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Sample records for albeit indirect evidence

  1. The Future of Indirect Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Efron, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Familiar statistical tests and estimates are obtained by the direct observation of cases of interest: a clinical trial of a new drug, for instance, will compare the drug’s effects on a relevant set of patients and controls. Sometimes, though, indirect evidence may be temptingly available, perhaps the results of previous trials on closely related drugs. Very roughly speaking, the difference between direct and indirect statistical evidence marks the boundary between frequentist and Bayesian thinking. Twentieth-century statistical practice focused heavily on direct evidence, on the grounds of superior objectivity. Now, however, new scientific devices such as microarrays routinely produce enormous data sets involving thousands of related situations, where indirect evidence seems too important to ignore. Empirical Bayes methodology offers an attractive direct/indirect compromise. There is already some evidence of a shift toward a less rigid standard of statistical objectivity that allows better use of indirect evidence. This article is basically the text of a recent talk featuring some examples from current practice, with a little bit of futuristic speculation. PMID:21243111

  2. Quantifying indirect evidence in network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Noma, Hisashi; Tanaka, Shiro; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Cipriani, Andrea; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2017-03-15

    Network meta-analysis enables comprehensive synthesis of evidence concerning multiple treatments and their simultaneous comparisons based on both direct and indirect evidence. A fundamental pre-requisite of network meta-analysis is the consistency of evidence that is obtained from different sources, particularly whether direct and indirect evidence are in accordance with each other or not, and how they may influence the overall estimates. We have developed an efficient method to quantify indirect evidence, as well as a testing procedure to evaluate their inconsistency using Lindsay's composite likelihood method. We also show that this estimator has complete information for the indirect evidence. Using this method, we can assess the degree of consistency between direct and indirect evidence and their contribution rates to the overall estimate. Sensitivity analyses can be also conducted with this method to assess the influences of potentially inconsistent treatment contrasts on the overall results. These methods can provide useful information for overall comparative results that might be biased from specific inconsistent treatment contrasts. We also provide some fundamental requirements for valid inference on these methods concerning consistency restrictions on multi-arm trials. In addition, the efficiency of the developed method is demonstrated based on simulation studies. Applications to a network meta-analysis of 12 new-generation antidepressants are presented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  4. Evidence for a Glaciation Aerosol Indirect Effect from Ship Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, M.; Suzuki, K.; Stephens, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Ship tracks are a prominent manifestation of the aerosol indirect effect that provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol interactions in both warm and mixed-phase clouds. While ample evidence supports that an increase in aerosol concentration generally suppresses warm phase precipitation leading to longer cloud lifetime and more reflected sunlight (Albrecht, 1989) there is less understood about these effects in mixed-phase clouds. Lohmann, (2002) propose that an increase in IN (Ice Nuclei) may cause a glaciation indirect effect which results in more frequent glaciation of super-cooled droplets via the Bergeron process thereby increasing the amount of precipitation, which could decrease cloud cover, cloud longevity, and reflected sunlight. In this study, over 200 ship tracks are identified in mixed phase clouds using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. Retrievals of the ice phase are obtained using CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations). These measurements provide evidence that glaciation is more frequent in polluted clouds compared to the unpolluted clouds that lie adjacent to ship tracks. Larger ice fractions may result from the increased IN emitted from the ship or by other processes (e.g., immersion/contact freezing) that lead to faster ice multiplication in polluted clouds with smaller and more numerous supercooled droplets. Observations from the profiling radar on CloudSat show that aerosol suppresses warm phase precipitation but enhances the cold phase precipitation. For mixed-phase clouds, these differences roughly cancel resulting in small changes in precipitation between polluted and unpolluted clouds. When cloud tops are warm, aerosol decreases precipitation rates and cloud water paths due to the entrainment effect but the differences in cloud water amount are considerably smaller than those found in cold phase clouds. These results provide the first glance of ship tracks in mixed

  5. Searching for Indirect Evidence for the Effects of Statewide Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Flanagan, Ann

    2001-01-01

    States are the primary policymakers in several important areas of K-12 education. Given their dominant role in educational funding and regulation, states not surprisingly have been the primary initiators of the latest wave of educational reform starting in the mid-1980s. In this paper, the authors sought to test indirectly for the effects of…

  6. Direct and indirect evidence for earthquakes; an example from the Lake Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. M.; Noble, P. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Schmauder, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution seismic CHIRP data can image direct evidence of earthquakes (i.e., offset strata) beneath lakes and the ocean. Nevertheless, direct evidence often is not imaged due to conditions such as gas in the sediments, or steep basement topography. In these cases, indirect evidence for earthquakes (i.e., debris flows) may provide insight into the paleoseismic record. The four sub-basins of the tectonically active Lake Tahoe Basin provide an ideal opportunity to image direct evidence for earthquake deformation and compare it to indirect earthquake proxies. We present results from high-resolution seismic CHIRP surveys in Emerald Bay, Fallen Leaf Lake, and Cascade Lake to constrain the recurrence interval on the West Tahoe Dollar Point Fault (WTDPF), which was previously identified as potentially the most hazardous fault in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Recently collected CHIRP profiles beneath Fallen Leaf Lake image slide deposits that appear synchronous with slides in other sub-basins. The temporal correlation of slides between multiple basins suggests triggering by events on the WTDPF. If correct, we postulate a recurrence interval for the WTDPF of ~3-4 k.y., indicating that the WTDPF is near its seismic recurrence cycle. In addition, CHIRP data beneath Cascade Lake image strands of the WTDPF that offset the lakefloor as much as ~7 m. The Cascade Lake data combined with onshore LiDAR allowed us to map the geometry of the WTDPF continuously across the southern Lake Tahoe Basin and yielded an improved geohazard assessment.

  7. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis

    PubMed Central

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  8. Direct and indirect measures of intentional forgetting in children and adults: evidence for retrieval inhibition and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Lehman, E B; McKinley-Pace, M J; Wilson, J A; Slavsky, M D; Woodson, M E

    1997-02-01

    In two experiments children in grades 3 and 4 and college students were given an item-by-item cued intentional forgetting task (i.e., instructions were to remember some words and to forget others), either a direct (cued recall word-stem completion) or an indirect (repetition priming word-stem completion) test of memory for the words, and a final free recall test for both remember- and forget-cued words. In both age groups, direct and indirect assessments produced better memory for remember- than for forget-cued words, even in Experiment 2 where the opportunity to selectively rehearse had been reduced by having subjects count aloud with each cue. These results suggest that retrieval inhibition plays a role in item-cued intentional forgetting, albeit one that is similar across ages. Furthermore, again in both age groups, performance on the word-stem completion tasks was enhanced in comparison with an immediate free-recall group, but only for material thought to be irrelevant (the forget-cued words). The facilitation on the priming tasks, however, did not carry over to a final free-recall task. These results on the effects of an intervening experience are discussed in terms of their implications for children's eyewitness testimony.

  9. Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis Serine Proteases and Evidence for Their Indirect Role in Insecticide Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Li, Ya-Li; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 μg/g β-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with β-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis. PMID:24566149

  10. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Howe, E. Lance; Murphy, James J.; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation PMID:27442434

  11. Indirect evidence that agricultural pesticides select for insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Luc, Djogbénou S; Benoit, Assogba; Laurette, Djossou; Michel, Makoutode

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the agricultural use of insecticides and the emergence of insecticide resistance. Bioassays were conducted using simulated mosquito larval habitats and well known Anopheles gambiae strains. Soil samples were collected from vegetable production areas in Benin, including one site with insecticide use, one site where insecticides had not been used for two months, and a third where insecticides had not been used. Pupation and emergence rates were very low in pyrethroid-susceptible strains when exposed to soil that had been recently exposed to insecticides. Pupation and emergence rates in strains with the kdr mutation alone or both the kdr and Ace-1 mutations were much higher. Overall, strains with the kdr mutation survived at higher rates compared to that without kdr mutation. Although this study is observational, we provide indirect evidence indicating that soils from agricultural areas contain insecticide residues that can play a role in the emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles. This aspect should be taken into account to better utilize the insecticide in the context of integrated pest management programs.

  12. INDIRECT EVIDENCE FOR ESCAPING IONIZING PHOTONS IN LOCAL LYMAN BREAK GALAXY ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik; Leitherer, Claus

    2015-09-10

    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear, however, what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing (Lyman continuum) photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV (FUV) spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 low-redshift galaxies that are good analogs to typical star-forming galaxies at high redshift. We measure three parameters that provide indirect evidence of the escape of ionizing radiation (leakiness): (1) the residual intensity in the cores of saturated interstellar low-ionization absorption lines, which indicates incomplete covering by that gas in the galaxy; (2) the relative amount of blueshifted Lyα line emission, which can indicate the existence of holes in the neutral hydrogen on the front-side of the galaxy outflow, and (3) the relative weakness of the [S ii] optical emission lines that trace matter-bounded H ii regions. We show that our residual intensity measures are only negligibly affected by infilling from resonance emission lines. We find all three diagnostics agree well with one another. We use these diagnostics to rank-order our sample in terms of likely leakiness, noting that a direct measure of escaping Lyman continuum has recently been made for one of the leakiest members of our sample. We then examine the correlations between our ranking and other proposed diagnostics of leakiness. We find a good correlation with the equivalent width of the Lyα emission line, but no significant correlations with either the flux ratio of the [O iii]/[O ii] emission lines or the ratio of star-formation rates derived from the (dust-corrected) FUV and Hα luminosities. Turning to galaxy properties, we find the strongest correlations with leakiness are with the compactness of the star

  13. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V.; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  14. Children with Autism Understand Indirect Speech Acts: Evidence from a Semi-Structured Act-Out Task

    PubMed Central

    Kissine, Mikhail; Cano-Chervel, Julie; Carlier, Sophie; De Brabanter, Philippe; Ducenne, Lesley; Pairon, Marie-Charlotte; Deconinck, Nicolas; Delvenne, Véronique; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism. PMID:26551648

  15. Children with Autism Understand Indirect Speech Acts: Evidence from a Semi-Structured Act-Out Task.

    PubMed

    Kissine, Mikhail; Cano-Chervel, Julie; Carlier, Sophie; De Brabanter, Philippe; Ducenne, Lesley; Pairon, Marie-Charlotte; Deconinck, Nicolas; Delvenne, Véronique; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of OCS Trapped in Solid Parahydrogen: Indirect Evidence of Large Amplitude Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David T.

    2016-06-01

    provide indirect evidence of this delocalization. We are currently trying to model the effect of pH2 delocalization on the OCS vibrational frequency to compare with experiment and test this hypothesis. S. Grebenev, B. Sartakov, J.P. Toennies, A.F. Vilesov, Science 289, 1532-1535 (2000) J. Tang, Y. Xu, A.R.W. McKellar, W. Jäger, Science 297, 2030-2033 (2002)

  17. A Comparative Study of Certainty and Conventional Indirectness: Evidence from British English and Peninsular Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Rosina Marquez; Rainey, Isobel; Fulcher, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory empirical study into the perception of conventionally indirect requests in British English and Peninsular Spanish, given the high incidence of the pragmatic category over others in its encoding of politeness in both related and unrelated languages (cf. Blum-Kulka et al., 1989). More specifically,…

  18. Selective Cooperation in the Supermarket : Field Experimental Evidence for Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments suggest that mechanisms of indirect reciprocity might account for human cooperation. However, conclusive field data supporting the predictions of indirect reciprocity in everyday life situations is still scarce. Here, we attempt to compensate for this lack by examining the determinants of cooperative behavior in a German supermarket. Our methods were as follows: Confederates of the experimenter lined up at the checkout, apparently to buy a single item. As an act of cooperation, the waiting person in front (the potential helper) could allow the confederate to go ahead. By this means, the potential helper could take a cost (additional waiting time) by providing the confederate with a benefit (saved waiting time). We recorded the potential helpers' behavior and the number of items they purchased as a quantitative measure proportional to the confederate's benefit. Moreover, in a field experimental design, we varied the confederates' image by manipulating the item they purchased (beer vs. water). As predicted, the more waiting time they could save, the more likely the confederates were to receive cooperation. This relationship was moderated by the confederates' image. Cost-to-benefit ratios were required to be more favorable for beer-purchasing individuals to receive cooperation. Our results demonstrate that everyday human cooperation can be studied unobtrusively in the field and that cooperation among strangers is selective in a way that is consistent with current models of indirect reciprocity.

  19. Evidence for a Third aerosol Indirect Effect from Ship Tracks Observed by Calipso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, M.; Stephens, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    Ship tracks are a phenomenon that provide a unique way of studying aerosol effects on clouds because the regions of clouds that are heavily contaminated by pollution can be separated from adjacent regions of clean clouds formed in a marine boundary layer. Ship tracks have been used to study the 1st indirect radiative effect (Twomey, 1974) and also the 2nd indirect effect (Albrecht, 1989) because they often persist while the surrounding unpolluted clouds dissipate. A 3rd indirect effect is the change to cloud geometrical depth associated with the reduced precipitation in polluted clouds (Pincus and Baker, 1995). Presented for the first time, the vertical structure of ship tracks are used to confirm the presence of this 3rd indirect effect. Using the Lidar from Calipso, high vertical resolution data of cloud top height along ship track cross sections were used to calculate differences in height between ship tracks and the clean clouds adjacent to them. Using MODIS imagery to locate ship tracks collocated to the Calipso orbital track, over 100 ship track vertical profiles were used in the analysis. In addition, atmospheric stability was assessed for each ship track using temperature and moisture data from the ECMWF-AUX product collocated to the Calipso orbit. Height differences between ship tracks and unpolluted clouds were found to be strongly correlated with cloud cover fraction, dew point depression above cloud top, and lower tropospheric static stability. Ship tracks were most often observed to be elevated above the surrounding clouds by approximately 100 - 200 meters when the cloud cover fraction was below 90% and capped by a weak temperature inversion. Ship tracks were not elevated above the surrounding clouds when either cloud cover fraction was high, the stability was high, or the air above the clouds was dry. Since mean cloud top heights were about 650 m, ship tracks in partly cloudy regions were often elevated above the surrounding clouds by ~15-30%. The

  20. Evidence for an indirect transcriptional regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression by liver X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grempler, Rolf . E-mail: rolfgrempler@yahoo.de; Guenther, Susanne; Steffensen, Knut R.; Nilsson, Maria; Barthel, Andreas; Schmoll, Dieter

    2005-12-16

    Liver X receptor (LXR) paralogues {alpha} and {beta} (LXR{alpha} and LXR{beta}) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family and have oxysterols as endogenous ligands. LXR activation reduces hepatic glucose production in vivo through the inhibition of transcription of the key gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of G6Pase gene expression by LXR. Both T0901317, a synthetic LXR agonist, and the adenoviral overexpression of either LXR{alpha} or LXR{beta} suppressed G6Pase gene expression in H4IIE hepatoma cells. However, compared to the suppression of G6Pase expression seen by insulin, the decrease of G6Pase mRNA by LXR activation was delayed and was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. These observations, together with the absence of a conserved LXR-binding element within the G6Pase promoter, suggest an indirect inhibition of G6Pase gene expression by liver X receptors.

  1. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  2. Sampling Assumptions Affect Use of Indirect Negative Evidence in Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A classic debate in cognitive science revolves around understanding how children learn complex linguistic patterns, such as restrictions on verb alternations and contractions, without negative evidence. Recently, probabilistic models of language learning have been applied to this problem, framing it as a statistical inference from a random sample of sentences. These probabilistic models predict that learners should be sensitive to the way in which sentences are sampled. There are two main types of sampling assumptions that can operate in language learning: strong and weak sampling. Strong sampling, as assumed by probabilistic models, assumes the learning input is drawn from a distribution of grammatical samples from the underlying language and aims to learn this distribution. Thus, under strong sampling, the absence of a sentence construction from the input provides evidence that it has low or zero probability of grammaticality. Weak sampling does not make assumptions about the distribution from which the input is drawn, and thus the absence of a construction from the input as not used as evidence of its ungrammaticality. We demonstrate in a series of artificial language learning experiments that adults can produce behavior consistent with both sets of sampling assumptions, depending on how the learning problem is presented. These results suggest that people use information about the way in which linguistic input is sampled to guide their learning. PMID:27310576

  3. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha: evidence of an indirect mode of antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Manda, T; Shimomura, K; Mukumoto, S; Kobayashi, K; Mizota, T; Hirai, O; Matsumoto, S; Oku, T; Nishigaki, F; Mori, J

    1987-07-15

    The antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rTNF-alpha) was examined on murine tumors in mice and in cultured cells in vitro. Mice were implanted intradermally with Meth A fibrosarcoma (Meth A) on day 0. rTNF-alpha caused tumor necrosis and inhibited the tumor growth when given i.v. on day 7 or 10, but not when given on day 3. When rTNF-alpha was given i.v. in doses of 0.1-3.2 micrograms/mouse twice a week for 3 weeks beginning on day 7 or 11, the growth of solid Meth A, Colon 26 adenocarcinoma, Colon 38 carcinoma, Sarcoma-180, and M5076 reticulum cell sarcoma tumors implanted s.c. or intradermally was markedly inhibited, and the life of the mice bearing these tumors, except M5076 reticulum cell sarcoma, was prolonged. The growth of Meth A implanted i.m. was also markedly inhibited by rTNF-alpha given i.v. However, the life of mice bearing i.p. Colon 26 adenocarcinoma, MH134 hepatoma, Sarcoma-180, and Ehrlich carcinoma was not prolonged by rTNF-alpha given i.p. nine times (days 1-9) in doses up to 1.0 or 3.2 micrograms/mouse. Only in the case of mice bearing i.p. Meth A, the life was slightly prolonged by i.p. treatment with rTNF-alpha but not by i.v. treatment. In experiments against in vitro cultured cells, rTNF-alpha did not show any direct cytotoxicity against mouse tumor cells: Meth A, Colon 26 adenocarcinoma, Colon 38 carcinoma, and Sarcoma-180, but had a cytotoxic effect against L929 mouse fibroblast. The results suggest that rTNF-alpha is a unique antitumor drug with potent necrotizing activity against solid tumors in mice, and that this activity may derive from indirect mechanisms related to the growth of tumors and not to the direct cytotoxicity of the drug.

  4. Massage induces an immediate, albeit short-term, reduction in muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Eriksson Crommert, M; Lacourpaille, L; Heales, L J; Tucker, K; Hug, F

    2015-10-01

    Using ultrasound shear wave elastography, the aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the effect of massage on stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and (b) to determine whether this effect (if any) persists over a short period of rest. A 7-min massage protocol was performed unilaterally on MG in 18 healthy volunteers. Measurements of muscle shear elastic modulus (stiffness) were performed bilaterally (control and massaged leg) in a moderately stretched position at three time points: before massage (baseline), directly after massage (follow-up 1), and following 3 min of rest (follow-up 2). Directly after massage, participants rated pain experienced during the massage. MG shear elastic modulus of the massaged leg decreased significantly at follow-up 1 (-5.2 ± 8.8%, P = 0.019, d = -0.66). There was no difference between follow-up 2 and baseline for the massaged leg (P = 0.83) indicating that muscle stiffness returned to baseline values. Shear elastic modulus was not different between time points in the control leg. There was no association between perceived pain during the massage and stiffness reduction (r = 0.035; P = 0.89). This is the first study to provide evidence that massage reduces muscle stiffness. However, this effect is short lived and returns to baseline values quickly after cessation of the massage.

  5. Therapeutic mechanisms of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions: from indirect evidence to testable hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Pommy, Jessica M

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and drug addiction are major public health problems, and existing treatments are only moderately effective. Although there has been interest for over half a century in the therapeutic use of classic hallucinogens to treat addictions, clinical research with these drugs was halted at an early stage in the early 1970s, leaving many fundamental questions unanswered. In the past two decades, clinical research on classic hallucinogens has resumed, although addiction treatment trials are only now beginning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a targeted review of the research most relevant to the therapeutic potential of hallucinogens, and to integrate this information with current thinking about addiction and recovery. On the basis of this information, we present a heuristic model which organizes a number of hypotheses that may be tested in future research. We conclude that existing evidence provides a convincing rationale for further research on the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction.

  6. Serotonin2c receptor constitutive activity: in vivo direct and indirect evidence and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Lagière, Mélanie; Guthrie, Martin; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Serotonin2c (5-HT2c) receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system where they play a pivotal role in the regulation of neuronal network excitability. Along with this fundamental physiological function, 5-HT2c receptors are thought to be implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders and have become a major pharmacological target for the development of improved treatments of these disorders. In the past decade, many studies have focused on the constitutive activity of 5-HT2c receptors and the therapeutic potential of drugs acting as inverse agonists. Although the constitutive activity of the 5-HT2c receptor has been clearly described in vitro, the transposition of this concept to living animals is often difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, cumulating evidence has demonstrated the functional relevance of such property in regulating physiological systems in vivo both at the level of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The present review provides an update of the growing number of studies that show, by means of pharmacological tools, the participation of the constitutive activity of 5-HT2c receptors in the control of various biochemical and behavioural functions in vivo and emphasizes the functional organization of this constitutive control together with the phasic and tonic (involving the spontaneous release of 5-HT) modalities of the 5-HT2c receptor in the brain.

  7. An hypothesis regarding the origin of aneuploidy in man: indirect evidence from an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, M H

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that aneuploidy may be induced in about 10 to 20% of oocytes and recently ovulated eggs when female mice are given an intragastric injection of a dilute solution of ethanol. Similar rates of aneuploidy have also been observed when recently ovulated eggs are briefly exposed in vitro to a dilute solution of ethanol in tissue culture medium. These findings are briefly reviewed, and observations made on the possible underlying mechanism of induction of chromosome malsegregation in the ethanol exposed groups. Attention is drawn to evidence from a wide range of studies on the effect of ethanol, acetaldehyde (its primary metabolite), and anaesthetics on cell division and chromosome segregation in an attempt to substantiate an hypothesis regarding the mode of action of these agents. In the light of this information, it is hypothesised that exposure to ethanol probably interferes with the normal functioning of the cytoskeletal elements of the spindle apparatus, or its precursor elements, during the first or second meiotic divisions. An attempt is also made to account for the very high incidence of aneuploid conceptuses in man, a high proportion of which are spontaneously aborted. It is hypothesised that exposure to ethanol and other spindle active agents during appropriate stages of oogenesis (in particular during the first meiotic division), and possibly also during spermatogenesis, may be important aetiological factors in a proportion of those cases of spontaneous abortion with a numerical chromosome anomaly for which no other obvious cause is recognised. If it is valid to extrapolate from these experimental findings to the clinical situation in man, it is suggested that attention should also be drawn to the potentially greater hazard to the conceptus which could result from maternal alcohol consumption at and shortly before conception. PMID:4009642

  8. An Invasive Plant Promotes Its Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Competitiveness through Its Secondary Metabolites: Indirect Evidence from Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W. H.; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1–3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts. PMID:24817325

  9. Population-Level Impact of Ontario’s Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rosella, Laura C.; Wang, Jun; Le Saux, Nicole; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Harris, Tara; Bolotin, Shelly; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV) immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program. Methods Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE) and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE (“overall AGE”). The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified. Results Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22–0.39) and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62–0.75), respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: < 12 months, 12–23 months, 24–35 months, 3–4 years, and 5–19 years. Significant declines in overall AGE hospitalizations were observed across all age bands, including older adults > = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72–0.90). The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20–0.52) for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96) for overall AGE ED visits. Conclusions This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects. PMID:27168335

  10. The shocked gas of the BHR71 outflow observed by Herschel: indirect evidence for an atomic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedettini, M.; Gusdorf, A.; Nisini, B.; Lefloch, B.; Anderl, S.; Busquet, G.; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Leurini, S.; Podio, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. In the BHR71 region, two low-mass protostars IRS1 and IRS2 drive two distinguishable outflows. They constitute an ideal laboratory to investigate both the effects of shock chemistry and the mechanisms that led to their formation. Aims: We aim to define the global morphology of the warm gas component of the BHR71 outflow and at modelling its shocked component. Methods: We present the first far infrared Herschel images of the BHR71 outflows system in the CO (14-13), H2O (221-110), H2O (212-101) and [O i] 145 μm transitions, revealing the presence of several knots of warm, shocked gas associated with the fast outflowing gas. In two of these knots we performed a detailed study of the physical conditions by comparing a large set of transitions from several molecules to a grid of shock models. Results: The Herschel lines ratios in the outflow knots are quite similar, showing that the excitation conditions of the fast moving gas do not change significantly within the first 0.068 pc of the outflow, apart at the extremity of the southern blue-shifted lobe that is expanding outside the parental molecular cloud. Rotational diagram, spectral line profile and LVG analysis of the CO lines in knot A show the presence of two gas components: one extended, cold (T 80 K) and dense (n(H2) = 3 × 105-4 × 106 cm-3) and another compact (18''), warm (T = 1700-2200 K) with slightly lower density (n(H2) = 2 × 104-6 × 104 cm-3). In the two brightest knots (where we performed shock modelling) we found that H2 and CO are well fitted with non-stationary (young) shocks. These models, however, significantly underestimate the observed fluxes of [O i] and OH lines, but are not too far off those of H2O, calling for an additional, possibly dissociative, J-type shock component. Conclusions: Our modelling indirectly suggests that an additional shock component exists, possibly a remnant of the primary jet. Direct, observational evidence for such a jet must be searched for. Herschel is an

  11. Associations between adults' recalled childhood bullying victimization, current social anxiety, coping, and self-blame: evidence for moderation and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that bullying victimization is common during childhood and may have negative effects over the short term. Evidence is also emerging that childhood bullying victimization in the form of teasing may precipitate social anxiety in adulthood. The present study extended the field by testing for associations between adults' recall of four common subtypes of childhood bullying victimization and their current social anxiety. It also provided the first test of whether coping moderated those associations, if they were indirect effects through self-blame, and if sex differences existed. Data were collected from 582 students aged 23+ years at two universities in the UK. Collectively, and for social exclusion and relational victimization uniquely, the subtypes of bullying victimization did predict social anxiety. Evidence for hypothesized moderation and indirect effects was obtained but these varied by subtype of victimization (but not sex). The theoretical and practical implications of these results were discussed.

  12. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  13. Longitudinal relationships of religion with posttreatment depression severity in older psychiatric patients: evidence of direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Owen, Amy D; Koenig, Harold G; Steffens, David C; Payne, Martha E

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients (age 59+) were assessed before study treatment for major depressive disorder, and again after 3 months. Measures taken before study treatment included facets of religiousness (subjective religiosity, private prayer, worship attendance, and religious media use), social support, and perceived stress. Clinician-rated depression severity was assessed both before and after treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Structural equation modeling was used to test a path model of direct and indirect effects of religious factors via psychosocial pathways. Subjective religiousness was directly related to worse initial MADRS, but indirectly related to better posttreatment MADRS via the pathway of more private prayer. Worship attendance was directly related to better initial MADRS, and indirectly related to better post-treatment MADRS via pathways of lower stress, more social support, and more private prayer. Private prayer was directly related to better post-treatment MADRS. Religious media use was related to more private prayer, but had no direct relationship with MADRS.

  14. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment.

    PubMed

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-09-28

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  15. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  16. Evidence for a bubble-competition regime in indirectly driven ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D A; Smalyuk, V A; Kane, J O; Casner, A; Liberatore, S; Masse, L P

    2015-05-29

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130  μm thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  17. False memory for idiomatic expressions in younger and older adults: evidence for indirect activation of figurative meanings

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Stillman, Chelsea M.; Corriveau, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested). False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom) were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents. PMID:25101030

  18. False memory for idiomatic expressions in younger and older adults: evidence for indirect activation of figurative meanings.

    PubMed

    Coane, Jennifer H; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Stillman, Chelsea M; Corriveau, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested). False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom) were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents.

  19. Trace DNA evidence dynamics: An investigation into the deposition and persistence of directly- and indirectly-transferred DNA on regularly-used knives.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Georgina E; Butcher, Emma V; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Morgan, Ruth M

    2017-03-21

    Empirical data on the transfer and persistence of trace DNA are crucial to the evaluation of forensic DNA evidence. This evaluation can be complicated by the occurrence of indirect DNA transfer; the possibility of which is well established, but research into such transfer is often focussed on unrealistic situations, e.g. handling of DNA-free items after participants have shaken hands for 1-2min. To simulate more realistic scenarios, this study investigated the deposition and persistence of both directly- and indirectly-transferred DNA on knives that had been artificially set up as 'regularly-used'. Each knife was handled in a prescribed manner by a specific participant over two consecutive days to simulate regular use. Each participant then shook hands for 10s with a fellow volunteer and immediately stabbed one of their knives into a foam block repeatedly for 60s. DNA was recovered by mini-taping from triplicate sets of knife handles from four pairings of volunteers after regular use, and at one hour, one day and one week after the handshaking and stabbing events. Total amounts of DNA recovered from the knives, regularly used by a single person, varied among individuals; one volunteer consistently deposited significantly greater amounts than the others, whilst another volunteer did not always leave complete profiles. DNA attributed to the regular user persisted for at least a week, declining with increasing time between DNA deposition and recovery. Non-donor DNA was co-deposited at <5% of the profiles recovered, except for one volunteer, who consistently left DNA from their romantic partner on their knives at ∼25% and ∼11% of the profiles before and after the handshaking and stabbing events, respectively. In three pairings of volunteers, after the handshaking and stabbing events, alleles that could be attributed to the respective handshakers' profiles were detected as partial minor profiles, equating to ∼10% of the profiles recovered. For the fourth pairing

  20. Implication of external price referencing and parallel trade on pharmaceutical expenditure: indirect evidence from lower-income European countries.

