Science.gov

Sample records for albeit indirect evidence

  1. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  2. Searching for Indirect Evidence for the Effects of Statewide Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Flanagan, Ann

    2001-01-01

    States are the primary policymakers in several important areas of K-12 education. Given their dominant role in educational funding and regulation, states not surprisingly have been the primary initiators of the latest wave of educational reform starting in the mid-1980s. In this paper, the authors sought to test indirectly for the effects of…

  3. Using the Retrospective Pretest to Get Usable, Indirect Evidence of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Shannon E.

    2012-01-01

    Minimal evidence exists regarding the retrospective pretest's effectiveness as a tool to obtain usable, indirect evidence of student learning in open admissions institutions. The researcher conducted this study to determine if a retrospective pretest more accurately detected a change in students' knowledge compared to a conventional…

  4. Direct and indirect evidence for earthquakes; an example from the Lake Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. M.; Noble, P. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Schmauder, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution seismic CHIRP data can image direct evidence of earthquakes (i.e., offset strata) beneath lakes and the ocean. Nevertheless, direct evidence often is not imaged due to conditions such as gas in the sediments, or steep basement topography. In these cases, indirect evidence for earthquakes (i.e., debris flows) may provide insight into the paleoseismic record. The four sub-basins of the tectonically active Lake Tahoe Basin provide an ideal opportunity to image direct evidence for earthquake deformation and compare it to indirect earthquake proxies. We present results from high-resolution seismic CHIRP surveys in Emerald Bay, Fallen Leaf Lake, and Cascade Lake to constrain the recurrence interval on the West Tahoe Dollar Point Fault (WTDPF), which was previously identified as potentially the most hazardous fault in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Recently collected CHIRP profiles beneath Fallen Leaf Lake image slide deposits that appear synchronous with slides in other sub-basins. The temporal correlation of slides between multiple basins suggests triggering by events on the WTDPF. If correct, we postulate a recurrence interval for the WTDPF of ~3-4 k.y., indicating that the WTDPF is near its seismic recurrence cycle. In addition, CHIRP data beneath Cascade Lake image strands of the WTDPF that offset the lakefloor as much as ~7 m. The Cascade Lake data combined with onshore LiDAR allowed us to map the geometry of the WTDPF continuously across the southern Lake Tahoe Basin and yielded an improved geohazard assessment.

  5. Indirect Evidence on Sex Reversal of Sinonovacula constricta (Bivalvia: Euheterodonta) and Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun Kyung; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Ji Sung; Lee, Jung Sick

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to propose the possibility of the sex reversal in Sinonovacula constricta and Gomphina veneriformis by confirming the changes in the sex ratio with the shell length in the same population level. For analysis of sex ratio, 100 individuals of S. constricta (SL 26.5-95.0 mm) and 2385 individuals of G. veneriformis (SL 15.1-60.1 mm) were used. Sex was analyzed histologically. Both species displayed the tendency of increase in the female proportion with increase in shell length. In this study, changes in the sex ratio in accordance with the growth of S. constricta and G. veneriformis are determined to be indirect evidence that signifies their sex reversal. PMID:25949174

  6. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P 50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P 50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  7. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis

    PubMed Central

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  8. Direct and indirect measures of intentional forgetting in children and adults: evidence for retrieval inhibition and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Lehman, E B; McKinley-Pace, M J; Wilson, J A; Slavsky, M D; Woodson, M E

    1997-02-01

    In two experiments children in grades 3 and 4 and college students were given an item-by-item cued intentional forgetting task (i.e., instructions were to remember some words and to forget others), either a direct (cued recall word-stem completion) or an indirect (repetition priming word-stem completion) test of memory for the words, and a final free recall test for both remember- and forget-cued words. In both age groups, direct and indirect assessments produced better memory for remember- than for forget-cued words, even in Experiment 2 where the opportunity to selectively rehearse had been reduced by having subjects count aloud with each cue. These results suggest that retrieval inhibition plays a role in item-cued intentional forgetting, albeit one that is similar across ages. Furthermore, again in both age groups, performance on the word-stem completion tasks was enhanced in comparison with an immediate free-recall group, but only for material thought to be irrelevant (the forget-cued words). The facilitation on the priming tasks, however, did not carry over to a final free-recall task. These results on the effects of an intervening experience are discussed in terms of their implications for children's eyewitness testimony. PMID:9120384

  9. Evidence of cell surface iron speciation of acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms in indirect bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhen-yuan; Liu, Hong-chang; Xia, Jin-lan; Yang, Yi; Zhen, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2016-02-01

    While indirect model has been widely accepted in bioleaching, but the evidence of cell surface iron speciation has not been reported. In the present work the iron speciation on the cell surfaces of four typically acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganism (mesophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, moderately thermophilic Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans St, and extremely thermophilic Acidianus manzaensis YN25) grown on different energy substrates (chalcopyrite, pyrite, ferrous sulfate and elemental sulfur (S(0))) were studied in situ firstly by using synchrotron-based micro- X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Results showed that the cells grown on iron-containing substrates had apparently higher surface iron content than the cells grown on S(0). Both ferrous iron and ferric iron were detected on the cell surface of all tested AIOMs, and the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios of the same microorganism were affected by different energy substrates. The iron distribution and bonding state of single cell of A. manzaensis were then studied in situ by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy based on dual-energy contrast analysis and stack analysis. Results showed that the iron species distributed evenly on the cell surface and bonded with amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  10. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Howe, E Lance; Murphy, James J; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation.

  11. Evidence for "direct" and "indirect" pathways through the song system basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Farries, Michael A; Ding, Long; Perkel, David J

    2005-03-28

    Song learning in oscine birds relies on a circuit known as the "anterior forebrain pathway," which includes a specialized region of the avian basal ganglia. This region, area X, is embedded within a telencephalic structure considered homologous to the striatum, the input structure of the mammalian basal ganglia. Area X has many features in common with the mammalian striatum, yet has distinctive traits, including largely aspiny projection neurons that directly innervate the thalamus and a cell type that physiologically resembles neurons recorded in the mammalian globus pallidus. We have proposed that area X is a mixture of striatum and globus pallidus and has the same functional organization as circuits in the mammalian basal ganglia. Using electrophysiological and anatomical approaches, we found that area X contains a functional analog of the "direct" striatopallidothalamic pathway of mammals: axons of the striatal spiny neurons make close contacts on the somata and dendrites of pallidal cells. A subset of pallidal neurons project directly to the thalamus. Surprisingly, we found evidence that many pallidal cells may not project to the thalamus, but rather participate in a functional analog of the mammalian "indirect" pathway, which may oppose the effects of the direct pathway. Our results deepen our understanding of how information flows through area X and provide more support for the notion that song learning in oscines employs physiological mechanisms similar to basal ganglia-dependent forms of motor learning in mammals. PMID:15717304

  12. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Howe, E. Lance; Murphy, James J.; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation PMID:27442434

  13. Indirect evidence that agricultural pesticides select for insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Luc, Djogbénou S; Benoit, Assogba; Laurette, Djossou; Michel, Makoutode

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the agricultural use of insecticides and the emergence of insecticide resistance. Bioassays were conducted using simulated mosquito larval habitats and well known Anopheles gambiae strains. Soil samples were collected from vegetable production areas in Benin, including one site with insecticide use, one site where insecticides had not been used for two months, and a third where insecticides had not been used. Pupation and emergence rates were very low in pyrethroid-susceptible strains when exposed to soil that had been recently exposed to insecticides. Pupation and emergence rates in strains with the kdr mutation alone or both the kdr and Ace-1 mutations were much higher. Overall, strains with the kdr mutation survived at higher rates compared to that without kdr mutation. Although this study is observational, we provide indirect evidence indicating that soils from agricultural areas contain insecticide residues that can play a role in the emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles. This aspect should be taken into account to better utilize the insecticide in the context of integrated pest management programs.

  14. Indirect Evidence for Escaping Ionizing Photons in Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik; Leitherer, Claus

    2015-09-01

    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear, however, what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing (Lyman continuum) photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV (FUV) spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 low-redshift galaxies that are good analogs to typical star-forming galaxies at high redshift. We measure three parameters that provide indirect evidence of the escape of ionizing radiation (leakiness): (1) the residual intensity in the cores of saturated interstellar low-ionization absorption lines, which indicates incomplete covering by that gas in the galaxy; (2) the relative amount of blueshifted Lyα line emission, which can indicate the existence of holes in the neutral hydrogen on the front-side of the galaxy outflow, and (3) the relative weakness of the [S ii] optical emission lines that trace matter-bounded H ii regions. We show that our residual intensity measures are only negligibly affected by infilling from resonance emission lines. We find all three diagnostics agree well with one another. We use these diagnostics to rank-order our sample in terms of likely leakiness, noting that a direct measure of escaping Lyman continuum has recently been made for one of the leakiest members of our sample. We then examine the correlations between our ranking and other proposed diagnostics of leakiness. We find a good correlation with the equivalent width of the Lyα emission line, but no significant correlations with either the flux ratio of the [O iii]/[O ii] emission lines or the ratio of star-formation rates derived from the (dust-corrected) FUV and Hα luminosities. Turning to galaxy properties, we find the strongest correlations with leakiness are with the compactness of the star

  15. Indirect Evidence for Escaping Lyman Continuum Photons in Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik

    2015-01-01

    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear, however, what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In addition, studies of high redshift galaxies have yet to uncover a large sample of galaxies with the required high escape fraction of ionizing photons.We have uncovered a sample of local analogs to high-redshift, star-forming Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) called Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) by matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalogs. These galaxies are remarkably similar to LBGs in their properties-- morphology, size, UV luminosity, SFR, mass, velocity dispersion, metallicity and dust content. We obtained HST COS far-UV spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 LBAs to look for indirect evidence of escaping ionizing radiation (leakiness).We measure three parameters: (1) the residual intensity in the cores of saturated interstellar low-ionization absorption-lines, which indicates incomplete covering by that gas in the galaxy. (2) The relative amount of blue-shifted Lyman alpha line emission, which can indicate the existence of holes in the neutral hydrogen on the front-side of the galaxy outflow, and (3) the relative weakness of the [SII] optical emission lines that trace matter-bounded HII regions. We find all three diagnostics agree well with one another. Finally, we find the strongest correlation between these leakiness indicators and both the compactness of the galactic star-forming region (size and star formation rate/area) and the speed of the galactic outflow. This suggests that extreme feedback- a high intensity of ionizing radiation and strong pressure from both radiation and a hot galactic wind- combines to create significant holes in the neutral gas. These results not only shed new light on the physical

  16. Indirect evidence for elevated SO2 layers in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Zhao, C.; Ran, L.; Lin, W.; Yan, P.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is the precursor of sulphate aerosols and has crucial impacts on atmospheric chemistry, cloud physics, air quality, ecological environment and global climate change. The vertical distribution of SO2 can directly influence atmospheric chemistry and cloud processes. Information on the SO2 vertical profile, however, scarcely exist. Indirect evidence for the frequent occurrence of elevated SO2 layers in the North China Plain (NCP) was found in the case study of three consecutive fog cases and in the detailed analysis of long-term SO2 surface concentration measurements at four different sites. During fog episodes, high concentrations of SO2 over the fog layer was believed responsible for the rapid increases of surface SO2 after the dissipation of the fog. Different from the more common SO2 diurnal patterns with high nighttime concentrations, a frequent SO2 noon-time peak phenomenon was found in the NCP with an occurrence frequency of 50 to 72% at four stations, amongst which 30-52% of the cases were attributed to down-mixing of elevated SO2 layers. The formation of the elevated SO2 layer was attributed to emissions of high stacks accompanied with shallow temperature inversion layers. Elevated SO2 layers will promote the oxidative transformation of SO2 in cloud water. The SO2 noontime peaks caused partly by the elevated SO2 layer will lead to a 13 to 35% increase in sulphur dry deposition, 9 to 23% increase in gas phase oxidation and 8 to 33% increase in aqueous phase conversions, which will increase the hygroscopicity and the light scattering of aerosols, thus having important impacts on atmospheric chemistry, cloud physics and climate.

  17. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V.; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  18. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  19. Children with Autism Understand Indirect Speech Acts: Evidence from a Semi-Structured Act-Out Task

    PubMed Central

    Kissine, Mikhail; Cano-Chervel, Julie; Carlier, Sophie; De Brabanter, Philippe; Ducenne, Lesley; Pairon, Marie-Charlotte; Deconinck, Nicolas; Delvenne, Véronique; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism. PMID:26551648

  20. Children with Autism Understand Indirect Speech Acts: Evidence from a Semi-Structured Act-Out Task.

    PubMed

    Kissine, Mikhail; Cano-Chervel, Julie; Carlier, Sophie; De Brabanter, Philippe; Ducenne, Lesley; Pairon, Marie-Charlotte; Deconinck, Nicolas; Delvenne, Véronique; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism. PMID:26551648

  1. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of OCS Trapped in Solid Parahydrogen: Indirect Evidence of Large Amplitude Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David T.

    2016-06-01

    provide indirect evidence of this delocalization. We are currently trying to model the effect of pH2 delocalization on the OCS vibrational frequency to compare with experiment and test this hypothesis. S. Grebenev, B. Sartakov, J.P. Toennies, A.F. Vilesov, Science 289, 1532-1535 (2000) J. Tang, Y. Xu, A.R.W. McKellar, W. Jäger, Science 297, 2030-2033 (2002)

  2. Selective Cooperation in the Supermarket : Field Experimental Evidence for Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments suggest that mechanisms of indirect reciprocity might account for human cooperation. However, conclusive field data supporting the predictions of indirect reciprocity in everyday life situations is still scarce. Here, we attempt to compensate for this lack by examining the determinants of cooperative behavior in a German supermarket. Our methods were as follows: Confederates of the experimenter lined up at the checkout, apparently to buy a single item. As an act of cooperation, the waiting person in front (the potential helper) could allow the confederate to go ahead. By this means, the potential helper could take a cost (additional waiting time) by providing the confederate with a benefit (saved waiting time). We recorded the potential helpers' behavior and the number of items they purchased as a quantitative measure proportional to the confederate's benefit. Moreover, in a field experimental design, we varied the confederates' image by manipulating the item they purchased (beer vs. water). As predicted, the more waiting time they could save, the more likely the confederates were to receive cooperation. This relationship was moderated by the confederates' image. Cost-to-benefit ratios were required to be more favorable for beer-purchasing individuals to receive cooperation. Our results demonstrate that everyday human cooperation can be studied unobtrusively in the field and that cooperation among strangers is selective in a way that is consistent with current models of indirect reciprocity.

  3. Evidence for an indirect transcriptional regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression by liver X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grempler, Rolf . E-mail: rolfgrempler@yahoo.de; Guenther, Susanne; Steffensen, Knut R.; Nilsson, Maria; Barthel, Andreas; Schmoll, Dieter

    2005-12-16

    Liver X receptor (LXR) paralogues {alpha} and {beta} (LXR{alpha} and LXR{beta}) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family and have oxysterols as endogenous ligands. LXR activation reduces hepatic glucose production in vivo through the inhibition of transcription of the key gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of G6Pase gene expression by LXR. Both T0901317, a synthetic LXR agonist, and the adenoviral overexpression of either LXR{alpha} or LXR{beta} suppressed G6Pase gene expression in H4IIE hepatoma cells. However, compared to the suppression of G6Pase expression seen by insulin, the decrease of G6Pase mRNA by LXR activation was delayed and was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. These observations, together with the absence of a conserved LXR-binding element within the G6Pase promoter, suggest an indirect inhibition of G6Pase gene expression by liver X receptors.

  4. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  5. Sampling Assumptions Affect Use of Indirect Negative Evidence in Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A classic debate in cognitive science revolves around understanding how children learn complex linguistic patterns, such as restrictions on verb alternations and contractions, without negative evidence. Recently, probabilistic models of language learning have been applied to this problem, framing it as a statistical inference from a random sample of sentences. These probabilistic models predict that learners should be sensitive to the way in which sentences are sampled. There are two main types of sampling assumptions that can operate in language learning: strong and weak sampling. Strong sampling, as assumed by probabilistic models, assumes the learning input is drawn from a distribution of grammatical samples from the underlying language and aims to learn this distribution. Thus, under strong sampling, the absence of a sentence construction from the input provides evidence that it has low or zero probability of grammaticality. Weak sampling does not make assumptions about the distribution from which the input is drawn, and thus the absence of a construction from the input as not used as evidence of its ungrammaticality. We demonstrate in a series of artificial language learning experiments that adults can produce behavior consistent with both sets of sampling assumptions, depending on how the learning problem is presented. These results suggest that people use information about the way in which linguistic input is sampled to guide their learning. PMID:27310576

  6. Periodontal Disease as a Specific, albeit Chronic, Infection: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, Walter J.; Grossman, Natalie S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodontal disease is perhaps the most common chronic infection in adults. Evidence has been accumulating for the past 30 years which indicates that almost all forms of periodontal disease are chronic but specific bacterial infections due to the overgrowth in the dental plaque of a finite number of mostly anaerobic species such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola. The success of traditional debridement procedures and/or antimicrobial agents in improving periodontal health can be associated with the reduction in levels of these anaerobes in the dental plaque. These findings suggest that patients and clinicians have a choice in the treatment of this overgrowth, either a debridement and surgery approach or a debridement and antimicrobial treatment approach. However, the antimicrobial approach, while supported by a wealth of scientific evidence, goes contrary to centuries of dental teaching that states that periodontal disease results from a “dirty mouth.” If periodontal disease is demonstrated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, it will be a modifiable risk factor since periodontal disease can be prevented and treated. Since the antimicrobial approach may be as effective as a surgical approach in the restoration and maintenance of a periodontally healthy dentition, this would give a cardiac or stroke patient and his or her physician a choice in the implementation of treatment seeking to improve the patient's periodontal condition so as to reduce and/or delay future cardiovascular events. PMID:11585783

  7. Parasites of Trinidadian guppies: evidence for sex- and age-specific trait-mediated indirect effects of predators.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jessica F; van Oosterhout, Cock; Mohammed, Ryan S; Cable, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    Predation pressure can alter the morphology, physiology, life history, and behavior of prey; each of these in turn can change how surviving prey interact with parasites. These trait-mediated indirect effects may change in direction or intensity during growth or, in sexually dimorphic species, between the sexes. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata presents a unique opportunity to examine these interactions; its behavioral ecology has been intensively studied in wild populations with well-characterized predator faunas. Predation pressure is known to have driven the evolution of many guppy traits; for example, in high-predation sites, females (but not males) tend to shoal, and this anti-predator behavior facilitates parasite transmission. To test for evidence of predator-driven differences in infection in natural populations, we collected 4715 guppies from 62 sites across Trinidad between 2003 and 2009 and screened them for ectosymbionts, including Gyrodactylus. A novel model-averaging analysis revealed that females were more likely to be infected with Gyrodactylus parasites than males, but only in populations with both high predation pressure and high infection prevalence. We propose that the difference in shoaling tendency between the sexes could explain the observed difference in infection prevalence between males and females in high-predation sites. The infection rate of juveniles did not vary with predation regime, probably because juveniles face constant predation pressure from conspecific adults and therefore tend to shoal in both high- and low-predation sites. This represents the first evidence for age- and sex-specific trait-mediated indirect effects of predators on the probability of infection in their prey. PMID:26240870

  8. Therapeutic mechanisms of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions: from indirect evidence to testable hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Pommy, Jessica M

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and drug addiction are major public health problems, and existing treatments are only moderately effective. Although there has been interest for over half a century in the therapeutic use of classic hallucinogens to treat addictions, clinical research with these drugs was halted at an early stage in the early 1970s, leaving many fundamental questions unanswered. In the past two decades, clinical research on classic hallucinogens has resumed, although addiction treatment trials are only now beginning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a targeted review of the research most relevant to the therapeutic potential of hallucinogens, and to integrate this information with current thinking about addiction and recovery. On the basis of this information, we present a heuristic model which organizes a number of hypotheses that may be tested in future research. We conclude that existing evidence provides a convincing rationale for further research on the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction. PMID:22761106

  9. Massage induces an immediate, albeit short-term, reduction in muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Eriksson Crommert, M; Lacourpaille, L; Heales, L J; Tucker, K; Hug, F

    2015-10-01

    Using ultrasound shear wave elastography, the aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the effect of massage on stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and (b) to determine whether this effect (if any) persists over a short period of rest. A 7-min massage protocol was performed unilaterally on MG in 18 healthy volunteers. Measurements of muscle shear elastic modulus (stiffness) were performed bilaterally (control and massaged leg) in a moderately stretched position at three time points: before massage (baseline), directly after massage (follow-up 1), and following 3 min of rest (follow-up 2). Directly after massage, participants rated pain experienced during the massage. MG shear elastic modulus of the massaged leg decreased significantly at follow-up 1 (-5.2 ± 8.8%, P = 0.019, d = -0.66). There was no difference between follow-up 2 and baseline for the massaged leg (P = 0.83) indicating that muscle stiffness returned to baseline values. Shear elastic modulus was not different between time points in the control leg. There was no association between perceived pain during the massage and stiffness reduction (r = 0.035; P = 0.89). This is the first study to provide evidence that massage reduces muscle stiffness. However, this effect is short lived and returns to baseline values quickly after cessation of the massage.

