ROAD BRIDGE IN LOWER LEFT. ROAD CURVE HIDDEN IN TREES AT CENTER. NOTE ROAD CUT AT LEFT. LOOKING SSW. GIS: N-37"40'47.4"/W-119"47'22.2 - Foresta Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  10. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  11. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  12. q-Space diffusion MRI (QSI) of the disease progression in the spinal cords of the Long Evans shaker: diffusion time and apparent anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Anaby, Debbie; Duncan, Ian D.; Smith, Chelsey M.; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    q-Space diffusion MRI (QSI) was used to study the spinal cords of Long Evans shaker (les) rats, a model of dysmyelination, and their age-matched controls at different maturation stages. Diffusion was measured parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of the spinal cords of the two groups and at different diffusion times. The results showed that QSI is able to detect the dysmyelination process that occurs in this model in the different stages of the disease. The differences in the diffusion characteristics of the spinal cords of the two groups were found to be larger when the diffusion time was increased from 22 to 100 ms. We found that the radial mean displacement is a much better parameter than the QSI fractional anisotropy (FA) to document the differences between the two groups. We observed that the degree of myelination affects the diffusion characteristics of the tissues, but has a smaller effect on FA. All of the extracted diffusion parameters that are affected by the degree of myelination are affected in a diffusion time-dependent fashion, suggesting that the terms apparent anisotropy, apparent fractional anisotropy and even apparent root-mean-square displacement (rmsD) are more appropriate. PMID:24123305

  13. Up-and-down-shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of fungicides in wine.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shang-Ping; Tseng, Wan-Chi; Kong, Po-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2015-10-15

    An up-and-down-shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UDSA-DLLME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of fungicides (cyprodinil, procymidone, fludioxonil, flusilazole, benalaxyl, and tebuconazole) in wine. The developed method requires 11 μL of 1-octanol without the need for dispersive solvents. The total extraction time was approximately 3 min. Under optimum conditions, the linear range of the method was 0.05-100 μg L(-1) for all fungicides and the limit of detection was 0.007-0.025 μg L(-1). The absolute and relative recoveries were 31-83% and 83-107% for white wine, respectively, and 32-85% and 83-108% for red wine, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision were 0.5-7.5% and 0.7-6.1%, respectively. Our developed method had good sensitivity and high extraction efficiency. UDSA-DLLME is a desirable method in terms of performance and speed.

  14. Up-and-down shaker-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yu-Chien; Leong, Mei-I; Wang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shang-Da

    2013-04-01

    Sun protection is an important part of our lives. UV filters are widely used to absorb solar radiation in sunscreens. However, excess UV filters constitute persistent groups of organic micropollutants present in the environment. An environmentally friendly ionic-liquid-based up-and-down shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction device combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode-array detection has been developed to preconcentrate three UV filters (benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) from field water samples. In this method, the optimal conditions for the proposed extraction method were: 40 μL [C8MIM][PF6 ] as extraction solvent and 200 μL methanol as disperser solvent were used to extract the UV filters. After up-and-down shaking for 3 min, the aqueous solution was centrifuged at 5000 rpm speed, then using microtube to collect the settled extraction solvent and using ultra-performance liquid chromatography for further analysis. Quantification results indicated that the linear range was 2-1000 ng/mL. The LOD of this method was in the range 0.2-1.3 ng/mL with r(2) ≥ 0.9993. The relative recovery in studies of different types of field water samples was in the range 92-120%, and the RSD was 2.3-7.1%. The proposed method was also applied to the analysis of field samples.

  15. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  16. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  17. High-Luminance Road Surfaces,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    properties and anorthosites are lighter in color. The field tests have confirmed the positive effect of a light-colored road surface or a light- colored...possibilities of using some light-colored rock materials that could not previously have been recommended, 7 including anorthosites and quartzites. The former...values (%) with a reflect: i meter on wet agregate specimens, size fraction 0.149 - 0.2 ,7 mm. Aggregate Luminosity (% of MgO white) Anorthosite 45

  18. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  19. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  20. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  1. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  2. 23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum at rear. Road is on east-west axis here as original design of Rainbow Museum area. Long Logs Road to left foreground. Park Road to right foreground. Looking W. - Petrified Forest National Park Roads & Bridges, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  3. Road Network Generalization Based on Float CAR Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-06-01

    Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.