    PubMed

    Elek, Péter; Takács, Eszter; Merész, Gergő; Kaló, Zoltán

    2016-10-03

    External price referencing (EPR) is applied more and more frequently worldwide by payers to control pharmaceutical prices. Together with the parallel trade of pharmaceuticals, EPR may result in lower pharmaceutical prices in higher-income countries and higher prices in lower-income countries, which implies that pharmaceutical expenditure grows more rapidly in the latter than in the former group. Our objective was to assess this hypothesis. We used hierarchical linear models on country-level panel data to show that-after controlling for compounding factors such as GDP, the proportion of the old-age population or life expectancy-the annual growth rate of pharmaceutical expenditure was 2.1% points larger in the lower- than in the higher-income members of the European Union between 2000 and 2008. This difference in trends became non-significant (0.6% points) after the onset of the global economic crisis. There was no significant difference between lower- and higher-income countries in the growth rate of non-pharmaceutical health expenditure in either period. Our results indirectly support the presence of price convergence of pharmaceuticals among European countries, and EPR and parallel trade may provide a reasonable explanation to the observed trend difference of pharmaceutical expenditure in the two groups of countries between 2000 and 2008. This higher growth rate of pharmaceutical expenditure put extra burden on public health care budgets in lower-income countries and resulted in disproportionately more cost-containment measures compared to higher-income countries after 2008. It remains to be seen whether the disappearance of the difference in trend growth rates due to special health policy interventions in countries with economic difficulties is temporary or permanent.

  1. Numerical modeling of basaltic sand ripples on Eagle crater as indirect evidence for the hysteresis effect in Martian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhaq, H.; Kok, J. F.; Michaels, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    indirect proof of the unique saltation mechanism on Mars. References Bridges, N. T. et al. 2012. Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars. Nature 485, 339-342. Kok, J. F. 2010. Differences in the wind speeds required for initiation versus continuation of sand transport on Mars: Implications for dunes and sand storms. Physical Review Letters, 104, 074502. Yizhaq, H., Balmforth, N.J and Provenzale, A. 2004. Blown by wind: Nonlinear dynamics of aeolian sand ripples. Physica D, 195, 207-228. Model simulation of normal ripples on Mars with parameters computed by COMSALT for different shear velocities with and without cohesion after one hour. The inset shows the final ripples profile for u*=0.65 m/s.

  2. Formation of Al2H7- anions--indirect evidence of volatile AlH3 on sodium alanate using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Zibrowius, Bodo

    2011-10-14

    After more than a decade of intense research on NaAlH(4) doped with transition metals as hydrogen storage material, the actual mechanism of the decomposition and rehydrogenation reaction is still unclear. Early on, monomeric AlH(3) was named as a possible transport shuttle for aluminium, but never observed experimentally. Here we report for the first time the trapping of volatile AlH(3) produced during the decomposition of undoped NaAlH(4) by an adduct of sodium alanate and crown ether. The resulting Al(2)H(7)(-) anion was identified by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy. Based on this indirect evidence of volatile alane, we present a simple description of the processes occurring during the reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH(4).

  3. Modulation of dayside on and neutral distributions at Venus Evidence of direct and indirect solar energy inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Cloutier, P. A.; Barnes, A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The details of solar variability and its coupled effects on the Venusian dayside are examined for evidence of short-term perturbations and associated energy inputs. Ion and neutral measurements obtained from the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer and Orbital Neutral mass Spectrometer are used to show that the dayside concentrations of CO2(+) and the neutral gas temperature are smoothly modulated with a 28-day cycle reasonably matching that of the solar F(10.7) and EUV fluxes. Earlier measurements show less pronounced and more irregular modulations and more conspicuous short-term day-to-day fluctuations in the ions and neutrals, as well as relatively large enhancements in the solar wind, which appear consistent with differences in solar coronal behavior during the two periods. It is suggested that the solar wind variations cause fluctuations in joule heating, producing the observed short-term ion and neutral variations.

  4. Can Chronic Disease Management Programs for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Reduce Productivity-Related Indirect Costs of the Disease? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Jane N.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Phillips, Charles D.; Zhao, Hongwei; Ory, Marcia G.; Forjuoh, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective was to assess the impacts of diabetes self-management programs on productivity-related indirect costs of the disease. Using an employer's perspective, this study estimated the productivity losses associated with: (1) employee absence on the job, (2) diabetes-related disability, (3) employee presence on the job, and (4) early mortality. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and survey responses of 376 adults aged ≥18 years who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of type 2 diabetes self-management programs. All study participants had uncontrolled diabetes and were randomized into one of 4 study arms: personal digital assistant (PDA), chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP), combined PDA and CDSMP, and usual care (UC). The human-capital approach was used to estimate lost productivity resulting from 1, 2, 3, and 4 above, which are summed to obtain total productivity loss. Using robust regression, total productivity loss was modeled as a function of the diabetes self-management programs and other identified demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to subjects in the UC arm, there were no statistically significant differences in productivity losses among persons undergoing any of the 3 diabetes management interventions. Males were associated with higher productivity losses (+$708/year; P<0.001) and persons with greater than high school education were associated with additional productivity losses (+$758/year; P<0.001). Persons with more than 1 comorbid condition were marginally associated with lower productivity losses (-$326/year; P=0.055). No evidence was found that the chronic disease management programs examined in this trial affect indirect productivity losses. (Population Health Management 2014;17:112–120) PMID:24152055

  5. Can chronic disease management programs for patients with type 2 diabetes reduce productivity-related indirect costs of the disease? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omolola E; Bolin, Jane N; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Phillips, Charles D; Zhao, Hongwei; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to assess the impacts of diabetes self-management programs on productivity-related indirect costs of the disease. Using an employer's perspective, this study estimated the productivity losses associated with: (1) employee absence on the job, (2) diabetes-related disability, (3) employee presence on the job, and (4) early mortality. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and survey responses of 376 adults aged ≥18 years who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of type 2 diabetes self-management programs. All study participants had uncontrolled diabetes and were randomized into one of 4 study arms: personal digital assistant (PDA), chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP), combined PDA and CDSMP, and usual care (UC). The human-capital approach was used to estimate lost productivity resulting from 1, 2, 3, and 4 above, which are summed to obtain total productivity loss. Using robust regression, total productivity loss was modeled as a function of the diabetes self-management programs and other identified demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to subjects in the UC arm, there were no statistically significant differences in productivity losses among persons undergoing any of the 3 diabetes management interventions. Males were associated with higher productivity losses (+$708/year; P<0.001) and persons with greater than high school education were associated with additional productivity losses (+$758/year; P<0.001). Persons with more than 1 comorbid condition were marginally associated with lower productivity losses (-$326/year; P=0.055). No evidence was found that the chronic disease management programs examined in this trial affect indirect productivity losses.

  6. Experimental evidence for the evolution of indirect genetic effects: changes in the interaction effect coefficient, psi (Psi), due to sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Rundle, Howard D; Blows, Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Indirect genetics effects (IGEs)--when the genotype of one individual affects the phenotypic expression of a trait in another--may alter evolutionary trajectories beyond that predicted by standard quantitative genetic theory as a consequence of genotypic evolution of the social environment. For IGEs to occur, the trait of interest must respond to one or more indicator traits in interacting conspecifics. In quantitative genetic models of IGEs, these responses (reaction norms) are termed interaction effect coefficients and are represented by the parameter psi (Psi). The extent to which Psi exhibits genetic variation within a population, and may therefore itself evolve, is unknown. Using an experimental evolution approach, we provide evidence for a genetic basis to the phenotypic response caused by IGEs on sexual display traits in Drosophila serrata. We show that evolution of the response is affected by sexual but not natural selection when flies adapt to a novel environment. Our results indicate a further mechanism by which IGEs can alter evolutionary trajectories--the evolution of interaction effects themselves.

  7. Evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms in the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 on the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Seto, David; Kar, Satyabrata; Quirion, Rémi

    1997-01-01

    The biphasic nature of the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by use of brain slice superfusion.Both the potentiating (10−13 M) and inhibitory (10−9 M) effects of IL-2 on hippocampal ACh release were stimulation-dependent and were blocked by a neutralizing IL-2 receptor antibody, suggesting the activation of typical IL-2 receptors in both cases.Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) failed to block the potentiation of ACh release induced by a very low concentration of IL-2 (10−13M) suggesting a direct effect on cholinergic nerve terminals.In contrast, the inhibitory effect seen at a higher concentration (10−9 M) was TTX-sensitive, and hence indicative of an indirect action.To establish the nature of this intermediate mediator, blockers of nitric oxide synthesis, and of opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were used. Only GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists altered the inhibitory action of IL-2, suggesting the participation of GABA as mediator.Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the potent role of IL-2 in the modulation of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus. PMID:9134229

  8. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  9. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  10. Do conditions in early life affect old-age mortality directly and indirectly? Evidence from 19th-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Broström, Göran

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the disease load experienced during the birth year, measured as the infant mortality rate, had a significant influence on old-age mortality in nineteenth-century rural Sweden. We know that children born in years with very high rates of infant mortality, due to outbreaks of smallpox or whooping cough, and who still survived to adulthood and married, faced a life length several years shorter than others. We do not know, however, whether this is a direct effect, caused by permanent physical damage leading to fatal outcomes later in life, or an indirect effect, via its influence on accumulation of wealth and obtained socio-economic status. The Scanian Demographic Database, with information on five rural parishes in southern Sweden between 1813 and 1894, contains the data needed to distinguish between the two mechanisms. First, the effects of conditions in childhood on obtained socio-economic status as an adult are analyzed, then the effects of both early-life conditions and socio-economic status at various stages of life on old-age mortality. By including random effects, we take into account possible dependencies in the data due to kinship and marriage. We find that a high disease load during the first year of life had a strong negative impact on a person's ability to acquire wealth, never before shown for a historical setting. This means that it is indeed possible that the effects of disease load in the first year of life indirectly affect mortality in old age through obtained socio-economic status. We find, however, no effects of obtained socio-economic status on old-age mortality. While the result is interesting per se, constituting a debatable issue, it means that the argument that early-life conditions indirectly affect old-age mortality is not supported. Instead, we find support for the conclusion that the effect of the disease load in early-life is direct or, in other words, that physiological damage from severe infections at the

  11. Evidence of chemical stimulation of hepatic metabolism by an experimental acetanilide (FOE 5043) indirectly mediating reductions in circulating thyroid hormone levels in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Christenson, W R; Becker, B D; Wahle, B S; Moore, K D; Dass, P D; Lake, S G; Van Goethem, D L; Stuart, B P; Sangha, G K; Thyssen, J H

    1996-02-01

    N-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl]oxy]acetamide (FOE 5043) is a new acetanilide-type herbicide undergoing regulatory testing. Previous work in this laboratory suggested that FOE 5043-induced reductions in serum thyroxine (T4) levels were mediated via an extrathyroidal site of action. The possibility that the alterations in circulating T4 levels were due to chemical induction of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism was investigated. Treatment with FOE 5043 at a rate of 1000 ppm as a dietary admixture was found to significantly increase the clearance of [125I]T4 from the serum, suggesting an enhanced excretion of the hormone. In the liver, the activity of hepatic uridine glucuronosyl transferase, a major pathway of thyroid hormone biotransformation in the rat, increased in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner; conversely, hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity trended downward with dose. Bile flow as well as the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of [125I]T4 were increased following exposure to FOE 5043. Thyroidal function, as measured by the discharge of iodide ion in response to perchlorate, and pituitary function, as measured by the capacity of the pituitary to secrete thyrotropin in response to an exogenous challenge by hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone, were both unchanged from the controlled response. These data suggest that the functional status of the thyroid and pituitary glands has not been altered by treatment with FOE 5043 and that reductions in circulating levels of T4 are being mediated indirectly through an increase in the biotransformation and excretion of thyroid hormone in the liver.

  12. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  13. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  14. Direct and indirect pharmacological modulation of CCL2/CCR2 pathway results in attenuation of neuropathic pain - In vivo and in vitro evidence.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Klaudia; Rojewska, Ewelina; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Makuch, Wioletta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-08-15

    The repeated administration of microglial inhibitor (minocycline) and CCR2 antagonist (RS504393) attenuated the neuropathic pain symptoms in rats following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, which was associated with decreased spinal microglia activation and the protein level of CCL2 and CCR2. Furthermore, in microglia primary cell cultures minocycline downregulated both CCL2 and CCR2 protein levels after lipopolysaccharide-stimulation. Additionally, in astroglia primary cell cultures minocycline decreased the expression of CCL2, but not CCR2. Our results provide new evidence that modulation of CCL2/CCR2 pathway by microglial inhibitor as well as CCR2 antagonist is effective for neuropathic pain development in rats.

  15. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    PubMed

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  16. Indirect Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav

    1974-01-01

    When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon indirect ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to indirect ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to indirect induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of indirect ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889

  17. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  18. 19 CFR 18.26 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  19. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  20. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  1. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  2. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  3. The logic of indirect speech

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  4. The Efficacy of Natalizumab versus Fingolimod for Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review, Indirect Evidence from Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials and Meta-Analysis of Observational Head-to-Head Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Mavridis, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Dardiotis, Efthymios; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Kilidireas, Constantinos; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Fingolimod (FGD) and Natalizumab (NTZ) appear to be effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), they have never been directly compared in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Methods and Findings We evaluated the comparative efficacy of FGD vs. NTZ using a meta-analytical approach. Data from placebo-controlled RCTs was used for indirect comparisons and observational data was utilized for head-to-head comparisons. We identified 3 RCTs (2498 patients) and 5 observational studies (2576 patients). NTZ was associated with a greater reduction in the 2-year annualized relapse rate (ARR; SMDindirect = -0.24;95% CI: from -0.44 to -0.04; p = 0.005) and with the probability of no disease activity at 2 years (ORindirect:1.82, 95% CI: from 1.05 to 3.15) compared to FGD, while no differences between the two therapies were found in the proportion of patients who remained relapse-free (ORindirect = 1.20;95% CI: from 0.84 to 1.71) and those with disability progression (ORindirect = 0.76;95% CI: from 0.48 to 1.21) at 2 years. In the analysis of observational data, we found no significant differences between NTZ and FGD in the 2-year ARR (SMD = -0.05; 95% CI: from -0.26 to 0.16), and 2-year disability progression (OR:1.08;95% CI: from 0.77 to 1.52). However, NTZ-treated patients were more likely to remain relapse-free at 2-years compared to FGD (OR: 2.19;95% CI: from 1.15 to 4.18; p = z0.020). Conclusions Indirect analyses of RCT data and head-to-head comparisons of observational findings indicate that NTZ may be more effective than FGD in terms of disease activity reduction in patients with RRMS. However, head-to-head RCTs are required to independently confirm this preliminary observation. PMID:27684943

  5. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  6. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  7. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  8. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  9. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  10. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  11. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  12. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  13. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  14. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  15. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  16. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  17. The Acquisition of Direct and Indirect Objects in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David; And Others

    In an experiment conducted with 31 three-, four- and five-year-old Japanese children evidence was found for self-created definitions of the direct and indirect objects of verbs. Linguistic rules undergoing change during the course of the experiment were also observed. The results can be understood as showing that children are guided in their…

  18. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties.

  19. Evolutionary indirect effects of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-09-01

    Just as ecological indirect effects can have a wide range of consequences for community structure and ecosystem function, theory suggests that evolutionary indirect effects can also influence community dynamics and the outcome of species interactions. There is little empirical evidence documenting such effects, however. Here, I use a multi-generation selection experiment in the field to investigate: (1) how the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis affect the evolution of anti-herbivore resistance traits in the native plant Lotus wrangelianus and (2) how observed Lotus evolutionary responses to Hypera alter interactions between Lotus and other members of the herbivore community. In one of two study populations, I document rapid evolutionary changes in Lotus resistance to Hypera in response to insecticide treatments that experimentally reduced Hypera abundance, and in response to Medicago-removal treatments that also reduced Hypera abundance. These evolutionary changes in response to Hypera result in reduced attack by aphids. Thus, an evolutionary change caused by one herbivore species alters interactions with other herbivore taxa, an example of an eco-evolutionary feedback. Given that many traits mediate interactions with multiple species, the effects of evolutionary changes in response to one key biotic selective agent may often cascade through interaction webs to influence additional community members.

  20. Cooperation under Indirect Reciprocity and Imitative Trust

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors. PMID:21048950

  1. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  2. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2903.4 Section 2903.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost...

  4. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 Indirect costs. (a) For contracts subject to full CAS coverage, allocation of indirect costs shall be based...

  5. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 Indirect costs. (a) For contracts subject to full CAS coverage, allocation of indirect costs shall be based...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  7. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  8. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  9. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  10. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  11. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  12. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  13. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  14. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  15. 19 CFR 10.2024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.2024 Section 10.2024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.2013(i), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  16. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  17. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  18. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  19. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  20. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  1. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  2. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  3. 19 CFR 10.3024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.3013(h), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is...

  4. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  5. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  6. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  7. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  8. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with the... funds. Grantees electing this alternative will not be allowed to charge, as direct costs, indirect...

  9. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with the... funds. Grantees electing this alternative will not be allowed to charge, as direct costs, indirect...

  10. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with the... funds. Grantees electing this alternative will not be allowed to charge, as direct costs, indirect...

  11. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.

  12. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Raciborski, Filip; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment. PMID:27407258

  13. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  14. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  15. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control.

  16. Indirect discrimination and breast screening.

    PubMed

    Botha, J L; Manku-Scott, T K; Moledina, F; Williams, A

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of screening services in inner-city communities has been low, particularly in older age groups, lower social classes, and ethnic minorities. In Leicester City, where up to 25% of the population belong to ethnic minorities, this may have important implications for breast screening. We randomly sampled 701 inner-city women aged 45 to 64 years, stratified by neighborhood and by women's "likely home language." Trained interviewers succeeded in interviewing 79% of those eligible, and we report here a preliminary analysis of 413 respondents. Knowledge of breast cancer and screening varied markedly and significantly by actual language: 60.4% of English-speaking and 12.5% of non-English-speaking women correctly answered 10 or more questions (of 14) about breast cancer and screening (chi 2(1) = 89.884; P = .000). Despite that, 80% or more women stated their intention to attend for screening and assessment if necessary, irrespective of neighborhood, language, age, or social class. We suggest that the difference in knowledge between language groups arose from indirect discrimination in the way in which health-related information is disseminated in British society. However, after providing appropriate screening information, we report similarly high intended acceptance rates in the two language groups.

  17. Indirect cytotoxicity evaluation of pseudowollastonite.

    PubMed

    Dufrane, D; Delloye, C; McKay, I J; De Aza, P N; De Aza, S; Schneider, Y J; Anseau, M

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of substances leached by pseudowollastonite (CaSiO(3)). It has been previously shown that calcium (Ca(2+)) and silicate (SiO(3)(-)) ions are released from pseudowollastonite into biological solutions. Both of these ions are known to influence the biological metabolism of osteoblastic cells essential in the mineralization process and bone-bonding mechanism. The indirect toxicity evaluation was performed by extraction method, according to International Standard Organization (ISO). Pseudowollastonite pellets obtained by solid-state reaction were incubated, in culture medium, during 24, 48, 72 or 168 h at different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 50, 100, 200 mg/ml). The cytotoxicity of each extract in presence of human osteoblastic cell line (SaOS-2) was quantitatively assessed by measuring the viability (succinate dehydrogenase activity, MTT), the membrane integrity (the uptake of the neutral red by viable cells, NR) as well as the cell necrosis by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the culture medium. No significant alteration of membrane integrity or cell suffering was detectable. However, increased cell metabolism was observed for cells exposed to pseudowollastonite extract with longest extraction time (168 h). In conclusion, mineral elements leached by pseudowollastonite do not significantly affect the metabolism of osteoblastic cells.

  18. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  19. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  20. Conducting indirect-treatment-comparison and network-meta-analysis studies: report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hoaglin, David C; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P; Scott, David A; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for judiciously selecting the best treatment(s). Mixed treatment comparisons, a special case of network meta-analysis, combine direct evidence and indirect evidence for particular pairwise comparisons, thereby synthesizing a greater share of the available evidence than traditional meta-analysis. This report from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices Task Force provides guidance on technical aspects of conducting network meta-analyses (our use of this term includes most methods that involve meta-analysis in the context of a network of evidence). We start with a discussion of strategies for developing networks of evidence. Next we briefly review assumptions of network meta-analysis. Then we focus on the statistical analysis of the data: objectives, models (fixed-effects and random-effects), frequentist versus Bayesian approaches, and model validation. A checklist highlights key components of network meta-analysis, and substantial examples illustrate indirect treatment comparisons (both frequentist and Bayesian approaches) and network meta-analysis. A further section discusses eight key areas for future research.

  1. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  2. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  3. Sliding indirect hernia containing both ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol L

    2005-09-01

    Although sliding indirect inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large indirect inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.

  4. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The...

  5. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  6. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  7. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-10-14

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  8. Model for indirect laser surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sapogova, Natalia; Bredikhin, Vladimir; Bityurin, Nikita; Kamensky, Vladislav; Zhigarcov, Vjacheslav; Yusupov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for laser cutting of biological tissue by a strongly heated fiber tip with a highly absorbing coating. A significant dependence of the cutting speed and cutting depth on the inclination angle of the scalpel to the surface when scattering exceeds absorption in the biological tissue is shown. Experimental evidences of this effect are presented. In the experiment, we used silica fiber with coating made of carbon and silicon organic varnish, the 0.97-µm wavelength laser and porcine skin. The additional opportunity to increase the efficiency of cutting by deposition of the absorbing layer on the tissue surface is considered. PMID:28101404

  9. [Development of an Excel spreadsheet for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons].

    PubMed

    Tobías, Aurelio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Roqué, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses in clinical research usually aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety in direct comparison with a unique comparator. Indirect comparisons, using the Bucher's method, can summarize primary data when information from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent. Mixed comparisons allow combining estimates from direct and indirect comparisons, increasing statistical power. There is a need for simple applications for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed comparisons. These can easily be conducted using a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. We developed a spreadsheet for indirect and mixed effects comparisons of friendly use for clinical researchers interested in systematic reviews, but non-familiarized with the use of more advanced statistical packages. The use of the proposed Excel spreadsheet for indirect and mixed comparisons can be of great use in clinical epidemiology to extend the knowledge provided by traditional meta-analysis when evidence from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent.

  10. A comparative investigation of seven indirect attitude measures.

    PubMed

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    We compared the psychometric qualities of seven indirect attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N = 23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with indirect and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the exclusion of misbehaving or well-behaving participants. All seven indirect measures correlated with each other and with direct measures of the same topic. These relations were always weak for self-esteem, moderate for race, and strong for politics. This pattern suggests that some of the sources of variation in the reliability and predictive validity of the indirect measures is a function of the concepts rather than the methods. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and Brief IAT (BIAT) showed the best overall psychometric quality, followed by the Go–No-Go association task, Single-Target IAT (ST-IAT), Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP), Sorting Paired Features task, and Evaluative Priming. The AMP showed a steep decline in its psychometric qualities when people with extreme attitude scores were removed. Single-category attitude scores computed for the IAT and BIAT showed good relationships with other attitude measures but no evidence of discriminant validity between paired categories. The other measures, especially the AMP and ST-IAT, showed better evidence for discriminant validity. These results inform us on the validity of the measures as attitude assessments, but do not speak to the implicitness of the measured constructs.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis with indirect amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Olefirowicz, T M; Ewing, A G

    1990-01-19

    The use of indirect amperometric detection with capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The system consists of a porous glass coupler which allows amperometric detection at a carbon fiber electrode placed in the end of the capillary. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzylamine is added to the buffer system as a continuously eluting electrophore. Indirect amperometric detection in 9-mumol I.D. capillaries provides detection limits as low as 380 attomole for the amino acid arginine. Finally, both direct and indirect amperometric detection can be accomplished simultaneously.

  12. Analysis on near field scattering spectra around nanoparticles by using parametric indirect microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoyan, Liu; Kun, Gao; Xuefeng, Liu; Guoqiang, Ni

    2016-10-01

    We report the simulation and measurement results of near field spatial scattering spectra around nanoparticles. Our measurement and simulations results have indicated that Parametric Indirect Microscopic Imaging can image the near field spatial scattering to a much larger distance from the scattering source of the particle under measurement whereas this part of spatial scattering was lost in the conventional microscopy. Both FDTD modeling and measurement provided evidence that parameters of indirect optical wave vector have higher sensitivity to near field scattering.

  13. Indirect Lighting--a Matter of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of indirect lighting and the use of high intensity discharge light sources reveal that the most efficient lighting system can also be the most economical. (Author/MLF)

  14. Direct and indirect effects in causal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Literature-derived networks of biomolecular interactions representing cause-effect relationships generally contain many indirect relationships where the actually observed causal effect results from a sequence of events represented in the same network. A statistical method is developed, based on an Ising-like spin model operating on the edges of the network, to distinguish between direct and indirect effects using only the network structure itself. This allows to identify paths representing likely causation mechanisms.

  15. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game.

  16. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  17. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost... Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement, executed by both parties. The Negotiated Indirect Cost...

  18. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  19. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  20. Estradiol: a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Lisa A

    2004-08-01

    The classic analyses of the inhibitory effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on meal size, conducted by Professor Gerard P. Smith and his colleagues at the Bourne Laboratory, inspired my initial interest in this field. My current research, which investigates the role of estradiol in the control of meal size, continues to be guided by Gerry's thoughtful, scientific approach to the study of ingestive behavior. In 1996, the year I arrived as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Bourne Laboratory, Gerry published a new theory of the controls of meal size. In this important paper, Gerry proposed that the controls of meal size can be either direct or indirect. He argued that direct controls of meal size interact with peripheral, preabsorptive receptors that are sensitive to the chemical, mechanical, and colligative properties of ingested food and that indirect controls of meal size function to modulate the activity of direct controls. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how Gerry's theory has guided much of what is known about the mechanism by which estradiol inhibits food intake in female rats. I will provide evidence, primarily from behavioral studies of gonadally intact and ovariectomized rats, that estradiol exerts phasic and tonic inhibitory effects on food intake by acting as a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

  1. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Farinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  2. Indirect interactions between invasive and native plants via pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Müller, Christine B.

    2009-03-01

    In generalised pollination systems, the presence of alien plant species may change the foraging behaviour of pollinators on native plant species, which could result in reduced reproductive success of native plant species. We tested this idea of indirect interactions on a small spatial and temporal scale in a field study in Mauritius, where the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum, provides additional floral resources for insect pollinators. We predicted that the presence of flowering guava would indirectly and negatively affect the reproductive success of the endemic plant Bertiera zaluzania, which has similar flowers, by diverting shared pollinators. We removed P. cattleianum flowers within a 5-m radius from around half the B. zaluzania target plants (treatment) and left P. cattleianum flowers intact around the other half (control). By far, the most abundant and shared pollinator was the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, but its visitation rates to treatment and control plants were similar. Likewise, fruit and seed set and fruit size and weight of B. zaluzania were not influenced by the presence of P. cattleianum flowers. Although other studies have shown small-scale effects of alien plant species on neighbouring natives, we found no evidence for such negative indirect interactions in our system. The dominance of introduced, established A. mellifera indicates their replacement of native insect flower visitors and their function as pollinators of native plant species. However, the pollination effectiveness of A. mellifera in comparison to native pollinators is unknown.

  3. Evaluation of Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Hudson, J D.; Breon, Francois

    2001-04-01

    We evaluate aerosol indirect radiative forcing simulated by the Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Global Exchanges (MIRAGE). Although explicit measurements of aerosol indirect radiative forcing do not exist, measurements of many of the links between aerosols and indirect radiative forcing are available and can be used for evaluation. These links include the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, the ratio of droplet number to aerosol number, the droplet number concentration, the column droplet number, the column cloud water, the droplet effective radius, the cloud optical depth, the correlation between cloud albedo and droplet effective radius, and the cloud radiative forcing. The CCN concentration simulated by MIRAGE agrees with measurements for supersaturations larger than 0.1%, but not for smaller supersaturations. Simulated droplet number concentrations are too low in most, but not all, locations with available measurements, even when normalized by aerosol number. MIRA GE correctly simulates the higher droplet numbers and smaller droplet sizes over continents and in the Northern Hemisphere. Biases in column cloud water, cloud optical depth, and shortwave cloud radiative forcing are evident in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and in the subtropical oceans. MIRAGE correctly simulates a negative correlation between cloud albedo and droplet size over remote oceans for cloud optical depths greater than 15 and a positive correlation for cloud optical depths less than 15, but fails to simulate a negative correlation over land.

  4. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  5. Functional interactions in the use of direct and indirect defences in native Nicotiana plants.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, I T

    1999-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata has both direct (induced nicotine production) and indirect (induced release of mono- and sesquiterpenes) defences induced by herbivore attack; both are activated by the jasmonate cascade, albeit in different tissues (roots and shoots, respectively). The fact that both types of defences are induced suggests that their benefits are conditional. Indeed, jasmonate treatment of roots to induce nicotine production increases plant fitness correlates (lifetime viable seed production) when plants are grown in environments with herbivores, but decreases fitness when they are not. Because inducing nicotine production can make 6% of a plant's nitrogen budget unavailable for seed production, it can exact a resource-based cost. Volatile production is likely to be less costly but could make plants more 'apparent' to herbivores and thereby exact an ecological cost. Direct defences could also have ecological costs if they are sequestered by specialist herbivores and used against their enemies. Herbivory by the nicotine-tolerant herbivore Manduca sexta dramatically amplifies the increase in jasmonates and the quantity of volatiles released, but decreases the nicotine response in comparison to mechanical simulations of the wounding that larval feeding causes. The apparent switching from nicotine production to the release of volatiles may reflect incompatibilities in the use of direct and indirect defences with specialist herbivores.