  10. An Invasive Plant Promotes Its Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Competitiveness through Its Secondary Metabolites: Indirect Evidence from Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W. H.; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1–3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts. PMID:24817325

  11. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts. PMID:24817325

  12. Evidence for indirect effects of pain catastrophizing on clinical pain among myofascial temporomandibular disorder participants: the mediating role of sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Buenaver, Luis F; Quartana, Phillip J; Grace, Edward G; Sarlani, Eleni; Simango, Mpepera; Edwards, Robert R; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Sleep disturbance and pain catastrophizing are important mediators of the chronic pain experience. To date, these factors have not been considered concurrently despite compelling theoretical rationale to do so. In the present study, we examined whether pain catastrophizing not only has direct effects on clinical pain and pain-related interference, but also indirect effects through its association with sleep disturbance. We evaluated this hypothesis using a cohort (n=214) of myofascial temporomandibular disorder participants using a statistical bootstrapping technique recommended for tests of indirect effects. Results suggested that pain catastrophizing was associated with greater sleep disturbance, and that a significant portion of variance in clinical pain severity and pain-related interference attributable to pain catastrophizing was mediated by sleep disturbance. Supplementary analyses revealed that the rumination component of catastrophizing seemed to be indirectly related to clinical outcomes through sleep disturbance. No evidence for indirect effects was observed for helplessness and magnification components. These results suggest that rumination about pain may contribute to clinical pain indirectly through alterations in sleep. Prospective studies are needed to examine lagged associations between these constructs. These findings have important theoretical and clinical implications. Critically, interventions that reduce pain catastrophizing may concurrently improve sleep and clinical pain. PMID:22417656

  13. Population-Level Impact of Ontario’s Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rosella, Laura C.; Wang, Jun; Le Saux, Nicole; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Harris, Tara; Bolotin, Shelly; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV) immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program. Methods Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE) and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE (“overall AGE”). The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified. Results Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22–0.39) and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62–0.75), respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: < 12 months, 12–23 months, 24–35 months, 3–4 years, and 5–19 years. Significant declines in overall AGE hospitalizations were observed across all age bands, including older adults > = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72–0.90). The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20–0.52) for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96) for overall AGE ED visits. Conclusions This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects. PMID:27168335

  14. Influenza-Related Mortality Trends in Japanese and American Seniors: Evidence for the Indirect Mortality Benefits of Vaccinating Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Charu, Vivek; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Chowell, Gerardo; Miller, Mark; Sugaya, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Background The historical Japanese influenza vaccination program targeted at schoolchildren provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the indirect benefits of vaccinating high-transmitter groups to mitigate disease burden among seniors. Here we characterize the indirect mortality benefits of vaccinating schoolchildren based on data from Japan and the US. Methods We compared age-specific influenza-related excess mortality rates in Japanese seniors aged ≥65 years during the schoolchildren vaccination program (1978–1994) and after the program was discontinued (1995–2006). Indirect vaccine benefits were adjusted for demographic changes, socioeconomics and dominant influenza subtype; US mortality data were used as a control. Results We estimate that the schoolchildren vaccination program conferred a 36% adjusted mortality reduction among Japanese seniors (95%CI: 17–51%), corresponding to ∼1,000 senior deaths averted by vaccination annually (95%CI: 400–1,800). In contrast, influenza-related mortality did not change among US seniors, despite increasing vaccine coverage in this population. Conclusions The Japanese schoolchildren vaccination program was associated with substantial indirect mortality benefits in seniors. PMID:22087226

  15. Direct and Indirect Measures of Intentional Forgetting in Children and Adults: Evidence for Retrieval Inhibition and Reinstatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Elyse Brauch; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Elementary and college students completed a cued intentional forgetting task, either a direct or indirect test of word recall, and a final free recall test for both remember- and forget-cued words. In both groups, performance on word-stem completion tasks was enhanced in comparison with an immediate free-recall group, but only for material thought…

  16. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  17. Longitudinal relationships of religion with posttreatment depression severity in older psychiatric patients: evidence of direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Owen, Amy D; Koenig, Harold G; Steffens, David C; Payne, Martha E

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients (age 59+) were assessed before study treatment for major depressive disorder, and again after 3 months. Measures taken before study treatment included facets of religiousness (subjective religiosity, private prayer, worship attendance, and religious media use), social support, and perceived stress. Clinician-rated depression severity was assessed both before and after treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Structural equation modeling was used to test a path model of direct and indirect effects of religious factors via psychosocial pathways. Subjective religiousness was directly related to worse initial MADRS, but indirectly related to better posttreatment MADRS via the pathway of more private prayer. Worship attendance was directly related to better initial MADRS, and indirectly related to better post-treatment MADRS via pathways of lower stress, more social support, and more private prayer. Private prayer was directly related to better post-treatment MADRS. Religious media use was related to more private prayer, but had no direct relationship with MADRS. PMID:22461982

  18. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE PAGES

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  19. Evidence for a bubble-competition regime in indirectly driven ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D A; Smalyuk, V A; Kane, J O; Casner, A; Liberatore, S; Masse, L P

    2015-05-29

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130  μm thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  20. False memory for idiomatic expressions in younger and older adults: evidence for indirect activation of figurative meanings

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Stillman, Chelsea M.; Corriveau, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested). False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom) were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents. PMID:25101030

  1. Treatment of Adults With Treatment-Resistant Depression: Electroconvulsive Therapy Plus Antidepressant or Electroconvulsive Therapy Alone? Evidence From an Indirect Comparison Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Shuai, Ting; Yi, Li-Juan; Zeng, Zi; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Wang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and antidepressant are the effective treatment alternatives for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, the effects and safety of the ECT plus antidepressant relative to ECT alone remain controversial. We decide to assess the potential of ECT plus antidepressant compared with ECT alone by undertaking an indirect comparison meta-analysis.Databases from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, EMBASE, CBM (China Biomediccal Literatures Database), and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant studies through November 21, 2014. Literature was screened, data were extracted and methodological quality of the eligible trial was assessed by 2 independent reviewers accordingly. Then, head-to-head and indirect comparison meta-analyses were carried out.A total of 17 studies which including 13 studies regarding ECT plus antidepressant versus antidepressant alone and 4 studies concerning ECT versus antidepressant alone containing a total of 1098 patients were incorporated into this meta-analysis. The head-to-head comparison suggested that response rate can be improved in the ECT plus antidepressant (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.55-2.14) and ECT alone group (RR, 2.24, 95% CI, 1.51-3.33) compared with antidepressant alone, respectively; adverse complications including memory deterioration and somatization were not significantly increased except incidence of memory deterioration in ECT plus antidepressant in the 4th weeks after treatment (RR, 0.09, 95% CI, 0.02-0.49). Indirect comparison meta-analysis showed that no significant differences were detected in response rate and memory deterioration between ECT plus antidepressant and ECT alone. However, ECT plus antidepressant increased the incidence of memory deterioration relative to ECT alone.With present evidence, the regime of ECT plus antidepressant should not be preferentially recommended to treat the patients with TRD relative to ECT

  2. Numerical modeling of basaltic sand ripples on Eagle crater as indirect evidence for the hysteresis effect in Martian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhaq, H.; Kok, J. F.; Michaels, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    indirect proof of the unique saltation mechanism on Mars. References Bridges, N. T. et al. 2012. Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars. Nature 485, 339-342. Kok, J. F. 2010. Differences in the wind speeds required for initiation versus continuation of sand transport on Mars: Implications for dunes and sand storms. Physical Review Letters, 104, 074502. Yizhaq, H., Balmforth, N.J and Provenzale, A. 2004. Blown by wind: Nonlinear dynamics of aeolian sand ripples. Physica D, 195, 207-228. Model simulation of normal ripples on Mars with parameters computed by COMSALT for different shear velocities with and without cohesion after one hour. The inset shows the final ripples profile for u*=0.65 m/s.

  3. Formation of Al2H7- anions--indirect evidence of volatile AlH3 on sodium alanate using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Zibrowius, Bodo

    2011-10-14

    After more than a decade of intense research on NaAlH(4) doped with transition metals as hydrogen storage material, the actual mechanism of the decomposition and rehydrogenation reaction is still unclear. Early on, monomeric AlH(3) was named as a possible transport shuttle for aluminium, but never observed experimentally. Here we report for the first time the trapping of volatile AlH(3) produced during the decomposition of undoped NaAlH(4) by an adduct of sodium alanate and crown ether. The resulting Al(2)H(7)(-) anion was identified by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy. Based on this indirect evidence of volatile alane, we present a simple description of the processes occurring during the reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH(4). PMID:21879065

  4. Can chronic disease management programs for patients with type 2 diabetes reduce productivity-related indirect costs of the disease? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omolola E; Bolin, Jane N; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Phillips, Charles D; Zhao, Hongwei; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to assess the impacts of diabetes self-management programs on productivity-related indirect costs of the disease. Using an employer's perspective, this study estimated the productivity losses associated with: (1) employee absence on the job, (2) diabetes-related disability, (3) employee presence on the job, and (4) early mortality. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and survey responses of 376 adults aged ≥18 years who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of type 2 diabetes self-management programs. All study participants had uncontrolled diabetes and were randomized into one of 4 study arms: personal digital assistant (PDA), chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP), combined PDA and CDSMP, and usual care (UC). The human-capital approach was used to estimate lost productivity resulting from 1, 2, 3, and 4 above, which are summed to obtain total productivity loss. Using robust regression, total productivity loss was modeled as a function of the diabetes self-management programs and other identified demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to subjects in the UC arm, there were no statistically significant differences in productivity losses among persons undergoing any of the 3 diabetes management interventions. Males were associated with higher productivity losses (+$708/year; P<0.001) and persons with greater than high school education were associated with additional productivity losses (+$758/year; P<0.001). Persons with more than 1 comorbid condition were marginally associated with lower productivity losses (-$326/year; P=0.055). No evidence was found that the chronic disease management programs examined in this trial affect indirect productivity losses.

  5. Experimental evidence for the evolution of indirect genetic effects: changes in the interaction effect coefficient, psi (Psi), due to sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Rundle, Howard D; Blows, Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Indirect genetics effects (IGEs)--when the genotype of one individual affects the phenotypic expression of a trait in another--may alter evolutionary trajectories beyond that predicted by standard quantitative genetic theory as a consequence of genotypic evolution of the social environment. For IGEs to occur, the trait of interest must respond to one or more indicator traits in interacting conspecifics. In quantitative genetic models of IGEs, these responses (reaction norms) are termed interaction effect coefficients and are represented by the parameter psi (Psi). The extent to which Psi exhibits genetic variation within a population, and may therefore itself evolve, is unknown. Using an experimental evolution approach, we provide evidence for a genetic basis to the phenotypic response caused by IGEs on sexual display traits in Drosophila serrata. We show that evolution of the response is affected by sexual but not natural selection when flies adapt to a novel environment. Our results indicate a further mechanism by which IGEs can alter evolutionary trajectories--the evolution of interaction effects themselves.

  6. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  7. Astrophysical Black Holes: Evidence of a Horizon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpi, Monica

    In this Lecture Note we first follow a short account of the history of the black hole hypothesis. We then review on the current status of the search for astrophysical black holes with particular attention to the black holes of stellar origin. Later, we highlight a series of observations that reveal the albeit indirect presence of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, with mention to forthcoming experiments aimed at testing directly the black hole hypothesis. We further focus on evidences of a black hole event horizon in cosmic sources.

  8. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  9. Indirect-direct anticrossing in GaAs-AlAs superlattices induced by an electric field: Evidence of GAMMA-X mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Meynadier, M.; Nahory, R.E.; Worlock, J.M.; Tamargo, M.C.; de Miguel, J.L.; Sturge, M.D.

    1988-03-28

    We demonstrate that a GaAs-AlAs superlattice can be switched from indirect to direct, in both real and reciprocal spaces, by application of a modest axial electric field. The crossover region is found to be an anticrossing, manifesting the presence of GAMMA-X mixing by a potential measured to be of the order of 1 meV. This value is corroborated by time-decay measurements performed on different superlattices.

  10. Do conditions in early life affect old-age mortality directly and indirectly? Evidence from 19th-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Broström, Göran

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the disease load experienced during the birth year, measured as the infant mortality rate, had a significant influence on old-age mortality in nineteenth-century rural Sweden. We know that children born in years with very high rates of infant mortality, due to outbreaks of smallpox or whooping cough, and who still survived to adulthood and married, faced a life length several years shorter than others. We do not know, however, whether this is a direct effect, caused by permanent physical damage leading to fatal outcomes later in life, or an indirect effect, via its influence on accumulation of wealth and obtained socio-economic status. The Scanian Demographic Database, with information on five rural parishes in southern Sweden between 1813 and 1894, contains the data needed to distinguish between the two mechanisms. First, the effects of conditions in childhood on obtained socio-economic status as an adult are analyzed, then the effects of both early-life conditions and socio-economic status at various stages of life on old-age mortality. By including random effects, we take into account possible dependencies in the data due to kinship and marriage. We find that a high disease load during the first year of life had a strong negative impact on a person's ability to acquire wealth, never before shown for a historical setting. This means that it is indeed possible that the effects of disease load in the first year of life indirectly affect mortality in old age through obtained socio-economic status. We find, however, no effects of obtained socio-economic status on old-age mortality. While the result is interesting per se, constituting a debatable issue, it means that the argument that early-life conditions indirectly affect old-age mortality is not supported. Instead, we find support for the conclusion that the effect of the disease load in early-life is direct or, in other words, that physiological damage from severe infections at the

  11. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  12. Evidence for bystander signalling between human trophoblast cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anna J; Gokhale, Paul J; Allison, Thomas F; Sampson, Barry; Athwal, Sharan; Grant, Simon; Andrews, Peter W; Allen, Nicholas D; Case, C Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Maternal exposure during pregnancy to toxins can occasionally lead to miscarriage and malformation. It is currently thought that toxins pass through the placental barrier, albeit bi-layered in the first trimester, and damage the fetus directly, albeit at low concentration. Here we examined the responses of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in tissue culture to two metals at low concentration. We compared direct exposures with indirect exposures across a bi-layered model of the placenta cell barrier. Direct exposure caused increased DNA damage without apoptosis or a loss of cell number but with some evidence of altered differentiation. Indirect exposure caused increased DNA damage and apoptosis but without loss of pluripotency. This was not caused by metal ions passing through the barrier. Instead the hES cells responded to signalling molecules (including TNF-α) secreted by the barrier cells. This mechanism was dependent on connexin 43 mediated intercellular 'bystander signalling' both within and between the trophoblast barrier and the hES colonies. These results highlight key differences between direct and indirect exposure of hES cells across a trophoblast barrier to metal toxins. It offers a theoretical possibility that an indirectly mediated toxicity of hES cells might have biological relevance to fetal development.

  13. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    PubMed

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  14. Role of phospholipase A2 in cholesterol gallstone formation is associated with biliary phospholipid species selection at the site of hepatic excretion: indirect evidence.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Y; Tazuma, S; Yamashita, G; Ochi, H; Sunami, Y; Nishioka, T; Hyogo, H; Yasumiba, S; Kajihara, T; Nakai, K; Tsuboi, K; Asamoto, Y; Sakomoto, M; Kajiyama, G

    2000-07-01

    Phospholipase A2 plays a role in cholesterol gallstone development by hydrolyzing bile phospholipids into lysolecithin and free fatty acids. Lysolecithin and polyunsaturated free fatty acids are known to stimulate the synthesis and/or secretion of gallbladder mucin via a prostanoid pathway, leading to enhancing cholesterol crystal nucleation and growth, and therefore, the action of phospholipase A2 is associated, in part, with bile phospholipid fatty acid. To clarify this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect on bile lipid metastability in vitro of replacing phospholipids with lysolecithin and various free fatty acids. Supersaturated model biles were created with an identical composition (cholesterol saturation index, 1.8; egg yolk lecithin, 34 mM; taurocholate, 120 mM; cholesterol, 25 mM) except for 5%, 10%, or 20% replacement of egg yolk lecithin with a combination of palmitoyl-lysolecithin and a free fatty acid (palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, or arachidonate), followed by time-sequentially monitoring of vesicles and cholesterol crystals using spectrophotometer and video-enhanced differential contrast microscopy. Replacement with hydrophilic fatty acids (linoleate and arachidonate) reduced vesicle formation and promoted cholesterol crystallization, whereas an enhanced cholesterol-holding capacity was evident after replacement with hydrophobic fatty acids (palmitate and stearate). These results indicate that the effect of phospholipase A2 on bile lithogenecity is modulated by the fatty acid species in bile phospholipids, and therefore, that the role of phospholipase A2 in cholesterol gallstone formation is dependent, in part, on biliary phospholipid species selection at the site of hepatic excretion.

  15. Indirect posterior composite resins.

    PubMed

    Leinfelder, Karl F

    2005-07-01

    The use of indirect posterior composite restorations has facilitated the generation of ideal anatomic form, marginal adaptation, and appropriate proximal contact and contour. Unfortunately, however, the use of post-cure heat treatments has done little to enhance the overall clinical performance of the restoration. The development of new curing techniques in conjunction with modifications of the formulae have contributed to a substantial improvement in both the mechanical characteristics and long-term clinical performance of indirect posterior composite resins.

  16. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  17. Indirect airway challenges.

    PubMed

    Joos, G F; O'Connor, B; Anderson, S D; Chung, F; Cockcroft, D W; Dahlén, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, F E; Holgate, S T; Inman, M; Lötvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, D S; Riedler, J

    2003-06-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Direct airway challenges have been used widely and are well standardised. They are highly sensitive, but not specific to asthma and can be used to exclude current asthma in a clinic population. Indirect bronchial stimuli, in particular exercise, hyperventilation, hypertonic aerosols, as well as adenosine, may reflect more directly the ongoing airway inflammation and are therefore more specific to identify active asthma. They are increasingly used to evaluate the prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and to assess specific problems in patients with known asthma, e.g. exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, evaluation before scuba diving. Direct bronchial responsiveness is only slowly and to a modest extent, influenced by repeated administration of inhaled steroids. Indirect challenges may reflect more closely acute changes in airway inflammation and a change in responsiveness to an indirect stimulus may be a clinically relevant marker to assess the clinical course of asthma. Moreover, some of the indirect challenges, e.g. hypertonic saline and mannitol, can be combined with the assessment of inflammatory cells by induction of sputum.