  4. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  5. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  6. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  7. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) populations?

    PubMed

    Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  8. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 17. RETAINING WALL CRIBBING AND ROAD VIEW, LOOKING IN SOUTHWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RETAINING WALL CRIBBING AND ROAD VIEW, LOOKING IN SOUTHWARD DIRECTION OF TRAVEL BELOW DIAMOND PEAK. ROAD SIGN NOTES SWITCHBACK SEEN IN CA-270-14 TO CA-270-16. LOOKING ESE. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  14. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF THE WHITE ROCK RD. INTERSECTION; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  17. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  19. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  20. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  1. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  2. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  3. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ABANDONED GAS STATION ON LEFT AND ROAD TO BADWATER AT LEFT IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WSW. - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 11. GAS STATION AND OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT, FACING S. VISITOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GAS STATION AND OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT, FACING S. VISITOR CENTER BEHIND TREES. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS AZ-45-10. - South Entrance Road, Between South park boundary & Village Loop Road, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  6. BOOK REVIEW OF "ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ROADS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world, roads have become a permanent part of our environment. The ecological effects of roads and traffic are as consequential as other topical issues such as losses in biological diversity and damage by exotic and invasive species. However, this issue has usuall...

  7. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological impacts from roads may be the rule rather than the exception in most watersheds of the conterminous United States. We measured total area, and forestland area located within nine distances of the nearest road of any type in each of 2,108 watersheds nationwide. Overall,...

  8. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  9. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  10. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  11. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  12. Pollutant characteristics of road deposited sediments collected by road sweeping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gun; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Kang, Hee-Man; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Road deposited sediments (RDS) swept from highways in South Korea were characterized to quantitatively evaluate the reduction in non-point source pollutants by sweeping. The swept RDS consisted primarily of sand (63 μm to 2 mm) particles (80.34 ± 8.33% of total weight) highly contaminated by organics, nutrients and heavy metals. The average concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), volatile solids (VS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 20.17 ± 9.13, 1.04 ± 0.62, 39.92 ± 16.55, 1.99 ± 0.96, and 0.54 ± 0.19 g kg(-1) (±one standard deviation), respectively, for 63 μm to 2 mm RDS. The concentrations of the pollutants were high for RDS smaller than 63 μm, but most of the mass was associated with the 63 μm to 2 mm RDS. The results suggest that the pollutants associated with RDS swept from highways originated mainly from engine wear, exhaust emissions, and tire wear. These results were different from the RDS on roads in residential and commercial areas, where natural particles and brake wear contribute significantly to RDS. In addition, the reductions in TOC, BOD, VS, T-N, T-P, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and As based on the swept RDS measurements were calculated to be 3,355.3, 175.1, 6,621.4, 323.0, 88.3, 30.3, 13.7, 1.0, 303.4, 11,198.7, and 0.4 g km(-1), respectively.

  13. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  14. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  15. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.

  16. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  17. Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

  18. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  19. Recommendations for road surface dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications needed to cater to the wide range of traffic conditions and types of surfaces likely to be encountered on country lanes as well as other motorways. Both chippings and binders are considered as well as their application. Topics covered include surface preparation; application of the binder; spraying time; joining strips of sprayed binder; applying chips; rolling; and traffic management during and after operations. Special areas discussed include heavily trafficked high speed roads; hard shoulders; open-textured and porous bituminous surfaces; unbound surfaces; sealing roadbases, subgrades, and subbases; bituminous mist sprays; high stressed sites (epoxy resin based systems); the treatment of fatted surface dressings; and the control of materials and workmanship. Procedures for measuring hardness, and the rate of spread of spray binders and of chippings are included.