  6. Evidence that Argos is an antagonistic ligand of the EGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Vinós, J; Freeman, M

    2000-07-20

    Argos, the inhibitor of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, remains the only known extracellular inhibitor of this family of receptors in any organism. The functional domain of Argos includes an atypical EGF domain and it is not clear whether it binds to the EGF receptor or if it acts via a distinct receptor to reduce Egfr activity indirectly. Here we present two lines of evidence that strongly suggest that Argos directly interacts with the EGF receptor. First, Argos is unable to inhibit a chimeric receptor that contains an extracellular domain from an unrelated RTK, indicating the need for the EGF receptor extracellular domain. Second, Argos can inhibit the Drosophila EGF receptor even when expressed in human cells, implying that no other Drosophila protein is necessary for inhibition. We also report that Argos and the Drosophila activating ligand, Spitz, can influence mammalian RTK activation, albeit in a cell-type specific manner. This includes the first evidence that Argos can inhibit signalling in mammalian cells, raising the possibility of engineering an effective human EGF receptor/ErbB antagonist. Oncogene (2000) 19, 3560 - 3562

  7. [Indirect costs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Barth, F; Baum, B; Bremen, D; Meuser, T; Jost, W H

    2005-04-01

    The economic impact of parkinsonism has been getting more significant due to the increasing prevalence of Parkinson's disease and the modern therapies available nowadays. The present study is supposed to update the existing databases and to provide a sound foundation for rational decision-making in the health care sector. It does not only focus on the direct costs of this disease incurred by 75 patients over a longer period, but also and for the first time, takes a look on the indirect cost as well. The study shows that the expenses for PD-related house rebuilding and early retirement make up for a substantial share among the indirect costs. In the overall analysis, the ratio between both, direct and indirect costs appear to be relatively balanced with slight domination of the direct costs.

  8. Household Health Costs: Direct, Indirect and Intangible

    PubMed Central

    YOUSEFI, Mehdi; ASSARI ARANI, Abbas; SAHABI, Bahram; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoshirvan; FAZAELI, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed at identifying components of the household health costs. Methods This study was a qualitative research conducted in two main phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. They were to identify components of the household health costs. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, indirect and intangible based on a content analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, 93 components of households’ health costs were identified. According to the content analysis, 44 components were categorized as direct costs, 10 components were indirect and 39 components were categorized as intangible. Conclusion All components of households’ health costs including: direct, indirect and intangible costs, should be considered in the planning and policy-making in the health system. PMID:26060744

  9. The athlete's biological passport and indirect markers of blood doping.

    PubMed

    Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial

    2010-01-01

    In the fight against doping, disciplinary sanctions have up to now been primarily based on the discovery of an exogenous substance in a biological fluid of the athlete. However, indirect markers of altered erythropoiesis can provide enough evidence to differentiate between natural variations and blood doping. Forensic techniques for the evaluation of the evidence, and more particularly Bayesian networks, allow antidoping authorities to take into account firstly the natural variations of indirect markers - through a mathematical formalism based on probabilities - and secondly the complexity due to the multiplicity of causes and confounding effects - through a distributed and flexible graphical representation. The information stored in an athlete's biological passport may be then sufficient to launch a disciplinary procedure against the athlete. The strength of the passport is that it relies on a statistical approach based on sound empirical testing on large populations and justifiable protocols. Interestingly, its introduction coincides with the paradigm shift that is materializing today in forensic identification science, from archaic assumptions of absolute certainty and perfection to a more defensible empirical and probabilistic foundation.

  10. Quantification of progress in indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; ElSawy, A.; Tomlinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the economic and technical impact of incorporating various advanced technologies into the indirect coal liquefaction system. These advanced technologies include entrained flow Shell gasification and slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. This objective was accomplished by substituting the Shell entrained goal gasifier system for the Lurgi and the advanced slurry F-T reactor for the Synthol and ARGE F-T systems in a SASOL-type indirect liquefaction facility. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  12. Direct and Indirect Links between Peer Factors and Adolescent Adjustment Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Cui, Lixian; Bosler, Cara D.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of emotion regulation in the link between peer factors and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The sample consisted of 206 adolescents (ages 10–18 years) and parents. Peer factors (i.e., peer antisocial behavior, peer co-rumination, peer emotion regulation) and youth depressive symptoms were based on youth reports. Youth emotion regulation and antisocial behavior were assessed using parent and youth ratings. Results showed that peer antisocial behavior was directly (but not indirectly) related to youth antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas peer emotion regulation was indirectly (but not directly) related to both adolescent outcomes. In addition, peer co-rumination was indirectly related to youth antisocial behavior and directly and indirectly related to youth depressive symptoms. In general, the results indicated little evidence of moderation by adolescent age, sex, or ethnic differences. Implications for peer relationships as socialization contexts are discussed. PMID:26893530

  13. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  14. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  15. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free...

  17. Have Indirect Emissions from Biofuels Been Exaggerated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Gurgel, A.; Melillo, J. M.; Reilly, J. M.; Cronin, T.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    The production of biofuels may lead to enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land to the atmosphere either by directly converting land to biofuel crops, or indirectly, by causing the displacement of food production and other land uses which then require additional land conversions. The importance of indirect GHG emissions from biofuel-related displacement of food production and other land uses is not known and is highly controversial. Here, we examine the direct and indirect land-use emissions over the 21st century from an expanded global bioenergy program, using a linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling system under two different land use policies. We account for the dynamics of potential carbon losses or gains from land-use change along with nitrous oxide emissions from increased N fertilizer application. We find that: 1) indirect emissions from land use are responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; 2) increased nitrous oxide emissions over the century are more important to the GHG balance than the carbon losses themselves; 3) the GHG effects of biofuels change in both sign and magnitude over time so that the GHG cost/benefit of biofuels depends on the time horizon considered; and 4) the economics of biofuels become favorable sooner with the protection of forests. While biofuels can be an effective low carbon energy source from a GHG balance perspective, the associated land conversions may lead to an unacceptable loss of other ecosystem services.

  18. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    Part of the FY 83 Army Study Program and intended to augment the FY 81 completed study titled ’ Nursing Care Hours Standards’ by providing valid and...reliable percentages for hospital patient nursing care unit requirements (i.e., direct care, indirect care, and non-productive time). These data

  19. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  20. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  1. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Banu, A.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.

    2010-08-12

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  2. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  3. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement...

  4. An Indirect Test of Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Martha; Shaw, Victor

    The development of an indirect oral proficiency test for foreign languages by the Defense Language Institute is described. The technique uses taped questions to elicit answers, also taped, that are evaluated according to the Foreign Service Institute's oral proficiency rating scale of 0 to 5. Tape recordings are used because of the large numbers…

  5. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  6. Indirect Methods for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2005-11-18

    Several indirect approaches for obtaining reaction cross sections are briefly reviewed. The Surrogate Nuclear Reactions method, which aims at determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions, is discussed in some detail. The validity of the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation in the Surrogate approach is studied for the example of neutron-induced fission of an actinide nucleus.

  7. Indirect emissions from biofuels: how important?

    PubMed

    Melillo, Jerry M; Reilly, John M; Kicklighter, David W; Gurgel, Angelo C; Cronin, Timothy W; Paltsev, Sergey; Felzer, Benjamin S; Wang, Xiaodong; Sokolov, Andrei P; Schlosser, C Adam

    2009-12-04

    A global biofuels program will lead to intense pressures on land supply and can increase greenhouse gas emissions from land-use changes. Using linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry models, we examined direct and indirect effects of possible land-use changes from an expanded global cellulosic bioenergy program on greenhouse gas emissions over the 21st century. Our model predicts that indirect land use will be responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; however, because of predicted increases in fertilizer use, nitrous oxide emissions will be more important than carbon losses themselves in terms of warming potential. A global greenhouse gas emissions policy that protects forests and encourages best practices for nitrogen fertilizer use can dramatically reduce emissions associated with biofuels production.

  8. Impact of developing technology on indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Lytton, M.; Neuworth, M.; Tomlinson, G.

    1980-11-01

    The status of commercial technology for indirect liquefaction, as exemplified by SASOL facilities in South Africa, is reviewed. The impact of substituting more advanced gasifiers and synthesis systems is then investigated. Slagging BGC/Lurgi, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers were substituted for the Dry Ash Lurgi units used at SASOL. SASOL SYNTHOL synthesis units were replaced by slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch units employing technology pioneered by Kolbel. The advanced systems were found to have a highly favorable impact on plant efficiency, product distribution and gasoline cost. If all the projected technical improvements can be realized for indirect liquefaction, the yields of refined transportation fuels per ton of coal will approach those anticipated for direct liquefaction processes.

  9. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  10. Indirect Acquisition of Information in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Fraas, M.; Fröhlich, J.; Schubnel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Long sequences of successive direct (projective) measurements or observations of just a few "uninteresting" physical quantities pertaining to a quantum system, such as clicks of some detectors, may reveal indirect, but precise and unambiguous information on the values of some very "interesting" observables of the system. In this paper, the mathematics underlying this claim is developed; i.e., we attempt to contribute to a mathematical theory of indirect and, in particular, non-demolition observations and measurements in quantum mechanics. Our attempt leads us to make some novel uses of classical notions and results of probability theory, such as the "algebra of functions measurable at infinity", the Central Limit Theorem, results concerning relative entropy and its role in the theory of large deviations, etc.

  11. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  12. Aerosol indirect effect dictated by liquid clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols have been shown to enhance the solar reflection from warm liquid clouds and mask part of the warming due to the buildup of greenhouse gases. However, very little is known about the effects of aerosol on mixed-phase stratiform clouds as well as other cloud regimes including cumulus, altocumulus, nimbostratus, deep convection, and anvil cirrus. These additional cloud categories are ubiquitous and typically overlooked in satellite-based assessments of the global aerosol indirect forcing. Here we provide their contribution to the aerosol indirect forcing estimate using satellite data collected from several colocated sensors in the A-train for the period 2006-2010. Cloud type is determined according to the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR CloudSat product, and the observations are matched to the radiative flux measurements from CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and aerosol retrievals from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The oceanic mean aerosol indirect forcing is estimated to be -0.20 ± 0.31 W m-2 with warm low-level cloud largely dictating the strength of the response (-0.36 ± 0.21 W m-2) due to their abundance and strong cloud albedo effect. Contributions from mixed-phase low-level cloud (0.01 ± 0.06 W m-2) and convective cloud (0.15 ± 0.23 W m-2) are positive and buffer the system due to strong aerosol-cloud feedbacks that reduce the cloud albedo effect and/or lead to convective invigoration causing a countering positive longwave warming response. By combining all major cloud categories together, aerosol indirect forcing decreases and now contains positive values in the uncertainty estimate.

  13. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  14. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  15. Transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Dorow, C. J.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    We present spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. Long indirect exciton lifetimes give the opportunity to measure magnetoexciton transport by optical imaging. Indirect excitons formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels (0e-0h indirect magnetoexcitons) travel over large distances and form a ring emission pattern around the excitation spot. In contrast, the spatial profiles of 1e-1h and 2e-2h indirect magnetoexciton emission closely follow the laser excitation profile. The 0e-0h indirect magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. These effects are explained in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement.

  16. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  17. [Direct and indirect costs of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Kissling, W; Höffler, J; Seemann, U; Müller, P; Rüther, E; Trenckmann, U; Uber, A; Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Glaser, P; Glaser, T; Mast, O; Schmidt, D

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the costs of schizophrenia in Germany were studied using the "bottom up" prevalence-based method. In a random sample of 180 schizophrenic patients stratified according to the most important care institutions, direct and indirect costs were retrospectively documented for a 12-month period. Depending on the place of recruitment and the extent of care provided, total yearly costs result between about DM 33,000 for a patient treated predominantly on an outpatient basis and about DM 126,000 for a patient requiring hospital care and about DM 135,000 for a patient in job rehabilitation. The direct yearly treatment costs were, as expected, lowest for patients recruited in the private practice of a psychiatrist and predominantly treated on an outpatient basis (DM 5,788), and were the highest in the psychiatric hospital (DM 64,661) and in job rehabilitation (DM 79,996). In the patients recruited in the outpatient domain, doctors' fees and medication together were responsible for only 4.5% of the total costs, whereas the indirect costs (e.g., through work incapacity) were responsible for 87% of the total yearly costs. For methodological reasons the total costs caused by schizophrenic psychoses in Germany per year can at present be estimated only roughly. A conservative estimate is between 8.5 and 18 billion DM per year. The study shows that schizophrenia is a very expensive illness, the direct and indirect costs of which are on the whole comparable to those of the common somatic illnesses. Therefore, also for economical reasons, sufficient financial means should be invested in the research and treatment of this severe illness.

  18. Indirect Dietary Residential Exposure Assessment Model (IDREAM) Implementation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indirect Dietary Residential Exposure Assessment Model (IDREAM) estimates indirect ingestion exposure to disinfectants used in residential settings on hard surfaces where there may be inadvertent transfer to edible items prepared on those surfaces.

  19. Indirect genomic effects on survival from gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Ferkingstad, Egil; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Lyng, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    In cancer, genes may have indirect effects on patient survival, mediated through interactions with other genes. Methods to study the indirect effects that contribute significantly to survival are not available. We propose a novel methodology to detect and quantify indirect effects from gene expression data. We discover indirect effects through several target genes of transcription factors in cancer microarray data, pointing to genetic interactions that play a significant role in tumor progression. PMID:18358079

  20. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or indirectly by...

  1. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which assure proper control and distribution of the overhead and indirect construction costs. ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907... REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.907 Overhead and indirect construction costs. (a) A...

  2. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  3. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. 742.770 Section 742.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect...

  4. 48 CFR 3442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 3442.705 Section 3442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 3442.705 Final indirect cost...

  5. 48 CFR 1542.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final indirect cost rates. 1542.705 Section 1542.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  11. Effect of private information on indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi

    2010-09-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the key mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It relies on mutual monitoring and assessments, i.e., individuals collect information about the past behavior of others and judge whether that behavior is "good" or "bad." A player will not be helped if labeled with a bad image. There are many ways for assessing others, each of which can be interpreted as an elementary form of a moral sense (i.e., a view on what is good or bad). The information can be either public or private: private information can lead to mismatches between the opinions of individuals even when they share the same moral sense. In this paper, the effect of private information on the best-known assessment rules is investigated. In order to calculate payoffs, the concept of an image matrix is introduced. It describes who is good in the eyes of whom, and its time evolution is given by a probabilistic Boolean automaton. In contrast to the public information case, private information leads to the collapse of the sterner assessment rule. Alternatively, stable polymorphisms may subsist, with the milder rule and a more simple-minded rule coexisting together with unconditional cooperators; thus, cooperation can be sustained by indirect reciprocity even in the absence of public information.

  12. Effect of private information on indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoshi

    2010-09-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the key mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It relies on mutual monitoring and assessments, i.e., individuals collect information about the past behavior of others and judge whether that behavior is “good” or “bad.” A player will not be helped if labeled with a bad image. There are many ways for assessing others, each of which can be interpreted as an elementary form of a moral sense (i.e., a view on what is good or bad). The information can be either public or private: private information can lead to mismatches between the opinions of individuals even when they share the same moral sense. In this paper, the effect of private information on the best-known assessment rules is investigated. In order to calculate payoffs, the concept of an image matrix is introduced. It describes who is good in the eyes of whom, and its time evolution is given by a probabilistic Boolean automaton. In contrast to the public information case, private information leads to the collapse of the sterner assessment rule. Alternatively, stable polymorphisms may subsist, with the milder rule and a more simple-minded rule coexisting together with unconditional cooperators; thus, cooperation can be sustained by indirect reciprocity even in the absence of public information.

  13. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  14. Direct and indirect responses of a freshwater food web to a potent synthetic oestrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Karen A.; Paterson, Michael J.; Rennie, Michael D.; Podemski, Cheryl L.; Findlay, Dave L.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Liber, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in municipal effluents directly affect the sexual development and reproductive success of fishes, but indirect effects on invertebrate prey or fish predators through reduced predation or prey availability, respectively, are unknown. At the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, a long-term, whole-lake experiment was conducted using a before-after-control-impact design to determine both direct and indirect effects of the synthetic oestrogen used in the birth control pill, 17α-ethynyloestradiol (EE2). Algal, microbial, zooplankton and benthic invertebrate communities showed no declines in abundance during three summers of EE2 additions (5–6 ng l−1), indicating no direct toxic effects. Recruitment of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) failed, leading to a near-extirpation of this species both 2 years during (young-of-year, YOY) and 2 years following (adults and YOY) EE2 additions. Body condition of male lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and male and female white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) declined before changes in prey abundance, suggesting direct effects of EE2 on this endpoint. Evidence of indirect effects of EE2 was also observed. Increases in zooplankton, Chaoborus, and emerging insects were observed after 2 or 3 years of EE2 additions, strongly suggesting indirect effects mediated through the reduced abundance of several small-bodied fishes. Biomass of top predator lake trout declined by 23–42% during and after EE2 additions, most probably an indirect effect from the loss of its prey species, the fathead minnow and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Our results demonstrate that small-scale studies focusing solely on direct effects are likely to underestimate the true environmental impacts of oestrogens in municipal wastewaters and provide further evidence of the value of whole-ecosystem experiments for understanding indirect effects of EDCs and other aquatic stressors. PMID:25405967

  15. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  16. Remote Leak Detection: Indirect Thermal Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The Indirect Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and tested in the laboratory.

  17. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing on active lesion into on arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented.

  18. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing an active lesion into an arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented.

  19. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  20. Organic waste destruction by indirect electrooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Leffrang, U.; Ebert, K.; Flory, K.

    1995-04-01

    The destruction of organic model substances by indirect electrooxidation was investigated. The oxidation agent Co(III) was used because of the high redox potential of the Co(III)/Co(II) redox couple (E{sub O}=1.808 V). Experiments were performed in a batch and in a continuous electrolytic cell by using various model substances (especially phenol and different chlorophenols). Intermediate and final products of the oxidation were identified and quantified. Organic carbon is ultimately transformed to CO{sub 2} and to small amounts of CO. The residual carbon in the process solution was determined by TOC measurement to be about 20 ppm. Organic chlorine is oxidized via chlorate to perchlorate. The remaining amount of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was less than 3 ppm. Based on these results, a pilot plant was constructed and is presently in operation.

  1. The indirect binary n-cube array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The array is built from a large number (hundreds or thousands) of microprocessors or microcomputers linked through a switching network into an indirect binary n-cube array. Control is two level, the array operating synchronously, or in lock step, at the higher level, and with the broadcast commands being locally interpreted into rewritable microinstruction streams in the microprocessors and in the switch control units. The key to the design is the switching array. By properly programming it, the array can be made into a wide variety of virtual arrays which are well adapted to a wide range of applications. It is believed that the flexibility of the switching array can be used to obtain fault avoidance, which appears necessary in any highly parallel design.

  2. The indirect electrochemical refining of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent work performed on an electrolytic cell is reported which addresses the implicit limitations in various approaches to refining lunar ores. The cell uses an oxygen vacancy conducting stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte to effect separation between a molten salt catholyte compartment where alkali metals are deposited, and an oxygen-evolving anode of composition La(0.89)Sr(0.1)MnO3. The cell configuration is shown and discussed along with a polarization curve and a steady-state current-voltage curve. In a practical cell, cathodically deposited liquid lithium would be continuously removed from the electrolytic cell and used as a valuable reducing agent for ore refining under lunar conditions. Oxygen would be indirectly electrochemically extracted from lunar ores for breathing purposes.

  3. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  4. A peculiar variety of indirect inguinal hernia (juxtacordal indirect inguinal hernia)

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Indirect inguinal hernias are usually congenital, forming a sac in the core of the spermatic cord covered by the internal spermatic, cremasteric, and external spermatic fasciae1−3. Direct inguinal hernias are acquired; the sac lies beside/behind the cord1−3. A rare third type is a combination of indirect and direct sacs on both sides of inferior epigastric vessels1−3. We describe a rare fourth type, juxtacordal indirect oblique inguinal hernia (Fig. 1), in which the sac emerges through a weakness in the deep inguinal ring, lateral to inferior epigastric vessels, and passes into the inguinal canal beside and in contact with the cord but outside of its covering fasciae. Objective Describes a very rare variety of inguinal hernia. Design Case reports. Setting Tikrit Teaching Hospital/Salahuddin/Iraq. Participants: and presentation The first case; a 5-year-old male with right inguinal hernia, the second case; a 25-year-old man with right inguinal hernia, the third case; a 60-year-old man with right inguinal hernia. Interventions Surgery has been done electively for all. Results and discussion Because the sac emerges through the deep inguinal ring and passes through the inguinal canal, it is an indirect type and because it passes beside the spermatic cord we call it juxtacordal hernia. Because of the thick extraperitoneal fat layer over the sac, we think this hernia is acquired. Conclusions Knowing this type of hernia might reduce the risk of inferior epigastric vessels injury and lower the rate of recurrence. PMID:26052435

  5. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  6. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  7. Environmental risk analysis for indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Suter, G.W. II; Baes, C.F. III; Bartell, S.M.; Cavendish, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the risks to fish, water quality (due to noxious algal blooms), crops, forests, and wildlife of two technologies for the indirect liquefaction of coal: Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek gasification of coal for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A variety of analytical techniques were used to make maximum use of the available data to consider effects of effluents on different levels of ecological organization. The most significant toxicants to fish were found to be ammonia, cadmium, and acid gases. An analysis of whole-effluent toxicity indicated that the Lurgi effluent is more acutely toxic than the Koppers-Totzek effluent. Six effluent components appear to pose a potential threat of blue-green algal blooms, primarily because of their effects on higher trophic levels. The most important atmospheric emissions with respect to crops, forests, and wildlife were found to be the conventional combustion products SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. Of the materials deposited on the soil, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel appear of greatest concern for phytotoxicity. 147 references, 5 figures, 41 tables.

  8. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  9. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

    PubMed

    Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

  10. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  11. 48 CFR 342.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and local governments, colleges and universities, hospitals, and other nonprofit organizations. (b) The Division of Financial Advisory Services, NIH, shall establish indirect cost rates, fringe...

  12. Indirect handle on the down-quark Yukawa coupling.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Florian

    2014-12-31

    To measure the Yukawa couplings of the up and down quarks, Yu,d, seems to be far beyond the capabilities of current and (near) future experiments in particle physics. By performing a general analysis of the potential misalignment between quark masses and Yukawa couplings, we derive predictions for the magnitude of induced flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs), depending on the shift in the physical Yukawa coupling of first-generation quarks. We find that a change of more than 50% in Yd would generically result in ds transitions in conflict with kaon physics. This could already be seen as evidence for a nonvanishing direct coupling of the down quark to the newly discovered Higgs boson. The nonobservation of certain--already well-constrained--processes is thus turned into a powerful indirect measure of otherwise basically unaccessible physical parameters of the effective standard model. Similarly, improvements in limits on FCNCs in the up-type quark sector can lead to valuable information on Yu.

  13. Indirect Selection for Antibiotic Resistance in Multiple Stream Microhabitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. S.; Peltier, G. L.; McArthur, J.

    2005-05-01

    One aspect challenging public health efforts to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) is the prevalence of resistant bacteria in the environment. Anthropogenic-derived sources of selection are typically implicated as mechanisms for maintaining AR in the environment. Here we report an additional mechanism for maintaining AR in the environment through co- or cross-resistance to heavy metals. Using culture-independent techniques, bacteria isolated from heavy-metal contaminated sites were more tolerant of antibiotics and metals compared to those bacteria from a reference site. This evidence supports our hypothesis that metal contamination directly selects for metal tolerant bacteria while indirectly selecting for antibiotic tolerant bacteria. Additionally, to assess how antibiotic- and metal-tolerance may be transported through a stream network, we studied antibiotic and metal-tolerance patterns over four months in bacteria collected from multiple stream microhabitats including water column, biofilm, sediment, and Corbicula fluminea (Asiatic clam) digestive tracts. Sediment bacteria were the most tolerant to antibiotics and metals, while bacteria from Corbicula were the least tolerant. Differences between these microhabitats may be important for predicting antibiotic resistance transfer and transport in stream environments. Further, temporal dynamics suggest that tolerance patterns within microhabitats are linked to physico-chemical characteristics of the stream.

  14. Indirect interband transition induced by optical near fields with large wave numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Optical near fields (ONFs) have Fourier components with large wave numbers that are two or three orders of magnitude larger than those of far-field propagating light owing to their nonuniformity in space. By utilizing these large wave numbers, the ONF is expected to induce an indirect interband transition between Bloch states having different wave numbers and directly generate an electron-hole pair without electron-phonon coupling. We perform time-dependent dynamics calculations of a one-dimensional periodic potential with an indirect band-gap structure and demonstrate that the ONF definitely induces an indirect interband transition. Instead of using the general Bloch boundary condition, which is usually imposed in conventional band structure calculations, we adopt an alternative boundary condition, the Born-von Kármán boundary condition, to appropriately treat indirect interband transitions. The calculated absorption spectra for the far-field and ONF excitations show different absorption edges and spectral patterns. We argue that this difference can be experimentally measured as evidence of the effects of the large wave numbers of the ONF.

  15. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  16. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty. PMID:26824895

  17. Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem.

    PubMed

    Panchanathan, Karthik; Boyd, Robert

    2004-11-25

    Models of large-scale human cooperation take two forms. 'Indirect reciprocity' occurs when individuals help others in order to uphold a reputation and so be included in future cooperation. In 'collective action', individuals engage in costly behaviour that benefits the group as a whole. Although the evolution of indirect reciprocity is theoretically plausible, there is no consensus about how collective action evolves. Evidence suggests that punishing free riders can maintain cooperation, but why individuals should engage in costly punishment is unclear. Solutions to this 'second-order free rider problem' include meta-punishment, mutation, conformism, signalling and group-selection. The threat of exclusion from indirect reciprocity can sustain collective action in the laboratory. Here, we show that such exclusion is evolutionarily stable, providing an incentive to engage in costly cooperation, while avoiding the second-order free rider problem because punishers can withhold help from free riders without damaging their reputations. However, we also show that such a strategy cannot invade a population in which indirect reciprocity is not linked to collective action, thus leaving unexplained how collective action arises.

  18. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instruction on Fostering Decision-Making Competence in Socioscientific Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke

    2013-04-01

    In this study the effects of different learning environments on the promotion of decision-making competence for the socioscientific issue of genetically modified crops is investigated. The comparison focuses on direct vs. indirect instructions. Therefore on the one hand a sophisticated decision-making strategy was presented to the directly instructed experimental group (1) and had to be applied correctly. On the other hand indirectly instructed students had to invent an appropriate strategy by themselves (2) based on the given information and the structure of the problem context. Group discussions are analysed qualitatively in order (1) to outline how the given strategy was understood and its results were reflected on by the students and (2) to explore the characteristics of invented strategies and their degree of complexity. Results indicate that the direct instruction of complex decision-making strategies may lead to a lack of understanding of the decision process when the given strategy is applied and therefore may cause rejection of the final decision. Indirectly instructed students were able to invent sophisticated decision-making strategies containing compensatory trade-offs. It is concluded that when directly instructing complex decision-making strategies, essential parts of reflection have to be integrated in order to gain greater transparency. Accordingly, empirical evidence has been found to consider indirect instruction as a possible way to foster decision-making strategies for complex socioscientific issues even if compensatory procedures are considered to be necessary.

  19. Defining biominerals and organominerals: Direct and indirect indicators of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Carole C.; Campbell, Kathleen; Engel, Michael H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Brasier, Martin D.; Staley, James T.

    2007-09-01

    By introducing the new term 'organomineral' to apply to minerals that are affected by organics, mostly life-related, but not directly produced by living cells, we hope to increase the accuracy of the terminology in present usage. We believe that the term 'biomineral' does not describe all mineral deposits precisely enough and offer case studies to support instances where the use of the new term 'organomineral' is more appropriate. We provide examples of some materials that are biominerals such as those in diatoms and human bones and which perform a functional purpose. We then attempt to show that terminology can sometimes mislead investigators, drive the direction and prejudice interpretations of scientific investigation. This is achieved by presenting case studies of minerals that have been investigated as biominerals although they may not actually be directly controlled by biology. For this reason we pay special attention to desert varnish, hot-spring siliceous deposits, stromatolites, and bacterial encrustations. We go on to explain why we regard biominerals as direct indictors of life whereas organominerals should be treated as indirect indicators of life that require careful characterization to establish the origin of contained organics and whether these are biotic in origin. How organic compounds are preserved and transformed in sedimentary environments and in the mineral matrix is as highly relevant to the study of modern Earth environments as it is in the search for the oldest evidence of life in the terrestrial rock record. It is also important to many disciplines such as microbiology and archaeology and especially to scientists planning missions to look for evidence of 'life' on other planetary surfaces.