  18. Indirect Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav

    1974-01-01

    When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon indirect ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to indirect ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to indirect induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of indirect ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889

  19. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    PubMed

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  20. Genome-wide localization analysis of a complete set of Tafs reveals a specific effect of the taf1 mutation on Taf2 occupancy and provides indirect evidence for different TFIID conformations at different promoters.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Kazushige; Kasahara, Koji; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2010-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TFIID and SAGA principally mediate transcription of constitutive housekeeping genes and stress-inducible genes, respectively, by delivering TBP to the core promoter. Both are multi-protein complexes composed of 15 and 20 subunits, respectively, five of which are common and which may constitute a core sub-module in each complex. Although genome-wide gene expression studies have been conducted extensively in several TFIID and/or SAGA mutants, there are only a limited number of studies investigating genome-wide localization of the components of these two complexes. Specifically, there are no previous reports on localization of a complete set of Tafs and the effects of taf mutations on localization. Here, we examine the localization profiles of a complete set of Tafs, Gcn5, Bur6/Ncb2, Sua7, Tfa2, Tfg1, Tfb3 and Rpb1, on chromosomes III, IV and V by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip analysis in wild-type and taf1-T657K mutant strains. In addition, we conducted conventional and sequential ChIP analysis of several ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) and non-RPGs. Intriguingly, the results revealed a novel relationship between TFIIB and NC2, simultaneous co-localization of SAGA and TFIID on RPG promoters, specific effects of taf1 mutation on Taf2 occupancy, and an indirect evidence for the existence of different TFIID conformations. PMID:20026583

  1. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  2. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  3. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  4. Direct and indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, Jean; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    A bridge is highlighted between the direct inversion and the indirect inversion. They are based on fundamental different approaches: one is looking after a projection from the data space to the model space while the other one is reducing a misfit between observed data and synthetic data obtained from a given model. However, it is possible to obtain similar structures for model perturbation, and we shall focus on P-wave velocity reconstruction. This bridge is built up through the Born approximation linearizing the forward problem with respect to model perturbation and through asymptotic approximations of the Green functions of the wave propagation equation. We first describe the direct inversion and its ingredients and then we focus on a specific misfit function design leading to a indirect inversion. Finally, we shall compare this indirect inversion with more standard least-squares inversion as the FWI, enabling the focus on small weak velocity perturbations on one side and the speed-up of the velocity perturbation reconstruction on the other side. This bridge has been proposed by the group led by Raul Madariaga in the early nineties, emphasizing his leading role in efficient imaging workflows for seismic velocity reconstruction, a drastic requirement at that time.

  5. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  6. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  7. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  8. Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singman, Eric L; Daphalapurkar, Nitin; White, Helen; Nguyen, Thao D; Panghat, Lijo; Chang, Jessica; McCulley, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) refers to optic nerve injury resulting from impact remote to the optic nerve. The mechanism of injury is not understood, and there are no confirmed protocols for prevention, mitigation or treatment. Most data concerning this condition comes from case series of civilian patients suffering blunt injury, such as from sports- or motor vehicle-related concussion, rather than military-related ballistic or blast damage. Research in this field will likely require the development of robust databases to identify patients with ITON and follow related outcomes, in addition to both in-vivo animal and virtual human models to study the mechanisms of damage and potential therapies. PMID:26759722

  9. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  10. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599

  11. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis.

  12. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  13. Moral assessment in indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Karl

    2012-04-21

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the mechanisms for cooperation, and seems to be of particular interest for the evolution of human societies. A large part is based on assessing reputations and acting accordingly. This paper gives a brief overview of different assessment rules for indirect reciprocity, and studies them by using evolutionary game dynamics. Even the simplest binary assessment rules lead to complex outcomes and require considerable cognitive abilities.

  14. The logic of indirect speech.

    PubMed

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Lee, James J

    2008-01-22

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence.

  15. Indirect electroanalytical detection of phenols.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-05-01

    A novel indirect electrochemical protocol for the electroanalytical detection of phenols is presented for the first time. This methodology is demonstrated with the indirect determination of the target analytes phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through an electrochemically adapted optical protocol. This electrochemical adaptation allows the determination of the above mentioned phenols without the use of any oxidising agents, as is the case in the optical method, where pyrazoline compounds (mediators) chemically react with the target phenols forming a quinoneimine product which is electrochemically active providing an indirect analytical signal to measure the target phenol(s). A range of commercially available pyrazoline substitution products, namely 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, antipyrine, 3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one, 3-amino-1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-Pyrazolin-5-one, 4-amino-1,2-dimethyl-3-pentadecyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride, 3-amino-1-(2-amino-4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride and 4-aminoantipyrine are evaluated as mediators for the indirect detection of phenols. The indirect electrochemical detection of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through the use of 4-aminoantipyrine as a mediator are successfully determined in drinking water samples at analytically useful levels. Finally, the comparison of the direct (no mediator) and the proposed indirect determination (with 4-aminoantipyrine) towards the analytical detection of the target phenols in drinking water is presented. The limitation of the proposed electroanalytical protocol is quantified for all the four target phenols.

  16. The logic of indirect speech

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  17. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    PubMed

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  18. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schöttker, Ben; Lühmann, Dagmar; Boulkhemair, Dalila; Raspe, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Health political background The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b) but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA)) are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background Randomised controlled head-to-head trials which directly compare the effects of different therapies are considered the gold standard methodological approach for the comparison of the efficacy of interventions. Because this type of trial is rarely found, comparisons of efficacy often need to rely on indirect comparisons whose validity is being controversially debated. Research questions Research questions for the current assessment are: Which (statistical) methods for indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions do exist, how often are they applied and how valid are their results in comparison to the results of head-to-head trials? Methods In a systematic literature research all medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) are searched for methodological papers as well as applications of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews. Results of the literature analysis are summarized qualitatively for the characterisation of methods and quantitatively for the frequency of their application. The validity of the results from indirect comparisons is checked by comparing them to the results from the gold standard – a direct comparison. Data sets from systematic reviews which use both direct and indirect comparisons are tested for consistency by of the z-statistic. Results 29 methodological papers and 106 applications of indirect methods in systematic reviews are being analysed. Four methods for indirect comparisons can be identified: Unadjusted indirect comparisons include, independent of

  19. Indirect reciprocity under incomplete observation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-07-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient.

  20. The Efficacy of Natalizumab versus Fingolimod for Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review, Indirect Evidence from Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials and Meta-Analysis of Observational Head-to-Head Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Mavridis, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Dardiotis, Efthymios; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Kilidireas, Constantinos; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Fingolimod (FGD) and Natalizumab (NTZ) appear to be effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), they have never been directly compared in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Methods and Findings We evaluated the comparative efficacy of FGD vs. NTZ using a meta-analytical approach. Data from placebo-controlled RCTs was used for indirect comparisons and observational data was utilized for head-to-head comparisons. We identified 3 RCTs (2498 patients) and 5 observational studies (2576 patients). NTZ was associated with a greater reduction in the 2-year annualized relapse rate (ARR; SMDindirect = -0.24;95% CI: from -0.44 to -0.04; p = 0.005) and with the probability of no disease activity at 2 years (ORindirect:1.82, 95% CI: from 1.05 to 3.15) compared to FGD, while no differences between the two therapies were found in the proportion of patients who remained relapse-free (ORindirect = 1.20;95% CI: from 0.84 to 1.71) and those with disability progression (ORindirect = 0.76;95% CI: from 0.48 to 1.21) at 2 years. In the analysis of observational data, we found no significant differences between NTZ and FGD in the 2-year ARR (SMD = -0.05; 95% CI: from -0.26 to 0.16), and 2-year disability progression (OR:1.08;95% CI: from 0.77 to 1.52). However, NTZ-treated patients were more likely to remain relapse-free at 2-years compared to FGD (OR: 2.19;95% CI: from 1.15 to 4.18; p = z0.020). Conclusions Indirect analyses of RCT data and head-to-head comparisons of observational findings indicate that NTZ may be more effective than FGD in terms of disease activity reduction in patients with RRMS. However, head-to-head RCTs are required to independently confirm this preliminary observation. PMID:27684943

  1. Phosphorylation of H2AX histone as indirect evidence for double-stranded DNA breaks related to the exchange of nuclear proteins and chromatin remodeling in Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, A; Popłońska, K; Kwiatkowska, M

    2008-11-01

    Phosphorylation of H2AX histone results not only from DNA damage (caused by ionizing radiation, UV or chemical substances, e.g. hydroxyurea), but also regularly takes place during spermiogenesis, enabling correct chromatin remodeling. Immunocytochemical analysis using antibodies against H2AX histone phosphorylated at serine 139 indirectly revealed endogenous double-stranded DNA breaks in Chara vulgaris spermatids in mid-spermiogenesis (stages V, VI and VII), when protamine-type proteins appear in the nucleus. Fluorescent foci were not observed in early (stages I-IV) and late (VIII-X) spermiogenesis, after replacement of histones by protamine-type proteins was finished. A similar phenomenon exists in animals. Determination of the localization of fluorescent foci and the ultrastructure of nuclei led to the hypothesis that DNA breaks at stage V, when condensed chromatin adheres to the nuclear envelope. This is transformed into a net-like structure during stage VI, probably allowing chromosome repositioning to specific regions in the mature spermatozoid. However, at stages VI and VII, DNA breaks are necessary for transformation of the nucleosomal structure into a fibrillar and finally the extremely condensed status of sleeping genes at stage X.

  2. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip.

  3. Indirect pulp capping: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the acceptance of the clinical practice of indirect pulp capping. State and regional dental boards and postgraduate dental education programs throughout the United States were surveyed. Results indicate that no clear consensus exists for the acceptance of this clinical procedure.

  4. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis. PMID:26654371

  5. Water Rockets and Indirect Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that teaches a number of scientific concepts including indirect measurement, Newton's third law of motion, manipulating and controlling variables, and the scientific method of inquiry. Uses process skills such as observation, inference, prediction, mensuration, and communication as well as problem solving and higher-order…

  6. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  7. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  8. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  9. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  10. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  11. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  12. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  13. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  14. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  15. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  16. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  17. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  18. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  19. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  20. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PMID:25495092

  1. Evolutionary indirect effects of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-09-01

    Just as ecological indirect effects can have a wide range of consequences for community structure and ecosystem function, theory suggests that evolutionary indirect effects can also influence community dynamics and the outcome of species interactions. There is little empirical evidence documenting such effects, however. Here, I use a multi-generation selection experiment in the field to investigate: (1) how the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis affect the evolution of anti-herbivore resistance traits in the native plant Lotus wrangelianus and (2) how observed Lotus evolutionary responses to Hypera alter interactions between Lotus and other members of the herbivore community. In one of two study populations, I document rapid evolutionary changes in Lotus resistance to Hypera in response to insecticide treatments that experimentally reduced Hypera abundance, and in response to Medicago-removal treatments that also reduced Hypera abundance. These evolutionary changes in response to Hypera result in reduced attack by aphids. Thus, an evolutionary change caused by one herbivore species alters interactions with other herbivore taxa, an example of an eco-evolutionary feedback. Given that many traits mediate interactions with multiple species, the effects of evolutionary changes in response to one key biotic selective agent may often cascade through interaction webs to influence additional community members.

  2. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  3. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost... assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  6. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  7. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  8. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  9. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost...

  11. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2903.4 Section 2903.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  12. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  13. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  14. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  15. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  17. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  18. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  19. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  20. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  1. 19 CFR 10.2024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.2024 Section 10.2024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.2013(i), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  2. 19 CFR 10.3024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.3013(h), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is...

  3. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  4. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  5. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  6. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.

  7. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties.

  8. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  9. The use of indirect composite veneers to rehabilitate patients with dental erosion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asensio Acevedo, Ramón; Suarez-Feito, José Maria; Suárez Tuero, Carlota; Jané, Luis; Roig, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of restorative dental materials has led to the development of more direct or indirect conservative techniques to solve both functional and esthetic problems in anterior and posterior teeth. Several authors have concluded that indirect restorations are the technique of choice in complex cases where shape and colour are difficult to achieve and function has to be restored. Even though there is no clinical evidence of the appropriateness of indirect composites in these treatments, the latest generation of composites used indirectly in the anterior teeth exhibits some interesting characteristics: it supports mechanical stress adequately, has an excellent esthetic result and can be repaired intraorally.

  10. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  11. Indirect sources of herbicide exposure for families on Ontario farms.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Bruce, Dana; Ritter, Len; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Although direct contact during mixing/loading, application or repair and clean-up is the major pathway by which individuals living on farms are exposed to herbicides, indirect sources such as contact with contaminated surfaces may also contribute. As part of a biomonitoring study to measure the nature and extent of exposure of farm families to herbicides, we attempted to identify potential indirect sources of exposure in a subset of 32 Ontario farms. Herbicide residues in drinking water samples as well as surface swipes of common surfaces within the home were measured and compared with urinary concentrations of the applicator, spouse and child. Residues of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were measured on all surfaces that were tested, with the highest levels found on the washing machine knob and wash-up faucet within the home. Drinking water was not a significant source of exposure to 2,4-D for farm families. Urine samples of family members were weakly correlated with residues of 2,4-D measured on the exterior door knob. The applicators in our study, the most highly exposed subpopulation in our study group, had exposures that were less than one-third of the exposure on a daily, lifetime basis deemed to be safe by regulatory agencies in Canada and the United States. As 2,4-D residues were detected on surfaces in farm homes where 2,4-D was not reportedly used at that time, this suggests that 2,4-D applied during a previous season (or on a neighbouring farm) may be tracked into the home and persist on hard surfaces and be a chronic, albeit low level, source of exposure for family members. Pesticide applicators and their families should be counselled on hygienic practices (e.g. removing footware and washing soiled hands prior to entering the home) to reduce indirect sources of exposure. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2006) 16, 98-104. doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500441; published online 13 July 2005. PMID:16015277

  12. Indirect evidence for Levy walks in squeeze film damping

    SciTech Connect

    Schlamminger, S.; Hagedorn, C. A.; Gundlach, J. H.

    2010-06-15

    Molecular flow gas damping of mechanical motion in confined geometries, and its associated noise, is important in a variety of fields, including precision measurement, gravitational wave detection, and microelectromechanical systems devices. We used two torsion balance instruments to measure the strength and distance-dependence of 'squeeze film' damping. Measured quality factors derived from free decay of oscillation are consistent with gas particle superdiffusion in Levy walks and inconsistent with those expected from traditional Gaussian random walk particle motion. The distance-dependence of squeeze film damping observed in our experiments is in agreement with a parameter-free Monte Carlo simulation. The squeeze film damping of the motion of a plate suspended a distance d away from a parallel surface scales with a fractional power between d{sup -1} and d{sup -2}.

  13. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control. PMID:26905765

  14. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  15. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  16. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  17. Conducting indirect-treatment-comparison and network-meta-analysis studies: report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hoaglin, David C; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P; Scott, David A; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for judiciously selecting the best treatment(s). Mixed treatment comparisons, a special case of network meta-analysis, combine direct evidence and indirect evidence for particular pairwise comparisons, thereby synthesizing a greater share of the available evidence than traditional meta-analysis. This report from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices Task Force provides guidance on technical aspects of conducting network meta-analyses (our use of this term includes most methods that involve meta-analysis in the context of a network of evidence). We start with a discussion of strategies for developing networks of evidence. Next we briefly review assumptions of network meta-analysis. Then we focus on the statistical analysis of the data: objectives, models (fixed-effects and random-effects), frequentist versus Bayesian approaches, and model validation. A checklist highlights key components of network meta-analysis, and substantial examples illustrate indirect treatment comparisons (both frequentist and Bayesian approaches) and network meta-analysis. A further section discusses eight key areas for future research.

  18. Conducting indirect-treatment-comparison and network-meta-analysis studies: report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hoaglin, David C; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P; Scott, David A; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for judiciously selecting the best treatment(s). Mixed treatment comparisons, a special case of network meta-analysis, combine direct evidence and indirect evidence for particular pairwise comparisons, thereby synthesizing a greater share of the available evidence than traditional meta-analysis. This report from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices Task Force provides guidance on technical aspects of conducting network meta-analyses (our use of this term includes most methods that involve meta-analysis in the context of a network of evidence). We start with a discussion of strategies for developing networks of evidence. Next we briefly review assumptions of network meta-analysis. Then we focus on the statistical analysis of the data: objectives, models (fixed-effects and random-effects), frequentist versus Bayesian approaches, and model validation. A checklist highlights key components of network meta-analysis, and substantial examples illustrate indirect treatment comparisons (both frequentist and Bayesian approaches) and network meta-analysis. A further section discusses eight key areas for future research. PMID:21669367

  19. Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.

    PubMed

    Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular. PMID:23650936

  20. Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.

    PubMed

    Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular.

  1. From hitting to tattling to gossip: an evolutionary rationale for the development of indirect aggression.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gordon P D

    2014-01-01

    Adult humans are characterized by low rates of intra-group physical aggression. Since children tend to be more physically aggressive, an evolutionary developmental account shows promise for explaining how physical aggression is suppressed in adults. I argue that this is achieved partly through extended dominance hierarchies, based on indirect reciprocity and linguistic transmission of reputational information, mediated by indirectly aggressive competition. Reviewing the literature on indirect and related forms of aggression provides three pieces of evidence for the claim that evolutionarily old impulses towards physical aggression are socialized into indirect aggression in humans: (i) physical aggression falls in early childhood over the same age range at which indirect aggression increases; (ii) the same individuals engage in both direct and indirect aggression; and (iii) socially dominant individuals practice indirect aggression more frequently. Consideration of the developmental course of indirect aggression is complemented by analysis of similar developments in verbal behaviors that are not always thought of as aggressive, namely tattling and gossip. An important puzzle concerns why indirect aggression becomes more covert, and tattling more derogated, in preadolescence and adolescence. This may be due to the development of new strategies aimed at renegotiating social identity and friendship alliances in the peer group. PMID:25299883

  2. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  3. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration....

  5. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  6. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  7. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  8. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  9. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  10. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  11. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  12. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  13. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203 Indirect costs. For the purposes of applying FAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  14. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203 Indirect costs. For the purposes of applying FAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs....

  15. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203 Indirect costs. For the purposes of applying FAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  16. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  17. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  18. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  19. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  20. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  1. Indirect Effects and Infants' Reaction to Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined whether an infant's reaction to a stranger would be indirectly influenced by the infant observing a stranger-third party interaction. Subjects were 45 15-month-old infants. Results suggest indirect effects influence social interactions and show that significant others can play an important role in mediating these effects. (Author/RH)

  2. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  3. [Development of an Excel spreadsheet for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons].

    PubMed

    Tobías, Aurelio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Roqué, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses in clinical research usually aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety in direct comparison with a unique comparator. Indirect comparisons, using the Bucher's method, can summarize primary data when information from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent. Mixed comparisons allow combining estimates from direct and indirect comparisons, increasing statistical power. There is a need for simple applications for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed comparisons. These can easily be conducted using a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. We developed a spreadsheet for indirect and mixed effects comparisons of friendly use for clinical researchers interested in systematic reviews, but non-familiarized with the use of more advanced statistical packages. The use of the proposed Excel spreadsheet for indirect and mixed comparisons can be of great use in clinical epidemiology to extend the knowledge provided by traditional meta-analysis when evidence from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent.

  4. A comparative investigation of seven indirect attitude measures.

    PubMed

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    We compared the psychometric qualities of seven indirect attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N = 23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with indirect and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the exclusion of misbehaving or well-behaving participants. All seven indirect measures correlated with each other and with direct measures of the same topic. These relations were always weak for self-esteem, moderate for race, and strong for politics. This pattern suggests that some of the sources of variation in the reliability and predictive validity of the indirect measures is a function of the concepts rather than the methods. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and Brief IAT (BIAT) showed the best overall psychometric quality, followed by the Go–No-Go association task, Single-Target IAT (ST-IAT), Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP), Sorting Paired Features task, and Evaluative Priming. The AMP showed a steep decline in its psychometric qualities when people with extreme attitude scores were removed. Single-category attitude scores computed for the IAT and BIAT showed good relationships with other attitude measures but no evidence of discriminant validity between paired categories. The other measures, especially the AMP and ST-IAT, showed better evidence for discriminant validity. These results inform us on the validity of the measures as attitude assessments, but do not speak to the implicitness of the measured constructs.

  5. Analysis on near field scattering spectra around nanoparticles by using parametric indirect microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoyan, Liu; Kun, Gao; Xuefeng, Liu; Guoqiang, Ni

    2016-10-01

    We report the simulation and measurement results of near field spatial scattering spectra around nanoparticles. Our measurement and simulations results have indicated that Parametric Indirect Microscopic Imaging can image the near field spatial scattering to a much larger distance from the scattering source of the particle under measurement whereas this part of spatial scattering was lost in the conventional microscopy. Both FDTD modeling and measurement provided evidence that parameters of indirect optical wave vector have higher sensitivity to near field scattering.