  20. Linkages between unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment: why context matters in directing road restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Black, Tom A.; Thomas, Cameron; Luce, Charlie H.; Rieman, Bruce; Cissel, Richard; Carlson, Anne; Hendrickson, Shane; Archer, Eric K.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads remain a pervasive disturbance on public lands and mitigating sediment from road networks remains a priority for management agencies. Restoring roaded landscapes is becoming increasingly important for many native coldwater fishes that disproportionately rely on public lands for persistence. However, effectively targeting restoration opportunities requires a comprehensive understanding of the effects of roads across different ecosystems. Here, we combine a review and a field study to evaluate the status of knowledge supporting the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads with streambed sediment. Through our review, we specifically focused on those studies linking measures of the density of forest roads or sediment delivery with empirical streambed sediment measures. Our field study provides an example of a targeted effort of linking spatially explicit estimates of sediment production with measures of streambed sediment. Surprisingly, our review uncovered few studies (n = 8) that empirically tested the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment, and the results varied considerably. Field results generally supported the conceptual model that unpaved forest roads can control streambed sediment quality, but demonstrated high-spatial variability in the effects of forest roads on streambed sediment and the need to address hotspots of sediment sources. The importance of context in the effects of forest roads is apparent in both our review and field data, suggesting the need for in situ studies to avoid misdirected restoration actions.

  1. Shaker slip-plate adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, O. S.

    1969-01-01

    Magnesium adapter ties in all of the attachment bosses on a horizontal slip table and makes a rigid coupling which terminates in a single row of attachment bosses at the edge of the horizontal plate. This eliminates ineffective dissipation of the driving force in vibration tests.

  2. Enhancing the Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Breast Cancer Treatment with Nonanticoagulant Heparins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Anticoagulants , Antiplatelets , and Thrombolytics. 2004. SA Mousa (Ed). Humana Press Inc., 133-155, 2004. 12 11. Mousa SA, Mohamed S. Anti-angiogenic...Kaiser B. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor in thrombosis and beyond. In Methods in Molecular Medicine, vol 93: Anticoagulants , Antiplatelets ...Non- anticoagulant Heparins" PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Shaker A, Mousa PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albany College of Pharmacy Albany

  3. Bearing Capacity Assessment on low Volume Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zariņš, A.

    2015-11-01

    A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.

  4. Robust road detection in shadow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kaiyue; Xia, Siyu; Zhang, Junkang; Qin, A. Kai

    2016-07-01

    Image-based road detection is a vital task for many real-world applications, such as autonomous driving and obstacle detection. We propose a method for segmenting road regions from a single image based on horizon line estimation and clustering technology. The key idea is to leverage normalized cross correlation to search for the line separating the road image. Additionally, we divide the lower part of the road image into several identical parts horizontally and utilize a density-peak clustering algorithm in terms of gray and HSV value of each pixel. Clustering results are further labeled as road and nonroad based on the assumption that two adjacent horizontal parts share similar clustering size and average gray value. For road images with shadows, we also propose a new shadow-free space derived from HSV space. By calculating maximum entropy and reconstructing images, we show that shadows are eliminated to achieve better road detection. Experimental results on four datasets and shadow images demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  5. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  6. Assessing the volcanic hazard for Rome: 40Ar/39Ar and In-SAR constraints on the most recent eruptive activity and present-day uplift at Colli Albani Volcanic District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Jicha, B. R.; Palladino, D. M.; Polcari, M.; Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Florindo, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data which allow us to refine the recurrence time for the most recent eruptive activity occurred at Colli Albani Volcanic District (CAVD) and constrain its geographic area. Time elapsed since the last eruption (36 kyr) overruns the recurrence time (31 kyr) in the last 100 kyr. New interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, covering the years 1993-2010, reveal ongoing inflation with maximum uplift rates (>2 mm/yr) in the area hosting the most recent (<200 ka) vents, suggesting that the observed uplift might be caused by magma injection within the youngest plumbing system. Finally, we frame the present deformation within the structural pattern of the area of Rome, characterized by 50 m of regional uplift since 200 ka and by geologic evidence for a recent (<2000 years) switch of the local stress-field, highlighting that the precursors of a new phase of volcanic activity are likely occurring at the CAVD.