  20. A novel automated indirect immunofluorescence autoantibody evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kivity, Shaye; Gilburd, Boris; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Carrasco, Marina Garcia; Tzafrir, Yaron; Sofer, Yael; Mandel, Matilda; Buttner, Thomas; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Danko, Katalin; Hoyos, Marcos López; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2012-03-01

    Autoantibodies (AAb), especially antinuclear (ANAs) and anticytoplasmatic antibodies (ACyA), are essential diagnosing markers for several autoimmune diseases. The current gold standard method for ANA detection is manual indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cells. However, this technique is cost and time consuming, and characterized by considerable intra- and interlaboratory variability. Thus, an automated IIF-HEp-2 reader has been developed recently. In the current study, we compared the performance of the automated AAb IIF-HEp-2 interpretation to conventional detection methods. Autoantibody detection by IIF on HEp-2 cells was performed in a total of 260 sera of patients, including 34 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 111 with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, 74 with systemic sclerosis, 41 with rare AAb patterns, and 137 healthy individuals. Visual interpretation and routine immunoassays were compared with a novel automated IIF-HEp-2 system using Aklides pattern recognition algorithms. Positive AAbs were detected in 95-100% of rheumatic patients by automated interpretation, in 74-100% with manual reading, and in 64-100% by immunodot assay. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of fluorescent intensity revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for automated reading of AAb with an agreement ranging from 90% to 95% between manual and automated interpretation (kappa 0.554-0.69) for systemic sclerosis and myositis, respectively. This study demonstrates a good correlation between manual and automated interpretation of AAb including ANA and ACyA in patients with autoimmune diseases. Full automation of HEp-2 cell assay reading may minimize errors in ANA pattern interpretation and thus help in the standardization of ANA assessment.

  1. The Interaction of Indirect Evidentiality, Temporality and Epistemic Modality in Jordanian Arabic: The Case of Deverbal Agentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Malahmeh, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Evidentiality is commonly concerned with two basic notions: evidence type and the speaker's commitment towards the truth of the proposition expressed (Chafe and Nichols 1986). Throughout a detailed study of the morphosyntax and semantics of deverbal agentives (DAs), this dissertation investigates indirect evidentiality and its interaction with two…

  2. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  3. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  4. A Comparison of Direct and Indirect Writing Assessment Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiggins, Richard J.

    An area of current concern is that of the advantages and disadvantages of measuring writing proficiency directly via writing samples, and indirectly via objective tests. Much research has been completed documenting the correlation between direct and indirect measures. However, there had not yet been a systematic and detailed conceptual analysis…

  5. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences...

  6. Comprehension of Indirect Meaning in Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Arrufat-Marques, Maria-Jose

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehension of indirect meaning among learners of L2 Spanish via an original computer-delivered multimedia listening test. The comprehension of implied speaker intention is a type of indirect communication that involves the ability to understand implied intention by using linguistic knowledge, contextual cues, and the…

  7. 48 CFR 1542.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Certificate of indirect costs. 1542.703-2 Section 1542.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.703-2 Certificate of...

  8. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  9. Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Underwood, Antony J; Coleman, Ross A

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms.

  10. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  11. Triorchidism: Presenting as Undescended Testis in a Case of Indirect Inguinal Hernia.

    PubMed

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H; Gandhi, Saurabh S; Patel, Chintan B; Wagh, Amol N; Gawli, Virendra; Jain, Nimesh A

    2016-04-26

    Triorchidism is the commonest variety of polyorchidism, an entity with more than two testis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the testis. Although excision of the abnormal testis is a safer alternative proposed, recent literature suggests more conservative approach in normal testes with watchful regular follow up to screen for malignancy. This case presented as a left inguinal swelling diagnosed as indirect left inguinal hernia. The left side testis was of smaller size (about half) with normal sperm count, morphology and motility. Intraoperatively indirect inguinal hernia was noted with supernumerary testis at deep ring in addition to normal left testis in left scrotal sac. The ectopic testis were small (2.5×2.5×1 cm) lacking epididymis and with short vas deferens. An evident normal semen analysis and varied anatomy, the decision for orchidectomy of ectopic testis was taken. The histopathological finding was consistent with arrest in germ cell development.

  12. Triorchidism: Presenting as Undescended Testis in a Case of Indirect Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Saurabh S.; Patel, Chintan B.; Wagh, Amol N.; Gawli, Virendra; Jain, Nimesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Triorchidism is the commonest variety of polyorchidism, an entity with more than two testis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the testis. Although excision of the abnormal testis is a safer alternative proposed, recent literature suggests more conservative approach in normal testes with watchful regular follow up to screen for malignancy. This case presented as a left inguinal swelling diagnosed as indirect left inguinal hernia. The left side testis was of smaller size (about half) with normal sperm count, morphology and motility. Intraoperatively indirect inguinal hernia was noted with supernumerary testis at deep ring in addition to normal left testis in left scrotal sac. The ectopic testis were small (2.5×2.5×1 cm) lacking epididymis and with short vas deferens. An evident normal semen analysis and varied anatomy, the decision for orchidectomy of ectopic testis was taken. The histopathological finding was consistent with arrest in germ cell development. PMID:27478577

  13. False recognition of objects in visual scenes: findings from a combined direct and indirect memory test.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Nash, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    We report an extension of the procedure devised by Weinstein and Shanks (Memory & Cognition 36:1415-1428, 2008) to study false recognition and priming of pictures. Participants viewed scenes with multiple embedded objects (seen items), then studied the names of these objects and the names of other objects (read items). Finally, participants completed a combined direct (recognition) and indirect (identification) memory test that included seen items, read items, and new items. In the direct test, participants recognized pictures of seen and read items more often than new pictures. In the indirect test, participants' speed at identifying those same pictures was improved for pictures that they had actually studied, and also for falsely recognized pictures whose names they had read. These data provide new evidence that a false-memory induction procedure can elicit memory-like representations that are difficult to distinguish from "true" memories of studied pictures.

  14. Quantifying nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects.

    PubMed

    TerHorst, Casey P; Lau, Jennifer A; Cooper, Idelle A; Keller, Kane R; La Rosa, Raffica J; Royer, Anne M; Schultheis, Elizabeth H; Suwa, Tomomi; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2015-09-01

    In natural biological communities, species interact with many other species. Multiple species interactions can lead to indirect ecological effects that have important fitness consequences and can cause nonadditive patterns of natural selection. Given that indirect ecological effects are common in nature, nonadditive selection may also be quite common. As a result, quantifying nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects may be critical for understanding adaptation in natural communities composed of many interacting species. We describe how to quantify the relative strength of nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects compared to the strength of pairwise selection. We develop a clear method for testing for nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects and consider how it might affect adaptation in multispecies communities. We use two case studies to illustrate how our method can be applied to empirical data sets. Our results suggest that nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects may be common in nature. Our hope is that trait-based approaches, combined with multifactorial experiments, will result in more estimates of nonadditive selection that reveal the relative importance of indirect ecological effects for evolution in a community context.

  15. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  16. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  17. Comparison of haemoglobin estimates using direct & indirect cyanmethaemoglobin methods

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Priyanka Gupta; Toteja, Gurudayal Singh; Bhatia, Neena; Gupta, Sanjeev; Kaur, Manpreet; Adhikari, Tulsi; Garg, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Estimation of haemoglobin is the most widely used method to assess anaemia. Although direct cyanmethaemoglobin method is the recommended method for estimation of haemoglobin, but it may not be feasible under field conditions. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method against the conventional direct method for haemoglobin estimation. Methods: Haemoglobin levels were estimated for 888 adolescent girls aged 11-18 yr residing in an urban slum in Delhi by both direct and indirect cyanmethaemoglobin methods, and the results were compared. Results: The mean haemoglobin levels for 888 whole blood samples estimated by direct and indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method were 116.1 ± 12.7 and 110.5 ± 12.5 g/l, respectively, with a mean difference of 5.67 g/l (95% confidence interval: 5.45 to 5.90, P<0.001); which is equivalent to 0.567 g%. The prevalence of anaemia was reported as 59.6 and 78.2 per cent by direct and indirect methods, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method were 99.2 and 56.4 per cent, respectively. Using regression analysis, prediction equation was developed for indirect haemoglobin values. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings revealed that indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method overestimated the prevalence of anaemia as compared to the direct method. However, if a correction factor is applied, indirect method could be successfully used for estimating true haemoglobin level. More studies should be undertaken to establish agreement and correction factor between direct and indirect cyanmethaemoglobin methods. PMID:28256465

  18. Theoretical Synthesis of Indirect Detection Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profumo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Can we learn about New Physics with astronomical and astro-particle data? Understanding how this is possible is key to unraveling one of the most pressing mysteries at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: the fundamental, particle-physics nature of dark matter. I will discuss some of the recent puzzling findings in astro-particle and astronomical observations that might be related to signals from dark matter. I will first review the status of explanations to the cosmic-ray positron excess, emphasizing how we might be able to discriminate between astrophysical sources and dark matter. I will then discuss the evidence for an X-ray line at 3.5 keV, and present new results on systematic effects and on the role of previously underestimated astrophysical lines. Finally, I will briefly discuss a reported excess of gamma rays from the central regions of the Galaxy.

  19. Restoration of extensive erosion areas using an indirect composite technique.

    PubMed

    Knight, J S; Sneed, W D

    2000-01-01

    Cervical erosion defects, particularly those of extensive size that are located in an area where control of the operative field is difficult, can present a significant restorative challenge. This article describes an indirect restorative technique to solve this problem. Following tooth preparation, an indirect restoration is luted to the tooth and the margins are finished and polished. Using an indirect technique minimizes operative field isolation time and the total chairside time required to restore the tooth. Clinical cases are presented to illustrate this technique.

  20. Indirect quantification of lipid peroxidation in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kinra, S.; Rath, B.; Kabi, B.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To test the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals are mediators of excessive protein permeability in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome.
DESIGN—Case control study.
SUBJECTS—Patients: 20 children with steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome; controls: 20 children admitted for elective surgery.
SETTING—The paediatric and biochemistry departments of the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
METHODS—Blood samples were taken twice from children with nephrotic syndrome (on admission and on urinary remission) and once from controls. Biochemical assays were carried out on these blood samples to quantify the indirect markers of free radical injury in the body, namely: vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and membrane cholesterol in erythrocytes.
RESULTS—There was some evidence supportive of oxidative injury in the children with nephrotic syndrome in the form of greatly reduced concentrations of antioxidants vitamin E (155.4 µg/100 ml in controls, 86.4 µg/100 ml in patients) and G6PD (364 mU/ml in controls, 205.1 mU/ml in patients). However, concentrations of the oxidation byproduct MDA were raised only in the remission phase of the disease (0.984 nmol/ml in controls, 1.158 nmol/ml in cases), whereas those of GSH were unaltered.
CONCLUSIONS—Changes in the concentrations of MDA, G6PD, and vitamin E are consistent with increased amounts of oxidation in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome. Further research is needed to explain whether these changes are a cause or consequence of the disease.

 PMID:10630920

  1. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  2. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    PubMed Central

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  3. Mechanical analysis of Drosophila indirect flight and jump muscles

    PubMed Central

    Swank, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic advantages of Drosophila make it a very appealing choice for investigating muscle development, muscle physiology and muscle protein structure and function. To take full advantage of this model organism, it has been vital to develop isolated Drosophila muscle preparations that can be mechanically evaluated. We describe techniques to isolate, prepare and mechanically analyze skinned muscle fibers from two Drosophila muscle types, the indirect flight muscle and the jump muscle. The function of the indirect flight muscle is similar to vertebrate cardiac muscle, to generate power in an oscillatory manner. The indirect flight muscle is ideal for evaluating the influence of protein mutations on muscle and cross-bridge stiffness, oscillatory power, and deriving cross-bridge rate constants. Jump muscle physiology and structure are more similar to skeletal vertebrate muscle than indirect flight muscle, and it is ideal for measuring maximum shortening velocity, force-velocity characteristics and steady-state power generation. PMID:22079350

  4. Indirect coupling between two cavity modes via ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Paul; Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally realize an indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet. We find that some indirectly coupled modes of this system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. The properties of the indirectly coupled modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. The relation between cavity transmission and the relative phase difference between cavity modes should be useful for developing tunable optical devices and improved information processing technologies.

  5. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: * *To be incorporated into any resultant contract. (End of clause) Alternate 2 (OCT 1999). As prescribed... (OCT 1999) (a) For this contract, the ceiling amount reimbursable for indirect costs is as...

  6. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  7. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-06

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets.

  8. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  9. Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jan; Reimer, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  10. Cementation of indirect restorations: an overview of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Simon, James F

    2013-01-01

    The process of ensuring proper retention, marginal seal, and durability of indirect restorations depends heavily on effective cementation. Careful consideration must be made when selecting an adhesive cement for a given application. This article provides information on resin cements that can guide clinicians in determining which type of cement is best suited to their clinical needs regarding cementation of indirect restorations. Emphasis is placed on successful cementation of all-ceramic restorations.

  11. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  12. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-03-24

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce γ rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for γ-ray spectral lines and γ-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  13. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-03-24

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce γ rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for γ-ray spectral lines and γ-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  14. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  15. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community.

  16. Role of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia in perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Rubin, Jonathan E; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-03-04

    The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in motor control, reinforcement learning, and perceptual decision making. Modeling and experimental evidence suggest that, in a speed-accuracy tradeoff, the corticostriatal pathway can adaptively adjust a decision threshold (the amount of information needed to make a choice). In this study, we go beyond the focus of previous works on the direct and hyperdirect pathways to examine the contribution of the indirect pathway of the BG system to decision making in a biophysically based spiking network model. We find that the mechanism of adjusting the decision threshold by plasticity of the corticostriatal connections is effective, provided that the indirect pathway counterbalances the direct pathway in their projections to the output nucleus. Furthermore, in our model, changes within basal ganglia connections similar to those that arise in parkinsonism give rise to strong beta oscillations. Specifically, beta oscillations are produced by an abnormal enhancement of the interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of globus pallidus (GPe) in the indirect pathway, with an oscillation frequency that depends on the excitatory cortical input to the STN and the inhibitory input to the GPe from the striatum. In a parkinsonian state characterized by pronounced beta oscillations, the mean reaction time and range of threshold variation (a measure of behavioral flexibility) are significantly reduced compared with the normal state. Our work thus reveals a specific circuit mechanism for impairments of perceptual decision making associated with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution.

  18. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  19. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  20. Evidence and Clinical Trials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Steven N.

    1989-11-01

    This dissertation explores the use of a mathematical measure of statistical evidence, the log likelihood ratio, in clinical trials. The methods and thinking behind the use of an evidential measure are contrasted with traditional methods of analyzing data, which depend primarily on a p-value as an estimate of the statistical strength of an observed data pattern. It is contended that neither the behavioral dictates of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing methods, nor the coherency dictates of Bayesian methods are realistic models on which to base inference. The use of the likelihood alone is applied to four aspects of trial design or conduct: the calculation of sample size, the monitoring of data, testing for the equivalence of two treatments, and meta-analysis--the combining of results from different trials. Finally, a more general model of statistical inference, using belief functions, is used to see if it is possible to separate the assessment of evidence from our background knowledge. It is shown that traditional and Bayesian methods can be modeled as two ends of a continuum of structured background knowledge, methods which summarize evidence at the point of maximum likelihood assuming no structure, and Bayesian methods assuming complete knowledge. Both schools are seen to be missing a concept of ignorance- -uncommitted belief. This concept provides the key to understanding the problem of sampling to a foregone conclusion and the role of frequency properties in statistical inference. The conclusion is that statistical evidence cannot be defined independently of background knowledge, and that frequency properties of an estimator are an indirect measure of uncommitted belief. Several likelihood summaries need to be used in clinical trials, with the quantitative disparity between summaries being an indirect measure of our ignorance. This conclusion is linked with parallel ideas in the philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.

  1. Fertilizer management effects on nitrate leaching and indirect nitrous oxide emissions in irrigated potato production.

    PubMed

    Venterea, Rodney T; Hyatt, Charles R; Rosen, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    Potato ( L.) is a N-intensive crop, with high potential for nitrate (NO) leaching, which can contribute to both water contamination and indirect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Two approaches that have been considered for reducing N losses include conventional split application (CSA) of soluble fertilizers and single application of polymer-coated urea (PCU). The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare NO leaching using CSA and two PCUs (PCU-1 and PCU-2), which differed in their polymer formulations, and (ii) use measured NO leaching rates and published emissions factors to estimate indirect NO emissions. Averaged over three growing seasons (2007-2009), NO leaching rates were not significantly different among the three fertilizer treatments. Using previously reported direct NO emissions data from the same experiment, total direct plus indirect growing season NO emissions with PCU-1 were estimated to be 30 to 40% less than with CSA. However, PCU-1 also resulted in greater residual soil N after harvest in 2007 and greater soil-water NO in the spring following the 2008 growing season. These results provide evidence that single PCU applications for irrigated potato production do not increase growing season NO leaching compared with multiple split applications of soluble fertilizers, but have the potential to increase N losses after the growing season and into the following year. Estimates of indirect NO emissions ranged from 0.8 to 64% of direct emissions, depending on what value was assumed for the emission factor describing off-site conversion of NO to NO. Thus, our results also demonstrate how more robust models are needed to account for off-site conversion of NO to NO, since current emission factor models have an enormous degree of uncertainty.

  2. Indirect effects of an exploited predator on recruitment of coral-reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Christopher D

    2008-08-01

    The more ecologists examine the role of trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), especially in regulating predator-prey interactions, the more we recognize their fundamental role in structuring food webs. However, most empirical evidence for TMIIs comes from studies that are either conducted in laboratory or mesocosm venues or are restricted to simple food webs involving lower trophic-level animals. Here, I quantified the direct and indirect effects of interactions between high-level vertebrate predators on their vertebrate prey using a field experiment. Specifically, I tested how varying densities of a large-bodied, top predator (Nassau grouper; Epinephelus striatus) affected persistence, growth, and behavior of two smaller-bodied, intermediate predators (coney and graysby groupers; Cephalopholis fulva and C. cruentata) on 20 isolated patch reefs in the Bahamas. Large-bodied groupers are capable of consuming their smaller-bodied counterparts, and previous observational studies have indicated that local abundances of these groupers are negatively correlated. I measured the effects of interactions among groupers on lower trophic-level prey by quantifying recruitment of coral-reef fishes to the reefs. The field experiment demonstrated a strong trophic cascade that was entirely mediated by modified behavior of the intermediate predators. These results indicate that indirect, nonlethal interactions in natural systems can have strong cascading effects even at high trophic levels and in high-diversity food webs. Incorporating the complexity of such indirect effects into fisheries management may improve the sustainability of fished populations and strengthen marine conservation efforts; however these results also indicate that the effects of fishing are complex and difficult to predict.

  3. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  4. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993–1994 and 2000–2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993–1994 to 2000–2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex

  5. A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, David; Morrissey, Christy; Mineau, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the role of pesticides affecting vertebrate wildlife populations have recently focussed on systemic products which exert broad-spectrum toxicity. Given that the neonicotinoids have become the fastest-growing class of insecticides globally, we review here 150 studies of their direct (toxic) and indirect (e.g. food chain) effects on vertebrate wildlife--mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. We focus on two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and a third insecticide, fipronil, which also acts in the same systemic manner. Imidacloprid and fipronil were found to be toxic to many birds and most fish, respectively. All three insecticides exert sub-lethal effects, ranging from genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, and impaired immune function, to reduced growth and reproductive success, often at concentrations well below those associated with mortality. Use of imidacloprid and clothianidin as seed treatments on some crops poses risks to small birds, and ingestion of even a few treated seeds could cause mortality or reproductive impairment to sensitive bird species. In contrast, environmental concentrations of imidacloprid and clothianidin appear to be at levels below those which will cause mortality to freshwater vertebrates, although sub-lethal effects may occur. Some recorded environmental concentrations of fipronil, however, may be sufficiently high to harm fish. Indirect effects are rarely considered in risk assessment processes and there is a paucity of data, despite the potential to exert population-level effects. Our research revealed two field case studies of indirect effects. In one, reductions in invertebrate prey from both imidacloprid and fipronil uses led to impaired growth in a fish species, and in another, reductions in populations in two lizard species were linked to effects of fipronil on termite prey. Evidence presented here suggests that the systemic insecticides, neonicotinoids and fipronil, are capable of exerting direct

  6. Queer (v.) queer (v.): biology as curriculum, pedagogy, and being albeit queer (v.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, Francis S.

    2011-06-01

    In order to advance the purpose of education as creating a sustainable world yet to be imagined, educationally, queer (v.) queer (v.) expounds curriculum, pedagogy and being, which has roots in sexuality—the public face of the private confluence of sexuality, gender, race and class, are a necessary framework for queer. If queer is a complicated conversation of strangers' eros, then queer facilitates the creation of space, revolution and transformation. In other words, queer, for science education, is more than increasing and privileging the heteronormative and non-heteronormative science content that extends capitalism's hegemony, but rather science as the dignity, identity, and loving and caring of and by one's self and fellow human beings as strangers.

  7. Queer (v.) Queer (v.): Biology as Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Being albeit Queer (v.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadway, Francis S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to advance the purpose of education as creating a sustainable world yet to be imagined, educationally, queer (v.) queer (v.) expounds curriculum, pedagogy and being, which has roots in sexuality--the public face of the private confluence of sexuality, gender, race and class, are a necessary framework for queer. If queer is a complicated…

  8. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  9. Evidence for the distribution of perchlorates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2016-10-01

    Various Mars missions have detected Cl atoms, chlorides and perchlorates in martian surface materials. The global soils, in particular, always contain significant levels of observable Cl. Direct evidence points to this Cl being in the form of both chlorides and perchlorates, and possibly also chlorates and other oxychlorines. The most widespread measurements have been of Cl atoms, and cannot discern the chemical form. However, from separate evidence of perchlorate obtained at high latitudes (Phoenix lander) and low latitudes (Curiosity rover), it is likely that perchlorates are widespread, albeit in varying proportions relative to the total amount of ubiquitous Cl.

  10. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    PubMed

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Mach, Megan E; Martone, Rebecca G; Singh, Gerald G; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M A

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  11. Modified Habitats Influence Kelp Epibiota via Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Underwood, Antony J.; Coleman, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011

  12. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  13. Pupillometry reveals increased pupil size during indirect request comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Johanne; Hagoort, Peter; Meyer, Antje S

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in pupil size have been shown to reflect variations in processing demands during lexical and syntactic processing in language comprehension. An issue that has not received attention is whether pupil size also varies due to pragmatic manipulations. In two pupillometry experiments, we investigated whether pupil diameter was sensitive to increased processing demands as a result of comprehending an indirect request versus a direct statement. Adult participants were presented with 120 picture-sentence combinations that could be interpreted either as an indirect request (a picture of a window with the sentence "it's very hot here") or as a statement (a picture of a window with the sentence "it's very nice here"). Based on the hypothesis that understanding indirect utterances requires additional inferences to be made on the part of the listener, we predicted a larger pupil diameter for indirect requests than statements. The results of both experiments are consistent with this expectation. We suggest that the increase in pupil size reflects additional processing demands for the comprehension of indirect requests as compared to statements. This research demonstrates the usefulness of pupillometry as a tool for experimental research in pragmatics.

  14. A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai; Pringle, K. J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pierce, Jeffrey; Bauer, Susanne E.; Adams, P. J.

    2013-06-28

    Most estimates of the global mean indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosol on the Earth’s energy balance are from simulations by global models of the aerosol lifecycle coupled with global models of clouds and the hydrologic cycle. Extremely simple models have been developed for integrated assessment models, but lack the flexibility to distinguish between primary and secondary sources of aerosol. Here a simple but more physically-based model expresses the aerosol indirect effect using analytic representations of droplet nucleation, cloud and aerosol vertical structure, and horizontal variability in cloud water and aerosol concentration. Although the simple model is able to produce estimates of aerosol indirect effects that are comparable to those from some global aerosol models using the same global mean aerosol properties, the estimates are found to be sensitive to several uncertain parameters, including the preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei concentration, primary and secondary anthropogenic emissions, the size of the primary particles, the fraction of the secondary anthropogenic emissions that accumulates on the coarse mode, the fraction of the secondary mass that forms new particles, and the sensitivity of liquid water path to droplet number concentration. Aerosol indirect effects are surprisingly linear in emissions. This simple model provides a much stronger physical basis for representing aerosol indirect effects than previous representations in integrated assessment models designed to quickly explore the parameter space of emissions-climate interactions. The model also produces estimates that depend on parameter values in ways that are consistent with results from detailed global aerosol-climate simulation models.

  15. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.

  16. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; ...

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  17. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  18. Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.

  19. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  20. [Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in Freesia refracta].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Duan, X G; Hao, S

    1999-06-01

    Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in tissue cultures of Freesia refracta either directly from the epidermal cells of explant, or indirectly via intervening callus. In direct pathway, somatic embryos were in contact with maternal tissue in a suspensor-like structure. In indirect pathway, the explants first proliferacted to give rise to calluses before embryoids were induced. The two sorts of calluses were defined to embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus according to producing of somatic embryos. An indirect somatic embryo is developed from a pre-embryogenically determined cell. This kind of somatic embryo has no suspensor structure instead of a complex with maternal tissue. Somatic embryos have their own vascular tissues, and can develop new plantlets independently.

  1. Indirect aesthetic adhesive restoration with fibre-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Corona, S A M; Garcia, P P N S; Palma-Dibb, R G; Chimello, D T

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the restoration of an endodontically treated upper first molar with a fibre-reinforced onlay indirect composite resin restoration. The clinical and radiographic examination confirmed that the tooth had suffered considerable loss of structure. Therefore, an indirect restoration was indicated. First, a core was built with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, followed by onlay preparation, mechanical/chemical gingival retraction and impression with addition-cured silicone. After the laboratory phase, the onlay was tried in, followed by adhesive bonding and occlusal adjustment. It can be concluded that fibre-reinforced aesthetic indirect composite resin restoration represented, in the present clinical case, an aesthetic and conservative treatment option. However, the use of fibres should be more extensively studied to verify the real improvement in physical and mechanical properties.

  2. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces indirect angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G D; Aukerman, S L; Whitehead, R A; Knighton, D R

    1993-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor was implanted in the rabbit cornea over a wide dose range (1 ng to 100 microg) to assay its angiogenic activity in vivo. Neovascularization occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and maximum angiogenesis occurred only with 100 microg. Histologic analysis revealed that the corneas were free of inflammation at the lower doses, but had slight inflammation at 50 and 100 microg. Nonspecific esterase staining of frozen sections and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the inflammatory cells were predominantly macrophages, with very few neutrophils present. This association of capillary formation with inflammation suggests an indirect mechanism of angiogenesis. The lack of neutrophils within the inflammatory cell infiltrate demonstrates that indirect angiogenesis can proceed without the local presence of neutrophils. This distinguishes macrophage colony-stimulating factor from other indirect-acting angiogenesis factors that have been identified to date.

  3. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United

  4. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in small animal veterinarians: indirect evidence of zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Paul, N C; Moodley, A; Ghibaudo, G; Guardabassi, L

    2011-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is increasingly reported in small animals and cases of human infections have already been described despite its recent emergence in veterinary practice. We investigated the prevalence of MRSP and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among small animal dermatologists attending a national veterinary conference in Italy. Nasal swabs were obtained from 128 veterinarians, seven of which harboured MRSP (n = 5; 3.9%) or MRSA (n = 2; 1.6%). A follow-up study of two carriers revealed that MRSP persisted for at least 1 month in the nasal cavity. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from 32 (25%) conference participants, whereas methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) was not detected, suggesting that MRSP may have a particular ability to colonize humans compared to MSSP. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. Methicillin-resistant isolates were further typed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec and multi-locus sequence typing. Two lineages previously associated with pets were identified among the five MRSP isolates; the European epidemic clone ST71-SCCmec II-III and ST106-SCCmec IV. One of the two MRSA isolates displayed a genotype (ST22- SCCmecIV) frequently reported in dogs and cats. MRSP isolates were resistant to more antimicrobial agents compared with MRSA isolates and displayed the typical multidrug resistance patterns of MRSP in pets. The 32 MSSA isolates belonged to 20 spa types and the most frequent types (t12, t15 and t166) were associated with common S. aureus lineages in humans (CC30 and CC45). Although low, the 3.9% MRSP carriage rate found among small animal dermatologists was surprising in consideration of the rare occurrence of S. pseudintermedius in humans, the lack of MSSP detection and the recent appearance of MRSP in Europe. As cases of human MRSP infection have been linked with pets, veterinarians should be aware of this zoonotic risk and proper preventative measures should be taken to avoid MRSP transmission from animal patients.

  5. Indirect evidence of intravesical ureterocele on 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepa; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Misra, Ritu; Ali, Md Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Ureterocele is a common ureteric anomaly detected in pediatric population. Ureterocele diagnosis and evaluation need a variety of radiological methods. We report a case of 5-year-old female child sent for 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate and excretory function of kidneys in view of right-sided hydroureteronephrosis and pyonephrosis with percutaneous tube in situ. Incidental photopenia was noted in the urinary bladder. On ultrasonography of abdomen cause of this photopenia was found to be an intravesical ureterocele. PMID:27095867

  6. Indirect evidences for a gas/dust torus along the Phobos orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, E.M.; Lundin, R.; Pissarenko, N.F.; Barabash, S.V.; Zakharov, A.V.; Koskinen, H.; Schwingenshuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye.G. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsink Austrian Space Research Institute, Graz Institute of Terrestrial Magnetizm, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Moscow )

    1990-05-01

    Observations from the PHOBOS-2 space-craft of plasma and magnetic field effects in the solar wind near Mars suggest that a neutral gas (dust )torus/ring resides along the orbit of the Martian satellite Phobos. Magnetic cavities (strong decreases of the magnetic field strength) coincident with strong plasma density increases (up to a factor of ten) are observed during the first elliptic transition orbits when the spacecraft approached the Phobos orbits. The characteristic transverse dimension of the structures along the spacecraft orbit is in the range 100-1,000 km. Torus effects also have characteristics similar to the formation of a bow shock with increases of plasma density and ion temperature, and a characteristic deflection of the ion flow. This suggests a rather strong interaction between the solar wind plasma and plasma near Phobos orbit. The interaction appears quite similar to that of the solar wind with a comet. The outgassing of matter from Phobos (and Deimos) is also suggested by plasma observations in the wake/tail of the Martian satellites. Altogether, the authors observations imply that a neutral gas cloud - possibly also associated with a faint dust ring - exists along the Phobos orbit.