  6. Evolution of spite through indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Rufus A.; Bshary, Redouan

    2004-01-01

    How can cooperation persist in the face of a temptation to 'cheat'? Several recent papers have suggested that the answer may lie in indirect reciprocity. Altruistic individuals may benefit by eliciting altruism from observers, rather than (as in direct reciprocity) from the recipient of the aid they provide. Here, we point out that indirect reciprocity need not always favour cooperation; by contrast, it may support spiteful behaviour, which is costly for the both actor and recipient. Existing theory suggests spite is unlikely to persist, but we demonstrate that it may do so when spiteful individuals are less likely to incur aggression from observers (a negative form of indirect reciprocity). PMID:15347514

  7. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game.

  8. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  9. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples’ actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability’s power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company’s previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  10. Indirect Lighting--a Matter of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of indirect lighting and the use of high intensity discharge light sources reveal that the most efficient lighting system can also be the most economical. (Author/MLF)

  11. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. PMID:25313189

  12. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  13. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  14. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  15. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  16. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  17. Estradiol: a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Lisa A

    2004-08-01

    The classic analyses of the inhibitory effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on meal size, conducted by Professor Gerard P. Smith and his colleagues at the Bourne Laboratory, inspired my initial interest in this field. My current research, which investigates the role of estradiol in the control of meal size, continues to be guided by Gerry's thoughtful, scientific approach to the study of ingestive behavior. In 1996, the year I arrived as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Bourne Laboratory, Gerry published a new theory of the controls of meal size. In this important paper, Gerry proposed that the controls of meal size can be either direct or indirect. He argued that direct controls of meal size interact with peripheral, preabsorptive receptors that are sensitive to the chemical, mechanical, and colligative properties of ingested food and that indirect controls of meal size function to modulate the activity of direct controls. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how Gerry's theory has guided much of what is known about the mechanism by which estradiol inhibits food intake in female rats. I will provide evidence, primarily from behavioral studies of gonadally intact and ovariectomized rats, that estradiol exerts phasic and tonic inhibitory effects on food intake by acting as a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

  18. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Farinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  19. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  20. Indirect interactions between invasive and native plants via pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Müller, Christine B.

    2009-03-01

    In generalised pollination systems, the presence of alien plant species may change the foraging behaviour of pollinators on native plant species, which could result in reduced reproductive success of native plant species. We tested this idea of indirect interactions on a small spatial and temporal scale in a field study in Mauritius, where the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum, provides additional floral resources for insect pollinators. We predicted that the presence of flowering guava would indirectly and negatively affect the reproductive success of the endemic plant Bertiera zaluzania, which has similar flowers, by diverting shared pollinators. We removed P. cattleianum flowers within a 5-m radius from around half the B. zaluzania target plants (treatment) and left P. cattleianum flowers intact around the other half (control). By far, the most abundant and shared pollinator was the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, but its visitation rates to treatment and control plants were similar. Likewise, fruit and seed set and fruit size and weight of B. zaluzania were not influenced by the presence of P. cattleianum flowers. Although other studies have shown small-scale effects of alien plant species on neighbouring natives, we found no evidence for such negative indirect interactions in our system. The dominance of introduced, established A. mellifera indicates their replacement of native insect flower visitors and their function as pollinators of native plant species. However, the pollination effectiveness of A. mellifera in comparison to native pollinators is unknown.

  1. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals.

  2. Evaluation of Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Hudson, J D.; Breon, Francois

    2001-04-01

    We evaluate aerosol indirect radiative forcing simulated by the Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Global Exchanges (MIRAGE). Although explicit measurements of aerosol indirect radiative forcing do not exist, measurements of many of the links between aerosols and indirect radiative forcing are available and can be used for evaluation. These links include the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, the ratio of droplet number to aerosol number, the droplet number concentration, the column droplet number, the column cloud water, the droplet effective radius, the cloud optical depth, the correlation between cloud albedo and droplet effective radius, and the cloud radiative forcing. The CCN concentration simulated by MIRAGE agrees with measurements for supersaturations larger than 0.1%, but not for smaller supersaturations. Simulated droplet number concentrations are too low in most, but not all, locations with available measurements, even when normalized by aerosol number. MIRA GE correctly simulates the higher droplet numbers and smaller droplet sizes over continents and in the Northern Hemisphere. Biases in column cloud water, cloud optical depth, and shortwave cloud radiative forcing are evident in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and in the subtropical oceans. MIRAGE correctly simulates a negative correlation between cloud albedo and droplet size over remote oceans for cloud optical depths greater than 15 and a positive correlation for cloud optical depths less than 15, but fails to simulate a negative correlation over land.

  3. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  4. Indirect Estimation of the Comparative Treatment Effect in Pharmacogenomic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Sorich, Michael J.; Coory, Michael; Pekarsky, Brita A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of clinical utility is a key issue in translating pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. Appropriately designed randomized controlled trials generally provide the most robust evidence of the clinical utility, but often only data from a pharmacogenomic association study are available. This paper details a method for reframing the results of pharmacogenomic association studies in terms of the comparative treatment effect for a pharmacogenomic subgroup to provide greater insight into the likely clinical utility of a pharmacogenomic marker, its’ likely cost effectiveness, and the value of undertaking the further (often expensive) research required for translation into clinical practice. The method is based on the law of total probability, which relates marginal and conditional probability. It takes as inputs: the prevalence of the pharmacogenomic marker in the patient group of interest, prognostic effect of the pharmacogenomic marker based on observational association studies, and the unstratified comparative treatment effect based on one or more conventional randomized controlled trials. The critical assumption is that of exchangeability across the included studies. The method is demonstrated using a case study of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype and the anti-platelet agent clopidogrel. Indirect subgroup analysis provided insight into relationship between the clinical utility of genotyping CYP2C19 and the risk ratio of cardiovascular outcomes between CYP2C19 genotypes for individuals using clopidogrel. In this case study the indirect and direct estimates of the treatment effect for the cytochrome P450 2C19 subgroups were similar. In general, however, indirect estimates are likely to have substantially greater risk of bias than an equivalent direct estimate. PMID:24015225

  5. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  6. Clinical guidelines for indirect resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, A

    1997-06-01

    Ongoing advances in adhesive dentistry have made it possible to successfully and predictably bond tooth-supporting restorations using conservative preparation techniques. Improvements in the durability and esthetic properties of tooth-colored restorative materials have also increased the range of available treatment options. However, dentists have been slow to accept both direct and indirect posterior esthetics. This article provides a step-by-step technique for practitioners who choose to treat their patients with indirect resin esthetic restorations. It will not discuss other posterior restorative treatment techniques or materials (i.e. gold, porcelain, amalgam, bonded amalgam, or direct resin).

  7. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  8. Indirect Calibration In Electron-Probe Microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terepka, F. M.; Vijaykumar, M.; Tewari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Technique for indirect calibration in electron-probe microanalysis reduces number of measurements needed without significantly degrading precision of measurement data. Advantageous when many analyses must be performed; for example, determining varying chemical composition at many positions across specimen of multicomponent alloy. Time spent acquiring data reduced considerably.

  9. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award...

  10. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award...

  11. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award...

  12. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  13. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  14. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  15. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  16. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating...

  18. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203...

  19. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203...

  20. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  1. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…

  2. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  3. Indirect Methods for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2005-11-18

    Several indirect approaches for obtaining reaction cross sections are briefly reviewed. The Surrogate Nuclear Reactions method, which aims at determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions, is discussed in some detail. The validity of the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation in the Surrogate approach is studied for the example of neutron-induced fission of an actinide nucleus.

  4. Direct and Indirect Peer Socialization of Adolescent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    PubMed Central

    Giletta, Matteo; Burk, William J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined direct and indirect forms of peer socialization of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent friendship networks. Data were collected among 348 adolescents (55% females; Mage = 15.02 years; SD = 0.53) at 4 assessment waves. Stochastic actor-based models revealed no evidence for direct socialization of NSSI: adolescents whose friends reported higher NSSI did not increase their NSSI over time. However, indirect forms of socialization were found. After controlling for direct socialization and selection effects, friends’ depressive symptoms predicted changes in male and female adolescents’ NSSI and friends’ impulsivity predicted changes in male adolescents’ NSSI. Findings highlight the importance of extending peer influence research beyond the classical “modeling” paradigm by providing evidence that peers may indirectly socialize adolescents’ NSSI. PMID:26412955

  5. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement shall not change any monetary ceiling, obligation, or specific cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect...

  6. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement shall not change any monetary ceiling, obligation, or specific cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect...

  7. 48 CFR 1542.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final indirect cost rates... shall be required to negotiate final indirect cost rates. (b) Contracting officers shall insert...

  8. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  9. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  10. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  11. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  12. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  13. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  14. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  15. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  16. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  17. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  18. Corrigendum to "Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4163-4174, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J; Easter, Richard C

    2007-01-19

    Ghan and Easter (2006) (hereafter referred to as GE2006) used a global aerosol model to estimate the sensitivity of aerosol direct and indirect effects to a variety of simplified treatments of the cloud-borne aerosol. They found that neglecting transport of cloud-borne particles introduces little error, but that diagnosing cloud-borne particles produces global mean biases of 20% and local errors of up to 40% for aerosol, droplet number, and direct and indirect radiative forcing However, we have recently found that in those experiments we had inadvertently turned off the first aerosol indirect effect. In the radiation module, the droplet effective radius was prescribed at 10 microns rather than related to the droplet number concentration. The second indirect effect, in which droplet number influences droplet collision and coalescence, was treated, so that the simulations produced an aerosol indirect effect, albeit one that is much smaller (about -0.2Wm-2 for anthropogenic sulfate) than other previous estimates.

  19. [Direct and indirect mucosal wave imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska, Paulina; Szkiełkowska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    The vocal folds play a key role in the process of phonation. Cyclical movements of the vocal folds model a space called glottis, what leads to voice formation. The space contains surface between the vocal folds and the inner surface of the arytenoid cartilages. The best indicator of the vocal folds vibratory function is the mucosal wave. The presence and size of the mucosal wave is widely recognized as an indicator of tension and plasticity of vocal folds. It is also essential in the process of creating a proper, resonant voice. In the article, current knowledge of mucosal wave imaging techniques is given. Imaging can be carried out directly and indirectly. Among the direct methods, the following are distinguished: laryngostroboscopy, laryngovideostroboscopy, videokymography and high-speed digital imaging. Indirect methods include: electroglottography, photoglottography and ultrasonography. PMID:27137829

  20. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France. PMID:19671436

  1. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  2. Evidence for negative feature guidance in visual search is explained by spatial recoding.

    PubMed

    Beck, Valerie M; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Theories of attention and visual search explain how attention is guided toward objects with known target features. But can attention be directed away from objects with a feature known to be associated only with distractors? Most studies have found that the demand to maintain the to-be-avoided feature in visual working memory biases attention toward matching objects rather than away from them. In contrast, Arita, Carlisle, and Woodman (2012) claimed that attention can be configured to selectively avoid objects that match a cued distractor color, and they reported evidence that this type of negative cue generates search benefits. However, the colors of the search array items in Arita et al. (2012) were segregated by hemifield (e.g., blue items on the left, red on the right), which allowed for a strategy of translating the feature-cue information into a simple spatial template (e.g., avoid right, or attend left). In the present study, we replicated the negative cue benefit using the Arita et al. (2012), method (albeit within a subset of participants who reliably used the color cues to guide attention). Then, we eliminated the benefit by using search arrays that could not be grouped by hemifield. Our results suggest that feature-guided avoidance is implemented only indirectly, in this case by translating feature-cue information into a spatial template. PMID:26191616

  3. Indirect hemagglutination test for chlamydial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V J; Thacker, W L; Engelman, H M

    1972-07-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test is described for chlamydial antibodies in psittacosis diagnostic sera; for this test tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with a deoxycholate extract of Chlamydia psittaci grown in Vero cell monolayers were used. Adaptation of the IHA test to the Microtiter system decreased sensitivity; nevertheless, the Microtiter-IHA test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Lymphogranuloma venereum antibodies also were detected by using antigen extracted from C. psittaci. PMID:4626906

  4. Indirect techniques for astrophysical reaction rates determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, F.; Oulebsir, N.; Benamara, S.; De Séréville, N.; Coc, A.; Laird, A.; Stefan, I.; Roussel, P.

    2016-05-01

    Direct measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest can be challenging. Alternative experimental techniques such as transfer reactions and inelastic scattering reactions offer the possibility to study these reactions by using stable beams. In this context, I will present recent results that were obtained in Orsay using indirect techniques. The examples will concern various astrophysical sites, from the Big-Bang nucleo synthesis to the production of radioisotopes in massive stars.

  5. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  6. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  7. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were

  8. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  9. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  10. Indirect Interactions in the High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  11. Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nelin, Timothy D; Joseph, Allan M; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E

    2012-02-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research.

  12. Is iprindole an indirect betamimetic drug?

    PubMed

    Ganry, H; Bourin, M

    1988-01-01

    Iprindole, an active antidepressant in clinical use, has no effect on norepinephrine reuptake and does not bind to receptors of the noradrenergic system. Iprindole weakly antagonizes reserpine hypothermia and potentiates yohimbine toxicity. This effect is antagonized by propranolol but not by atenolol or metoprolol. In an acute dose, iprindole potentiates the effect of maprotiline on yohimbine toxicity. Beta 2-adrenergic agonists and antagonists specifically modify the effect of iprindole on spontaneous motility. These results indicate that iprindole has an indirect beta 2-mimetic effect.

  13. 48 CFR 3442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 3442.705 Section 3442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 3442.705 Final indirect cost...

  14. 48 CFR 942.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 942.705 Section 942.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  15. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  16. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  19. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  20. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  1. Direct and indirect responses of a freshwater food web to a potent synthetic oestrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Karen A.; Paterson, Michael J.; Rennie, Michael D.; Podemski, Cheryl L.; Findlay, Dave L.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Liber, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in municipal effluents directly affect the sexual development and reproductive success of fishes, but indirect effects on invertebrate prey or fish predators through reduced predation or prey availability, respectively, are unknown. At the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, a long-term, whole-lake experiment was conducted using a before-after-control-impact design to determine both direct and indirect effects of the synthetic oestrogen used in the birth control pill, 17α-ethynyloestradiol (EE2). Algal, microbial, zooplankton and benthic invertebrate communities showed no declines in abundance during three summers of EE2 additions (5–6 ng l−1), indicating no direct toxic effects. Recruitment of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) failed, leading to a near-extirpation of this species both 2 years during (young-of-year, YOY) and 2 years following (adults and YOY) EE2 additions. Body condition of male lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and male and female white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) declined before changes in prey abundance, suggesting direct effects of EE2 on this endpoint. Evidence of indirect effects of EE2 was also observed. Increases in zooplankton, Chaoborus, and emerging insects were observed after 2 or 3 years of EE2 additions, strongly suggesting indirect effects mediated through the reduced abundance of several small-bodied fishes. Biomass of top predator lake trout declined by 23–42% during and after EE2 additions, most probably an indirect effect from the loss of its prey species, the fathead minnow and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Our results demonstrate that small-scale studies focusing solely on direct effects are likely to underestimate the true environmental impacts of oestrogens in municipal wastewaters and provide further evidence of the value of whole-ecosystem experiments for understanding indirect effects of EDCs and other aquatic stressors. PMID:25405967

  2. Development and Preliminary Validation of an Indirect Screener for Drug Use in the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Ondersma, Steven J.; Svikis, Dace S.; LeBreton, James M.; Streiner, David L.; Grekin, Emily R.; Lam, Phebe K.; Connors-Burge, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study sought to develop and begin validation of an indirect screener for identification of drug use during pregnancy, without reliance on direct disclosure. Design Women were recruited from their hospital rooms after giving birth. Participation involved (a) completing a computerized assessment battery containing three types of items: direct (asking directly about drug use), semi-indirect (asking only about drug use prior to pregnancy) and indirect (with no mention of drug use), and (b) providing urine and hair samples. An optimal subset of indirect items was developed and cross-validated based on ability to predict urine/hair test results. Setting Obstetric unit of a university-affiliated hospital in Detroit. Participants 400 low-income, African American, post-partum women (300 in the developmental sample and 100 in the cross-validation sample); all available women were recruited without consideration of substance abuse risk or other characteristics. Measurements Women first completed the series of direct and indirect items using a Tablet PC; they were then asked for separate consent to obtain urine and hair samples that were tested for evidence of illicit drug use. Findings In the cross-validation sample, the brief screener consisting of 6 indirect items predicted toxicology results more accurately than direct questions about drug use (area under the ROC curve = .74, p < .001). Traditional direct screening questions were highly specific but identified only a small minority of women who used drugs during the last trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions Indirect screening may increase the accuracy of mothers’ self-reports of prenatal drug use. PMID:22882721

  3. [Traumatic complications of indirect cardiac massage].

    PubMed

    Stefan, J; Gregora, Z; Krumlová, V

    1989-11-01

    The author analyzed injuries in 238 subjects where before death indirect cardiac massage was applied by skilled health workers. The ribs were fractures in 27.7% and the sternum in 16% of the deceased, injuries of other organs were detected 13 times (5.5%). In women injuries were more frequent and fractures of the sternum markedly more frequent than in men. While in men rib fractures on the left side were more frequent than on the rights side, in women this difference was not observed. Rib fractures were mostly in the medioclavicular line at the level of the 3rd-5th rib. The fractures of the sternum were also most frequently at the level between the 3rd and 5th rib. No fractures of the 10th-12th rib were found. The author observed an age-depunende cy of rib fractures in men and women, while fractures of the sternum were age-dependent only in men. There was no relationship with age as regards injuries of other organs. Only in two deceased subjects the injury which developed during indirect cardiac massage was the immediate cause of death. Once it was rupture of the interval mammary vein with haemorrhage into the mediastinum and haemorrhage into the chest, in the other case rupture of the right ventricle with cardiac tamponade.

  4. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  5. Energy balance in man measured by direct and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Webb, P; Annis, J F; Troutman, S J

    1980-06-01

    In six 24-hr measurements of energy balance, direct and indirect calorimetry agreed within +/-3%, which is probably the range of experimental error. But in seven other 24-hr periods there was disagreement in the range of 8 to 23%, and these were usually days when the subjects ate much less than they spent metabolically. Our direct calorimeter is an insulated, water cooled suit. Continous measurements of O2 consumption and CO2 production provided data on metabolic expenditure (M) by indirect calorimetry. The 24-hr values for M matched the energy losses within +/-60 kcal (+/-3% of M) in four men who rested all day and lay down to sleep at night. Similar agreement was seen in one of the four who worked on a treadmill for 4 hr and stayed busy all day. but in another energy losses were 342 kcal greater than M (10% of M). When the experiments gave values for M minus the losses greater than +/-60 kcal, this is called "unmeasured energy". In further experiments, two subjects stayed awake for 24 hr, and their unmeasured energies were 279 and 393 kcal. The same two men, eating sparingly, also worked for 24 hr so as to double their resting metabolic expenditures; the unmeasured energies were even larger, 380 and 958 kcal. When they repeated the 24 hr of mild work, but ate nearly as much as they spent metabolically, one man was near energy balance, while the other showed an unmeasured energy of -363 kcal. Little heat storage was evident in these experiments; therefore, heat balance was present and energy balance should have been present. In the group of 13 experiments, it appeared that the greater the food deficit, the larger was the unmeasured energy (excess of metabolic expenditure over loss of energy).

  6. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3-silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

  7. Sensitive indirect spectrophotometric determination of isoniazid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi, A.; Karimi, M. A.; Hormozi Nezhad, M. R.; Kamali, R.; Saghir, N.