  7. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  8. Simultaneous derivatization and extraction of chlorophenols in water samples with up-and-down shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Deng; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-01

    A new up-and-down shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UDSA-DLLME) for extraction and derivatization of five chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichloro-phenol, and pentachlorophenol) has been developed. The method requires minimal solvent usage. The relatively polar, water-soluble, and low-toxicity solvent 1-heptanol (12 μL) was selected as the extraction solvent and acetic anhydride (50 μL) as the derivatization reagent. With the use of an up-and-down shaker, the emulsification of aqueous samples was formed homogeneously and quickly. The derivatization and extraction of chlorophenols were completed simultaneously in 1 min. The common requirement of disperser solvent in DLLME could be avoided. After optimization, the linear range covered over two orders of magnitude, and the coefficient of determination (r (2)) was greater than 0.9981. The detection limit was from 0.05 to 0.2 μg L(-1), and the relative standard deviation was from 4.6 to 10.8 %. Real samples of river water and lake water had relative recoveries from 90.3 to 117.3 %. Other emulsification methods such as vortex-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, and manual shaking-enhanced ultrasound-assisted methods were also compared with the proposed UDSA-DLLME. The results revealed that UDSA-DLLME performed with higher extraction efficiency and precision compared with the other methods.

  9. Air Pollution in Road Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1961-01-01

    As a part of a study of pollution of the air by motor vehicles, measurements have been made in two London road tunnels during periods of high traffic density. The concentrations of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found there are much higher than the average values in Central London, but they are of the same order of magnitude as those occurring during temperature inversions on winter evenings when smoke from coal fires accumulates at a low level. An attempt has been made to relate the concentration of each pollutant to the type and amount of traffic. Both diesel and petrol vehicles make some contribution to the amounts of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found in the tunnels, but in the case of smoke, fluoranthene, 1: 2-benzpyrene, pyrene, and 3: 4-benzpyrene, the concentrations appear to be more closely related to the density of diesel traffic than to that of petrol traffic. The concentrations of lead and carbon monoxide have also been determined, and these are very closely related to the density of petrol traffic. During the morning and evening rush hours the mean concentration of carbon monoxide was just over 100 p.p.m. and peak values up to 500 p.p.m. were recorded at times. Oxides of nitrogen were determined in some of the experiments and there was always much more nitric oxide than nitrogen dioxide. Eye irritation was experienced but its cause was not investigated. The concentration of pollution in the tunnels does not appear to be high enough to create any special hazards for short-term exposures. The amosphere at peak periods may become very dirty and unpleasant and the concentration of carbon monoxide would be sufficient to produce some effect over a period of several hours' continuous exposure. The total emission of pollution from road vehicles must still be small in comparison with that from coal fires, but the effect of traffic on the concentration of smoke, polycyclic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and lead in the air of city streets deserves

  10. 10. VIEW OF ALIGNMENT FOR COULTERVILLE ROAD AND MERCED RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF ALIGNMENT FOR COULTERVILLE ROAD AND MERCED RIVER CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT FOR NEW BIG OAK FLAT ROAD AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING N. GIS: N-37 42 45.5 / W-119 43 24.7 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. 9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ROAD ANGLE POINT ON RIGHT) WITH LATROBE RD, INTERSECTION IN DISTANCE (LEFT OF CENTER); VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  12. 3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY (LEFT FOREGROUND) TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION WITH LATROBE ROAD (AT RIGHT HORIZON); VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  13. 4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD BRIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD BRIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER, WITH MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STREAM-GAUGING STATION AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF BRIDGE - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  14. 6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ROAD ON LEFT. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 19.5 / W-119 13 53.3 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  16. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials, cuts, fill embankments, culverts, bridges, drainage ditches, low-water crossings, and drainage structures; (2) Contain the drawings and specifications of each proposed road that is located in the...

  17. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust and dust occurring on... traffic; (2) Removing all bridges and culverts unless approved as part of the postmining land use;...

  18. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust as well as dust... traffic; (2) Removing all bridges and culverts unless approved as part of the postmining land use;...

  19. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  20. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  1. Movie Trailer: 'Road to the Red Planet'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the European Space Agency have announced three new joint science missions to Mars, including one that will return to Earth with a sample taken from the Martian surface. "Road to the Red Pl...

  2. On the road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A dynamometer (road load simulator) is used to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems. To improve correlation between system tests on the road load simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the electric propulsion system test vehicle are described. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast down tests.

  3. On-the-road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, M.O.; Slavik, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the Road Load Simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are being conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the Lewis electric propulsion system test vehicle are described in this report. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast-down tests.