  7. Insulin increases sodium reabsorption in diluting segment in humans: evidence for indirect mediation through hypokalemia.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, C E; van Buren, M; Bijlsma, J A; Koomans, H A

    1991-08-01

    To examine the mechanism of renal sodium (Na) and potassium (K) retention during insulin infusion, seven healthy volunteers underwent clearance studies without (time control) and with insulin infusion (40 mU bolus, followed by 1 mU/kg/min for 150 min). Maximal free water clearance and fractional lithium clearance (FELi) were used to analyze renal sodium handling. Insulin decreased Na excretion (from 189 +/- 25 to 121 +/- 19 mumol/min, P less than 0.01) and K excretion (from 64 +/- 8 to 19 +/- 1 mumol/min, P less than 0.01), but did not change in glomerular filtration rate. FELi increased from 29.8 +/- 1.9 to 32.3 +/- 1.9% (P less than 0.05), minimal urine osmolality decreased from 59 +/- 3 to 46 +/- 3 mOsm/kg (P less than 0.01), and the diluting segment reabsorption index increased from 88.0 +/- 0.9 to 93.7 +/- 0.9%, P less than 0.01). Insulin also decreased plasma K, from 3.91 +/- 0.08 to 3.28 +/- 0.08 mmol/liter, P less than 0.01. In a third clearance study KCl was infused simultaneously (3.75 mumol/kg/min) to prevent this fall in plasma K. In this study insulin had no effect on Na and K excretion and diluting segment reabsorption, but the rise in FELi remained. In a fourth clearance study NaCl (3.75 mumol/kg/min) instead of KCl was infused together with insulin. This maneuver did not prevent the Na and K retaining effect of insulin, nor any of its effects on renal sodium handling parameters. These data suggest that Na and K retention during insulin infusion are largely secondary to hypokalemia, which causes increased reabsorption in the diluting segment.

  8. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  9. Electrically-Charged Dust in the Solar System: Direct and Indirect Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2010-05-01

    Dust particles exposed the solar UV radiation and plasmas in the solar system will collect electrostatic charges. Depending on their charge-to-mass ratio, their dynamics could be perturbed or possibly dominated by electromagnetic forces. This talk will first briefly review the dominant charging processes and the resulting dynamics of dust particles where the gravitational and electromagnetic forces are of similar magnitude. In addition to the unusual dynamics of single grains, we will also explore possible dusty plasma collective effects. We will briefly tour the solar system and show unusual observations that could be best explained by exploring the physics of dust charging, and dusty plasmas. Examples will include the surfaces of airless bodies, the high-speed stream particles ejected from the magnetosphere of Jupiter, Saturn's rings, and the flow of interstellar dust through the heliosphere.

  10. Children's Causal Inferences from Indirect Evidence: Backwards Blocking and Bayesian Reasoning in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Gopnik, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children can infer causal relations from patterns of events. However, what appear to be cases of causal inference may simply reduce to children recognizing relevant associations among events, and responding based on those associations. To examine this claim, in Experiments 1 and 2, children were introduced to a…

  11. Measuring Racial Discrimination in the Housing Market: Direct and Indirect Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William A. V.

    1993-01-01

    Reevaluates statistical studies by G. Galster (1986, 1987, 1988) and Galster and W. Keeney (1988) of segregation in housing, reanalyzing one of four model equations. The effects of discrimination are smaller than postulated previously. Direct estimates from housing discrimination surveys provide a rationale for these smaller effects. (SLD)

  12. Capacity to Participation in Cerebral Palsy: Evidence of an Indirect Path Via Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Kristie F.; Zhou, Chuan; Stevenson, Richard; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that the influence of physical activity capacity on participation is mediated through activity performance. Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cross-sectional study sample. Setting Regional pediatric specialty care hospital. Participants Children (N = 128; 59% boys; age range, 2–9y) with cerebral palsy with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III; 49% had hemiplegia, and 72% had spasticity. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Activity capacity was measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure-66, performance was measured with the Activities Scale for Kids, and participation was measured with the Assessment of Life Habits. Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and the Assessment of Preschool Children’s Participation assessed diversity participation. Regression equations and Sobel z test were used to examine the mediated effect via performance. Results Physical activity performance mediates 74.9% (β=.83, P<.001) of the effect of activity capacity on total participation levels and 52.8% (β=.47, P=.001) of the effect of capacity on diversity participation. Conclusions The relation between what an ambulatory child with cerebral palsy is able to perform in a clinical setting and their participation in life is significantly mediated by what they actually do motorically in day-to-day life. Results suggest that interventions focusing on improving what they actually do every day, regardless of their capacity to perform (what they can do when tested), may positively influence participation. PMID:23835350

  13. Kinetic 17O effects in the hydrologic cycle: Indirect evidence and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Angert, Alon; Cappa, Christopher D.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2004-11-22

    The abundances of 18O and deuterium in the present and past hydrologic cycle have proven to be an important tool in Earth systems science. In contrast, the abundance of 17O in precipitation has thus far been assumed to carry no additional information to that of 18O. Here, we demonstrate, using known constraints on oxygen isotope abundances from the O2 cycle and existing data about the natural abundance of 17O in water, that the relationship between the discrimination against 17O and 18O in water may vary. This relationship, presented here as q = ln (17a)/ln (18a), is found to be 0.511 +- 0.005 for kinetic transport effects and 0.526 +- 0.001 for equilibrium effects, with very low temperature sensitivity. As a result, the 17D of precipitation is controlled primarily by kinetic effects during evaporation of the initial vapor and, in contrast to the deuterium excess, is independent of the temperature at the evaporation (and condensation) site. This makes 17D a unique tracer that complements 18O and deuterium, and may allow for a decoupling of changes in the temperature of the ocean, that serves as the vapor source, from changes in the relative humidity above it. In addition, the 17D of ice caps is influenced by the kinetic effects in ice formation, and therefore measurement of ice 17D can be used as an additional constraint for better understanding and parameterization of these effects.

  14. Gene--Environment Interplay and Delinquent Involvement: Evidence of Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research has revealed that biogenic factors play a role in the development of antisocial behaviors. Much of this research has also explicated the way in which the environment and genes may combine to create different phenotypes. The authors draw heavily from this literature and use data from the National Longitudinal Study of…

  15. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping.

    PubMed

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role.

  16. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping

    PubMed Central

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role. PMID:25030045

  17. Uncovering the Richness of the Stimulus: Structure Dependence and Indirect Statistical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2005-01-01

    The poverty of stimulus argument is one of the most controversial arguments in the study of language acquisition. Here we follow previous approaches challenging the assumption of impoverished primary linguistic data, focusing on the specific problem of auxiliary (AUX) fronting in complex polar interrogatives. We develop a series of corpus analyses…

  18. EVIDENCE FOR INDIRECT DETECTION OF DARK MATTER FROM GALAXY CLUSTERS IN FERMI {gamma}-RAY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Hektor, A.; Raidal, M.; Tempel, E. E-mail: martti.raidal@cern.ch

    2013-01-10

    Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) we search for spectral features in {gamma}-rays coming from regions corresponding to the 18 brightest nearby galaxy clusters determined by the magnitude of their signal line-of-sight integrals. We observe a double-peak-like excess over the diffuse power-law background at photon energies of 110 GeV and 130 GeV with a global statistical significance of up to 3.6{sigma}, independently confirming earlier claims of the same excess from the Galactic center. Interpreting this result as a signal of dark matter annihilations to two monochromatic photon channels in galaxy cluster halos, and fixing the annihilation cross-section from the Galactic center data, we determine the annihilation boost factor due to dark matter subhalos from the data. Our results contribute to a discrimination of the dark matter annihilations from astrophysical processes and from systematic detector effects, offering them as possible explanations for the Fermi-LAT excess.

  19. Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Positive interactions among non-native species could greatly exacerbate the problem of invasions, but are poorly studied and our knowledge of their occurrence is mostly limited to plant-pollinator and dispersal interactions. We found that invasion of bullfrogs is facilitated by the presence of co-evolved non-native fish, which increase tadpole survival by reducing predatory macroinvertebrate densities. Native dragonfly nymphs in Oregon, USA caused zero survival of bullfrog tadpoles in a replicated field experiment unless a non-native sunfish was present to reduce dragonfly density. This pattern was also evident in pond surveys where the best predictors of bullfrog abundance were the presence of non-native fish and bathymetry. This is the first experimental evidence of facilitation between two non-native vertebrates and supports the invasional meltdown hypothesis. Such positive interactions among non-native species have the potential to disrupt ecosystems by amplifying invasions, and our study shows they can occur via indirect mechanisms.

  20. Direct and Indirect Influence of Altruistic Behavior in a Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Safin, Vasiliy; Yang, Barry; Luhmann, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that recipients of generosity behave more generously themselves (a direct social influence). In contrast, there is conflicting evidence about the existence of indirect influence (i.e., whether interacting with a recipient of generosity causes one to behave more generously), casting doubt on the possibility that altruistic behavior can cascade through social networks. The current study investigated how far selfish and generous behavior can be transmitted through social networks and the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such transmission. Participants played a sequence of public goods games comprising a chain network. This network is advantageous because it permits only a single, unambiguous path of influence. Furthermore, we experimentally manipulated the behavior of the first link in the chain to be either generous or selfish. Results revealed the presence of direct social influence, but no evidence for indirect influence. Results also showed that selfish behavior exerted a substantially greater influence than generous behavior. Finally, expectations about future partners’ behavior strongly mediated the observed social influence, suggesting an adaptive basis for such influence. PMID:26469066

  1. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    PubMed

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  2. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  3. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations.

  4. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  5. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux. PMID:26157498

  6. Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P

    2011-01-01

    Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

  7. Aerosol Indirect Forcing Dictated by Warm Low-Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, M.; Chen, Y. C.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol indirect forcing is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in estimating the extent of global warming. Increased aerosol levels can enhance the solar reflection from warm liquid clouds countering greenhouse gas warming. However, very little is actually known about the strength of the indirect effects for mixed-phase stratiform clouds as well as other cloud types such as cumulus, altocumulus, nimbostratus, deep convection, and cirrus. These mixed-phase cloud types are ubiquitous and typically overlooked in satellite estimates of the indirect forcing. In this study we assess the responses of each major cloud type to changes in aerosol loading and provide an estimate of their contribution to the global mean indirect forcing. Satellite data is collected from several co-located sensors in the A-train for the period starting in January of 2007 - 2010. Cloud layers are classified according to the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR CloudSat product. Radiative fluxes are obtained from CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and examined as a function of the aerosol loading obtained from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. For low-level cloud regimes (e.g., stratus, stratocumulus, cumulus) we show that the longwave contribution to the net indirect effect is insignificant and dominated by changes in reflected shortwave radiation which also becomes insignificant as cloud top temperature decreases below 0°C. An increase in the aerosol loading in mixed-phase stratocumulus leads to more ice and precipitation that depletes cloud water and limits cloud brightening. For the more convective type clouds (e.g., altocumulus, nimbostratus, deep convection), increased aerosol loading can invigorate deep convection and promote deeper clouds with higher cloud albedo (cooling effect) and cloud tops that emit less longwave radiation to space (warming effect). As a consequence, the shortwave and longwave indirect radiative effects tend to cancel for the

  8. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Aronzon, B. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Kugel, K. I.; Tripathi, V.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  9. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  10. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  12. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  13. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor shall submit an executed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data (see FAR 15.406-2) applicable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs. 1552.242-70... costs. As prescribed in 1542.705-70, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement...

  14. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  15. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  16. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  17. Theory for Indirect Conduction in Dense, Gas-Solid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, Aaron; Hrenya, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Heat transfer in dense gas-solid systems is dominated by conduction, and critical to the operation of rotary-kilns, catalytic cracking, and heat exchangers with solid particles as the heat transfer fluid. In particular, the indirect conduction occurring between two bodies separated by a thin layer of fluid can significantly impact the heat transfer within gas-solid systems. Current state-of-the-art models for indirect conduction assume that particles are surrounded by a static "fluid lens" and that one-dimensional conduction occurs through the fluid lens when the lens overlaps another body. However, attempts to evaluate the effect of surface roughness and fluid lens thickness (theoretical inputs) on indirect conduction have been restricted to static, single-particle cases. By contrast, here we quantify these effects for dynamic, multi-particle systems. This analysis is compared to outputs from computational fluid dynamics and discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulations of heat transfer in a packed bed and flow down a heated ramp. Analytical predictions for model sensitivity are found to be in agreement with simulation results and differ greatly from the static, single-particle analysis. Namely, indirect conduction in static systems is found to be most sensitive to surface roughness, while dynamic systems are sensitive to the fluid lens thickness.

  18. Assessing Students' Writing Skills: A Comparison of Direct & Indirect Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffler, Stephen L.

    This research examined the results from direct and indirect writing assessments to determine the most effective method of discrimination. The New Jersey State Department of Education developed a test for ninth-grade students which was designed to measure the ability to apply writing mechanics to written text and to communicate effectively in…

  19. A Comparison of Direct and Indirect Writing Assessment Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiggins, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Compares direct and indirect writing assessment strategies and contrasts them in terms of the relationship each has to specific classroom decision-making situations, the components of writing assessed, practical testing matters, characteristics of test exercises, test scoring procedures, and procedures for determining test quality. (HOD)

  20. 12 CFR 1.100 - Indirect general obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of 12 U.S.C. 24 (Seventh), if a party possessing general powers of taxation unconditionally promises... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect general obligations. 1.100 Section 1.100 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT...

  1. 12 CFR 1.100 - Indirect general obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of 12 U.S.C. 24 (Seventh), if a party possessing general powers of taxation unconditionally promises... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect general obligations. 1.100 Section 1.100 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT...

  2. Indirect plant defense against insect herbivores: A review.

    PubMed

    Aljbory, Zainab; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2016-12-30

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching two types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to insect herbivores by affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. When plants recognize herbivore-associated elicitors, they produce and release a blend of volatiles that can attract predators, parasites, and other natural enemies. Known herbivore-associated elicitors include fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, sulfur-containing fatty acids, fragments of cell walls, peptides, esters, and enzymes. Identified plant volatiles include terpenes, nitrogenous compounds, and indoles. In addition, constitive traits including extrafloral nectars, food bodies, and domatia can be further induced to higher levels and attract natural enemies as well as provide food and shelter to carnivores. A better understanding of indirect plant defense at global and componential levels via advanced high throughput technologies may lead to utilization of indirect defense in suppression of herbivore damage to plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  4. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or…

  5. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  6. Toward Universal Definitions for Direct and Indirect Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeck, Matt; Bacon, Don

    2015-01-01

    The absence of universally accepted definitions for direct and indirect assessment motivates the purpose of this article: to offer definitions that are literature-based and theoretically driven, meeting K. Lewin's (1945) dictum that, "There is nothing so practical as a good theory" (p. 129). The authors synthesize the literature to…

  7. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  8. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  9. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  10. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  11. Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Mena, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed here that a biphasic life cycle with partial dedifferentiation of intermediate juvenile or larval stages represents the mainstream developmental mode of metazoans. Developmental plasticity of differentiated cells is considered the essential characteristic of indirect development, rather than the exclusive development of the adult from ‘set-aside’ cells. Many differentiated larval cells of indirect developers resume proliferation, partially dedifferentiate and contribute to adult tissues. Transcriptional pluripotency of differentiated states has premetazoan origins and seems to be facilitated by histone variant H2A.Z. Developmental plasticity of differentiated states also facilitates the evolution of polyphenism. Uncertainty remains about whether the most recent common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes was a direct or an indirect developer, and how the feeding larvae of bilaterians are related to non-feeding larvae of sponges and cnidarians. Feeding ciliated larvae of bilaterians form their primary gut opening by invagination, which seems related to invagination in cnidarians. Formation of the secondary gut opening proceeds by protostomy or deuterostomy, and gene usage suggests serial homology of the mouth and anus. Indirect developers do not use the Hox vector to build their ciliated larvae, but the Hox vector is associated with the construction of the reproductive portion of the animal during feeding-dependent posterior growth. It is further proposed that the original function of the Hox cluster was in gonad formation rather than in anteroposterior diversification. PMID:20083640

  12. Indirect electroreduction as pretreatment to enhance biodegradability of metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Saidi, I; Soutrel, I; Floner, D; Fourcade, F; Bellakhal, N; Amrane, A; Geneste, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of metronidazole, a biorecalcitrant antibiotic, by coupling an electrochemical reduction with a biological treatment was examined. Electroreduction was performed in a home-made flow cell at -1.2V/SCE on graphite felt. After only one pass through the cell, analysis of the electrolyzed solution showed a total degradation of metronidazole. The biodegradability estimated from the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.07 to 0.2, namely below the value usually considered as the limit of biodegradability (0.4). In order to improve these results, indirect electrolysis of metronidazole was performed with a titanium complex known to reduce selectively nitro compounds into amine. The catalytic activity of the titanium complex towards electroreduction of metronidazole was shown by cyclic voltammetry analyses. Indirect electrolysis led to an improvement of the biodegradability from 0.07 to 0.42. To confirm the interest of indirect electroreduction to improve the electrochemical pretreatment, biological treatment was then carried out on activated sludge after direct and indirect electrolyses; different parameters were followed during the culture such as pH, TOC and metronidazole concentration. Both electrochemical processes led to a more efficient biodegradation of metronidazole compared with the single biological treatment, leading to an overall mineralization yield for the coupling process of 85%.

  13. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data. CMS... number of inpatient days in the acute inpatient area of the hospital by the number of days in the...

  14. 48 CFR 952.216-15 - Predetermined indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Predetermined indirect cost rates. 952.216-15 Section 952.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. 48 CFR 952.216-15 - Predetermined indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Predetermined indirect cost rates. 952.216-15 Section 952.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  16. 48 CFR 952.216-15 - Predetermined indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Predetermined indirect cost rates. 952.216-15 Section 952.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  17. 48 CFR 952.216-15 - Predetermined indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Predetermined indirect cost rates. 952.216-15 Section 952.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  18. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  19. Press perturbations and indirect effects in real food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, José M; Woodward, Guy; Emmerson, Mark C; Solé, Ricard V

    2009-09-01

    The prediction of the effects of disturbances in natural systems is limited by the general lack of knowledge on the strength of species interactions, i.e., the effect of one species on the population growth rate of another, and by the uncertainty of the effects that may be manifested via indirect pathways within the food web. Here we explored the consequences of changes in species populations for the remaining species within nine exceptionally well-characterized empirical food webs, for which, unlike the vast majority of other published webs, feeding links have been fully quantified. Using the inverse of the Jacobian matrix, we found that perturbations to species with few connections have larger net effects (considering both direct and indirect pathways between two species) on the rest of the food web than do disturbances to species that are highly connected. For 40% of predator-prey links, predators had positive net effects on prey populations, due to the predominance of indirect interactions. Our results highlight the fundamental, but often counterintuitive, role of indirect effects for the maintenance of food web complexity and biodiversity.

  20. Indirect band gap in alpha-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C.K.; Aita, C.R.

    1990-08-01

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient on the fundamental optical absorption edge of alpha ZrO2 show that an indirect interband transition at 4.70 eV precedes two previously reported direct transitions. This result is in agreement with recent theoretical calculations of the alpha ZrO2 band structure. (JS)

  1. A Laboratory That Reveals Indirect Experimental Methods of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Chris; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a physics laboratory experiment for nonscience majors intended to illustrate indirect experimental methods of sciences treating objects too small for sensory observation. The student explores and attempts to identify an object in a closed container, using provided experimental tools and small openings in the opaque lid. (MLH)

  2. Indirect Teaching and Assessment: Are They Mutually Exclusive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Principals may wonder how to evaluate teachers using student-centered, indirect teaching strategies with an assessment instrument geared to reward a more teacher-centered approach. This article offers some suggestions concerning the instructional cycle, classroom observation techniques, postobservation conferences, and the formal writeup. (MLH)

  3. 78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect costs for its component... its component organizations and formulate policies on the recovery of indirect cost rates subject to... purposes of cost recovery and to develop indirect rates for FY 2002 and subsequent years. As in the...

  4. Sensitivity of Aerosol Indirect Effects to Representation of Autoconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, W.; Adams, P. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Nenes, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the sensitivity of aerosol indirect effects to the approach used for computing autoconversion of cloudwater into rain. The NASA GISS II-prime GCM, with online simulation of aerosol and cloud droplet number (using the activation parameterization of Fountoukis and Nenes, 2005) are used for simulating the sensitivity of climate and aerosol indirect effects to autoconversion schemes. Simulations are done using the autoconversion parameterizations of Liu and Daum (2004) [P6], Khairoutdinov and Kogan, (2000) [KK], Manton and Cotton, (1977) [MC] and direct integration of the kinetic collection equation (KCE) using a gravitational (GRV) collection kernel with and without enhancement from turbulence (TUR). Given the uncertainty associated with the importance of turbulence on droplet collection, we carry out simulations using two published kernels with substantially different sensitivity to turbulence. Simulations show that increased aerosol associated with anthropogenic activity increase annual mean LWP from changes in autoconversion; strongest effects are seen in highly polluted areas. The spatial distribution of indirect forcing strongly correlates with simulated changes in LWP between pre-industrial and present day simulations; strongest cooling is seen in SE Asia, Western Europe, and eastern US. The combined first and second indirect effect is quite sensitive to the autoconversion scheme used, being -1.30 W m-2 using P6, - 2.05 W m-2 for KK, and, -1.53 W m-2 MC. Using KCE, a smaller indirect effect is simulated, being -0.89 W m- 2 when gravitational collection is only considered, and, equal to -1.03 W m-2 when also enhanced by turbulence. The spatial and temporal distribution of cloud droplet number, effective radius and liquid water content and their sensitivity to the approach used for autoconversion is also assessed.

  5. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  6. Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Nabity, Paul D.; Zavala, Jorge A.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Herbivory reduces leaf area, disrupts the function of leaves, and ultimately alters yield and productivity. Herbivore damage to foliage typically is assessed in the field by measuring the amount of leaf tissue removed and disrupted. This approach assumes the remaining tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate into remaining undamaged leaf tissue. Scope and Conclusions This review briefly examines the indirect effects of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four mechanisms contributing to the indirect suppression of photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues: severed vasculature, altered sink demand, defence-induced autotoxicity, and defence-induced down-regulation of photosynthesis. We review the chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal imaging techniques used to gather layers of spatial data and discuss methods for compiling these layers to achieve greater insight into mechanisms contributing to the indirect suppression of photosynthesis. We also elaborate on a few herbivore-induced gene-regulating mechanisms which modulate photosynthesis and discuss the difficult nature of measuring spatial heterogeneity when combining fluorescence imaging and gas exchange technology. Although few studies have characterized herbivore-induced indirect effects on photosynthesis at the leaf level, an emerging literature suggests that the loss of photosynthetic capacity following herbivory may be greater than direct loss of photosynthetic tissues. Depending on the damage guild, ignoring the indirect suppression of photosynthesis by arthropods and other organisms may lead to an underestimate of their physiological and ecological impacts. PMID:18660492

  7. Indirect Measurement of Sexual Orientation: Comparison of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure, Viewing Time, and Choice Reaction Time Tasks.

    PubMed

    Rönspies, Jelena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Melnikova, Anna; Krumova, Rosina; Zolfagari, Asadeh; Banse, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to validate an adaptation of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an indirect latency-based measure of sexual orientation. Furthermore, reliability and criterion validity of the IRAP were compared to two established indirect measures of sexual orientation: a Choice Reaction Time task (CRT) and a Viewing Time (VT) task. A sample of 87 heterosexual and 35 gay men completed all three indirect measures in an online study. The IRAP and the VT predicted sexual orientation nearly perfectly. Both measures also showed a considerable amount of convergent validity. Reliabilities (internal consistencies) reached satisfactory levels. In contrast, the CRT did not tap into sexual orientation in the present study. In sum, the VT measure performed best, with the IRAP showing only slightly lower reliability and criterion validity, whereas the CRT did not yield any evidence of reliability or criterion validity in the present research. The results were discussed in the light of specific task properties of the indirect latency-based measures (task-relevance vs. task-irrelevance).

  8. The role of "indirect" recognition in initiating rejection of skin grafts from major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, H; Lee, R; Shea, S; Markowitz, J S; Grusby, M J; Glimcher, L H

    1993-01-01

    In vitro studies have revealed several pathways by which T cells can respond to alloantigens, including CD4+ direct responses to allogeneic class II antigens, CD8+ direct responses to allogeneic class I antigens, and CD4+ "indirect" responses to peptides of alloantigens presented in association with responder class II molecules. In vivo studies of skin graft rejection, however, have so far provided clear evidence for the contribution of only the two direct pathways and not for indirect recognition. We have used major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice as donors to test the role of indirect recognition in rejection of skin grafts. Class II-deficient skin was always rejected without delay by normal recipients. Removal of recipient CD8+ cells (to leave the animals dependent on CD4+ function) or depletion of recipient CD4+ cells revealed that CD4+ cells were usually involved and sometimes absolutely required in this rapid rejection. Since the donor grafts lacked class II antigens, the CD4+ cells must have recognized donor antigens presented in association with recipient class II molecules. These results therefore indicate that indirect recognition can initiate rapid skin graft rejection. PMID:8475083

  9. Indirect detections and analyses of GRBs by ionospheric response

    SciTech Connect

    Slosiar, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-05-25

    We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID--Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency), and discus its possible impact on GRB science and investigations in general. Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss examples of such VLF/SID detection of GRBs 060124A, GRB080319D a GRB080320A. A network of SID monitors has been created and is operated to detect more GRBs. The importance of these detections for GRB analyses and GRB science in general is still to be further and in full detail exploited. Some possible outcomes in this direction will be outlined and discussed.

  10. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  11. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  12. Global Search Capabilities of Indirect Methods for Impulsive Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hong-Xin; Casalino, Lorenzo; Luo, Ya-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    An optimization method which combines an indirect method with homotopic approach is proposed and applied to impulsive trajectories. Minimum-fuel, multiple-impulse solutions, with either fixed or open time are obtained. The homotopic approach at hand is relatively straightforward to implement and does not require an initial guess of adjoints, unlike previous adjoints estimation methods. A multiple-revolution Lambert solver is used to find multiple starting solutions for the homotopic procedure; this approach can guarantee to obtain multiple local solutions without relying on the user's intuition, thus efficiently exploring the solution space to find the global optimum. The indirect/homotopic approach proves to be quite effective and efficient in finding optimal solutions, and outperforms the joint use of evolutionary algorithms and deterministic methods in the test cases.

  13. NUMERICALLY PREDICTED INDIRECT SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dobinson, Jack; Carter, Philip J.; Lines, Stefan

    2015-06-10

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  14. Volume-based indirect illumination with irradiance decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruirui; Qin, Kaihuai

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes a fast and accurate algorithm for indirect illumination. It uses volumes of different resolutions to sample and cache the geometric information and the secondary lights. By dividing the irradiance into two parts, it treats the lights coming from the far-field and that coming from the near-field differently. For the far-field ones, it propagates sphere harmonic represented lights on coarse voxels. For the near-field ones, it shoots rays and collects their contributions on fine voxels. By doing this, the algorithm in this paper avoids using many rays to march long distance. In the experiments, it renders about ten times faster than the VGI algorithm to get the same image qualities, especially for the large and complex scenes. Meanwhile, it further accelerates the rendering by inventing an incremental multi-resolution gathering. The experiments illustrate fast and accurate indirect light effects.

  15. Indirect measures as a signal for evaluative change.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Marco; Richetin, Juliette; Zogmaister, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Implicit and explicit attitudes can be changed by using evaluative learning procedures. In this contribution we investigated an asymmetric effect of order of administration of indirect and direct measures on the detection of evaluative change: A change in explicit attitudes is more likely detected if they are measured after implicit attitudes, whereas these latter change regardless of the order. This effect was demonstrated in two studies (n=270; n=138) using the self-referencing task whereas it was not found in a third study (n=151) that used a supraliminal sequential evaluative conditioning paradigm. In all studies evaluative change was present only for contingency aware participants. We discuss a potential explanation underlying the order of measure effect entailing that, in some circumstances, an indirect measure is not only a measure but also a signal that can be detected through self-perception processes and further elaborated at the propositional level.

  16. Indirect-Cost Management Guide: Navigating the Sea of Overhead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    for each cost pool) are developed by industry in a very disciplined manner as an in- tegral part of the corporate- business planning process. This...sary for managing indirect costs. The business planning process represents top management decisions that focus on how the corporation plans to be...phases of business planning . The business planning process results in the prepa- ration of a mathematical model of the total cor- poration; therefore

  17. Introduction to the special issue on "indirect dark matter searches"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2014-11-01

    The nature of cosmological dark matter finds its explanation in physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. The landscape of dark matter candidates contains a wide variety of species, either elusive or hardly detectable in direct experimental searches. Even in case, when such searches are possible the interpretation of their results implies additional sources of information, which provide indirect effects of dark matter. Some nontrivial probes for the nature of the dark matter are presented in the present issue.