    2004-03-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate indirect spectrophotometric method for the microdetermination of isoniazid (INH) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations is developed. The procedure is based on the reaction of copper(II) with isoniazid in the presence of neocuproine (NC). In the presence of neocuproine, copper(II) is reduced easily by isoniazid to a Cu(I)-neocuproine complex, which shows an absorption maximum at 454 nm. By measuring the absorbance of the complex at this wavelength, isoniazid can be determined in the range 0.3-3.5 μg ml -1. This method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in pharmaceutical formulation and enabled the determination of the isoniazid in microgram quantities (0.3-3.5 μg ml -1). The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official method and demonstrated good accuracy and precision.

  8. Sensitive indirect spectrophotometric determination of isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R; Kamali, R; Saghir, N

    2004-03-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate indirect spectrophotometric method for the microdetermination of isoniazid (INH) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations is developed. The procedure is based on the reaction of copper(II) with isoniazid in the presence of neocuproine (NC). In the presence of neocuproine, copper(II) is reduced easily by isoniazid to a Cu(I)-neocuproine complex, which shows an absorption maximum at 454 nm. By measuring the absorbance of the complex at this wavelength, isoniazid can be determined in the range 0.3-3.5 microgml-1. This method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in pharmaceutical formulation and enabled the determination of the isoniazid in microgram quantities (0.3-3.5 microgml-1). The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official method and demonstrated good accuracy and precision.

  9. The indirect electrochemical refining of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent work performed on an electrolytic cell is reported which addresses the implicit limitations in various approaches to refining lunar ores. The cell uses an oxygen vacancy conducting stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte to effect separation between a molten salt catholyte compartment where alkali metals are deposited, and an oxygen-evolving anode of composition La(0.89)Sr(0.1)MnO3. The cell configuration is shown and discussed along with a polarization curve and a steady-state current-voltage curve. In a practical cell, cathodically deposited liquid lithium would be continuously removed from the electrolytic cell and used as a valuable reducing agent for ore refining under lunar conditions. Oxygen would be indirectly electrochemically extracted from lunar ores for breathing purposes.

  10. Remote Leak Detection: Indirect Thermal Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The Indirect Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and tested in the laboratory.

  11. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  12. The indirect binary n-cube array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The array is built from a large number (hundreds or thousands) of microprocessors or microcomputers linked through a switching network into an indirect binary n-cube array. Control is two level, the array operating synchronously, or in lock step, at the higher level, and with the broadcast commands being locally interpreted into rewritable microinstruction streams in the microprocessors and in the switch control units. The key to the design is the switching array. By properly programming it, the array can be made into a wide variety of virtual arrays which are well adapted to a wide range of applications. It is believed that the flexibility of the switching array can be used to obtain fault avoidance, which appears necessary in any highly parallel design.

  13. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  14. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  15. Environmental risk analysis for indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Suter, G.W. II; Baes, C.F. III; Bartell, S.M.; Cavendish, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the risks to fish, water quality (due to noxious algal blooms), crops, forests, and wildlife of two technologies for the indirect liquefaction of coal: Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek gasification of coal for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A variety of analytical techniques were used to make maximum use of the available data to consider effects of effluents on different levels of ecological organization. The most significant toxicants to fish were found to be ammonia, cadmium, and acid gases. An analysis of whole-effluent toxicity indicated that the Lurgi effluent is more acutely toxic than the Koppers-Totzek effluent. Six effluent components appear to pose a potential threat of blue-green algal blooms, primarily because of their effects on higher trophic levels. The most important atmospheric emissions with respect to crops, forests, and wildlife were found to be the conventional combustion products SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. Of the materials deposited on the soil, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel appear of greatest concern for phytotoxicity. 147 references, 5 figures, 41 tables.

  16. Indirect Signatures of Gravitino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2008-11-23

    Supersymmetric models provide very interesting scenarios to account for the dark matter of the Universe. In this talk we discuss scenarios with gravitino dark matter in R-parity breaking vacua, which not only reproduce very naturally the observed dark matter relic density, but also lead to a thermal history of the Universe consistent with the observed abundances of primordial elements and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. In this class of scenarios the dark matter gravitinos are no longer stable, but decay with very long lifetimes into Standard Model particles, thus opening the possibility of their indirect detection. We have computed the expected contribution from gravitino decay to the primary cosmic rays and we have found that a gravitino with a mass of m{sub 2/3}{approx}150 GeV and a lifetime of {tau}{sub 3/2}{approx}10{sup 26} s could simultaneously explain the EGRET anomaly in the extragalactic gamma-ray background and the HEAT excess in the positron fraction.

  17. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  18. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production. PMID:26982471

  19. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3–silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)–deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  20. Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Lesins, Glen

    2002-11-01

    The anthropogenic indirect aerosol effects of modifying cloud albedo and cloud lifetime cannot be deduced from observations alone but require a modeling component. Here we validate a climate model, with and without indirect aerosol effects, by using satellite observations. The model agrees better with observations when both indirect aerosol effects are included. However, the simulated clouds are more susceptible to aerosols than the observed clouds from the POLDER satellite, thus overestimating the indirect aerosol effect. By taking the difference in susceptibilities into account, the global mean total anthropogenic aerosol effect is reduced from -1.4 to -0.85 watts per square meter.

  1. Indirect handle on the down-quark Yukawa coupling.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Florian

    2014-12-31

    To measure the Yukawa couplings of the up and down quarks, Yu,d, seems to be far beyond the capabilities of current and (near) future experiments in particle physics. By performing a general analysis of the potential misalignment between quark masses and Yukawa couplings, we derive predictions for the magnitude of induced flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs), depending on the shift in the physical Yukawa coupling of first-generation quarks. We find that a change of more than 50% in Yd would generically result in ds transitions in conflict with kaon physics. This could already be seen as evidence for a nonvanishing direct coupling of the down quark to the newly discovered Higgs boson. The nonobservation of certain--already well-constrained--processes is thus turned into a powerful indirect measure of otherwise basically unaccessible physical parameters of the effective standard model. Similarly, improvements in limits on FCNCs in the up-type quark sector can lead to valuable information on Yu.

  2. Supervisory control system development for an indirect liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, B.V.R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A supervisory process control system for the Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Pilot Plant has been developed. A microcomputer, the IBM 9000 system, was utilized for data acquisition, reduction, and adjustment, process modeling, simulation, and off/on-line optimization. The IBM 9000 is interfaced with the process through a front end data acquisition system. Several supervisory control programs were set up to run concurrently on the IBM 9000. A user interface task controls the execution and resource sharing activities of the multitasking system. A data fitting package was programmed to handle instrument calibration and/or model development. Process flow and composition data are reduced and tabulated by the mass balance program. Mass balance closures are calculated for different loops. Two process coaptation approaches, sequential and non-sequential, for data adjustment, and estimation were investigated. Mathematical models of the pyrolysis and Fischer-Tropsch reactors were developed using linear regression. Theoretical equilibrium studies support the experimental evidence of the dependence of the pyrolysis product gas composition on the feedstock composition, and especially on the hydrogen/oxygen ratio.

  3. Direct and Indirect Mineralocorticoid Effects Determine Distal Salt Transport.

    PubMed

    Terker, Andrew S; Yarbrough, Bethzaida; Ferdaus, Mohammed Z; Lazelle, Rebecca A; Erspamer, Kayla J; Meermeier, Nicholas P; Park, Hae J; McCormick, James A; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H

    2016-08-01

    Excess aldosterone is an important contributor to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, low circulating aldosterone causes salt wasting and hypotension. Aldosterone activates mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) to increase epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. However, aldosterone may also stimulate the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Here, we generated mice in which MRs could be deleted along the nephron to test this hypothesis. These kidney-specific MR-knockout mice exhibited salt wasting, low BP, and hyperkalemia. Notably, we found evidence of deficient apical orientation and cleavage of ENaC, despite the salt wasting. Although these mice also exhibited deficient NCC activity, NCC could be stimulated by restricting dietary potassium, which also returned BP to control levels. Together, these results indicate that MRs regulate ENaC directly, but modulation of NCC is mediated by secondary changes in plasma potassium concentration. Electrolyte balance and BP seem to be determined, therefore, by a delicate interplay between direct and indirect mineralocorticoid actions in the distal nephron.

  4. Indirect handle on the down-quark Yukawa coupling.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Florian

    2014-12-31

    To measure the Yukawa couplings of the up and down quarks, Yu,d, seems to be far beyond the capabilities of current and (near) future experiments in particle physics. By performing a general analysis of the potential misalignment between quark masses and Yukawa couplings, we derive predictions for the magnitude of induced flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs), depending on the shift in the physical Yukawa coupling of first-generation quarks. We find that a change of more than 50% in Yd would generically result in ds transitions in conflict with kaon physics. This could already be seen as evidence for a nonvanishing direct coupling of the down quark to the newly discovered Higgs boson. The nonobservation of certain--already well-constrained--processes is thus turned into a powerful indirect measure of otherwise basically unaccessible physical parameters of the effective standard model. Similarly, improvements in limits on FCNCs in the up-type quark sector can lead to valuable information on Yu. PMID:25615309

  5. Direct and Indirect Mineralocorticoid Effects Determine Distal Salt Transport.

    PubMed

    Terker, Andrew S; Yarbrough, Bethzaida; Ferdaus, Mohammed Z; Lazelle, Rebecca A; Erspamer, Kayla J; Meermeier, Nicholas P; Park, Hae J; McCormick, James A; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H

    2016-08-01

    Excess aldosterone is an important contributor to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, low circulating aldosterone causes salt wasting and hypotension. Aldosterone activates mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) to increase epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. However, aldosterone may also stimulate the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Here, we generated mice in which MRs could be deleted along the nephron to test this hypothesis. These kidney-specific MR-knockout mice exhibited salt wasting, low BP, and hyperkalemia. Notably, we found evidence of deficient apical orientation and cleavage of ENaC, despite the salt wasting. Although these mice also exhibited deficient NCC activity, NCC could be stimulated by restricting dietary potassium, which also returned BP to control levels. Together, these results indicate that MRs regulate ENaC directly, but modulation of NCC is mediated by secondary changes in plasma potassium concentration. Electrolyte balance and BP seem to be determined, therefore, by a delicate interplay between direct and indirect mineralocorticoid actions in the distal nephron. PMID:26712527

  6. Indirect self-destructive behavior in patients with Buerger's disease.

    PubMed

    Farberow, N L; Nehemkis, A M

    1979-02-01

    Patients with Buerger's disease (a circulatory illness) were studied to evaluate indirect self-destructive behavior (ISDB), evidence by neglect in following medical regimen, disregard of suggestions for environmental imporvements (avoidance of undue exposure to cold) and refusal to abstain from smoking. Personality characteristics and behavioral phenomena associated with ISDB were obtained by comparison of the files of 26 uncooperative patients with 26 matched cooperative controls with Buerger's disease and with 25 Buerger's disease patients representing a unselected annual population in a Veterans Administration (VA) hospital. The experimental group was characterized as more often complaining, manipulative, and aggressive. They manifested denial, negligence, and a tendency to minimize their illness. They were more likely to complain of pain and to demand relief. In a second clinical investigation of patients still in the hospital, 12 experimentals were compared with 12 controls using interview data and psychological tests measuring attitudes toward time and toward death. The experimentals did not seem to value time nor to be interested in achievement. They felt that a dull life was worse than death.

  7. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Juan; Azim, Eiman; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik; Alstermark, Bror

    2015-01-01

    The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT) in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), and the implications of this pre-cerebellar “detour” for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of dexterous limb movements. PMID:26217214

  8. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty. PMID:26824895

  9. Indirect interband transition induced by optical near fields with large wave numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Optical near fields (ONFs) have Fourier components with large wave numbers that are two or three orders of magnitude larger than those of far-field propagating light owing to their nonuniformity in space. By utilizing these large wave numbers, the ONF is expected to induce an indirect interband transition between Bloch states having different wave numbers and directly generate an electron-hole pair without electron-phonon coupling. We perform time-dependent dynamics calculations of a one-dimensional periodic potential with an indirect band-gap structure and demonstrate that the ONF definitely induces an indirect interband transition. Instead of using the general Bloch boundary condition, which is usually imposed in conventional band structure calculations, we adopt an alternative boundary condition, the Born-von Kármán boundary condition, to appropriately treat indirect interband transitions. The calculated absorption spectra for the far-field and ONF excitations show different absorption edges and spectral patterns. We argue that this difference can be experimentally measured as evidence of the effects of the large wave numbers of the ONF.

  10. Defining biominerals and organominerals: Direct and indirect indicators of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Carole C.; Campbell, Kathleen; Engel, Michael H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Brasier, Martin D.; Staley, James T.

    2007-09-01

    By introducing the new term 'organomineral' to apply to minerals that are affected by organics, mostly life-related, but not directly produced by living cells, we hope to increase the accuracy of the terminology in present usage. We believe that the term 'biomineral' does not describe all mineral deposits precisely enough and offer case studies to support instances where the use of the new term 'organomineral' is more appropriate. We provide examples of some materials that are biominerals such as those in diatoms and human bones and which perform a functional purpose. We then attempt to show that terminology can sometimes mislead investigators, drive the direction and prejudice interpretations of scientific investigation. This is achieved by presenting case studies of minerals that have been investigated as biominerals although they may not actually be directly controlled by biology. For this reason we pay special attention to desert varnish, hot-spring siliceous deposits, stromatolites, and bacterial encrustations. We go on to explain why we regard biominerals as direct indictors of life whereas organominerals should be treated as indirect indicators of life that require careful characterization to establish the origin of contained organics and whether these are biotic in origin. How organic compounds are preserved and transformed in sedimentary environments and in the mineral matrix is as highly relevant to the study of modern Earth environments as it is in the search for the oldest evidence of life in the terrestrial rock record. It is also important to many disciplines such as microbiology and archaeology and especially to scientists planning missions to look for evidence of 'life' on other planetary surfaces.

  11. The Interaction of Indirect Evidentiality, Temporality and Epistemic Modality in Jordanian Arabic: The Case of Deverbal Agentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Malahmeh, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Evidentiality is commonly concerned with two basic notions: evidence type and the speaker's commitment towards the truth of the proposition expressed (Chafe and Nichols 1986). Throughout a detailed study of the morphosyntax and semantics of deverbal agentives (DAs), this dissertation investigates indirect evidentiality and its interaction with two…

  12. Donor-specific indirect pathway analysis reveals a B-cell-independent signature which reflects outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Haynes, L D; Jankowska-Gan, E; Sheka, A; Keller, M R; Hernandez-Fuentes, M P; Lechler, R I; Seyfert-Margolis, V; Turka, L A; Newell, K A; Burlingham, W J

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the role of donor-specific indirect pathway T cells in renal transplant tolerance, we analyzed responses in peripheral blood of 45 patients using the trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Subjects were enrolled into five groups-identical twin, clinically tolerant (TOL), steroid monotherapy (MONO), standard immunosuppression (SI) and chronic rejection (CR)-based on transplant type, posttransplant immunosuppression and graft function. The indirect pathway was active in all groups except twins but distinct intergroup differences were evident, corresponding to clinical status. The antidonor indirect pathway T effector response increased across patient groups (TOL < MONO < SI < CR; p < 0.0001) whereas antidonor indirect pathway T regulatory response decreased (TOL > MONO = SI > CR; p < 0.005). This pattern differed from that seen in circulating naïve B-cell numbers and in a cross-platform biomarker analysis, where patients on monotherapy were not ranked closest to TOL patients, but rather were indistinguishable from chronically rejecting patients. Cross-sectional analysis of the indirect pathway revealed a spectrum in T-regulatory:T-effector balance, ranging from TOL patients having predominantly regulatory responses to CR patients having predominantly effector responses. Therefore, the indirect pathway measurements reflect a distinct aspect of tolerance from the recently reported elevation of circulating naïve B cells, which was apparent only in recipients off immunosuppression. PMID:22151236

  13. 48 CFR 1542.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Certificate of indirect costs. 1542.703-2 Section 1542.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.703-2 Certificate of...

  14. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  15. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  16. Advanced use of an esthetic indirect posterior resin system.

    PubMed

    Howard, N Y

    1997-10-01

    With the advent of newer indirect posterior restorative materials, one current resin restorative system still stands out as a proven leader in the dental marketplace. This article focuses on the multiple use of an all-microfill, laboratory-processed, indirect resin restorative system. Three cases are presented and criteria for long-term success are reviewed and discussed.

  17. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  18. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  19. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  20. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  1. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  2. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  3. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  4. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  5. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  6. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  7. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  8. 34 CFR 76.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the cost principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General indirect cost rates; exceptions. 76.560 Section... organizations, at 34 CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have a current indirect cost rate agreement to...

  9. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met... Education is the cognizant agency, the Secretary approves an indirect cost rate for a grantee other than...

  10. 34 CFR 76.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 76.561 Section 76.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must.... (a) If the Department of Education is the cognizant agency, the Secretary approves an indirect...

  11. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences...

  12. Self-regulation and the hypothesis of experience-based selection: investigating indirect conscious control.

    PubMed

    Dorris, Derek C

    2009-09-01

    The assumption that the contents of our conscious visual experience directly control our fine-tuned, real-time motor activity has been challenged by neurological and psychophysical evidence that suggest the two processes work semi-independently of each other. Clark [Clark, A. (2001). Visual experience and motor action: Are the bonds too tight? The Philosophical Review, 110, 495-519; Clark, A. (2002). Is seeing all it seems? Action, reason and the grand illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9, 181-202; Clark, A. (2006). Vision as dance? Three challenges for sensori-motor contingency theory. PSYCHE, 12 (1). Available from http://www.psyche.cs.monash.edu.au] argues that such evidence implies a more indirect relationship between conscious visual experience and motor-control where the function of visual consciousness is not to control action but to select what actions are to be controlled. In this paper, I argue that this type of dynamic also exists at the wider level of self-regulation where conscious intent appears to indirectly control the enactment of the intended behaviour. I argue that by drawing parallels between Clark's proposed dynamic and self-regulation, the former is not only bolstered by a previously unrecognised source of support but our understanding of the latter can help to further elucidate Clark's proposed mechanism of indirect conscious control.

  13. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  14. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    PubMed

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. PMID:25079674

  15. Intact performance on an indirect measure of race bias following amygdala damage.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Elizabeth A; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Cunningham, William A

    2003-01-01

    Recent brain imaging and lesion studies provide converging evidence for amygdala involvement in judgments of fear and trust based on facial expression [Adolphs et al., Nature 393 (1998) 470; Adolphs et al., Neuropsychologia 37 (1999) 1111; Breiter et al., Neuron 17 (1996) 875; Winston et al., Nat. Neurosci. 5 (3) (2002) 277]. Another type of social information apparent in face stimuli is social group membership. Imaging studies have reported amygdala activation to face stimuli of different racial groups [Hart et al., NeuroReport 11 (11) (2000) 2351]. In White American subjects, amygdala activation to Black versus White faces was correlated with indirect, implicit measures of racial evaluation [Phelps et al., J. Cogn. Neurosci. 12 (5) (2000) 729]. To determine if the amygdala plays a critical role in indirect social group evaluation, as suggested by the imaging results, a patient with bilateral amygdala damage and control subjects were given two measures of race bias. All subjects were female, White Americans. The Modern Racism Scale (MRS) is a direct, self-report measure of race attitudes and beliefs. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is an indirect, automatic evaluation task. Performance on the two tasks did not differ between the patient with amygdala damage and control subjects. All subjects showed a pro-Black bias on the direct, explicit measure of race beliefs, the MRS, and a negative evaluation towards Black faces on the indirect measure of race evaluation, the IAT. These results indicate that even though amygdala activation to Black versus White faces is correlated with performance on indirect measures of race bias [Phelps et al., J. Cogn. Neurosci. 12 (5) (2000) 729], the amygdala is not critical for normal performance on the IAT.