  4. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  5. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  6. STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

    Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

  7. Road Surfaces And Earthquake Engineering: A Theoretical And Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pratico, Filippo Giammaria

    2008-07-08

    As is well known, road surfaces greatly affect vehicle-road interaction. As a consequence, road surfaces have a paramount influence on road safety and pavement management systems. On the other hand, earthquakes produce deformations able to modify road surface structure, properties and performance. In the light of these facts, the main goal of this paper has been confined into the modelling of road surface before, during and after the seismic event. The fundamentals of road surface texture theory have been stated in a general formulation. Models in the field of road profile generation and theoretical properties, before, during and after the earthquake, have been formulated and discussed. Practical applications can be hypothesised in the field of vehicle-road interaction as a result of road surface texture derived from deformations and accelerations caused by seismic or similar events.

  8. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  9. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  10. LIDAR Surveys for Road Design in Thailand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    25th ACRS 2004 Chiang Mai, Thailand 167 New Generation of Sensors and Applications A-4.6 LIDAR SURVEYS FOR... LiDAR , DEM, Road design, Pilot project, Thailand, NBIA ABSTRACT Concerned with environmental and drainage problems associated with road...as hilly, unstable terrain. LiDAR technology is of great interest to DOH as its use can make them save enormous amounts of time and money by providing

  11. Road Network Conflation Based on Radar Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, but this process is extremely slow and laborious. Automatic transformation of images into digital road maps is...Likelihood Estimator NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar STAP Space-Time Adaptive Processing USGS United States Geological Survey 27 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. ...ROAD NETWORK CONFLATION BASED ON RADAR TRACKS SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY APRIL 2014 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

  12. Improving Snow Roads and Airstrips in Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    in Antarctica Sung M. Lee, Wilbur M. Haas, Robert L. Brown and Albert F. Wuori -LECTE ALIG2 2 1989 Prepared for DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...Snow Roads and Airstrips in Antarctica 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lee, Sung M., Haas, Wilbur M., Brown, Robert L. and Wuori, Albert F. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Aircraft skiway Snow roads Antarctica Snow runways 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and

  13. Traumatic aortic incompetence following road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    Irving, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    This case report describes the presentation and treatment of a case of aortic incompetence, resulting from a road traffic accident. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed. Aortic incompetence due to trauma has been described following non-penetrating chest injuries, such as kicks from horses (Barie, 1881), falls from heights and crushing accidents (Kissane, Koons and Clark, 1948; Levine, Roberts and Morrow, 1962). Despite the frequency of road traffic accidents, there have been no recent reports of traumatic aortic valve damage. PMID:4467876

  14. Road Scene Analysis using Trinocular Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Kousuke; Matsuura, Hiroto; Kijima, Yoshitaka; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi

    Road scene analysis in 3D driving environment, which aims to detect objects from continuously changing background, is vital for driver assitance system and Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) applications. Laser or millimeter wave radars have shown good performance in measuring relative speed and distance in highway driving environment. However the accuracy of these systems decreases in an urban traffic environment as more confusion occurs due to the factors such as parking vehicles, guardrails, poles and motorcycles. A stereovision based sensing system provides an effective supplement to radar-based road scene analysis with its much wider field of view and more accurate lateral information. This paper presents an efficient solution for road scene analysis using a trinocular stereo vision based algorithm. In this algorithm, trinocular stereo vision detects all types of objects in road scene. And “U-V-disparity" concept is employed to analyze 3D geometric feature of road scene. The proposed algorithm has been tested on real road scenes and experimental results verified its efficiency.

  15. Teaching Young Children to Cross Roads Safely

    PubMed Central

    Oxley, Jennifer; Congiu, Melinda; Whelan, Michelle; D’Elio, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Road safety education is considered essential to teach children to interact with traffic safely. Many programs, however, do not consider the separate component skills of the road-crossing task, the functional and behavioural factors that may put some children at increased risk, and the most beneficial methods to transfer knowledge to improved behaviour in real-world environments. A targeted and practical training program using a simulated road environment has been developed and evaluated amongst primary school children using a randomised controlled trial. Significant reductions in proportion of critically incorrect road-crossing responses were found immediately after training (56%) and one-month post-training (47%) by the case group compared with pre-training responses, and relative to any changes in responses of the control group. The beneficial effects were greater for younger children, females, children with less well developed perceptual, attentional and cogntive skills, and those with little traffic exposure. The effects of the training program on other outcome measures (proportion of missed opportunity responses, decision time and safety rating responses) were less clear but showed some beneficial effects. This paper discusses the use of the simulated training program, a novel and safe way, to improve road crossing decisions. It is suggested that improvements can be made to child pedestrian education by providing tailored and practical programs that target the component skills of road-crossing decisions and improve essential skills through intensive training and feedback on known risk factors. PMID:19026238

  16. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    PubMed

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  17. Do Roads Reduce Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles. PMID:24858065

  18. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  19. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  20. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Brady, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response.