  18. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  19. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Harihar, Vivek; Kothudum, Ashwini Rajareddy; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism.

  20. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  1. Microtensile bond strength of repaired indirect resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of indirect resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS Indirect resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, indirect-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal testing machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test at α = .05. RESULTS Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. CONCLUSION Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired indirect resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite. PMID:28243390

  2. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-09-10

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

  3. Spatially indirect exciton condensate phases in double bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jung-Jung; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a theory of spatially indirect exciton condensate states in systems composed of a pair of electrically isolated Bernal graphene bilayers. The ground-state phase diagram in a two-dimensional displacement-field/inter-bilayer-bias space includes layer-polarized semiconductors, spin-density-wave states, exciton condensates, and states with mixed excitonic and spin order. We find that two different condensate states, distinguished by a chirality index, are stable under different electrical control conditions.

  4. Coercion for Hire: A Theory of Indirect Coercion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Support for Insurgency and Terrorism (Santa Monica, CA: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2012). 6 1. Hypothesis Indirect coercion will...Political War (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1989), 17. 15 “Document 269–Foreign Relations of the United States, 1945– 1950 ...States in the 1950s and 1960s had a sponsor-surrogate relationship. The target in that case was China. The Tibetan objective was to end the Chinese

  5. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  6. Early and severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia as a manifestation of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Woo, H C; Phornphutkul, C; Laptook, A R

    2010-04-01

    Classic galactosemia results from mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase gene and causes infants to present with jaundice after initiation of lactose containing formulas. Jaundice associated with galactosemia is often thought to have a prominent direct fraction. We report an infant with galactosemia who presented with severe jaundice from indirect hyperbilirubinemia and met criteria for an exchange transfusion within 48 h after milk ingestion.

  7. EYESi ophthalmoscope - a simulator for indirect ophthalmoscopic examinations.

    PubMed

    Schuppe, Oliver; Wagner, Clemens; Koch, Frank; Männer, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    We present a training simulator for indirect ophthalmoscopy. An optical tracking system is used to reconstruct the position of a lens mockup and a model of the patient's face. Refraction and illumination are computed in real-time and displayed on a head-mounted display using augmented reality. A case database completes the training system which allows to practise the examination and to study clinical patterns.

  8. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective.

  9. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-11-06

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  10. Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: Aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20th century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. “warming hole”). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the “warming hole”. We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed “warming hole” can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin. PMID:25373416

  11. Physical activity, social support, and depression: possible independent and indirect associations in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Sandroff, Brian; Motl, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the pattern of associations among physical activity, social support, mobility disability, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Persons (N = 218) with RRMS completed a battery of questionnaires that was sent and returned through the United States Postal Service (USPS). Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that physical activity and social support were both inversely associated with depressive symptoms (r's = -0.288 and -0.386, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that physical activity (β = -0.21, p = 0.002) and social support (β = -0.37, p = 0.0001) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Path analysis confirmed that the associations between physical activity and social support with depressive symptoms were indirect via mobility disability and perceived stress. Collectively, the evidence indicates that physical activity and social support are independently and indirectly associated with depression via mobility disability and perceived stress in relapsing-remitting MS. This supports the design of interventions and programs that target physical activity and social support for reducing depressive symptoms among persons with MS.

  12. Cardiac injury following 10 Gy total body irradiation: indirect role of effects on abdominal organs

    PubMed Central

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Lam, Vy; Jensen, Eric; Fish, Brian L; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Komorowski, Richard A; Harmann, Leanne; Migrino, Raymond Q; Li, X Allen; Hopewell, John W; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced injury to the heart after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) is direct or indirect. Young male WAG/RijCmcr rats received a 10 Gy single dose using TBI, upper hemi-body (UHB) irradiation, lower hemi-body (LHB) irradiation, TBI with the kidneys shielded, or LHB irradiation with the intestines shielded. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. The lipid profile, kidney injury, heart and liver morphology and cardiac function were determined up to 120 days after irradiation. LHB, but not UHB irradiation, increased the risk factors for cardiac disease as well as the occurrence of cardiac and kidney injury in a way that was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed after TBI. Shielding of the kidneys prevented the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. Shielding of the intestines did not prevent the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. There was no histological evidence of liver injury 120 days after irradiation. Injury to the heart from irradiation appears to be indirect, supporting the notion that injury to abdominal organs, principally the kidneys, is responsible for the increased risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after TBI and LHB irradiation. PMID:23919311

  13. Lung mechanical changes following bronchoaspiration in a porcine model: differentiation of direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Gergely H; Peták, Ferenc; Erces, Dániel; Balogh, Adám L; Babik, Barna

    2014-08-01

    Bronchoaspiration results in local deterioration of lung function through direct damage and/or indirect systemic effects related to neurohumoral pathways. We distinguished these effects by selectively intubating the two main bronchi in pigs while a PEEP of 4 or 10cm H2O was maintained. Gastric juice was instilled only into the right lung. Lung mechanical and ventilation defects were assessed by measuring unilateral pulmonary input impedance (ZL,s) and the third phase slope of the capnogram (SIII) for each lung side separately before the aspiration and for 120min thereafter. Marked transient elevations in ZL,s parameters and SIII were observed in the affected lung after aspiration. Elevating PEEP did not affect these responses in the ZL,s parameters, whereas it prevented the SIII increases. None of these indices changed in the intact left lung. These findings furnish evidence of the predominance of the local direct damage over the indirect systemic effects in the development of the deterioration of lung function, and demonstrate the benefit of an initially elevated PEEP following aspiration.

  14. Indirect Searches for Dark Matter at the TeV Scale and Above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzvi, Segev

    2017-01-01

    The existence of dark matter, or matter which does not readily emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation, is supported by a wealth of astrophysical evidence. However, despite many years of observations the particle nature of dark matter remains unknown. In the past decade the high-energy physics community has undertaken major efforts to solve the mystery of dark matter by directly observing it in the laboratory. In parallel, a complementary effort of ``indirect'' detection is underway at astrophysical particle observatories. Using measurements of astrophysical gamma rays, neutrinos, and cosmic rays it is possible to study dark matter candidates which decay or annihilate into Standard Model particles. These measurements allow us to probe dark matter at the TeV scale, above the reach of laboratory experiments, and at the sub-eV scale. In this talk I will highlight indirect measurements of dark matter annihilation above 1 TeV using data from facilities such as the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. I will discuss the prospects for detecting dark matter using TeV cosmic rays, gamma rays, and neutrinos, the model dependence and systematic uncertainties of the observations, and connections to measurements in the laboratory. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics under grant DE-SC0008475.

  15. Patterns of indirect protein interactions suggest a spatial organization to metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; McLysaght, Aoife; Conant, Gavin C

    2011-11-01

    It has long been believed that cells organize their cytoplasm so as to efficiently channel metabolites between sequential enzymes. This metabolic channeling has the potential to yield higher metabolic fluxes as well as better regulatory control over metabolism. One mechanism for achieving such channeling is to ensure that sequential enzymes in a pathway are physically close to each other in the cell. We present evidence that indirect protein interactions between related enzymes represent a global mechanism for achieving metabolic channeling; the intuition being that protein interactions between enzymes and non-enzymatic mediator proteins are a powerful means of physically associating enzymes in a modular fashion. By analyzing the metabolic and protein-protein interactions networks of Escherichia coli, yeast and humans, we are able to show that all three species have many more indirect protein interactions linking enzymes that share metabolites than would be expected by chance. Moreover, these interactions are distributed non-randomly in the metabolic network. Our analyses in yeast and E. coli show that reactions possessing such interactions also show higher flux than do those lacking them. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that an important role of protein interactions with mediator proteins is to contribute to the spatial organization of the cell. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that these mediator proteins are also enriched with annotations related to signal transduction, a system where scaffolding proteins are known to limit cross-talk by controlling spatial localization.

  16. Transitions among the diverse oscillation quenching states induced by the interplay of direct and indirect coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debarati; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2014-12-01

    We report the transitions among different oscillation quenching states induced by the interplay of diffusive (direct) coupling and environmental (indirect) coupling in coupled identical oscillators. This coupling scheme was introduced by Resmi et al. [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046212 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.046212] as a general scheme to induce amplitude death (AD) in nonlinear oscillators. Using a detailed bifurcation analysis we show that, in addition to AD, which actually occurs only in a small region of parameter space, this coupling scheme can induce other oscillation quenching states, namely oscillation death (OD) and a novel nontrvial AD (NAD) state, which is a nonzero bistable homogeneous steady state; more importantly, this coupling scheme mediates a transition from the AD state to the OD state and a new transition from the AD state to the NAD state. We identify diverse routes to the NAD state and map all the transition scenarios in the parameter space for periodic oscillators. Finally, we present the first experimental evidence of oscillation quenching states and their transitions induced by the interplay of direct and indirect coupling.

  17. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  18. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  19. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of 'image scores' to summarize individuals' past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work.

  20. Clothing increases the risk of indirect ballistic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. The objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation. Methods Twenty-five fresh red deer femora embedded in ballistic gelatine were shot with varying distances off their medial cortex with a 5.56 × 45 mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bullet while being filmed with a slow-motion video. We compared the effect of two different gelatine depths and the effect of denim cloth laid onto the impact surface of the moulds. Results Bullet passage in thinner moulds failed to cause fracture because the bullet exited the mould before a large expanding temporary cavity was produced. Clothing dramatically altered the size and depth of the expanding cavity, as well as increased lateral pressures, resulting in more severe fractures with greater bullet distances from the bone that can cause fracture. Conclusions Clothing increases the risk of indirect fracture and results in larger, more superficial temporary cavities, with greater lateral pressures than are seen in unclothed specimens, resulting in more comminuted fractures. Greater tissue depth affords the 5.56 × 45 mm NATO a chance to yaw and thus develop an enlarging temporary cavity that is sufficient to cause fracture. PMID:24267379

  1. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    PubMed

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, p<0.05). Fractures patterns were found to be comparable to the PMHS for tests conducted with Synbones, however the input parameters were slightly varied to produce similar results. The fractures patterns with the Sawbones were not found to be as comparable to the PMHS. An ideal bone surrogate for ballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted.

  2. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Ullio, Piero; Tavakoli, Maryam E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov E-mail: maryam.tavakoli@desy.de

    2014-07-01

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow ≅ 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  3. Direct and indirect coupling mechanisms in a chiral plasmonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongkai; Wen, Xiaojing; Qu, Yu; Fu, Tong; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2016-10-01

    Artificial chiral plasmonic nanostructures (ACPNs) are widely studied and used in biological monitoring, analytical chemistry, and negative-refractive-index media. The mechanism of direct coupling between two twist metal nanorods has been obtained in usual ACPNs. In this work, we proposed a nanosystem of twist nanorods separated by a metal film (TNMF). By analyzing the charge distributions, a new indirect coupling mechanism is found. According to the equivalent LC resonant circuits, gold nanorods on the two sides of the gold film can be regarded as a receiver and an emitter. These components enhanced transmittance and provided direct and indirect coupling mechanisms for the circular dichroism (CD). The direct coupling mode cannot be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned monotonously by monotonously varying geometric dimensions. However, the CD signal of indirect coupling can be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned to its maximum by varying geometric dimensions when the impedances of both sides of the gold film match. These results can help design novel chiral optical structures and promote combined applications between photons and electrons when a gold film is powered on.

  4. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Tavakoli, Maryam; Ullio, Piero

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  5. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  6. Bond strength of direct and indirect bonded brackets after thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Daub, Jacob; Berzins, David W; Linn, Brandon James; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 +/- 2.9, 12.3 +/- 3.0, and 11.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P < .05) higher percentage of bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.

  7. Direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada, 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M D; Berka, C; Langlois, P; Detsky, A S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate the direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada. DESIGN: Cost-of-illness study. SETTING: Canada. PATIENTS: All Canadians receiving inpatient or outpatient care for asthma in 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct costs incurred by inpatient care, emergency services, physician and nursing services, ambulance use, drugs and devices, outpatient diagnostic tests, research and education. Indirect costs from productivity loss due to absence from work, inability to to perform housekeeping activities, need to care for children with asthma who were absent from school, time spent travelling and waiting for medical care, and premature death from asthma. All costs are in 1990 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Depending on assumptions, the total cost of asthma was estimated to be between $504 million and $648 million. Direct costs were $306 million. The single largest component of direct costs was the cost of drugs ($124 million). The largest component of indirect costs was illness-related disability ($76 million). CONCLUSIONS: Annual costs of treating asthma are comparable to the individual cost of infectious diseases, hematological diseases, congenital defects, perinatal illnesses, home care and ambulance services. Asthma costs may increase in the future, given current morbidity and mortality trends. Further evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available asthma interventions in addition to aggregate cost data are required to determine whether resource allocation for the treatment of asthma can be improved. PMID:8634960

  8. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited. PMID:28150808

  9. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens.

  10. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Evidence for a bound H-dibaryon using lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Will Detmold

    2012-04-01

    The H-dibaryon, a J = 0 state with the valence quark content udsuds, has long been hypothesized to exist because of the attractive nature of color magnetic gluon exchange in the flavor- singlet channel. Using lattice QCD the NPLQCD collaboration have investigated this system and evidence is presented for the existence of a stable H-dibaryon, albeit at a quark mass somewhat larger than that in nature. This calculation is reviewed and combined with subsequent calculations by the HALQCD collaboration at the SU(3) flavor symmetric point to identify bounds on the H-dibaryon mass at the physical quark masses.

  12. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd

  13. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  14. Trait-mediated indirect interactions of ant shape on the attack of caterpillars and fruits.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; De la Torre, Pedro Luna; Kaminski, Lucas A; García-Chávez, Juan; Rico-Gray, Víctor

    2016-08-01

    Mainly owing to their high diversity and abundance, ants are formidable as predators and defenders of foliage. Consequently, ants can exclude both invertebrate and vertebrate activity on plants via direct and indirect interactions as already shown in many previous studies. Here we present empirical evidence that objects resembling ant shape on dummy caterpillars were able to repel visually oriented predators. Moreover, we also show that rubber ants on dummy fruits can repel potential fruit dispersers. Our results have direct implications on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of interactions in ant-based systems, as ant presence could affect the fitness of its partners. In short, our study highlights the importance of visual cues in interspecific interactions and opens a new way to study the effects of ant presence to test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of invasive plants on soil chemistry and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Callaway, Ragan M

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants have a multitude of impacts on plant communities through their direct and indirect effects on soil chemistry and ecosystem function. For example, plants modify the soil environment through root exudates that affect soil structure, and mobilize and/or chelate nutrients. The long-term impact of litter and root exudates can modify soil nutrient pools, and there is evidence that invasive plant species may alter nutrient cycles differently from native species. The effects of plants on ecosystem biogeochemistry may be caused by differences in leaf tissue nutrient stoichiometry or secondary metabolites, although evidence for the importance of allelochemicals in driving these processes is lacking. Some invasive species may gain a competitive advantage through the release of compounds or combinations of compounds that are unique to the invaded community—the “novel weapons hypothesis.” Invasive plants also can exert profound impact on plant communities indirectly through the herbicides used to control them. Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the world, often is used to help control invasive weeds, and generally is considered to have minimal environmental impacts. Most studies show little to no effect of glyphosate and other herbicides on soil microbial communities. However, herbicide applications can reduce or promote rhizobium nodulation and mycorrhiza formation. Herbicide drift can affect the growth of non-target plants, and glyphosate and other herbicides can impact significantly the secondary chemistry of plants at sublethal doses. In summary, the literature indicates that invasive species can alter the biogeochemistry of ecosystems, that secondary metabolites released by invasive species may play important roles in soil chemistry as well as plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions, and that the herbicides used to control invasive species can impact plant chemistry and ecosystems in ways that have yet to be fully explored.

  16. How Important Is Organic Aerosol Hygroscopicity to Aerosol Indirect Forcing?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Jian

    2010-12-07

    Organics are among the most abundant aerosol components in the atmosphere. However, there are still large uncertainties with emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (precursor gases of secondary organic aerosol, SOA), formation and yield of SOA, and chemical and physical properties (e.g., hygroscopicity) of POA and SOA. All these may have significant impacts on aerosol direct and indirect forcing estimated from global models. In this study a modal aerosol module (MAM) in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) is used to examine sensitivities of aerosol indirect forcing to hygroscopicity (“κ” value) of POA and SOA. Our model simulation indicates that in the present-day condition changing “κ” value of POA from 0 to 0.1 increases the number concentration of cloud condensational nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation S=0.1% by 40-60% over the POA source regions, while changing “κ” value of SOA by ±50% (from 0.14 to 0.07 and 0.21) changes the CCN within 30%. Changes in the in-cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) are within 20% in most locations on the globe with the above changes in “κ” value of POA and SOA. Global annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) between present-day (PD) and pre-industrial (PI) conditions change by 0.4 W m-2 with the control run of -1.3 W m-2. AIF reduces with the increase hygroscopicity of organic aerosol, indicating the important role of natural organic aerosol in buffering the relative change of CDNC from PI to PD.

  17. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  18. How to Prepare an Indirect Cost Rate Proposal for a Non-profit Organization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The indirect cost rate proposal is the documentation prepared by a grantee organization, in accordance with applicable federal cost principles, to substantiate its claim for the reimbursement of indirect costs.

  19. Applications of Indirect Imaging Techniques in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaftis, E. T.

    A review is given on aspects of indirect imaging techniques in X-ray binaries which are used as diagnostics tools for probing the X-ray dominated accretion disc physics. These techniques utilize observed properties such as the emission line profile variability, the time delays between simultaneous optical/X-ray light curves, the light curves of eclipsing systems and the pulsed emission from the compact object in order to reconstruct the accretion disc's line emissivity (Doppler tomography), the irradiated disc and heated secondary (echo mapping), the outer disc structure (modified eclipse mapping) and the accreting regions onto the compact object, respectively.

  20. Material and clinical considerations for full-coverage indirect restorations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Margaret P

    2012-11-01

    Because dental ceramics have been used for decades and continuously improved over the years, there is a plethora of information regarding their material characteristics, applications, and contraindications. Each restorative ceramic material demonstrates benefits and disadvantages, making it difficult for dentists to research, retain, and apply the ideal material for individual restorations and/or combination cases. This article outlines the applications and benefits of dental ceramics in general and examines and reviews the current ceramic alternatives available for restorative dentistry today. It also discusses the material composition and properties of a recently introduced new classification of indirect material: resin nano-ceramic.

  1. Update on NIF indirect drive ignition target fabrication specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S W; Amendt, P A; Dittrich, T R; Hatchett, S P; Herrmann, M C; Hurricane, O A; Marinak, M M; Munro, D; Pollaine, S M; Strobel, G A; Suter, L J

    2003-10-17

    Indirect drive ignition target simulations are described as they are used to determine target fabrication specifications. Simulations are being used to explore options for making the targets more robust, and to develop more detailed understanding of the performance of a few point designs. The current array of targets is described. A new target is described with radially dependent Cu dopant in Be. This target has significantly looser specifications for high-mode perturbations than previous targets. Current estimates of size limitations for fill tubes, holes, and isolated defect are discussed. Recent 3D simulations are described.

  2. Direct/indirect detection signatures of nonthermally produced dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Minoru; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2008-09-15

    We study direct and indirect detection possibilities of neutralino dark matter produced nonthermally by, e.g., the decay of long-lived particles, as is easily implemented in the case of anomaly or mirage-mediation models. In this scenario, large self-annihilation cross sections are required to account for the present dark matter abundance, and it leads to significant enhancement of the gamma-ray signature from the galactic center and the positron flux from the dark matter annihilation. It is found that GLAST and PAMELA will find the signal or give tight constraints on such nonthermal production scenarios of neutralino dark matter.

  3. Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target Design

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Gibson, C R

    2004-09-03

    This document summarizes the Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target design. These targets either use a fill tube or the capsule is strong enough to withstand the room temperature pressure of the DT fuel. Only features that affect the design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System (NCTS) are presented. The design presented is the current thinking and may evolve further. The NCTS should be designed to accommodate a range of targets and target scales, as described here. The interface location between the target and the NCTS cryostat is at the target base / gripper joint, the tamping gas gland/gland joint, and the electrical plug/receptacle joint.

  4. Indirect precise angular control using four-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Yun-Kun

    2014-04-28

    Here, we show indirect precise angular control using a four-wave mixing (FWM) process. This was performed with a superposition of light with orbital angular momentum in an M-Type configuration of a hot {sup 85}Rb atomic ensemble. A gear-shaped interference pattern is observed at FWM light with a donut-shaped input signal. The gear could be rotated and is controlled through the change of the polarization of the pump laser. Our experimental results that are based on nonlinear coherent interactions have applications in image processing and precise angular control.

  5. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  6. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOEpatents

    Von Drasek, William A.; Saucedo, Victor M.

    2005-02-22

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  7. Smartphone Image Acquisition During Postmortem Monocular Indirect Ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Patrick E; Schoppe, Candace H; Thibault, Kirk L; Porter, William T

    2016-01-01

    The medical usefulness of smartphones continues to evolve as third-party applications exploit and expand on the smartphones' interface and capabilities. This technical report describes smartphone still-image capture techniques and video-sequence recording capabilities during postmortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. Using these devices and techniques, practitioners can create photographic documentation of fundal findings, clinically and at autopsy, without the expense of a retinal camera. Smartphone image acquisition of fundal abnormalities can promote ophthalmological telemedicine--especially in regions or countries with limited resources--and facilitate prompt, accurate, and unbiased documentation of retinal hemorrhages in infants and young children.

  8. An averaging analysis of discrete-time indirect adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Stephen M.; Kosut, Robert L.; Franklin, Gene F.

    1988-01-01

    An averaging analysis of indirect, discrete-time, adaptive control systems is presented. The analysis results in a signal-dependent stability condition and accounts for unmodeled plant dynamics as well as exogenous disturbances. This analysis is applied to two discrete-time adaptive algorithms: an unnormalized gradient algorithm and a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm with resetting. Since linearization and averaging are used for the gradient analysis, a local stability result valid for small adaptation gains is found. For RLS with resetting, the assumption is that there is a long time between resets. The results for the two algorithms are virtually identical, emphasizing their similarities in adaptive control.

  9. Relaxation to equilibrium driven via indirect control in Markovian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Raffaele

    2007-11-15

    We prove that it is possible to modify the stationary states of a quantum dynamical semigroup, describing the irreversible evolution of a two-level system, by means of an auxiliary two-level system, a quantum probe that can be suitably prepared. The target system and the probe can be initially entangled or uncorrelated. We find that this indirect control of the stationary states is possible, even if there are no initial correlations, under suitable conditions on the dynamical parameters characterizing the evolution of the joint system.

  10. Indirect measurement of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. P.; Li, Z. H.; Bai, X. X.; Wang, Y. B.; Guo, B.; Lian, G.; Su, J.; Zeng, S.; Wang, B. X.; Yan, S. Q.; Li, Y. J.; Li, E. T.; Jin, S. J.

    2010-05-12

    Systematic indirect measurements of nuclear astrophysical reactions using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE in CIAE were performed. We have measured the angular distributions of transfer reactions, such as {sup 8}Li(d,p){sup 9}Li, {sup 8}Li(d,n){sup 9}Be and {sup 8}Li(p,d){sup 7}Li in inverse kinematics, and derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates for {sup 8}Li(n,gamma){sup 9}Li and {sup 8}Li(p,gamma){sup 9}Be by using asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) or spectroscopic factor methods.

  11. An indirect assay for volatile compound production in yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Davide; Walther, Andrea; Trost, Kajetan; Vrhovsek, Urska; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Traditional flavor analysis relies on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Here we describe an indirect method coupling volatile compound formation to an ARO9-promoter-LacZ reporter gene. The resulting β-galactosidase activity correlated well with headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS/SPME) GC-MS data, particularly with respect to the formation of rose flavor. This tool enables large-scale screening of yeast strains and their progeny to identify the most flavor active strains. PMID:24424137

  12. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-2 - Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Service with respect to partnership items, that agreement binds all indirect partners holding an interest in that partnership through the pass-thru partner except those indirect partners who have been... in that partnership, either directly or indirectly through a different pass-thru partner, then...

  13. Development of cold light indirect ophthalmoscopic video system for sharing stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Cha, Jae Pyeong; Seo, Jong Mo; Hwang, Jeong Min; Chung, Hum; Kim, Hee Chan

    2007-01-01

    To improve the usability of conventional indirect ophthalmoscope, we propose the newly designed binocular indirect ophthalmoscope which is inexpensive, comfortable, light-weighted, long-lasting, and provides stereopsis not only to examiner but also to observers. Our new system shows good performance compared to conventional indirect ophthalmoscope and also presents the stereoscopic assistant view through special visualization system.

  14. Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.; Williams, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal…

  15. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-2 - Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. 301... Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. (a) Pass-thru partner binds unidentified indirect partners—(1) In general. If a pass-thru partner enters into a settlement agreement with the Internal...

  16. Conceptualizing and Testing Random Indirect Effects and Moderated Mediation in Multilevel Models: New Procedures and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Gil, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors propose new procedures for evaluating direct, indirect, and total effects in multilevel models when all relevant variables are measured at Level 1 and all effects are random. Formulas are provided for the mean and variance of the indirect and total effects and for the sampling variances of the average indirect and total effects.…

  17. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays.

    PubMed

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-10-06

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles.

  18. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  19. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator-prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

  20. Evaluation of actuator disk theory for predicting indirect combustion noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashish; Bodony, Daniel J.

    2013-02-01

    Indirect combustion noise is believed to be a key component of turbofan engine core noise, but existing experimental data have not been able to definitively determine its importance. Instead, actuator disk theory (ADT) as developed by Cumpsty and Marble [The interaction of entropy fluctuations with turbine blade rows; a mechanism of turbojet noise, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 357 (1977) 323-344] is commonly used to estimate its contribution based on combustor exit conditions and changes in the mean flow across blade rows. The theory, which assumes planar propagation of acoustic, entropic, and vortical waves in the long wavelength limit, is assessed by comparing its predictions to those from two-dimensional compressible Euler calculations of idealized entropy disturbances interacting with a 1980s era NASA turbine stator. Both low-frequency planar waves of constant frequency and higher-frequency, localized entropy disturbances are considered, with the former being within ADT's range of applicability and the latter outside of it. It is found that ADT performs well for the cut-on acoustic modes generated by the entropy-blade interaction but its accuracy suffers for the cut-off acoustic modes, which could impact indirect combustion noise predictions for turbines with closely spaced blade rows.

  1. Indirect search for the fourth genration of quarks and leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashiry, Vali

    2008-04-01

    It is known that the Standard Model (SM) does not predict the number of fermion families; N. The only restriction comes from the asymptotic freedom of QCD which requires the number of quarks to be less than 17 and, therefore, the number of SM families to be N⩽8. Before 1990 Šs, many authors published articles related to the extra SM families and their phenomenological consequences. In early 1990 Šs, the LEP data yields N is almost 3 where the neutral lepton mass for each family is less than half the mass of the Z boson. Generally, this result is interpreted as the exact value of N, since one assumes that the neutrinos must have very small masses. If we disregard this incorrect assumption, the LEP data does not exclude the existence of extra SM families with heavy neutrinos. Meanwhile, few papers arguing the existence of the fourth SM family have been publishing. These arguments are based on the Śflavor democracy Š hypothesis. The study of FCNC in B decays can indirectly shed light on the SM4 family in quark sector and LFV is a good candidate to indirect search for 4th generation of leptons.

  2. Optical inversions based on polarization parameters indirect microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoyan; Gao, Kun; Liu, Xuefeng; Huang, Zicheng; Ni, Guoqiang

    2016-10-01

    The resolution of conventional optical microscope is intrinsically limited by the optical diffraction, therefore it cannot be used in the measurement of sub-100nm shape and structural detection. Non-optical imaging techniques are not limited by the optical diffraction. For example, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), but both of them have the weakness of narrow view field, low efficiency, and excessive cost. To detect nanoscale material, a new microscopic imaging technique is introduced in this paper, i.e. the polarization parameter indirect microscopic imaging technique. A conventional reflection microscopic system is used as the basic optical system, with polarization-modulation mechanics being inserted into it. The near-field structural characteristics can be delivered by optical wave and material coupling. According to coupling and conduction physics, changes of the optical wave parameters can be calculated, and then curves of the image intensity can be obtained. By analyzing the near-field polarization parameters in nanoscale, indirect polarization parameter imaging can be established.

  3. ERP correlates of retrieval orientation: direct versus indirect memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Michael; Rugg, Michael D; Henson, Richard N A

    2006-02-03

    The neural correlates of the processes involved in cueing memory retrieval were investigated using ERPs to unstudied (new) items in a yes/no recognition test (direct memory task) and a semantic judgement task (indirect memory task). Subjects encoded either pictures or auditory words and were tested on visual words. We replicated previous findings that ERPs to correct rejections of new items in a yes/no recognition test differ according to the study material, with ERPs to words encoded as pictures being more negative (relative to a average mastoid reference) than words encoded auditorily [Hornberger, M., Morcom, A.M., et al., 2004. Neural correlates of retrieval orientation: effects of study-test similarity. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16 (7), 1196-1210]. This difference was sustained from approximately 450-1,200 ms. An effect of study material on the ERP to new items was found in the indirect memory task but was both earlier onsetting and shorter lived, ca. 250-600 ms. These findings add weight to the concept of 'retrieval orientation' [Rugg, M.D., Wilding, E.L., 2000. Retrieval processing and episodic memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4 (3) 108-115] - differential processing of retrieval cues according to the form of the sought-for information - by showing that a putative ERP correlate of retrieval orientation is restricted to direct memory tasks.