  16. Indirect cavernous carotid fistula in a 12-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Livi, Francesca; Ndoro, Samuel; Caird, John; Crimmins, Darach

    2016-01-01

    We present a very rare case of indirect cavernous carotid fistula (CCF) in a 12-year-old girl. Indirect CCF is extremely rare in the paediatric population. A 12-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of frontal headaches and intermittent left-sided proptosis. On examination, she had dilated and engorged scleral veins on the left eye, mild dysdiadochokinesia and past pointing on the left side. A brain computer tomography with contrast, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional radiography (IR) cerebral angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of CCF. The CCF was embolized and a follow-up brain MRI and an IR cerebral angiogram were conducted over the course of 8 months that revealed no evidence of residual CCF. CCF, though rare in the paediatric population, should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis when dilated scleral veins, proptosis and dysdiadokinesis are present in the clinical setting. Prompt treatment has good prognostic results. PMID:27273682

  17. Indirect cavernous carotid fistula in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Livi, Francesca; Ndoro, Samuel; Caird, John; Crimmins, Darach

    2016-06-06

    We present a very rare case of indirect cavernous carotid fistula (CCF) in a 12-year-old girl. Indirect CCF is extremely rare in the paediatric population. A 12-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of frontal headaches and intermittent left-sided proptosis. On examination, she had dilated and engorged scleral veins on the left eye, mild dysdiadochokinesia and past pointing on the left side. A brain computer tomography with contrast, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional radiography (IR) cerebral angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of CCF. The CCF was embolized and a follow-up brain MRI and an IR cerebral angiogram were conducted over the course of 8 months that revealed no evidence of residual CCF. CCF, though rare in the paediatric population, should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis when dilated scleral veins, proptosis and dysdiadokinesis are present in the clinical setting. Prompt treatment has good prognostic results.

  18. In situ TEM imaging of CaCO₃ nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michael H; Aloni, Shaul; De Yoreo, James J

    2014-09-01

    Mechanisms of nucleation from electrolyte solutions have been debated for more than a century. Recent discoveries of amorphous precursors and evidence for cluster aggregation and liquid-liquid separation contradict common assumptions of classical nucleation theory. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to explore calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nucleation in a cell that enables reagent mixing, we demonstrate that multiple nucleation pathways are simultaneously operative, including formation both directly from solution and indirectly through transformation of amorphous and crystalline precursors. However, an amorphous-to-calcite transformation is not observed. The behavior of amorphous calcium carbonate upon dissolution suggests that it encompasses a spectrum of structures, including liquids and solids. These observations of competing direct and indirect pathways are consistent with classical predictions, whereas the behavior of amorphous particles hints at an underlying commonality among recently proposed precursor-based mechanisms. PMID:25190792

  19. False recognition of objects in visual scenes: findings from a combined direct and indirect memory test.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Nash, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    We report an extension of the procedure devised by Weinstein and Shanks (Memory & Cognition 36:1415-1428, 2008) to study false recognition and priming of pictures. Participants viewed scenes with multiple embedded objects (seen items), then studied the names of these objects and the names of other objects (read items). Finally, participants completed a combined direct (recognition) and indirect (identification) memory test that included seen items, read items, and new items. In the direct test, participants recognized pictures of seen and read items more often than new pictures. In the indirect test, participants' speed at identifying those same pictures was improved for pictures that they had actually studied, and also for falsely recognized pictures whose names they had read. These data provide new evidence that a false-memory induction procedure can elicit memory-like representations that are difficult to distinguish from "true" memories of studied pictures.

  20. Direct versus indirect sexual selection: genetic basis of colour, size and recruitment in a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Jarrod D; Burgess, Malcolm D; Lord, Alex; Phillimore, Albert B; Clegg, Sonya M; Owens, Ian P F

    2006-06-01

    Indirect and direct models of sexual selection make different predictions regarding the quantitative genetic relationships between sexual ornaments and fitness. Indirect models predict that ornaments should have a high heritability and that strong positive genetic covariance should exist between fitness and the ornament. Direct models, on the other hand, make no such assumptions about the level of genetic variance in fitness and the ornament, and are therefore likely to be more important when environmental sources of variation are large. Here we test these predictions in a wild population of the blue tit (Parus caeruleus), a species in which plumage coloration has been shown to be under sexual selection. Using 3 years of cross-fostering data from over 250 breeding attempts, we partition the covariance between parental coloration and aspects of nestling fitness into a genetic and environmental component. Contrary to indirect models of sexual selection, but in agreement with direct models, we show that variation in coloration is only weakly heritable h2<0.11, and that two components of offspring fitness-nestling size and fledgling recruitment-are strongly dependent on parental effects, rather than genetic effects. Furthermore, there was no evidence of significant positive genetic covariation between parental colour and offspring traits. Contrary to direct benefit models, however, we find little evidence that variation in colour reliably indicates the level of parental care provided by either males or females. Taken together, these results indicate that the assumptions of indirect models of sexual selection are not supported by the genetic basis of the traits reported on here.

  1. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  2. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  3. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-22

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  4. The Minicommunity Design to Assess Indirect Effects of Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We propose the minicommunity design to estimate indirect effects of vaccination. Establishing indirect effects of vaccination in unvaccinated subpopulations could have important implications for global vaccine policies. In the minicommunity design, the household or other small transmission unit serves as the cluster in which to estimate indirect effects of vaccination, similar to studies in larger communities to estimate indirect, total, and overall effects. Examples from the literature include studies in small transmission units to estimate indirect effects of pertussis, pneumococcal, influenza, and cholera vaccines. We characterize the minicommunity design by several methodologic considerations, including the assignment mechanism, ascertainment, the role of transmission outside the transmission unit, and the relation of the size of the transmission unit to number of people vaccinated. The minicommunity study for indirect effects is contrasted with studies to estimate vaccine effects on infectiousness and protective effects under conditions of household exposure within small transmission units. The minicommunity design can be easily implemented in individually randomized studies by enrolling and following-up members of households of the randomized individuals. The methodology for the minicommunity design for estimating indirect effects of vaccination deserves much future research. PMID:23599908

  5. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  6. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  7. Binding energies of indirect excitons in double quantum well systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossokhaty, Alex; Schmult, Stefan; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus; Kukushkin, Igor

    2011-03-01

    A prerequisite towards Bose-Einstein condensation is a cold and dense system of bosons. Indirect excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (DQWs) are believed to be suitable candidates. Indirect excitons are formed in asymmetric DQW structures by mass filtering, a method which does not require external electric fields. The exciton density and the electron-hole balance can be tuned optically. Binding energies are measured by a resonant microwave absorption technique. Our results show that screening of the indirect excitons becomes already relevant at densities as low as ~ 5 × 109 cm-2 and results in their destruction.

  8. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  9. NEW APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING INDIRECT PHOTOLYSIS RATES IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indirect photoreactions in aquatic environments are driven by reactive species, most of which are oxygen centered. Humic substances play an important role in photosensitizing the production of these reactive species, which include singlet molecular oxygen, superoxide ions, hydrog...

  10. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  11. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    PubMed

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  12. Three-person game facilitates indirect reciprocity under image scoring.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Eizo

    2007-11-01

    Reputation building plays an important role in the evolution of reciprocal altruism when the same individuals do not interact repeatedly because, by referring to reputation, a reciprocator can know which partners are cooperative and can reciprocate with a cooperator. This reciprocity based on reputation is called indirect reciprocity. Previous studies of indirect reciprocity have focused only on two-person games in which only two individuals participate in a single interaction, and have claimed that indirectly reciprocal cooperation cannot be established under image scoring reputation criterion where the reputation of an individual who has cooperated (defected) becomes good (bad). In this study, we specifically examine three-person games, and reveal that indirectly reciprocal cooperation can be formed and maintained stably, even under image scoring, by a nucleus shield mechanism. In the nucleus shield, reciprocators are a shield that keeps out unconditional defectors, whereas unconditional cooperators are the backbone of cooperation that retains a good reputation among the population.

  13. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    PubMed Central

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  14. Indirect Cost Recovery as an Issue of Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the debate over federal efforts to reduce indirect cost recovery in federal research grants to universities is outlined and discussed by a former university administrator involved in the policy's formation. (MSE)

  15. 3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport.

    PubMed

    OToole, Matthew; Mather, John; Kutulakos, Kiriakos N

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture.

  16. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets.

  17. Indirect impacts in Illinois from a renewable portfolio standard

    SciTech Connect

    Ohler, Adrienne M.; Radusewicz, Kristi

    2010-08-15

    Indirect impacts associated with Illinois' RPS include a change in the laws concerning the planning and zoning for wind development, a market for renewable energy credits, and awareness of problems with the transmission grid. (author)

  18. The interaction of direct and indirect risk selection.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Normann

    2015-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interaction of direct and indirect risk selection in health insurance markets. It is shown that direct risk selection - using measures unrelated to the benefit package like selective advertising or 'losing' applications of high risk individuals - nevertheless has an influence on the distortions of the benefit package caused by indirect risk selection. Direct risk selection (DRS) may either increase or decrease these distortions, depending on the type of equilibrium (pooling or separating), the type of DRS (positive or negative) and the type of cost for DRS (individual-specific or not). Regulators who succeed in reducing DRS by, e.g., banning excessive advertising or implementing fines for 'losing' applications, may therefore (unintendedly) mitigate or exacerbate the distortions of the benefit package caused by indirect risk selection. It is shown that the interaction of direct and indirect risk selection also alters the formula for optimal risk adjustment. PMID:25935738

  19. Indirect coupling between two cavity modes via ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Paul; Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally realize an indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet. We find that some indirectly coupled modes of this system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. The properties of the indirectly coupled modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. The relation between cavity transmission and the relative phase difference between cavity modes should be useful for developing tunable optical devices and improved information processing technologies.

  20. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  1. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully

  2. Cementation of indirect restorations: an overview of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Simon, James F

    2013-01-01

    The process of ensuring proper retention, marginal seal, and durability of indirect restorations depends heavily on effective cementation. Careful consideration must be made when selecting an adhesive cement for a given application. This article provides information on resin cements that can guide clinicians in determining which type of cement is best suited to their clinical needs regarding cementation of indirect restorations. Emphasis is placed on successful cementation of all-ceramic restorations.

  3. [Indirect immunofluorescence microtest in the determination of antirabies antibodies].

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, C; Pestalozza, S; Ciuchini, F

    1982-01-01

    The A.A. describe an indirect fluorescent antibody microtest for the rapid detection and titration of antirabies antibodies. Slides containing rabies antigen were prepared by planting 50% infected cells onto multiwelled teflon-coated slides. Following fixation, slides were stored at -20 degrees C until used. The indirect fluorescent antibody microtest was compared to the RFFIT in titration of sera containing rabies antibodies. The test was found to be rapid, easy and reliable.

  4. Disentangling direct and indirect fitness effects of microbial dormancy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hoverman, Mitchell; Travisano, Michael; Denison, R Ford

    2013-08-01

    Disentangling individual selection from kin selection is one of the greatest challenges of evolutionary biology. Even solitary organisms that do not interact directly with conspecifics may interact indirectly with them through competition for resources. As a result, traits that appear to affect individual fitness alone can also modify the fitness of relatives nearby and thus may evolve partially through these cryptic indirect fitness effects. Here we develop a method to quantitatively separate direct and indirect fitness consequences when some microbes become dormant, while neighbors of the same genotype remain active. Dormant microbes typically survive stresses that kill metabolically active cells, but dormancy also has a social side effect, sparing resources that may be used by nondormant individuals for growth. In structured populations, spared resources may be preferentially consumed by nondormant clonemates, providing an indirect benefit. Without population structure, however, exploitation by a never-dormant competitor imposes an indirect fitness cost on dormant cells. Cryptic indirect fitness effects may play a significant role in the evolution of many ostensibly asocial traits.

  5. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  6. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    PubMed

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  7. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  8. Trapping and transport of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuenschell, Jeffrey K.

    Spatially indirect excitons are optically generated composite bosons with a radiative lifetime sufficient to reach thermal equilibrium. This work explores the physics of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, specifically in the low-temperature, high-density regime. Particular attention is paid to a technique whereby a spatially inhomogeneous strain field is used as a trapping potential. In the process of modeling the trapping profile in wide quantum wells, dramatic effects due to intersubband coupling were observed at high strain. Experimentally, this regime coincides with the abrupt appearance of a dark population of indirect excitons at trap center, an effect originally suspected to be related to Bose-Einstein condensation. Here, the role of band mixing due to the strain-induced distortion of the crystal symmetry will be explored in detail in the context of this effect. Experimental studies presented here and in the literature suggest that Bose-Einstein condensation in indirect exciton systems may be difficult to detect with optical means (e.g., coherence measurements, momentum-space narrowing), possibly due to the strong dipole interaction between indirect excitons. Due to similarities between this system and liquid helium, it may be more fruitful to look for transport-related signatures of condensation, such as super fluidity. Here, a method for performing transport measurements on optically generated indirect excitons is also outlined and preliminary results are presented.

  9. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-03-24

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce γ rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for γ-ray spectral lines and γ-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  10. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-03-24

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce γ rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for γ-ray spectral lines and γ-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  11. Soil-mediated indirect impacts of an invasive predator on plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, David A.; Bellingham, Peter J.; Fukami, Tadashi; Bonner, Karen I.

    2012-01-01

    While several studies have shown that invasive plant effects on soil biota influence subsequent plant performance, corresponding studies on how invasive animals affect plants through influencing soil biota are lacking. This is despite the fact that invasive animals often indirectly alter the below-ground subsystem. We studied 18 offshore islands in northern New Zealand, half of which have been invaded by rats that are predators of seabirds and severely reduce their densities, and half of which remain non-invaded; invasion of rats thwarts seabird transfer of resources from ocean to land. We used soil from each island in a glasshouse experiment involving soil sterilization treatments to determine whether rat invasion indirectly influences plant growth through the abiotic pathway (by impairing seabird-driven inputs to soil) or the biotic pathway (by altering the soil community). Rat invasion greatly impaired plant growth but entirely through the abiotic pathway. Plant growth was unaffected by the soil community or its response to invasion, meaning that the responses of plants and soil biota to invasion are decoupled. Our results provide experimental evidence for the powerful indirect effects that predator-instigated cascades can exert on plant and ecosystem productivity, with implications for the restoration of island ecosystems by predator removal. PMID:22496079

  12. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses: A case of active manipulation?

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-07-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such "indirect defenses" can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation.

  13. Role of the Indirect Pathway of the Basal Ganglia in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Rubin, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in motor control, reinforcement learning, and perceptual decision making. Modeling and experimental evidence suggest that, in a speed–accuracy tradeoff, the corticostriatal pathway can adaptively adjust a decision threshold (the amount of information needed to make a choice). In this study, we go beyond the focus of previous works on the direct and hyperdirect pathways to examine the contribution of the indirect pathway of the BG system to decision making in a biophysically based spiking network model. We find that the mechanism of adjusting the decision threshold by plasticity of the corticostriatal connections is effective, provided that the indirect pathway counterbalances the direct pathway in their projections to the output nucleus. Furthermore, in our model, changes within basal ganglia connections similar to those that arise in parkinsonism give rise to strong beta oscillations. Specifically, beta oscillations are produced by an abnormal enhancement of the interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of globus pallidus (GPe) in the indirect pathway, with an oscillation frequency that depends on the excitatory cortical input to the STN and the inhibitory input to the GPe from the striatum. In a parkinsonian state characterized by pronounced beta oscillations, the mean reaction time and range of threshold variation (a measure of behavioral flexibility) are significantly reduced compared with the normal state. Our work thus reveals a specific circuit mechanism for impairments of perceptual decision making associated with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25740532

  14. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community. PMID:23951713

  15. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community.

  16. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Collet, M.; Goenaga, J.; Arnqvist, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes, which should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  17. The influence of maternal effects on indirect benefits associated with polyandry

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa M.; Bleakley, Bronwyn H.; Walling, Craig A.; Price, Thomas A. R.; Stamper, Clare E.; Moore, Allen J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous and diverse theoretical models for the indirect benefits of polyandry, empirical support is mixed. One reason for the difficulty in detecting indirect benefits of polyandry may be that these are subtle and are mediated by environmental effects, such as maternal effects. Maternal effects may be especially important if females allocate resources to their offspring depending on the characteristics of their mating partners. We test this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species that provides extensive and direct parental care to offspring. We used a fully factorial design and mated females to one, two, three, four or five different males and manipulated conditions so that their offspring received reduced (12 h) or full (ca 72 h) maternal care. We found that average offspring fitness increased with full maternal care but there was no significant effect of polyandry or the interaction between the duration of maternal care and the level of polyandry on offspring fitness. Thus, although polyandry could provide a mechanism for biasing paternity towards high quality or compatible males, and variation in parental care matters, we found no evidence that female N. vespilloides gain indirect benefits by using parental care to bias the allocation of resources under different mating conditions. PMID:20926439

  18. Evidence and Clinical Trials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Steven N.

    1989-11-01

    This dissertation explores the use of a mathematical measure of statistical evidence, the log likelihood ratio, in clinical trials. The methods and thinking behind the use of an evidential measure are contrasted with traditional methods of analyzing data, which depend primarily on a p-value as an estimate of the statistical strength of an observed data pattern. It is contended that neither the behavioral dictates of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing methods, nor the coherency dictates of Bayesian methods are realistic models on which to base inference. The use of the likelihood alone is applied to four aspects of trial design or conduct: the calculation of sample size, the monitoring of data, testing for the equivalence of two treatments, and meta-analysis--the combining of results from different trials. Finally, a more general model of statistical inference, using belief functions, is used to see if it is possible to separate the assessment of evidence from our background knowledge. It is shown that traditional and Bayesian methods can be modeled as two ends of a continuum of structured background knowledge, methods which summarize evidence at the point of maximum likelihood assuming no structure, and Bayesian methods assuming complete knowledge. Both schools are seen to be missing a concept of ignorance- -uncommitted belief. This concept provides the key to understanding the problem of sampling to a foregone conclusion and the role of frequency properties in statistical inference. The conclusion is that statistical evidence cannot be defined independently of background knowledge, and that frequency properties of an estimator are an indirect measure of uncommitted belief. Several likelihood summaries need to be used in clinical trials, with the quantitative disparity between summaries being an indirect measure of our ignorance. This conclusion is linked with parallel ideas in the philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.

  19. Evidence for the distribution of perchlorates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2016-10-01

    Various Mars missions have detected Cl atoms, chlorides and perchlorates in martian surface materials. The global soils, in particular, always contain significant levels of observable Cl. Direct evidence points to this Cl being in the form of both chlorides and perchlorates, and possibly also chlorates and other oxychlorines. The most widespread measurements have been of Cl atoms, and cannot discern the chemical form. However, from separate evidence of perchlorate obtained at high latitudes (Phoenix lander) and low latitudes (Curiosity rover), it is likely that perchlorates are widespread, albeit in varying proportions relative to the total amount of ubiquitous Cl.

  20. Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, T.; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, A.; Lohmann, U.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, A.; Feingold, G.; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, J. E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Y.; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, P.; Stier, P.; Grandey, B.; Feichter, J.; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, D.; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Lamarque, J. F.; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.

    2009-11-16

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated in the present study using three satellite datasets. The satellite datasets are taken as reference bearing in mind that cloud and aerosol retrievals include uncertainties. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (τa) and various cloud and radiation quantities consistently in models and satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over oceans. The relationship between τa and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to rep¬resentation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive re¬lationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and τa as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly in most of them. In a discussion of the hypo¬theses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld – τa relation¬ship, we find that none is unequivocally confirmed by our results. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between τa and cloud top tem¬perature and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - τa relationship show a strong positive cor¬relation between τa and cloud fraction. The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of τa, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the short

  1. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  2. Fertilizer management effects on nitrate leaching and indirect nitrous oxide emissions in irrigated potato production.