  1. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response. PMID:22355748

  2. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  3. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  4. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  5. Road rage among drug dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Benavidez, Daniela C; Flores, Antonio Marcos; Fierro, Inmaculada; Alvarez, F Javier

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol, cocaine and cannabis is associated with aggressive behaviour, being a victim of injuries from various causes, and suffering traffic accidents. On the other hand, there is a significant association between road rage and traffic accidents, yet this has not been studied in persons suffering a substance dependence disorder. This study analyses the prevalence of road rage in substance dependent patients undergoing treatment. 100 patients randomly selected at an outpatient treatment centre were included in the study. 63% of the patients had experienced road rage in the year prior to the interview, and 18% were serious perpetrators. There was a higher frequency among drivers and those who were starting treatment for cocaine and cocaine+heroin. The study shows that road rage is very frequent among patients with disorders due to substance dependence who are undergoing treatment, in particular the most severe form ("serious perpetrators"). Special attention should be addressed to the issue of driving and road rage during the treatment of these patients.

  6. Risk management model in road transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  7. Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

  8. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budetta, P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) developed by Pierson et al. (1990) at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories "ditch effectiveness", "geologic characteristic", "volume of rockfall/block size", "climate and water circulation" and "rockfall history" have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991) improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories "decision sight distance" and "road geometry". For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR) have been used (CNR, 1980). The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145) in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is unacceptable and it should

  9. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, W.F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  11. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Erosion control treatments were applied to abandoned logging roads in California, with the goal of reducing road-related sediment input to streams and restoring natural hydrologic patterns on the landscape. Treatment of stream crossings involved excavating culverts and associated road fill and reshaping streambanks. A variety of techniques were applied to road benches, which included decompacting the road surface, placing unstable road fill in more stable locations, and re-establishing natural surface drainage patterns. Following treatment and a 12-year recurrence-interval storm, some road reaches and excavated stream crossings showed evidence of mass movement failures, gullying, bank erosion and channel incision. Post-treatment erosion from excavated stream crossings was related to two variables: a surrogate for stream power (drainage area × channel gradient) and the volume of fill excavated from the channel. Post-treatment erosion on road reaches was related to four explanatory variables: method of treatment, hillslope position (upper, mid-slope or lower), date of treatment, and an interaction term (hillslope position × method of treatment). Sediment delivery from treated roads in upper, middle and lower hillslope positions was 10, 135 and 550 m3 of sediment per kilometre of treated roads, respectively. In contrast, inventories of almost 500 km of forest roads in adjacent catchments indicate that untreated roads produced 1500 to 4700 m3 of sediment per kilometre of road length. Erosion from 300 km of treated roads contributed less than 2 per cent of the total sediment load of Redwood Creek during the period 1978 to 1998. Although road removal treatments do not completely eliminate erosion associated with forest roads, they do substantially reduce sediment yields from abandoned logging roads.

  12. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD.

  13. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  14. 11. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT ROCK SLIDE AREA WITH HWY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT ROCK SLIDE AREA WITH HWY 140 AT REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 43 04.7 / W-119 43 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  16. 23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road type with gutter (asphalt construction typical on Union and Confederate Avenues), view to the sw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 12. WORLD'S FAMOUS TREE HOUSE AND ROAD VIEW. SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. WORLD'S FAMOUS TREE HOUSE AND ROAD VIEW. SOUTH OF PIERCY, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. 1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, western estate wall and Temple of Love to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 3. ELEVATION. FROM SOUTH WITH CANAL PRISM. Canal Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELEVATION. FROM SOUTH WITH CANAL PRISM. - Canal Road Bridge, Canal Road spanning Delaware Canal Diversion, Locks 22 & 23 in Delaware Canal State Park in Williams Township, Raubsville, Northampton County, PA