  4. Degradation of artificial sweeteners via direct and indirect photochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Perkola, Noora; Vaalgamaa, Sanna; Jernberg, Joonas; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2016-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect photochemical reactivity of artificial sweeteners acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose in environm entally relevant dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of sweeteners were irradiated with simulated solar radiation (>290 nm; 96 and 168 h) or ultraviolet radiation (UVR; up to 24 h) for assessing photochemical reactions in surface waters or in water treatment, respectively. The sweeteners were dissolved in deionised water for examination of direct photochemical reactions. Direct photochemical reactions degraded all sweeteners under UVR but only acesulfame under simulated solar radiation. Acesulfame was degraded over three orders of magnitude faster than the other sweeteners. For examining indirect photochemical reactions, the sweeteners were dissolved in surface waters with indigenous dissolved organic matter or irradiated with aqueous solutions of nitrate (1 mg N/L) and ferric iron (2.8 mg Fe/L) introduced as sensitizers. Iron enhanced the photodegradation rates but nitrate and dissolved organic matter did not. UVR transformed acesulfame into at least three products: iso-acesulfame, hydroxylated acesulfame and hydroxypropanyl sulfate. Photolytic half-life was one year for acesulfame and more than several years for the other sweeteners in surface waters under solar radiation. Our study shows that the photochemical reactivity of commonly used artificial sweeteners is variable: acesulfame may be sensitive to photodegradation in surface waters, while saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose degrade very slowly even under the energetic UVR commonly used in water treatment.

  5. Effects of direct and indirect bleach on dentin fracture toughness.

    PubMed

    Tam, L E; Noroozi, A

    2007-12-01

    There are concerns that tooth-whitening procedures irreversibly damage tooth structure. We investigated the hypothesis that dental bleaches significantly affect dentin structural integrity. The objective was to evaluate the effects of peroxide bleaches on dentin fracture toughness. Compact test specimens, composed of human dentin, were used (n = 10/group). Bleach (16% or 10% carbamide peroxide or 3% hydrogen peroxide) or control material, containing 0.1% sodium fluoride, was applied directly or indirectly to dentin through enamel (6 hrs/day) for 2 or 8 weeks. Fracture toughness results were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test (p < 0.05). There were significant decreases in mean fracture toughness after two- and eight-week direct (19-34% and 61-68%, respectively) and indirect (up to 17% and 37%, respectively) bleach application. The in vitro reduction in dentin fracture toughness caused by the application of peroxide bleaches was greater for the direct application method, longer application time, and higher bleach concentration.

  6. Autoantibody detection using indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sack, Ulrich; Conrad, Karsten; Csernok, Elena; Frank, Ingrid; Hiepe, Falk; Krieger, Thorsten; Kromminga, Arno; von Landenberg, Philipp; Messer, Gerald; Witte, Torsten; Mierau, Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    The detection of autoantibodies is an important element in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in patients with autoimmune diseases. In laboratory diagnostic tests for connective tissue and autoimmune liver diseases, indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells plays a central role in a multistage diagnostic process. Despite the high quality of diagnostics, findings at different laboratories can differ considerably due to a lack of standardization, as well as subjective factors. The present paper formulates recommendations for the standardized processing and interpretation of the HEp-2 cell test for the detection of non-organ-specific (especially antinuclear) antibodies. It provides requirements regarding the diagnostic tests used, instructions for laboratory procedure and evaluation, and recommendations for interpretation. For an optimal laboratory diagnostic process, it is useful to have an informative, tentative clinical diagnosis and an experienced laboratory diagnostician. In addition, the following key elements are recommended: initial screening using indirect immunofluorescence on carefully chosen HEp-2 cells beginning with a serum dilution of 1:80 and evaluation under a microscope with powerful illumination; results from a titer of 1:160 upwards being considered positive; internal laboratory quality control; and standardized interpretation. The aim is to improve diagnostic tests and care of patients with autoimmune diseases as a central concern of the European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative (EASI).

  7. Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nicholas C; Dai, Lei; Olson, C Anders; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Sun, Ren

    2016-01-01

    The structure of fitness landscapes is critical for understanding adaptive protein evolution. Previous empirical studies on fitness landscapes were confined to either the neighborhood around the wild type sequence, involving mostly single and double mutants, or a combinatorially complete subgraph involving only two amino acids at each site. In reality, the dimensionality of protein sequence space is higher (20L) and there may be higher-order interactions among more than two sites. Here we experimentally characterized the fitness landscape of four sites in protein GB1, containing 204 = 160,000 variants. We found that while reciprocal sign epistasis blocked many direct paths of adaptation, such evolutionary traps could be circumvented by indirect paths through genotype space involving gain and subsequent loss of mutations. These indirect paths alleviate the constraint on adaptive protein evolution, suggesting that the heretofore neglected dimensions of sequence space may change our views on how proteins evolve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16965.001 PMID:27391790

  8. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today—80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles. PMID:24821791

  9. Fishing indirectly structures macroalgal assemblages by altering herbivore behavior.

    PubMed

    Madin, Elizabeth M P; Gaines, Steven D; Madin, Joshua S; Warner, Robert R

    2010-12-01

    Fishing has clear direct effects on harvested species, but its cascading, indirect effects are less well understood. Fishing disproportionately removes larger, predatory fishes from marine food webs. Most studies of the consequent indirect effects focus on density-mediated interactions where predator removal alternately drives increases and decreases in abundances of successively lower trophic-level species. While prey may increase in number with fewer predators, they may also alter their behavior. When such behavioral responses impact the food resources of prey species, behaviorally mediated trophic cascades can dramatically shape landscapes. It remains unclear whether this pathway of change is typically triggered by ocean fishing. By coupling a simple foraging model with empirical observations from coral reefs, we provide a mechanistic basis for understanding and predicting how predator harvest can alter the landscape of risk for herbivores and consequently drive dramatic changes in primary producer distributions. These results broaden trophic cascade predictions for fisheries to include behavioral changes. They also provide a framework for detecting the presence and magnitude of behaviorally mediated cascades. This knowledge will help to reconcile the disparity between expected and observed patterns of fishing-induced cascades in the sea.

  10. A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai; Pringle, Kirsty; Carslaw, Kenneth; Pierce, Jeffrey; Bauer, Susanne; Adams, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most estimates of the global mean indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosol on the Earth's energy balance are from simulations by global models of the aerosol lifecycle coupled with global models of clouds and the hydrologic cycle. Extremely simple models have been developed for integrated assessment models, but lack the flexibility to distinguish between primary and secondary sources of aerosol. Here a simple but more physically based model expresses the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) using analytic representations of cloud and aerosol distributions and processes. Although the simple model is able to produce estimates of AIEs that are comparable to those from some global aerosol models using the same global mean aerosol properties, the estimates by the simple model are sensitive to preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei concentration, preindustrial accumulation mode radius, width of the accumulation mode, size of primary particles, cloud thickness, primary and secondary anthropogenic emissions, the fraction of the secondary anthropogenic emissions that accumulates on the coarse mode, the fraction of the secondary mass that forms new particles, and the sensitivity of liquid water path to droplet number concentration. Estimates of present-day AIEs as low as 5 W/sq m and as high as 0.3 W/sq m are obtained for plausible sets of parameter values. Estimates are surprisingly linear in emissions. The estimates depend on parameter values in ways that are consistent with results from detailed global aerosol-climate simulation models, which adds to understanding of the dependence on AIE uncertainty on uncertainty in parameter values.

  11. Indirectly Encoding Running and Jumping Sodarace Creatures for Artificial Life.

    PubMed

    Szerlip, Paul; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lightweight platform for evolving two-dimensional artificial creatures. The aim of providing such a platform is to reduce the barrier to entry for researchers interested in evolving creatures for artificial life experiments. In effect the novel platform, which is inspired by the Sodarace construction set, makes it easy to set up creative scenarios that test the abilities of Sodarace-like creatures made of masses and springs. In this way it allows the researcher to focus on evolutionary algorithms and dynamics. The new indirectly encoded Sodarace (IESoR) system introduced in this article extends the original Sodarace by enabling the evolution of significantly more complex and regular creature morphologies. These morphologies are themselves encoded by compositional pattern-producing networks (CPPNs), an indirect encoding previously shown effective at encoding regularities and symmetries in structure. The capability of this lightweight system to facilitate research in artificial life is then demonstrated through both walking and jumping domains, in which IESoR discovers a wide breadth of strategies through novelty search with local competition.

  12. Male Courtship Behavior and Weapon Trait as Indicators of Indirect Benefit in the Bean Bug, Riptortus pedestris

    PubMed Central

    Suzaki, Yû; Katsuki, Masako; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Yasukazu

    2013-01-01

    Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male–male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male–male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male–male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection. PMID:24386170

  13. Maternal obesity and offspring body composition by indirect methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Laura, Helen; Santos, Iná S; Quadros, Lenice C M; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conducted through random-effects models. 20 studies were included, most of which reported a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring body fat. Standardized mean differences in body fat percent, fat mass and fat-free mass between infants of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and those of overweight/obese women were 0.31 percent points (95%CI: 0.19; 0.42), 0.38 kg (95%CI: 0.26; 0.50), and 0.18 kg (95%CI: -0.07; 0.42), respectively. Evidence so far suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight is associated with higher offspring adiposity.

  14. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions (Panthera leo) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebras (Equus quagga), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe population

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent–child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47 ± 1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention. PMID:26956651

  16. Indirect effects of sea otters on rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in giant kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Markel, Russell W; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2015-11-01

    Sea otters are a classic example of a predator controlling ecosystem productivity through cascading effects on basal, habitat-forming kelp species. However, their indirect effects on other kelp-associated taxa like fishes are poorly understood. We examined the effects of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reintroduction along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada on giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) distributions and the trophic niches and growth of two common kelp forest fishes, black (Sebastes melanops) and copper (S. caurinus) rockfishes. We sampled 47 kelp forests, and found that red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) were eliminated in the presence of otters, and that kelp forests were 3.7 times deeper and 18.8 times larger. Despite order-of-magnitude differences in kelp forest size, adult black and copper rockfishes contained less kelp-derived carbon in their tissues (as measured by stable isotopes of C and N) in regions with otters. Adults of both species had higher mean trophic positions in the presence of otters, indicating more frequent consumption of higher trophic level prey such as fishes. Smaller trophic niche space of rockfishes in the presence of otters indicated a higher degree of trophic specialization. Juvenile black rockfishes rapidly shifted to higher kelp-carbon contents, trophic positions, and body condition factors after settling in kelp forests. The relationships of growth to length, percentage of kelp carbon, and trophic position varied between the two regions, indicating that potential effects of kelp forest size on trophic ontogeny may also affect individual performance. Our results provide evidence that the indirect effects of otters on rockfishes arise largely through the creation of habitat for fishes and other prey rather than a direct trophic connection through invertebrates or other consumers of kelp productivity.

  17. How Good Are Indirect Tests at Detecting Recombination in Human mtDNA?

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel James; Bryant, David; Gemmell, Neil John

    2013-01-01

    Empirical proof of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination in somatic tissues was obtained in 2004; however, a lack of irrefutable evidence exists for recombination in human mtDNA at the population level. Our inability to demonstrate convincingly a signal of recombination in population data sets of human mtDNA sequence may be due, in part, to the ineffectiveness of current indirect tests. Previously, we tested some well-established indirect tests of recombination (linkage disequilibrium vs. distance using D′ and r2, Homoplasy Test, Pairwise Homoplasy Index, Neighborhood Similarity Score, and Max χ2) on sequence data derived from the only empirically confirmed case of human mtDNA recombination thus far and demonstrated that some methods were unable to detect recombination. Here, we assess the performance of these six well-established tests and explore what characteristics specific to human mtDNA sequence may affect their efficacy by simulating sequence under various parameters with levels of recombination (ρ) that vary around an empirically derived estimate for human mtDNA (population parameter ρ = 5.492). No test performed infallibly under any of our scenarios, and error rates varied across tests, whereas detection rates increased substantially with ρ values > 5.492. Under a model of evolution that incorporates parameters specific to human mtDNA, including rate heterogeneity, population expansion, and ρ = 5.492, successful detection rates are limited to a range of 7−70% across tests with an acceptable level of false-positive results: the neighborhood similarity score incompatibility test performed best overall under these parameters. Population growth seems to have the greatest impact on recombination detection probabilities across all models tested, likely due to its impact on sequence diversity. The implications of our findings on our current understanding of mtDNA recombination in humans are discussed. PMID:23665874

  18. Large-Eddy Simulations of Trade Wind Cumuli: Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Huiwen; Feingold, Graham

    2006-06-01

    The effects of aerosol on warm trade cumulus clouds are investigated using a large-eddy simulation with size-resolved cloud microphysics. It is shown that, as expected, increases in aerosols cause a reduction in precipitation and an increase in the cloud-averaged liquid water path (LWP). However, for the case under study, cloud fraction, cloud size, cloud-top height, and depth decrease in response to increasing aerosol concentration, contrary to accepted hypotheses associated with the second aerosol indirect effect. It is found that the complex responses of clouds to aerosols are determined by competing effects of precipitation and droplet evaporation associated with entrainment. As aerosol concentration increases, precipitation suppression tends to maintain the clouds and lead to higher cloud LWP, whereas cloud droplets become smaller and evaporate more readily, which tends to dissipate the clouds and leads to lower cloud fraction, cloud size, and depth. An additional set of experiments with higher surface latent heat flux, and hence higher LWP and drizzle rate, was also performed. Changes in cloud properties due to aerosols have the same trends as in the base runs, although the magnitudes of the changes are larger. Evidence for significant stabilization (or destabilization) of the subcloud layer due to drizzle is not found, mainly because drizzling clouds cover only a small fraction of the domain. It is suggested that cloud fraction may only increase with increasing aerosol loading for larger clouds that are less susceptible to entrainment and evaporation. Finally, it is noted that at any given aerosol concentration the dynamical variability in bulk cloud parameters such as LWP tends to be larger than the aerosol-induced changes in these parameters, indicating that the second aerosol indirect effect may be hard to measure in this cloud type. The variability in cloud optical depth is, however, dominated by changes in aerosol, rather than dynamics.


  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention.

  20. Indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marilene F; Martorelli, Luzia F A; Aires, Caroline C; Sallum, P C; Massad, Eduardo

    2005-07-01

    A vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (V-RG) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (Desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. The vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (Vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. Our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of V-RG vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. Eight groups were tested. The rabies virus strain used to challenge the bats was isolated from a naturally infected hematophagous bat (Desmodus rotundus). The survival proportion after the virus challenge ranged between 42.8 and 71.4%. The results are encouraging because a significant number of bats that did not receive the vaccine survived the challenge. The vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic to hematophagous bats. No adverse effects to vaccinia virus were observed.

  1. [Autoantibody detection by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Sack, U; Conrad, K; Csernok, E; Frank, I; Hiepe, F; Krieger, T; Kromminga, A; Landenberg, P von; Messer, G; Witte, T; Mierau, R

    2009-06-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Diluted patient sera are typically used to screen for the presence of ANA by immunfluorescence microscopy with fixed HEp-2 cells. Despite high-quality test kits, reports of different laboratories frequently present controversial results. This article recommends unified processing and interpretation of HEp-2 based screening for autoantibodies. Suggestions are made for the selection of high-quality test kits, optimized processing and diagnostic procedures. In addition to a relevant clinical diagnosis and an experienced laboratory specialist, the following procedure is highly recommended to achieve good laboratory practice: Initial HEp-2 based screening by indirect immunofluorescence, starting with a 1:80 serum dilution, and evaluation in a bright fluorescence microscope, pathological values from a titer of 1:160 upwards, internal quality checks and unified interpretation. We aim to improve diagnosis and care of patients with autoimmune diseases as a central focus of the European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative (EASI).

  2. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  3. Culvert analysis program for indirect measurement of discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A program based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) methods for indirectly computing peak discharges through culverts allows users to employ input data formats used by the water surface profile program (WSPRO). The program can be used to compute discharge rating surfaces or curves that describe the behavior of flow through a particular culvert or to compute discharges from measurements of upstream of the gradually varied flow equations and has been adapted slightly to provide solutions that minimize the need for the user to determine between different flow regimes. The program source is written in Fortran 77 and has been run on mini-computers and personal computers. The program does not use or require graphics capability, a color monitor, or a mouse.

  4. Indirect excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangchen; Lem, Laurent L. C.; Nguyen, Thien-Phap; Fair, Kit; Ali, Sajid; Ford, Michael J.; Phillips, Matthew R.; Ton-That, Cuong

    2017-03-01

    We present a correlative experimental and theoretical study of bound excitons in hydrogen-doped ZnO, with a particular focus on the dynamics of their metastable state confined in the sub-surface region, using a combination of surface-sensitive characterisation techniques and density functional theory calculations. A metastable sub-surface emission at 3.31 eV found in H-doped ZnO is attributed to the radiative recombination of indirect excitons localised at basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) where the excitonic transition involves electrons bound to bond-centre hydrogen donors in the potential well of the BSF. Additionally, our work shows the electrical transport of ZnO Schottky junctions is dominated by electrons confined at BSFs in the near-surface region.

  5. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  6. Direct and indirect savings: Magnitudes and implementation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Taha, H.; Lloyd, A.

    1995-12-31

    A {open_quotes}Cool Communities{close_quotes} strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements and shade trees can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles by {approximately}$200M, cool the Basin by 3 C{degrees}, save indirectly $160M more in air conditioning, and reduce smog by {approximately}10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of $0.7B. To implement these savings, we call for ratings and labels for cool materials, building performance standards, utility programs, and an extension of the RECLAIM smog offset trading market to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. Generalized to the US, total annual savings will be {approximately}$10B. Many more utilities can participate, and EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional {open_quotes}open market smog offset trading credits.{close_quotes}

  7. Estimating the direct and indirect costs associated with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; Lizán, Luis; Paz, Silvia; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder whose symptoms and manifestations greatly deteriorate the health, functional status and quality of life of patients, has severe consequences on their families and caregivers and supposes a challenge for the healthcare system and society. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively and descriptively review studies on the economic impact of the disease and interventions, analyzing major contributing factors to direct and indirect costs in PD. Cost-of-illness studies have shown that costs of PD are high, mainly due to drug, hospitalization and productivity loss, and tend to increase as the disease progresses. Studies on PD treatment have suggested that therapies for advanced PD (levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel and apomorphine) and surgical procedures are cost-effective and cost saving, despite their high expenditures; however, further research such as on the economic impact of non-motor manifestations or on the cost-effectiveness of non-medical interventions is still needed.

  8. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  9. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1995-06-02

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm{sup 3}; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction {sup 2}H({sup 3}H,n){sup 4}He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measured results.

  10. Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  11. Social Organization and the Transition from Direct to Indirect Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical framework for the study of environmental consumption at the micro-level by building on concepts from classical sociological theory and recent macro-level studies of the environment. The framework emphasizes the local community context as an important determinant of environmental consumption. We test this framework with unique micro-level data on consumption, household size, household affluence, and community context from Nepal, a setting in the midst of dramatic change in community organization, population size, and consumption behavior. The results of these tests are consistent with the hypothesis that local nonfamily organizations shift the consumption of environmental resources from direct to more indirect. We argue that the framework presented here is a useful early step toward more comprehensive micro-level models of environmental quality. PMID:20514347

  12. Indirect Drive Cold-Loaded Ignition Target Design

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Gibson, C R

    2004-09-03

    This document summarizes the Indirect Drive Cold-Loaded (diffusion-filled) Ignition Target design. These targets include a capsule whose strength is insufficient to withstand the room temperature pressure of the DT fuel. These capsules are diffusion filled with DT gas and then cooled to cryogenic temperature. The target must remain at cryogenic temperature until it is shot. Only features that affect the design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System (NCTS) are presented. The design presented is the current thinking and may evolve further. The NCTS should be designed to accommodate a range of targets and target scales, as described here. The interface location between the target and the NCTS cryostat is at the target base / gripper joint.

  13. {sup 17}F breakup reactions: a touchstone for indirect measurements

    SciTech Connect

    De Napoli, M.; Raciti, G.; Sfienti, C.; Capel, P.; Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.; Sparenberg, J.-M.; Giacoppo, F.; Rapisarda, E.; Cardella, G.; Mazzocchi, C.

    2011-10-28

    An exclusive study of {sup 17}F breakup reactions has been performed at the FRIBs facility of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy). The experiment has been performed with the aim of testing the accuracy of the Coulomb-breakup indirect technique used to infer radiative-capture cross sections at low energies. This technique has been used in the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B case, but has never been tested. By measuring the breakup of {sup 17}F into {sup 16}O+p, and comparing the inferred cross section for {sup 16}O(p,{gamma}){sup 17}F to direct precise measurements, the influence of E2 transitions and higher-order effects, that are predicted to be significant in Coulomb-breakup reactions, can be evaluated. The first results and preliminary model comparison are reported.

  14. Indirect Fourier transform in the context of statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Muthig, Michael; Prévost, Sylvain; Orglmeister, Reinhold; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Inferring structural information from the intensity of a small-angle scattering (SAS) experiment is an ill-posed inverse problem. Thus, the determination of a solution is in general non-trivial. In this work, the indirect Fourier transform (IFT), which determines the pair distance distribution function from the intensity and hence yields structural information, is discussed within two different statistical inference approaches, namely a frequentist one and a Bayesian one, in order to determine a solution objectively From the frequentist approach the cross-validation method is obtained as a good practical objective function for selecting an IFT solution. Moreover, modern machine learning methods are employed to suppress oscillatory behaviour of the solution, hence extracting only meaningful features of the solution. By comparing the results yielded by the different methods presented here, the reliability of the outcome can be improved and thus the approach should enable more reliable information to be deduced from SAS experiments.

  15. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of traces of bromide in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, M. J.; Skougstad, M.W.

    1963-01-01

    A rapid, accurate, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of bromide in natural waters is based on the catalytic effect of bromide on the oxidation of iodine to iodate by potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid solution. The method is applicable to concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ??g. of bromide per liter, but may be modified to extend the concentration range. Most ions commonly occurring in water do not interfere. The standard deviation is 2.9 at bromide concentrations of 100 ??g. per liter and less at lower concentrations. The determination of bromide in samples containing known added amounts gave values ranging from 99 to 105% of the concentration calculated to be present.

  16. Indirect Identification of Linear Stochastic Systems with Known Feedback Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Hsiao, Min-Hung; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for identifying a state-space model of linear stochastic systems operating under known feedback controller. In this algorithm, only the reference input and output of closed-loop data are required. No feedback signal needs to be recorded. The overall closed-loop system dynamics is first identified. Then a recursive formulation is derived to compute the open-loop plant dynamics from the identified closed-loop system dynamics and known feedback controller dynamics. The controller can be a dynamic or constant-gain full-state feedback controller. Numerical simulations and test data of a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this indirect identification method.

  17. Indirect measurements of nuclear astrophysics reactions at CIAE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Weiping; Li Zhihong; Bai Xixiang; Wang Youbao; Lian Gang; Guo Bing; Zeng Sheng; Yan Shengquan; Wang Baoxiang; Su Jun; Shu Nengchuan; Chen Yongshou

    2006-11-02

    This paper described the nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE, by indirect measurements. We measured the angular distributions for some single proton or neutron transfer reactions, such as 7Be(d,n)8B, 11C(d,n)12N, 8Li(d,n)9Be, 8Li(d,p)9Li and 13N(d,n)14O in inverse kinematics, and derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 7Be(p,{gamma})8B, 11C(p,{gamma})12N, 8Li(n,{gamma})9Li, 13N(p,{gamma})14O by asymptotic normalization coefficient, spectroscopic factor, and R-matrix approach at astrophysically relevant energies.

  18. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter indirect searches

    SciTech Connect

    Calore, Francesca; Bozorgnia, Nassim; Lovell, Mark; Bertone, Gianfranco; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James W.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop E-mail: N.Bozorgnia@uva.nl E-mail: g.bertone@uva.nl E-mail: C.S.Frenk@durham.ac.uk E-mail: schaye@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: j.w.trayford@durham.ac.uk

    2015-12-01

    We study high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way type galaxies obtained within the 'Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) project, and identify those that best satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way total stellar mass, rotation curve, and galaxy shape. Contrary to mock galaxies selected on the basis of their total virial mass, the Milky Way analogues so identified consistently exhibit very similar dark matter profiles inside the solar circle, therefore enabling more accurate predictions for indirect dark matter searches. We find in particular that high resolution simulated haloes satisfying observational constraints exhibit, within the inner few kiloparsecs, dark matter profiles shallower than those required to explain the so-called Fermi GeV excess via dark matter annihilation.

  19. Indirect Searches for Z'-like Resonances at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We explore the possibility of indirectly observing the effects of Z{prime}-like particles with electroweak strength couplings in the Drell-Yan channel at the LHC with masses above the resonance direct search reach. We find that, mostly due to statistical limitations, this is very unlikely in almost all classes of models independently of the spin of the resonance. Not unexpectedly, the one exception to this general result is the case of degenerate Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of the photon and Z that occur in some extra-dimensional models. In this special case, the strong destructive interference with the Standard Model (SM) exchanges below the resonance mass leads to a well-known significant suppression of the cross section and thus increased sensitivity to this particular new physics scenario.

  20. Indirect measurement of thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Pennelli, Giovanni Nannini, Andrea; Macucci, Massimo

    2014-02-28

    We report indirect measurements of thermal conductivity in silicon nanostructures. We have exploited a measurement technique based on the Joule self-heating of silicon nanowires. A standard model for the electron mobility has been used to determine the temperature through the accurate measurement of the nanowire resistance. We have applied this technique to devices fabricated with a top-down process that yields nanowires together with large silicon areas used both as electrical and as thermal contacts. As there is crystalline continuity between the nanowires and the large contact areas, our thermal conductivity measurements are not affected by any temperature drop due to the contact thermal resistance. Our results confirm the observed reduction of thermal conductivity in nanostructures and are comparable with those previously reported in the literature, achieved with more complex measurement techniques.

  1. Relevance of Indirect Transmission for Wildlife Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Martin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design, and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host–pathogen system and respective epidemiological modeling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission (IT) through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. The second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e., basic reproductive number R0) and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host. We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models. We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model

  2. Direct and indirect activation of the hippocampus by tubocurarine

    PubMed Central

    Feldberg, W.; Lotti, V. J.

    1970-01-01

    1. In cats anaesthetized with intravenous chloralose, tubocurarine was either perfused through the inferior horn of a lateral ventricle or applied by micro-injection into the hippocampus, and the electrical activity was recorded from the surfaces of the occipital cortices and from the cannulae used for the perfusion or injection which, insulated except at their tips, served as recording electrodes as well. 2. With both methods, the hippocampus became activated by tubocurarine acting directly on the hippocampus. The activation resulted in an abnormal spike discharge interrupted from time to time by short bursts of fast activity, termed episodes, followed by periods of electrical silence during which no abnormal activity was recorded. This abnormal discharge was recorded in all leads. The spikes were negative when recorded from the surface of the hippocampus, but changed polarity when the electrode was lowered and penetrated the pyramidal cell layer, and on further lowering the electrode the positive spikes increased in voltage up to 15 mV and then decreased. 3. With both methods, signs of indirect activation of the hippocampus were observed when the tubocurarine set up foci of excitation in one of the following three areas of cerebral cortex which lie ventral to the hippocampus, the Area entorhinica, the Area perirhinica and the Area post-splenialis. The foci of excitation resulted in a continuous discharge of negative spikes which were recorded in the leads from these areas only. A characteristic feature of the indirect hippocampal activation arising from the continuous discharge set up in the Area post-splenialis was the periodicity. Activation lasting 20-60 sec occurred every few minutes or at shorter intervals, often leading to an episode. PMID:5499820

  3. Indirect drive ignition at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Meezan, N. B.; Edwards, M. J.; Hurricane, O. A.; ...