    PubMed

    Venterea, Rodney T; Hyatt, Charles R; Rosen, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    Potato ( L.) is a N-intensive crop, with high potential for nitrate (NO) leaching, which can contribute to both water contamination and indirect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Two approaches that have been considered for reducing N losses include conventional split application (CSA) of soluble fertilizers and single application of polymer-coated urea (PCU). The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare NO leaching using CSA and two PCUs (PCU-1 and PCU-2), which differed in their polymer formulations, and (ii) use measured NO leaching rates and published emissions factors to estimate indirect NO emissions. Averaged over three growing seasons (2007-2009), NO leaching rates were not significantly different among the three fertilizer treatments. Using previously reported direct NO emissions data from the same experiment, total direct plus indirect growing season NO emissions with PCU-1 were estimated to be 30 to 40% less than with CSA. However, PCU-1 also resulted in greater residual soil N after harvest in 2007 and greater soil-water NO in the spring following the 2008 growing season. These results provide evidence that single PCU applications for irrigated potato production do not increase growing season NO leaching compared with multiple split applications of soluble fertilizers, but have the potential to increase N losses after the growing season and into the following year. Estimates of indirect NO emissions ranged from 0.8 to 64% of direct emissions, depending on what value was assumed for the emission factor describing off-site conversion of NO to NO. Thus, our results also demonstrate how more robust models are needed to account for off-site conversion of NO to NO, since current emission factor models have an enormous degree of uncertainty. PMID:21712579

  3. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  4. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  5. Indirect effects of an exploited predator on recruitment of coral-reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Christopher D

    2008-08-01

    The more ecologists examine the role of trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), especially in regulating predator-prey interactions, the more we recognize their fundamental role in structuring food webs. However, most empirical evidence for TMIIs comes from studies that are either conducted in laboratory or mesocosm venues or are restricted to simple food webs involving lower trophic-level animals. Here, I quantified the direct and indirect effects of interactions between high-level vertebrate predators on their vertebrate prey using a field experiment. Specifically, I tested how varying densities of a large-bodied, top predator (Nassau grouper; Epinephelus striatus) affected persistence, growth, and behavior of two smaller-bodied, intermediate predators (coney and graysby groupers; Cephalopholis fulva and C. cruentata) on 20 isolated patch reefs in the Bahamas. Large-bodied groupers are capable of consuming their smaller-bodied counterparts, and previous observational studies have indicated that local abundances of these groupers are negatively correlated. I measured the effects of interactions among groupers on lower trophic-level prey by quantifying recruitment of coral-reef fishes to the reefs. The field experiment demonstrated a strong trophic cascade that was entirely mediated by modified behavior of the intermediate predators. These results indicate that indirect, nonlethal interactions in natural systems can have strong cascading effects even at high trophic levels and in high-diversity food webs. Incorporating the complexity of such indirect effects into fisheries management may improve the sustainability of fished populations and strengthen marine conservation efforts; however these results also indicate that the effects of fishing are complex and difficult to predict.

  6. Fertilizer management effects on nitrate leaching and indirect nitrous oxide emissions in irrigated potato production.

    PubMed

    Venterea, Rodney T; Hyatt, Charles R; Rosen, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    Potato ( L.) is a N-intensive crop, with high potential for nitrate (NO) leaching, which can contribute to both water contamination and indirect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Two approaches that have been considered for reducing N losses include conventional split application (CSA) of soluble fertilizers and single application of polymer-coated urea (PCU). The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare NO leaching using CSA and two PCUs (PCU-1 and PCU-2), which differed in their polymer formulations, and (ii) use measured NO leaching rates and published emissions factors to estimate indirect NO emissions. Averaged over three growing seasons (2007-2009), NO leaching rates were not significantly different among the three fertilizer treatments. Using previously reported direct NO emissions data from the same experiment, total direct plus indirect growing season NO emissions with PCU-1 were estimated to be 30 to 40% less than with CSA. However, PCU-1 also resulted in greater residual soil N after harvest in 2007 and greater soil-water NO in the spring following the 2008 growing season. These results provide evidence that single PCU applications for irrigated potato production do not increase growing season NO leaching compared with multiple split applications of soluble fertilizers, but have the potential to increase N losses after the growing season and into the following year. Estimates of indirect NO emissions ranged from 0.8 to 64% of direct emissions, depending on what value was assumed for the emission factor describing off-site conversion of NO to NO. Thus, our results also demonstrate how more robust models are needed to account for off-site conversion of NO to NO, since current emission factor models have an enormous degree of uncertainty.

  7. 77 FR 63804 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning Indirect Cost Rates. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Information Collection 9000- 0069, Indirect Cost Rates, by any of the following methods:...

  8. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  9. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation.

  10. Modified Habitats Influence Kelp Epibiota via Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Underwood, Antony J.; Coleman, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011

  11. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  12. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672

  13. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    PubMed

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Mach, Megan E; Martone, Rebecca G; Singh, Gerald G; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M A

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  14. Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Positive interactions among non-native species could greatly exacerbate the problem of invasions, but are poorly studied and our knowledge of their occurrence is mostly limited to plant-pollinator and dispersal interactions. We found that invasion of bullfrogs is facilitated by the presence of co-evolved non-native fish, which increase tadpole survival by reducing predatory macroinvertebrate densities. Native dragonfly nymphs in Oregon, USA caused zero survival of bullfrog tadpoles in a replicated field experiment unless a non-native sunfish was present to reduce dragonfly density. This pattern was also evident in pond surveys where the best predictors of bullfrog abundance were the presence of non-native fish and bathymetry. This is the first experimental evidence of facilitation between two non-native vertebrates and supports the invasional meltdown hypothesis. Such positive interactions among non-native species have the potential to disrupt ecosystems by amplifying invasions, and our study shows they can occur via indirect mechanisms.

  15. Direct and Indirect Influence of Altruistic Behavior in a Social Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Safin, Vasiliy; Yang, Barry; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that recipients of generosity behave more generously themselves (a direct social influence). In contrast, there is conflicting evidence about the existence of indirect influence (i.e., whether interacting with a recipient of generosity causes one to behave more generously), casting doubt on the possibility that altruistic behavior can cascade through social networks. The current study investigated how far selfish and generous behavior can be transmitted through social networks and the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such transmission. Participants played a sequence of public goods games comprising a chain network. This network is advantageous because it permits only a single, unambiguous path of influence. Furthermore, we experimentally manipulated the behavior of the first link in the chain to be either generous or selfish. Results revealed the presence of direct social influence, but no evidence for indirect influence. Results also showed that selfish behavior exerted a substantially greater influence than generous behavior. Finally, expectations about future partners' behavior strongly mediated the observed social influence, suggesting an adaptive basis for such influence. PMID:26469066

  16. Direct and Indirect Influence of Altruistic Behavior in a Social Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Safin, Vasiliy; Yang, Barry; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that recipients of generosity behave more generously themselves (a direct social influence). In contrast, there is conflicting evidence about the existence of indirect influence (i.e., whether interacting with a recipient of generosity causes one to behave more generously), casting doubt on the possibility that altruistic behavior can cascade through social networks. The current study investigated how far selfish and generous behavior can be transmitted through social networks and the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such transmission. Participants played a sequence of public goods games comprising a chain network. This network is advantageous because it permits only a single, unambiguous path of influence. Furthermore, we experimentally manipulated the behavior of the first link in the chain to be either generous or selfish. Results revealed the presence of direct social influence, but no evidence for indirect influence. Results also showed that selfish behavior exerted a substantially greater influence than generous behavior. Finally, expectations about future partners' behavior strongly mediated the observed social influence, suggesting an adaptive basis for such influence.

  17. Direct and Indirect Influence of Altruistic Behavior in a Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Safin, Vasiliy; Yang, Barry; Luhmann, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that recipients of generosity behave more generously themselves (a direct social influence). In contrast, there is conflicting evidence about the existence of indirect influence (i.e., whether interacting with a recipient of generosity causes one to behave more generously), casting doubt on the possibility that altruistic behavior can cascade through social networks. The current study investigated how far selfish and generous behavior can be transmitted through social networks and the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such transmission. Participants played a sequence of public goods games comprising a chain network. This network is advantageous because it permits only a single, unambiguous path of influence. Furthermore, we experimentally manipulated the behavior of the first link in the chain to be either generous or selfish. Results revealed the presence of direct social influence, but no evidence for indirect influence. Results also showed that selfish behavior exerted a substantially greater influence than generous behavior. Finally, expectations about future partners’ behavior strongly mediated the observed social influence, suggesting an adaptive basis for such influence. PMID:26469066

  18. A simple model for teaching postmortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Patrick E

    2009-05-01

    Although the ophthalmoscope was invented by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1851, pathologists until recently have relied almost exclusively on ocular enucleation to identify and describe postmortem fundal abnormalities. An inexpensive but valuable tool for forensic pathologists, the postmortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscope consists of a light source attached to a headband along with a hand-held lens. This permits a wide view of the fundus after death but the technique can be challenging to master for pathology residents and forensic pathology fellows. To facilitate skill acquisition in monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, a simple and inexpensive teaching model can be constructed from hinged, cylindrical plastic containers. An artificial pupil created in the lid and a removable color fundal image placed in the bottom of the opaque container allows the pathologist-in-training to practice the technique of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and correctly identify, localize, and describe fundal abnormalities such as retinal hemorrhages.

  19. Electric tuning of direct-indirect optical transitions in silicon.

    PubMed

    Noborisaka, J; Nishiguchi, K; Fujiwara, A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic band structures in semiconductors are uniquely determined by the constituent elements of the lattice. For example, bulk silicon has an indirect bandgap and it prohibits efficient light emission. Here we report the electrical tuning of the direct/indirect band optical transition in an ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) light-emitting diode. A special Si/SiO2 interface formed by high-temperature annealing that shows stronger valley coupling enables us to observe phononless direct optical transition. Furthermore, by controlling the gate field, its strength can be electrically tuned to 16 times that of the indirect transition, which is nearly 800 times larger than the weak direct transition in bulk silicon. These results will therefore assist the development of both complementary MOS (CMOS)-compatible silicon photonics and the emerging "valleytronics" based on the control of the valley degree of freedom. PMID:25377598

  20. Indirect evaporative cooler with condensation of primary airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Vollebregt, H.J.M.; Jong, T. de

    1994-12-31

    In this paper a new application for indirect evaporative cooling is introduced. This cooling principle may be used to cool and dehumidify closed greenhouses. A prototype indirect evaporative cooler with a crossflow configuration was built and its performance was determined in an experimental facility. During tests under Dutch design conditions of the greenhouse and outside air, the plate temperature was less than the dew point of the greenhouse air, so condensation occurred. The rates of sensible and latent heat transferred from the greenhouse air by the prototype cooler were determined. Also, the influence of greenhouse and outside air conditions and airflow rates in the cooler on the enthalpy efficiency was studied. Although the amount of condensation in the prototype indirect evaporative cooler was large, the resulting climate in a closed greenhouse may be more humid than that in a conventional one.

  1. Indirect aesthetic adhesive restoration with fibre-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Corona, S A M; Garcia, P P N S; Palma-Dibb, R G; Chimello, D T

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the restoration of an endodontically treated upper first molar with a fibre-reinforced onlay indirect composite resin restoration. The clinical and radiographic examination confirmed that the tooth had suffered considerable loss of structure. Therefore, an indirect restoration was indicated. First, a core was built with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, followed by onlay preparation, mechanical/chemical gingival retraction and impression with addition-cured silicone. After the laboratory phase, the onlay was tried in, followed by adhesive bonding and occlusal adjustment. It can be concluded that fibre-reinforced aesthetic indirect composite resin restoration represented, in the present clinical case, an aesthetic and conservative treatment option. However, the use of fibres should be more extensively studied to verify the real improvement in physical and mechanical properties.

  2. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  3. The direct/indirect composite resin veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fahl Júnior, N

    1996-09-01

    Veneer restorations are well suited for conservative and aesthetic improvement of the anterior dentition. Laboratory fabricated porcelain and composite resin veneers present optimal aesthetics and durability. Although there are disadvantages associated with direct bonding, it provides control of color and contour for the operator, particularly in the case of a single anterior central incisor. Direct/indirect composite resin veneers utilize the advantages of both direct and indirect techniques in reconstruction of restorations with improved physical properties. The learning objective of this article is to review the available composite resins, opaquers, and tints, and present a step-by-step protocol for predictable restoration of discolored anterior dentition with direct/indirect heat-treated composite resin veneers in a single appointment. Patient evaluation, preoperative aesthetic considerations, selection of the restorative composite resins, and the clinical procedure are discussed.

  4. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  5. The Optimal Dose of Nicardipine for Enhancement of Indirect Portography

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hironobu; Akaji, Hideyo

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the optimal dose of nicardipine (NCR) for enhancement of indirect portography. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent conventional film indirect portography via the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) first without and then with preinjection of 1/64-2 mg of NCR into the SMA. Results: NCR (1/8-2 mg) shortened the arterial phase to 50% and the portal appearance time to 60% of control without reflux of contrast medium into the aorta. Portal enhancement was excellent at doses of 1/32 mg or more. Blood pressures and pulse rate showed no significant change at 1/4 mg or less. Conclusion: NCR (1/8-1/4 mg) into the SMA is the optimal dose for achieving sufficient contrast enhancement on indirect portography while reducing the transit time of contrast medium and minimizing effects on the systemic circulation.

  6. Measuring indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Aisleen; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2016-08-17

    Widespread introduction of rotavirus vaccines has led to major reductions in the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide. Vaccine effectiveness is diminished, however, in low income countries, that harbour the greatest burden of rotavirus attributed morbidity and mortality. Indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine (herd immunity and herd protection) could increase population level impact and improve vaccine cost effectiveness in such settings. While rotavirus vaccine indirect effects have been demonstrated in high and middle income countries, there are very little data from low income countries where force of infection, population structures and vaccine schedules differ. Targeted efforts to evaluate indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries are required to understand the total impact of rotavirus vaccine on the global burden of rotavirus disease. PMID:27443593

  7. The application of artificial neural networks in indirect cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Estimating of the costs of construction project is one of the most important task in the management of the project. The total costs can be divided into direct costs that are related to executing the works, and indirect costs that accompany delivery. A precise costs estimation is usually a highly labour and time-intensive task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predicting index of indirect cost of construction projects in Poland. A quantitative study was undertaken on the factors conditioning indirect costs of polish construction projects and a determination was made of the actual costs incurred by enterprises during project implementation. As a result of these studies, a data set was assembled covering 72 real-life cases of building projects constructed in Poland.

  8. Electric tuning of direct-indirect optical transitions in silicon.

    PubMed

    Noborisaka, J; Nishiguchi, K; Fujiwara, A

    2014-11-07

    Electronic band structures in semiconductors are uniquely determined by the constituent elements of the lattice. For example, bulk silicon has an indirect bandgap and it prohibits efficient light emission. Here we report the electrical tuning of the direct/indirect band optical transition in an ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) light-emitting diode. A special Si/SiO2 interface formed by high-temperature annealing that shows stronger valley coupling enables us to observe phononless direct optical transition. Furthermore, by controlling the gate field, its strength can be electrically tuned to 16 times that of the indirect transition, which is nearly 800 times larger than the weak direct transition in bulk silicon. These results will therefore assist the development of both complementary MOS (CMOS)-compatible silicon photonics and the emerging "valleytronics" based on the control of the valley degree of freedom.

  9. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  10. Nitrofurantoin-induced interstitial pneumonitis: albeit rare, should not be missed.

    PubMed

    Syed, Haamid; Bachuwa, Ghassan; Upadhaya, Sunil; Abed, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a rare adverse effect of nitrofurantoin and can range from benign infiltrates to a fatal condition. Nitrofurantoin acts via inhibiting the protein synthesis in bacteria by helping reactive intermediates and is known to produce primary lung parenchymal injury through an oxidant mechanism. Stopping the drug leads to complete recovery of symptoms. In this report, we present a case of nitrofurantoin-induced ILD with the recovery of symptoms and disease process after stopping the drug. PMID:26912767

  11. Queer (v.) Queer (v.): Biology as Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Being albeit Queer (v.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadway, Francis S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to advance the purpose of education as creating a sustainable world yet to be imagined, educationally, queer (v.) queer (v.) expounds curriculum, pedagogy and being, which has roots in sexuality--the public face of the private confluence of sexuality, gender, race and class, are a necessary framework for queer. If queer is a complicated…

  12. Queer (v.) queer (v.): biology as curriculum, pedagogy, and being albeit queer (v.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, Francis S.

    2011-06-01

    In order to advance the purpose of education as creating a sustainable world yet to be imagined, educationally, queer (v.) queer (v.) expounds curriculum, pedagogy and being, which has roots in sexuality—the public face of the private confluence of sexuality, gender, race and class, are a necessary framework for queer. If queer is a complicated conversation of strangers' eros, then queer facilitates the creation of space, revolution and transformation. In other words, queer, for science education, is more than increasing and privileging the heteronormative and non-heteronormative science content that extends capitalism's hegemony, but rather science as the dignity, identity, and loving and caring of and by one's self and fellow human beings as strangers.

  13. Basaltic sand ripples at Eagle Crater as indirect evidence for the hysteresis effect in martian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhaq, H.; Kok, J. F.; Katra, I.

    2014-02-01

    The rover Opportunity documented small basaltic sand ripples at the bottom of Eagle Crater, Meridiani Planum on Mars. These ripples are composed of fine basaltic sand (˜100 μm diameter) and their average wavelength and height are 10 cm and 1 cm, respectively. Present theories on the transition between saltation and suspension predict that such light particles are suspended by turbulence at the fluid threshold, which is the minimum wind speed required to initiate saltation. Consequently, the existence of these ˜100 μm ripples on Mars indicates that either current suspension theories are incorrect, or that saltation can take place at wind speeds substantially below the fluid threshold. Indeed, recent studies point to the occurrence of hysteresis in martian saltation. That is, once initiated, hysteresis can be maintained at much lower wind speeds than the fluid threshold. We investigated the possible role of hysteresis in the formation of fine-grained ripples on Mars by coupling, for the first time, a detailed numerical saltation model (COMSALT) with a dynamic model for sand ripple formation. The results from the coupled model indicate that ripples with properties similar to those observed at Eagle Crater can be developed by the impact mechanism at shear velocities far below the fluid threshold. These findings are consistent with the occurrence of hysteresis in martian saltation, and support the hypothesis that hysteresis plays a role in the surprisingly large sand mobility observed at several locations on Mars.

  14. Uncovering the Richness of the Stimulus: Structure Dependence and Indirect Statistical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2005-01-01

    The poverty of stimulus argument is one of the most controversial arguments in the study of language acquisition. Here we follow previous approaches challenging the assumption of impoverished primary linguistic data, focusing on the specific problem of auxiliary (AUX) fronting in complex polar interrogatives. We develop a series of corpus analyses…

  15. Indirect evidences for a gas/dust torus along the PHOBOS orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E. M.; Lundin, R.; Pissarenko, N. F.; Barabash, S. V.; Zakharov, A. V.; Koskinen, H.; Schwingenshuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.

    1990-05-01

    Observations from the Phobos-2 spacecraft of plasma and magnetic field effects in the solar wind near Mars suggest that a neutral gas torus/ring resides along the orbit of the Martian satellite Phobos. Strong decreases of the magnetic field strength coincident with strong plasma density increases are observed during the first elliptic transition orbits when the spacecraft approached the Phobos orbits. 'Torus effects' also have characteristics similar to the formation of a bow shock with increases of plasma density and ion temperature, and a characteristic deflection of the ion flow. This suggests a rather strong interaction between the solar wind plasma and plasma near Phobos orbit, similar to that of the solar wind with a comet.

  16. Indirect evidences for a gas/dust torus along the Phobos orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, E.M.; Lundin, R.; Pissarenko, N.F.; Barabash, S.V.; Zakharov, A.V.; Koskinen, H.; Schwingenshuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye.G. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsink Austrian Space Research Institute, Graz Institute of Terrestrial Magnetizm, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Moscow )

    1990-05-01

    Observations from the PHOBOS-2 space-craft of plasma and magnetic field effects in the solar wind near Mars suggest that a neutral gas (dust )torus/ring resides along the orbit of the Martian satellite Phobos. Magnetic cavities (strong decreases of the magnetic field strength) coincident with strong plasma density increases (up to a factor of ten) are observed during the first elliptic transition orbits when the spacecraft approached the Phobos orbits. The characteristic transverse dimension of the structures along the spacecraft orbit is in the range 100-1,000 km. Torus effects also have characteristics similar to the formation of a bow shock with increases of plasma density and ion temperature, and a characteristic deflection of the ion flow. This suggests a rather strong interaction between the solar wind plasma and plasma near Phobos orbit. The interaction appears quite similar to that of the solar wind with a comet. The outgassing of matter from Phobos (and Deimos) is also suggested by plasma observations in the wake/tail of the Martian satellites. Altogether, the authors observations imply that a neutral gas cloud - possibly also associated with a faint dust ring - exists along the Phobos orbit.