    2016-10-27

    This article reviews scientific results from the pursuit of indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and describes the program's forward looking research directions. In indirect drive on the NIF, laser beams heat an x-ray enclosure called a hohlraum that surrounds a spherical pellet. X-ray radiation ablates the surface of the pellet, imploding a thin shell of deuterium/tritium (DT) that must accelerate to high velocity (v > 350 km s-1) and compress by a factor of several thousand. Since 2009, substantial progress has been made in understanding the major challenges to ignition: Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability seeded bymore » target imperfections; and low-mode asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray drive, exacerbated by laser-plasma instabilities (LPI). Requirements on velocity, symmetry, and compression have been demonstrated separately on the NIF but have not been achieved simultaneously. We now know that the RT instability, seeded mainly by the capsule support tent, severely degraded DT implosions from 2009–2012. Experiments using a 'high-foot' drive with demonstrated lower RT growth improved the thermonuclear yield by a factor of 10, resulting in yield amplification due to alpha particle heating by more than a factor of 2. However, large time dependent drive asymmetry in the LPI-dominated hohlraums remains unchanged, preventing further improvements. High fidelity 3D hydrodynamic calculations explain these results. In conclusion, future research efforts focus on improved capsule mounting techniques and on hohlraums with little LPI and controllable symmetry. In parallel, we are pursuing improvements to the basic physics models used in the design codes through focused physics experiments.« less

  4. Negative indirect effects of neighbors on imperiled scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Lyza; Miller, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Predation pressure on an individual may be influenced by spatial associations with other organisms. In the case of rare and imperiled species, such indirect interactions may affect the persistence and recovery of local populations. This study examined the effects of coral neighborhood composition on the foraging behavior and impact of the corallivorous gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata. We conducted a manipulative field experiment in which focal colonies of the threatened scleractinian coral Acropora cervicornis had no neighbors, conspecific neighbors, alternative prey ( Orbicella faveolata) neighbors, or non-prey ( Porites asteroides) neighbors. Individually tagged C. abbreviata were then seeded into the study area and allowed to colonize the experimental plots. Initial colonization was significantly affected by the species of neighboring corals and snail abundance after colonization was negatively correlated with focal colony growth. Snails exhibited a strong prey preference for A. cervicornis over O. faveolata and responded numerically to neighborhood quality (i.e., relative preference for neighboring corals). Thus, conspecific neighbors had the greatest predator-mediated negative effect on focal colony performance followed by O. faveolata neighbors. The results suggest that C. abbreviata mediate apparent competition between O. faveolata and A. cervicornis as both species contributed to the local abundance of their shared predator. Additionally, home range estimates for tagged C. abbreviata were calculated, compared among sexes, and found to be significantly greater for males than for females. Overall, this study sheds light on the foraging behavior of an important coral predator and highlights the potential importance of consumer-mediated indirect interactions in the dynamics of severely reduced populations. The results also have direct implications for conservation and population enhancement efforts.

  5. Relevance of Indirect Transmission for Wildlife Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lange, Martin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design, and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modeling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission (IT) through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. The second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e., basic reproductive number R0) and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host. We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models. We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model predictions

  6. Quantification of xylitol in foods by an indirect competitive immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Sreenath, Kundimi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-01-27

    Sugar alcohols are widely used as food additives and drug excipients. d-Xylitol (INS 967), an important five-carbon sugar alcohol, is a natural constituent of many fruits and vegetables. The critical reagent for an immunoassay of haptens is the requirement of hapten-specific antibodies. Here, affinity-purified xylitol-specific antibodies generated earlier [Sreenath, K.; Venkatesh, Y. P. Reductively aminated D-xylose-albumin conjugate as the immunogen for generation of IgG and IgE antibodies specific to D-xylitol, a haptenic allergen. Bioconjugate Chem. 2007, 18, 1995-2003] have been utilized for developing an indirect competitive ELISA for xylitol. With xylitol-BSA conjugate as the coating antigen, a working range of 5-400 ng of xylitol could be determined in the immunoassay; the limit of detection was 1 ng of xylitol. Onion (Allium cepa) and strawberry (Fragaria nilgerrensis) were selected as the food sources containing D-xylitol. The amount of D-xylitol was found to be 12.6 and 44 mg/100 g fresh weight of onion and strawberry, respectively, and the results are in good agreement with the reported values by HPLC and GC. The recovery analyses showed that added amounts of D-xylitol were recovered fairly accurately with recoveries in the range of 89.2 to 94.9% in the case of onion, and 88.4 to 95.9% in the case of strawberry. The indirect competitive ELISA for xylitol quantification is a simple method using a 3 kDa ultrafiltrate of whole food extract, and does not require extensive sample preparation and derivatization as in the case of GC and HPLC analyses. This is the first immunoassay developed for the sugar alcohol, xylitol.

  7. Indirect drive ignition at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, N. B.; Edwards, M. J.; Hurricane, O. A.; Patel, P. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Hsing, W. W.; Town, R. P. J.; Albert, F.; Amendt, P. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hall, G. N.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ho, D. D.; Hohenberger, M.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Masse, L.; Milovich, J. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Stadermann, M.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Tommasini, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific results from the pursuit of indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and describes the program’s forward looking research directions. In indirect drive on the NIF, laser beams heat an x-ray enclosure called a hohlraum that surrounds a spherical pellet. X-ray radiation ablates the surface of the pellet, imploding a thin shell of deuterium/tritium (DT) that must accelerate to high velocity (v  >  350 km s-1) and compress by a factor of several thousand. Since 2009, substantial progress has been made in understanding the major challenges to ignition: Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability seeded by target imperfections; and low-mode asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray drive, exacerbated by laser-plasma instabilities (LPI). Requirements on velocity, symmetry, and compression have been demonstrated separately on the NIF but have not been achieved simultaneously. We now know that the RT instability, seeded mainly by the capsule support tent, severely degraded DT implosions from 2009-2012. Experiments using a ‘high-foot’ drive with demonstrated lower RT growth improved the thermonuclear yield by a factor of 10, resulting in yield amplification due to alpha particle heating by more than a factor of 2. However, large time dependent drive asymmetry in the LPI-dominated hohlraums remains unchanged, preventing further improvements. High fidelity 3D hydrodynamic calculations explain these results. Future research efforts focus on improved capsule mounting techniques and on hohlraums with little LPI and controllable symmetry. In parallel, we are pursuing improvements to the basic physics models used in the design codes through focused physics experiments.

  8. Indirect drive ignition at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B.; Edwards, M. J.; Hurricane, O. A.; Patel, P. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Hsing, W. W.; Town, R. P. J.; Albert, F.; Amendt, P. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hall, G. N.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ho, D. D.; Hohenberger, M.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Masse, L.; Milovich, J. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Park, H-S; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Stadermann, M.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Tommasini, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-10-27

    This article reviews scientific results from the pursuit of indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and describes the program's forward looking research directions. In indirect drive on the NIF, laser beams heat an x-ray enclosure called a hohlraum that surrounds a spherical pellet. X-ray radiation ablates the surface of the pellet, imploding a thin shell of deuterium/tritium (DT) that must accelerate to high velocity (v > 350 km s-1) and compress by a factor of several thousand. Since 2009, substantial progress has been made in understanding the major challenges to ignition: Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability seeded by target imperfections; and low-mode asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray drive, exacerbated by laser-plasma instabilities (LPI). Requirements on velocity, symmetry, and compression have been demonstrated separately on the NIF but have not been achieved simultaneously. We now know that the RT instability, seeded mainly by the capsule support tent, severely degraded DT implosions from 2009–2012. Experiments using a 'high-foot' drive with demonstrated lower RT growth improved the thermonuclear yield by a factor of 10, resulting in yield amplification due to alpha particle heating by more than a factor of 2. However, large time dependent drive asymmetry in the LPI-dominated hohlraums remains unchanged, preventing further improvements. High fidelity 3D hydrodynamic calculations explain these results. In conclusion, future research efforts focus on improved capsule mounting techniques and on hohlraums with little LPI and controllable symmetry. In parallel, we are pursuing improvements to the basic physics models used in the design codes through focused physics experiments.

  9. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  10. Effectiveness of Stereoscopic Displays for Indirect-Vision Driving and Robot Teleoperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Effectiveness of Stereoscopic Displays for Indirect-Vision Driving and Robot Teleoperation by Jessie Y. C. Chen, Razia V. N. Oden, Caitlin...Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-5259 August 2010 Effectiveness of Stereoscopic Displays for Indirect-Vision Driving and Robot Teleoperation...Stereoscopic Displays for Indirect-Vision Driving and Robot Teleoperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  11. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    PubMed

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die.

  12. Estimating site occupancy and abundance using indirect detection indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing animal distribution and abundance is essential in many areas of ecological research, management, and policy-making. Because common methods for modeling and estimating abundance (e.g., capture-recapture, distance sampling) are sometimes not practical for large areas or elusive species, indices are sometimes used as surrogate measures of abundance. We present an extension of the Royle and Nichols (2003) generalization of the MacKenzie et al. (2002) site-occupancy model that incorporates length of the sampling interval into the, model for detection probability. As a result, we obtain a modeling framework that shows how useful information can be extracted from a class of index methods we call indirect detection indices (IDIs). Examples of IDIs include scent station, tracking tube, snow track, tracking plate, and hair snare surveys. Our model is maximum likelihood, and it can be used to estimate site occupancy and model factors influencing patterns of occupancy and abundance in space. Under certain circumstances, it can also be used to estimate abundance. We evaluated model properties using Monte Carlo simulations and illustrate the method with tracking tube and scent station data. We believe this model will be a useful tool for determining factors that influence animal distribution and abundance.

  13. The muon-induced neutron indirect detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Carissimo, C.; Gooch, C.; Kneißl, R.; Langford, J.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.

    2017-04-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with a GEANT4-based package for two different sets of physics models of relevance for neutron production by muons is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. In addition, the time evolution of the muon-induced signal is not well described by the simulations.

  14. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie E-mail: katz.andrey@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  15. Measuring Hsp72 (HSPA1A) by indirect sandwich ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ireland, H Elyse; Williams, John H H

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an immunological technique which is used to determine the presence or quantity of an antigen within a sample. ELISAs rely on the use of at least one antibody (Ab) specific for the antigen being measured. This antibody is covalently linked to an enzyme which is detected through the use of an enzymatic substrate, which can be colorimetric, fluorogenic, or chemiluminescent. The ELISA for Hsp72 described here is a typical indirect sandwich ELISA, which can be used for measuring Hsp72 from cellular/tissue extracts, tissue culture supernatant, and serum. Typically, a 96-well ELISA plate is coated with a specific antibody which captures Hsp72 from the sample, and another antibody specific for a different Hsp72 epitope is used to detect Hsp72. An enzyme-labelled species-specific antibody conjugate is then applied which is consequently detected using a colorimetric enzyme substrate. The quantity of Hsp72 present in the samples is interpolated using a standard curve of known amounts of pure Hsp72.

  16. Evolution of cooperation under indirect reciprocity and arbitrary exploration rates

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Santos, Francisco C.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation has been recognized as an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin, and remains identified as one of the biggest challenges of the XXIst century. Indirect Reciprocity (IR), a key mechanism that humans employ to cooperate with each other, establishes that individual behaviour depends on reputations, which in turn evolve depending on social norms that classify behaviours as good or bad. While it is well known that different social norms give rise to distinct cooperation levels, it remains unclear how the performance of each norm is influenced by the random exploration of new behaviours, often a key component of social dynamics where a plethora of stimuli may compel individuals to deviate from pre-defined behaviours. Here we study, for the first time, the impact of varying degrees of exploration rates – the likelihood of spontaneously adopting another strategy, akin to a mutation probability in evolutionary dynamics – in the emergence of cooperation under IR. We show that high exploration rates may either improve or harm cooperation, depending on the underlying social norm at work. Regarding some of the most popular social norms studied to date, we find that cooperation under Simple-standing and Image-score is enhanced by high exploration rates, whereas the opposite occurs for Stern-judging and Shunning. PMID:27892509

  17. IMPLOSION OF INDIRECTLY DRIVEN REENTRANT CONE SHELL TARGET

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS,RB

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The authors have examined the implosion of an indirectly driven reentrant-cone shell target to clarify the issues attendant on compressing fuel for a fast ignition target. The target design is roughly hydrodynamic equivalent to a NIF cryo-ignition target, but scaled down to be driven by Omega. A sequence of backlit x-radiographs recorded each implosion. The collapse was also modeled with LASNEX, generating simulated radiographs. They compare experimental and simulated diameter, density and symmetry as functions of time near stagnation. The simulations were generally in good agreement with the experiments with respect to the shell, but did not show the opacity due to ablation of gold off the cone; non-thermal gold M-line radiation from the hohlraum wall penetrates the shell and drives this ablation causing some Au to mix into the low density center of the core and into the region between the core and cone. This might be a problem in a cryo-ignition target.

  18. Indirect Abuse Involving Children During the Separation Process.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brittany E

    2015-07-27

    Separation is believed to be an antidote to risk abusers pose to their partners and children and underlines many interventions in family, juvenile, and criminal court proceedings. Countering this belief is the claim that many abusers respond to the felt loss of power and control occasioned by separation by changing or escalating abusive tactics. This study complements research on post-separation by asking whether separation is associated with an increase in threats of indirect abuse, which relies on third parties to manipulate the victim. Children, and threats made against them, can be used as a proxy to control or intimidate the victim. Using data from the Chicago Women Health Risk Study (N = 339), the current study examined whether mothers who were separated were at greater risk of abuse through threats against the children when compared with mothers who were still in a relationship with their abuser. Results indicated that separated mothers were four times more likely to report threats to take and threats to harm the children, Exp(B) = 4.05, p < .05; Exp(B) = 3.93, p < .05, than non-separated mothers. Findings can be used to inform child custody procedures and the design of Family Justice Centers.

  19. Trait divergence and indirect interactions allow facilitation of congeneric species

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Elisa; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Verdú, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant facilitation occurs when the presence of a plant (i.e. a nurse plant) modifies the environment, making it more favourable for the establishment and survival of other species (i.e. facilitated plants), which can germinate and grow nearby. Facilitative associations can be maintained or turned into competition as the facilitated seedling grows. According to the competition-relatedness hypothesis that suggests that closely related species tend to compete more, facilitation turns into competition between phylogenetically close species. However, some examples of facilitation between congeneric species, which are supposed to be closely related species, have been found in nature. Scope In this work, some examples of congeneric facilitation and subsequent coexistence are reviewed and an attempt is made to explain those exceptions to the competition-relatedness hypothesis. Conclusions Two mechanisms are proposed that can switch the facilitation–competition balance: trait divergence and indirect interactions. When traits have diverged within the genus, the niche overlap is reduced and competition relaxed, thus allowing the coexistence of congeneric species. The presence of third interplayers (mycorrhizal fungi, seed dispersers, pollinators or pathogens) participating in the interaction between plants can alleviate the competition or enhance the reproduction and allow the coexistence of species that could not coexist in their absence. PMID:22543178

  20. Indirect ophthalmoscopic stereo video system using three-dimensional LCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Seo, Jong Mo; Hwang, Jeong Min; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO) provides a wider view of fundus with stereopsis contrary to the direct one. Proposed system is composed of portable BIO and 3D viewing unit. The illumination unit of BIO utilized high flux LED as a light source, LED condensing lens cap for beam focusing, color filters and small lithium ion battery. In optics unit of BIO, beam splitter was used to distribute an examinee's fundus image both to examiner's eye and to CMOS camera module attached to device. Captured retinal video stream data from stereo camera modules were sent to PC through USB 2.0 connectivity. For 3D viewing, two video streams having parallax between them were aligned vertically and horizontally and made into side-by-side video stream for cross-eyed stereoscopy. And the data were converted into autostereoscopic video stream using vertical interlacing for stereoscopic LCD which has glass 3D filter attached to the front side of it. Our newly devised system presented the real-time 3-D view of fundus to assistants with less dizziness than cross-eyed stereoscopy. And the BIO showed good performance compared to conventional portable BIO (Spectra Plus, Keeler Limited, Windsor, UK).

  1. Fluorescence quenching as an indirect detection method for nitrated explosives.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, J V; McGuffin, V L

    2001-05-01

    A novel approach based on fluorescence quenching is presented for the analysis of nitrated explosives. Seventeen common explosives and their degradation products are shown to be potent quenchers of pyrene, having Stern-Volmer constants that generally increase with the degree of nitration. Aromatic explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) are more effective quenchers than aliphatic or nitramine explosives. In addition, nitroaromatic explosives are found to have unique interactions with pyrene that lead to a wavelength dependence of their Stern-Volmer constants. This phenomenon allows for their differentiation from other nitrated explosives. The fluorescence quenching method is then applied to the determination of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine(HMX), 2,4,6-TNT, nitromethane, and ammonium nitrate in various commercial explosive samples. The samples are separated by capillary liquid chromatography with post-column addition of the pyrene solution and detection by laser-induced fluorescence. The indirect fluorescence quenching method shows increased sensitivity and selectivity over traditional UV-visible absorbance as well as the ability to detect a wider range of organic and inorganic nitrated compounds.

  2. Further studies on developing technology for indirect liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D.; Neuworth, M. B.; Tomlinson, G.

    1982-03-01

    Our investigations have resulted in the conclusion that fluidized gasifiers, such as Westinghouse or entrained flow gasifiers such as Texaco and Shell-Koppers offer significant advantages over the BGC Lurgi gasifier when Illinois No. 6 coal is employed as the feedstock. Dry-ash Lurgi gasification has additional disadvantages which appear to make it unsuitable for applications with mildly caking coal such as Illinois No. 6. The results of our analyses of Illinois No. 6 coal do not alter our prior conclusions regarding the use of advanced gasification systems for indirect liquefaction. BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers offer significant advantages over dry-ash Lurgi and should be given detailed consideration for a US liquefaction facility. The final decision will probably be driven by the relative state of development at the time a decision is required, process license and guarantees which could be negotiated, the market value of an SNG co-product, and the specific characteristics of the coal feedstock to be used.

  3. Further studies on developing technology for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.B.; Tomlinson, G.

    1982-03-01

    Our investigations have resulted in the conclusion that fluid-bed gasifiers, such as Westinghouse or entrained-flow gasifiers such as Texaco and Shell-Koppers, offer significant advantages over the BGC Lurgi gasifier when Illinois No. 6 coal is employed as the feedstock. Dry-ash Lurgi gasification has additional disadvantages which appear to make it unsuitable for applications with mildly caking coal such as Illinois No. 6. The results of our analyses of Illinois No. 6 coal do not alter our prior conclusions regarding the use of advanced gasification systems for indirect liquefaction. BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers offer significant advantages over dry-ash Lurgi and should be given detailed consideration for a US liquefaction facility. The final decision will probably be driven by the relative state of development at the time a decision is required, process license and guarantees which could be negotiated, the market value of an SNG co-product, and the specific characteristics of the coal feedstock to be used. Again, it should be stressed that all these potential improvements are contingent upon performance levels being achieved for both Kolbel synthesis and advanced gasifiers that are equal to those reported in the literature sources used in this study.

  4. ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Clinton, J.H.; Johnson, P.J.; Barker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis gas conversion to methanol followed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline, CO-shift, methanation, and naphtha hydrotreating. These models have been successfully developed in modular form so that they can be used to simulate a number of different flowsheets or process alternatives. Simulations of the Tri-State flowsheet have been made using two different coal feed rates and two types of feed coal. The overall simulation model was adjusted to match the Tri-State flowsheet values for methanol, LPG, isobutane, and gasoline. As a result of this adjustment, the MTG reactor yield structure necessary to match the flowsheet product rates was determined. The models were exercised at different flow rates and were unaffected by such changes, demonstrating their range of operability. The use of Illinois No. 6 coal, with its lower ash content, resulted in slightly higher production rates for each of the products as compared to use of the Kentucky coal.

  5. Improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Tong, G.T.; Chan, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; McCarty, J.G.

    1989-02-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)reaction is the established technology for the production of liquid fuels from coal by an indirect route using coal-derived syngas (CO + H{sub 2}). Modern FTS catalysts are potassium- and copper-promoted iron preparations. These catalysts exhibit moderate activity with carbon monoxide-rich feedstocks such as the syngas produced by advanced coal gasification processes. However, the relatively large yields of by-product methane and high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes detract from the production of desired liquid products in the C{sub 5}-C{sub 16} range needed for motor and aviation fuel. The goal of this program is to decrease undesirable portions of the FTS hydrocarbon yield by altering the Schultz-Flory polymerization product distribution through design and formulation of improved catalysts. Two approaches were taken: (1) reducing the yield of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes by using highly dispersed catalysts produced from surface-confined multiatomic clusters on acid supports and (2) suppressing methane production by uniformly pretreating active, selective conventional FTS catalysts with submonolayer levels of sulfur.

  6. Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain.

    PubMed

    Humphries, P; Pretorius, E; Naudé, H

    2008-04-01

    The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate, asparagines and glutamine are formed from their precursor, aspartic acid. Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in the body to formate, which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde, diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic derivatives. Previously, it has been reported that consumption of aspartame could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals. Headaches, insomnia and seizures are also some of the neurological effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000) and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning.

  7. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  8. Indirect slumping of D263 glass on Fused Silica mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Wen, Mingwu; Breunig, Elias; Burwitz, Vadim; Friedrich, Peter; Madarasz, Emanuel

    2016-07-01

    The Slumped Glass Optic (SGO) group of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial physics (MPE) is studying the indirect slumping technology for its application to X-ray telescope manufacturing. Several aspects of the technology have been analyzed in the past. During the last months, we concentrated our activities on the slumping of Schott D263 glass on a precise machined Fused Silica mould: The concave mould was produced by the Italian company Media Lario Technologies with the parabola and hyperbola side of the typical Wolter I design in one single piece. Its shape quality was estimated by optical metrology to be around 6 arcsec Half Energy Width (HEW) in double reflection. The application of an anti-sticking Boron Nitride layer was necessary to avoid the adhesion of the glass on the mould during the forming process at high temperatures. The mould has been used for the slumping of seven mirror segments 200 mm long, 100 mm wide, and with thickness of 200 μm or 400 μm. The influence of the holding time at maximum temperature was explored in this first run of tests. The current results of the activities are described in the paper and plans for further investigations are outlined.

  9. Ocean acidification alters fish populations indirectly through habitat modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Connell, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean ecosystems are predicted to lose biodiversity and productivity from increasing ocean acidification. Although laboratory experiments reveal negative effects of acidification on the behaviour and performance of species, more comprehensive predictions have been hampered by a lack of in situ studies that incorporate the complexity of interactions between species and their environment. We studied CO2 vents from both Northern and Southern hemispheres, using such natural laboratories to investigate the effect of ocean acidification on plant-animal associations embedded within all their natural complexity. Although we substantiate simple direct effects of reduced predator-avoidance behaviour by fishes, as observed in laboratory experiments, we here show that this negative effect is naturally dampened when fish reside in shelter-rich habitats. Importantly, elevated CO2 drove strong increases in the abundance of some fish species through major habitat shifts, associated increases in resources such as habitat and prey availability, and reduced predator abundances. The indirect effects of acidification via resource and predator alterations may have far-reaching consequences for population abundances, and its study provides a framework for a more comprehensive understanding of increasing CO2 emissions as a driver of ecological change.

  10. Compression Dynamics of an Indirect Drive Fast Ignition Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, R. B.; Hatchett, S. A.; Turner, R. E.; Tanaka, K. A.; Kodama, R.; Soures, J.

    2002-11-01

    We have compared the compression of an indirectly driven cone-in-shell target, a type proposed for the fast ignition concept, with models. The experimental parameters -500 μm diameter plastic shell with 60 μm thick wall were a 1/5 scale realization of a fast ignition target designed for NIF (absorbing 180 kJ for compression and ˜30 kJ for ignition, and yielding ˜30 MJ) [1]. The implosion was backlit with 6.4 keV x-rays, and observed with a framing camera which captured the implosion from ˜2.6 to 3.3 ns after the onset. The collapsing structure was very similar to model predictions except that non-thermal m-band emissions from the hohlraum penetrated the shell and vaporized gold off the reentrant cone. This could be eliminated by changing the hohlraum composition. [1] S. Hatchett, et al., 5th Wkshp on Fast Ignition of Fusion Targets (Satellite Wkshp, 28th EPS Conf. on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys.), Madeira, Portugal (2001).

  11. Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

  12. Indirect spin-orbit K splittings in strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Nunkaew, J.; Shuman, E. S.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2009-05-15

    We use delayed field ionization to observe the microwave resonance transitions of Sr from 5snf to 5sng, 5snh, and 5sni. The energies of the 5snl, l>3 states are split by the indirect spin-orbit coupling of the Sr core to the Rydberg electron, producing the K splittings. From the K splittings we extract the ionic dipole and quadrupole matrix elements, <5s|r|5p>=3.65(25)a{sub 0} and <5s|r{sup 2}|4d>=12(14)a{sub 0}{sup 2}. From the dipole matrix element we obtain the dipole polarizability of Sr{sup +}. With the dipole polarizability and the quantum defect differences of adjacent l states, we can determine the Sr{sup +} quadrupole polarizability. The dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities of Sr{sup +} are {alpha}{sub d}=86(11)a{sub 0}{sup 3} and {alpha}{sub q}=1.1x10{sup 3}(10)a{sub 0}{sup 5}, respectively.

  13. SUSY under siege from direct and indirect WIMP detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Serce, Hasan

    2016-12-01

    We examine updated prospects for detecting WIMPs in supersymmetric models via direct and indirect dark matter search experiments. We examine several historical and also still viable scenarios: projections for well-tempered neutralinos (WTN), projections from the MasterCode (MC), BayesFits (BF) and Fittino (FO) collaborations, nonthermal wino dark matter (NThW) and finally mixed axion-Higgsino dark matter from SUSY with radiatively driven naturalness (RNS). The WTN is ruled out by recent limits from XENON and LUX collaborations. The NThW scenario, previously on tenuous ground due to gamma-line searches, appears also ruled out by recent combined Fermi-LAT/MAGIC limits combined with new HESS results from continuum gamma rays. Substantial portions of MC parameter space and 1 TeV Higgsino parameter space from BF group are ruled out. The 100-300 GeV Higgsino-like WIMP from RNS survives due to its possible depleted local abundance (where the axion may make up the bulk of dark matter). Projections from ton-scale noble liquid detectors should discover or rule out WIMPs from the remaining parameter space of these surviving models.

  14. Indirect gas chromatographic measurement of water for process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.

    1993-05-01

    This project was conducted to develop a moisture measurement method for process gas streams of fossil fuels. Objective was to from pyrolysis to measure the molar concentration of water in a gas stream without flow measurements. The method developed has been incorporated into the hydrocarbon gas analysis method currently used at Western Research Institute. A literature search of types of direct measuring moisture sensors was conducted, and a list of sensors available is given; most of them could not survive in the environment of the process streams. Indirect methods of measuring water involve changing the water via reaction to a compound that can be more readily measured. These methods react water with various reagents to form hydrogen, acetylene, and acetone. The method chose for this study uses a calcium carbide reaction column to convert the water present in the gas stream to acetylene for analysis. Relative deviation for the daily determination of water varied from 0.5 to 3.4%. The method chosen was tested for linearity over a wide range of gas stream water content. Response over 2 to 15 mole % water appears to be linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  15. The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment.

    PubMed

    Rockenbach, Bettina; Milinski, Manfred

    2006-12-07

    Human cooperation in social dilemmas challenges researchers from various disciplines. Here we combine advances in experimental economics and evolutionary biology that separately have shown that costly punishment and reputation formation, respectively, induce cooperation in social dilemmas. The mechanisms of punishment and reputation, however, substantially differ in their means for 'disciplining' non-cooperators. Direct punishment incurs salient costs for both the punisher and the punished, whereas reputation mechanisms discipline by withholding action, immediately saving costs for the 'punisher'. Consequently, costly punishment may become extinct in environments in which effective reputation building--for example, through indirect reciprocity--provides a cheaper and powerful way to sustain cooperation. Unexpectedly, as we show here, punishment is maintained when a combination with reputation building is available, however, at a low level. Costly punishment acts are markedly reduced although not simply substituted by appreciating reputation. Indeed, the remaining punishment acts are concentrated on free-riders, who are most severely punished in the combination. When given a choice, subjects even prefer a combination of reputation building with costly punishment. The interaction between punishment and reputation building boosts cooperative efficiency. Because punishment and reputation building are omnipresent interacting forces in human societies, costly punishing should appear less destructive without losing its deterring force.

  16. Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Joyce E.; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-based estimates of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) are consistently smaller than the estimates from global aerosol models, and, partly as a result of these differences, the assessment of this climate forcing includes large uncertainties. Satellite estimates typically use the present-day (PD) relationship between observed cloud drop number concentrations (Nc) and aerosol optical depths (AODs) to determine the preindustrial (PI) values of Nc. These values are then used to determine the PD and PI cloud albedos and, thus, the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Here, we use a model with realistic aerosol and cloud processes to show that empirical relationships for ln(Nc) versus ln(AOD) derived from PD results do not represent the atmospheric perturbation caused by the addition of anthropogenic aerosols to the preindustrial atmosphere. As a result, the model estimates based on satellite methods of the AIE are between a factor of 3 to more than a factor of 6 smaller than model estimates based on actual PD and PI values for Nc. Using ln(Nc) versus ln(AI) (Aerosol Index, or the optical depth times angstrom exponent) to estimate preindustrial values for Nc provides estimates for Nc and forcing that are closer to the values predicted by the model. Nevertheless, the AIE using ln(Nc) versus ln(AI) may be substantially incorrect on a regional basis and may underestimate or overestimate the global average forcing by 25 to 35%. PMID:21808047

  17. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  18. Evolution of cooperation under indirect reciprocity and arbitrary exploration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Fernando P.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Santos, Francisco C.

    2016-11-01

    Cooperation has been recognized as an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin, and remains identified as one of the biggest challenges of the XXIst century. Indirect Reciprocity (IR), a key mechanism that humans employ to cooperate with each other, establishes that individual behaviour depends on reputations, which in turn evolve depending on social norms that classify behaviours as good or bad. While it is well known that different social norms give rise to distinct cooperation levels, it remains unclear how the performance of each norm is influenced by the random exploration of new behaviours, often a key component of social dynamics where a plethora of stimuli may compel individuals to deviate from pre-defined behaviours. Here we study, for the first time, the impact of varying degrees of exploration rates – the likelihood of spontaneously adopting another strategy, akin to a mutation probability in evolutionary dynamics – in the emergence of cooperation under IR. We show that high exploration rates may either improve or harm cooperation, depending on the underlying social norm at work. Regarding some of the most popular social norms studied to date, we find that cooperation under Simple-standing and Image-score is enhanced by high exploration rates, whereas the opposite occurs for Stern-judging and Shunning.

  19. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  20. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.