  17. Indirect evidence of intravesical ureterocele on 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepa; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Misra, Ritu; Ali, Md Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Ureterocele is a common ureteric anomaly detected in pediatric population. Ureterocele diagnosis and evaluation need a variety of radiological methods. We report a case of 5-year-old female child sent for 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate and excretory function of kidneys in view of right-sided hydroureteronephrosis and pyonephrosis with percutaneous tube in situ. Incidental photopenia was noted in the urinary bladder. On ultrasonography of abdomen cause of this photopenia was found to be an intravesical ureterocele. PMID:27095867

  18. Lexical Selection Is Competitive: Evidence from Indirectly Activated Semantic Associates during Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm,…

  19. Gene--Environment Interplay and Delinquent Involvement: Evidence of Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research has revealed that biogenic factors play a role in the development of antisocial behaviors. Much of this research has also explicated the way in which the environment and genes may combine to create different phenotypes. The authors draw heavily from this literature and use data from the National Longitudinal Study of…

  20. Indirect evidence for structural changes coupled with QB-. formation in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Reifarth, F; Renger, G

    1998-05-29

    The thermal blockage of QA-. oxidation was analysed in PS II membrane fragments by monitoring flash-induced changes of the relative fluorescence quantum yield as a function of temperature. The results obtained reveal: (a) in dark-adapted samples the fraction of QA-. that is not reoxidised within a time domain of 10 s after the actinic flash increases with lowering the temperature (half-maximum effect at 250-260 K), (b) at low temperatures where QA-. generated in dark-adapted samples remains almost completely reduced, a significant extent of QA-. reoxidation arises when samples are used that were preilluminated at room temperature by one saturating flash followed by rapid freezing before performing the experiment, and (c) the extent of QA-. that is reoxidised at 258 K exhibits a characteristic binary oscillation as a function of the number of preillumination flashes given at room temperature. Based on these data it is inferred that QB and QB-. are located at different equilibrium positions in the QB site. As a consequence the formation of QB-. is coupled with significant structural changes that require sufficient flexibility of the protein matrix. This general feature corresponds with a recently proposed model for the acceptor side reactions of anoxygenic bacteria [Stowell, M.H.B., McPhillips, T.M., Rees, D.C., Soltis, S.M., Abresch, E. and Feher, G., Science 276 (1997) 812-816].

  1. Direct and indirect evidence of size-selective grazing on pelagic bacteria by freshwater nanoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Simek, K; Chrzanowski, T H

    1992-11-01

    Size-selective grazing of three heterotrophic nanoflagellates (with cell sizes of 21, 44, and 66 mum) isolated from Lake Arlington, Texas was examined by using a natural mixture of fluorescence labelled lake bacteria. Sizes of ingested bacteria in food vacuoles were directly measured. Larger bacterial cells were ingested at a frequency much higher than that at which they occurred in the assemblage, indicating preferential flagellate grazing on the larger size classes within the lake bacterioplankton. Water samples were collected biweekly from June through September, 1989, fractionated by filtration, and incubated for 40 h at in situ temperatures. The average bacterial size was always larger in water which was passed through 1-mum-pore-size filters (1-mum-filtered water) (which was predator free) than in 5-mum-filtered water (which contained flagellates only) or in unfiltered water (in which all bacterivores were present). The increase of bacterial-cell size in 1-mum-filtered water was caused by a shift in the size structure of the bacterioplankton population. Larger cells became more abundant in the absence of flagellate grazing.

  2. Indirect evidence that ultraviolet-B radiation mitigates multiple sclerosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Davis, George E; Lowell, Walter E

    2015-10-01

    This article describes on the relationship of the relative prevalence of persons dying with multiple sclerosis with the latitude of the population centroid of those affected in each of the United States. Regression to zero prevalence occurs at the Tropic of Cancer, the latitude where the Sun is at zenith on the summer solstice and where ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is least attenuated. This observation supports UVR as a mitigating force in multiple sclerosis.

  3. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  4. The Plasma Permeability Factor in Nephrotic Syndrome: Indirect Evidence in Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Azocar, Marta; Quiroz, Lily; Delucchi, Angela; Dinamarca, Hector; Emilfork, Marcos; Cano, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children has been associated with a systemic circulating permeability factor. Therefore, once peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been started, peritoneal protein losses should be higher in the nephrotic than in the non-nephrotic population. ♦ Objective: We compared peritoneal protein losses in children with and without NS on PD. ♦ Methods: Our retrospective 4-year study analyzed Hispanic patients with NS under PD. Data at dialysis entry and 6 months later were compared. Nutritional support was given according to recommended dietary allowances and recommendations from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained, and 24-hour dialysate and urine samples were collected to measure protein losses. Dialysis dose (Kt/V), daily protein intake (DPI), normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA), peritoneal equilibration test (PET), and peritonitis rate were determined. All measurements took place at least 4 weeks after resolution of a peritonitis episode. All patients received automated PD using a HomeChoice PD System cycler (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA), with an exchange volume of 1100 mL/m2 and a dextrose concentration of 1.5% - 2.5%. A control group of non-NS children on PD matched by age and sex were also studied. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. Differences between groups were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. ♦ Results: Each study group consisted of 10 patients [NS patients: 4 boys, mean age of 7.3 ± 4.1 years; control patients: 6 boys, mean age of 7.2 ± 4.7 years (p = nonsignificant)]. In the group with NS, 8 patients were diagnosed by biopsy as having focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and 2 as having minimal-change disease. At study entry, patients with NS had hourly urinary protein losses of 398 ± 313 mg/m2 and daily peritoneal protein losses of 3.4 ± 1.9 g/m2, compared with 29.9 ± 31 mg/m2 and 1.5 ± 1.1 g/m2 respectively in the control group (p < 0.05). The same statistical difference was found 6 months later. We observed no statistical differences in PET results, daily exchange volume, and mean dextrose concentration of dialysate. Similarly, no significant between-group differences were observed for Kt/V, DPI, nPNA, and biochemical parameters. ♦ Conclusions: Hispanic children with NS on PD show higher peritoneal protein losses than do their control counterparts. Such differences could be secondary to increased peritoneal permeability caused by a systemic permeability factor. PMID:22473035

  5. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  6. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux. PMID:26157498

  7. Improved direct and indirect systems of columns for ternary distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T.

    1998-04-01

    Separation of a ternary mixture into almost pure components is discussed. Systems of distillation columns, with higher thermodynamic efficiency, are developed from a direct sequence (or indirect sequence) of distillation columns by allowing for two interconnecting streams of the same composition and different enthalpy. This increases the reversibility of distillation in the second column, which results in replacing a portion of the high-temperature boiling duty with a lower-temperature heat in the direct split case. For the indirect split case, the improvement allows a portion of the low-temperature condensing duty to be replaced with a higher-temperature condensation.

  8. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux.

  9. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations.

  10. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  11. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Aronzon, B. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Kugel, K. I.; Tripathi, V.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  12. Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P

    2011-01-01

    Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

  13. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  14. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment of indirect costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement...

  15. Entrainment, Drizzle, and the Indirect Effect in Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Activation of some fraction of increased concentrations of sub-micron soluble aerosol particles lead to enhanced cloud droplet concentrations and hence smaller droplets, increasing their total cross sectional area and thus reflecting solar radiation more efficiently (the Twomey, or first indirect, effect). However, because of competition during condensational growth, droplet distributions tend to broaden as numbers increase, reducing the sensitivity of cloud albedo to droplet concentration on the order of 10%. Also, smaller droplets less effectively produce drizzle through collisions and coalescence, and it is widely expected (and found in large-scale models) that decreased precipitation leads to clouds with more cloud water on average (the so-called cloud lifetime, or second indirect, effect). Much of the uncertainty regarding the overall indirect aerosol effect stems from inadequate understanding of such changes in cloud water. Detailed simulations based on FIRE-I, ASTEX, and DYCOMS-II conditions show that suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations leads to increased cloud water only when sufficient precipitation reaches the surface, a condition favored when the overlying air is-humid or droplet concentrations are very low. Otherwise, aerosol induced suppression of precipitation enhances entrainment of overlying dry air, thereby reducing cloud water and diminishing the indirect climate forcing.

  16. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  17. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  18. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  19. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  20. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  1. Direct and Indirect ENSO Influences on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the strongest signals in the tropics and imposes large influences on climate in many regions, such as the Indian summer monsoon, central American precipitation, and the South China Sea precipitation. ENSO affects regional climate variability both directly and indirectly. The direct influence is through concurrent atmospheric circulation response to anomalous heating associated with equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies. The indirect influence is by first inducing regional SST anomalies through the so-called "atmospheric bridge" and then atmospheric circulation response to the regional SST anomalies. Previous studies are either focused on the direct influence of ENSO via concurrent atmospheric change or the indirect influence of ENSO via regional SST anomalies. In this talk, the presenter will distinguish the direct and indirect influences of ENSO and demonstrate how the two types of influences may play together in leading to regional climate variability. Summer climate anomalies in three regions will be used for illustration: the Indian summer monsoon, central American summer precipitation, and the South China Sea summer precipitation.

  2. Indirect Language Stimulation (ILS): AAC Techniques To Promote Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boose, Martha A.; Stinnett, Tessa

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that used indirect language stimulation techniques and modeling to encourage language development in a 5-year-old child with cerebral palsy. Initially, the student's communication system had very severe limitations. He used fewer than 10 spoken words which were unintelligible to most listeners. Both…

  3. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Indirect Complaint among Japanese ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This interlanguage pragmatics study of linguistic expressions of affect focuses on how Japanese learners of English may express themselves in an affect-laden speech act of indirect complaint. The English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' data are compared with the baseline data of native speakers of Japanese (JJ) and American English (AA). The…

  4. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... change any monetary ceiling, contract obligation, or specific cost allowance or disallowance provided for... Cost Rates. 52.216-15 Section 52.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.216-15 Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates. As prescribed in 16.307(g), insert the...

  5. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... change any monetary ceiling, contract obligation, or specific cost allowance or disallowance provided for... Cost Rates. 52.216-15 Section 52.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.216-15 Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates. As prescribed in 16.307(g), insert the...

  6. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... change any monetary ceiling, contract obligation, or specific cost allowance or disallowance provided for... Cost Rates. 52.216-15 Section 52.216-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.216-15 Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates. As prescribed in 16.307(g), insert the...

  7. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  8. A Target Indirect Thrust Measurement Method of Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiqiao; Xiong, Yuefei; Li, Chao; Zheng, Longxi; Li, Qing

    2015-05-01

    An indirect thrust measurement method based on impulse of a target plate was developed, and a new thrust measurement system (TMS) was successfully designed and constructed. A series of multi-cycle experiments on thrust measurement were conducted to investigate the feasibility of this method with the newly-built indirect TMS. The thrust measurement of PDE was made at different plate target axial positions and operating frequencies. All the experiments were conducted using gasoline as fuel and air as oxidant. The experimental results implied that the thrust of PDE by using the indirect impulse method was a function of the target plate axial position, and there existed an optimum measurement position for PDE with a diameter of 60 mm. The optimum target plate position located at 3.33. According to the experimental results, the thrusts obtained by using indirect TMS were less than the actual values, and so the observed value of thrust was modified in order to make the thrust more reliable. A relative accurate calibration formula depending on the operating frequency was found.

  9. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or antagonistic. A…

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  11. 34 CFR 75.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at 34 CFR 74.27; (3) Other nonprofit organizations, at 34 CFR 74.27; (4) Commercial (for-profit) organizations, at 34 CFR 74... CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have obtained a current indirect cost rate agreement from its...

  12. 34 CFR 75.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at 34 CFR 74.27; (3) Other nonprofit organizations, at 34 CFR 74.27; (4) Commercial (for-profit) organizations, at 34 CFR 74... CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have obtained a current indirect cost rate agreement from its...

  13. 34 CFR 75.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at 34 CFR 74.27; (3) Other nonprofit organizations, at 34 CFR 74.27; (4) Commercial (for-profit) organizations, at 34 CFR 74... CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have obtained a current indirect cost rate agreement from its...

  14. 34 CFR 75.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at 34 CFR 74.27; (3) Other nonprofit organizations, at 34 CFR 74.27; (4) Commercial (for-profit) organizations, at 34 CFR 74... CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have obtained a current indirect cost rate agreement from its...

  15. 34 CFR 75.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at 34 CFR 74.27; (3) Other nonprofit organizations, at 34 CFR 74.27; (4) Commercial (for-profit) organizations, at 34 CFR 74... CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have obtained a current indirect cost rate agreement from its...

  16. Toward Universal Definitions for Direct and Indirect Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeck, Matt; Bacon, Don

    2015-01-01

    The absence of universally accepted definitions for direct and indirect assessment motivates the purpose of this article: to offer definitions that are literature-based and theoretically driven, meeting K. Lewin's (1945) dictum that, "There is nothing so practical as a good theory" (p. 129). The authors synthesize the literature to…

  17. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs. 1552.242-70 Section 1552.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES... Protection Agency, Chief, Cost Policy and Rate Negotiation Branch (3804F), Cost Advisory and...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs. 1552.242-70 Section 1552.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES... Protection Agency, Chief, Cost Policy and Rate Negotiation Branch (3804F), Cost Advisory and...

  19. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs. 1552.242-70 Section 1552.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND... Protection Agency, Chief, Cost Policy and Rate Negotiation Branch (3804F), Cost Advisory and...

  20. 48 CFR 342.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 342.705 Section 342.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACT... and local governments, colleges and universities, hospitals, and other nonprofit organizations....

  1. 12 CFR 1.100 - Indirect general obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect general obligations. 1.100 Section 1... to make sufficient funds available for all required payments in connection with the obligation. (b... available funds, are sufficient for the timely payment of interest on, and principal of, the...

  2. Indirect orbital floor fractures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mithra O; Durairaj, Vikram D

    2010-04-01

    Orbit fractures are common in the context of orbital trauma. Fractures of the orbital floor without orbital rim involvement are known as indirect orbital floor fractures, pure internal floor fractures, and orbital blowout fractures. In this paper, we have reported a meta-analysis of orbital floor fractures focusing on indications and timing of surgical repair, outcomes, and complications. PMID:20616920

  3. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  4. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  5. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  6. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  7. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  8. Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Mena, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed here that a biphasic life cycle with partial dedifferentiation of intermediate juvenile or larval stages represents the mainstream developmental mode of metazoans. Developmental plasticity of differentiated cells is considered the essential characteristic of indirect development, rather than the exclusive development of the adult from ‘set-aside’ cells. Many differentiated larval cells of indirect developers resume proliferation, partially dedifferentiate and contribute to adult tissues. Transcriptional pluripotency of differentiated states has premetazoan origins and seems to be facilitated by histone variant H2A.Z. Developmental plasticity of differentiated states also facilitates the evolution of polyphenism. Uncertainty remains about whether the most recent common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes was a direct or an indirect developer, and how the feeding larvae of bilaterians are related to non-feeding larvae of sponges and cnidarians. Feeding ciliated larvae of bilaterians form their primary gut opening by invagination, which seems related to invagination in cnidarians. Formation of the secondary gut opening proceeds by protostomy or deuterostomy, and gene usage suggests serial homology of the mouth and anus. Indirect developers do not use the Hox vector to build their ciliated larvae, but the Hox vector is associated with the construction of the reproductive portion of the animal during feeding-dependent posterior growth. It is further proposed that the original function of the Hox cluster was in gonad formation rather than in anteroposterior diversification. PMID:20083640

  9. Direct indirect mixed implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.

    2007-07-01

    In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study, a direct-indirect mixture implosion mode is proposed and discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the center of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of ˜20 μm was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of ˜100 μm was allowable. In the direct-indirect mixture mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect mixture target. Our simulation results present that a large pellet displacement of approximately a few hundred microns is allowed in order to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF.

  10. 48 CFR 342.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 342.705 Section 342.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACT... necessary, fringe benefit, computer, and other special costing rates for use in contracts awarded to...

  11. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  12. Determining Indirect Cost Rates in Research Libraries. SPEC Kit 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This kit prepared by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains 15 primary source documents on determining indirect cost rates in research libraries. The kit comprises: (1) six library cost studies and surveys, "Allocation of Library Expenditures to Research and Instruction" (University of Pennsylvania), "Sampling of Current Monograph…

  13. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  14. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  15. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  16. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  17. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  19. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  20. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  1. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Indirect cost rates. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following... 2016.307-70(b)(2), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in applicable solicitations... at 2016.307-70(b), the contracting officer may insert the following clause in...

  2. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  3. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period....

  4. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period....

  5. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period....

  6. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  7. 7 CFR 3401.5 - Indirect costs and tuition remission costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect costs and tuition remission costs. 3401.5... General § 3401.5 Indirect costs and tuition remission costs. Pursuant to section 1473 of the National... for indirect costs or tuition remission costs. Since indirect costs and tuition remission...

  8. Indirect Aggression and Victimization Are Positively Associated in Emerging Adulthood: The Psychological Functioning of Indirect Aggressors and Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Lester, David

    2011-01-01

    A study of 106 undergraduate students found that scores on measures of indirect aggression, both as aggressors and as victims, given to separate respondents, were associated with scores on measures of anger discomfort, silencing the self, and subscales of the Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (1957). A second study, of 113 undergraduate…

  9. Evaluating the aerosol first indirect effect using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hongfei

    First proposed by Twomey, the aerosol first indirect effect hypothesizes that increased aerosol concentration leads to a larger number of cloud condensation nuclei, and therefore smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which results in greater reflection of incoming solar radiation. It is known that this phenomenon has a net effect to cool the Earth radiatively and offset a substantial amount of the warming caused by the increasing of greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of this effect has been very uncertain. For example, discrepancies of more than a factor of 2 have been reported among various observational results. This uncertainty is a major hurdle in advancing our understanding of how humans have altered, and may in the future alter the Earth's climate. One of the difficulties in deriving the magnitude of this effect from observational data arises from the fact that the aerosol abundance often varies coherently with meteorological conditions, which makes it extremely hard to distinguish between the changes in cloud microphysical parameters caused by varying aerosol concentration and by varying meteorological conditions. Therefore, the goal of this study is to find a reliable method to extract the real strength and to narrow the uncertainty in the estimates of the indirect radiative effect of aerosols. To achieve this goal, first, a satellite visible/near-infrared algorithm is developed to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius simultaneously at solar wavelengths (0.63 and 1.61 mum), and a satellite microwave algorithm is developed to retrieve liquid water path in the microwave range (19 and 37 GHz). Using these algorithm we derive cloud microphysical variables in relation to the aerosol first indirect effect. Second, a drizzle index is introduced to discriminate the drizzle clouds from non-drizzle clouds from satellite, which ensures our estimation of the first indirect effect not being contaminated by precipitation related processes. Third

  10. The evolution of preference strength under sensory bias: a role for indirect selection?

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Alicia M; Servedio, Maria R

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that female preferences may sometimes arise through sensory bias, and that males may subsequently evolve traits that increase their conspicuousness to females. Here, we ask whether indirect selection, arising through genetic associations (linkage disequilibrium) during the sexual selection that sensory bias imposes, can itself influence the evolution of preference strength. Specifically, we use population genetic models to consider whether or not modifiers of preference strength can spread under different ecological conditions when female mate choice is driven by sensory bias. We focus on male traits that make a male more conspicuous in certain habitats—and thus both more visible to predators and more attractive to females—and examine modifiers of the strength of preference for conspicuous males. We first solve for the rate of spread of a modifier that strengthens preference within an environmentally uniform population; we illustrate that this spread will be extremely slow. Second, we used a series of simulations to consider the role of habitat structure and movement on the evolution of a modifier of preference strength, using male color polymorphisms as a case study. We find that in most cases, indirect selection does not allow the evolution of stronger or weaker preferences for sensory bias. Only in a “two-island” model, where there is restricted migration between different patches that favor different male phenotypes, did we find that preference strength could evolve. The role of indirect selection in the evolution of sensory bias is of particular interest because of ongoing speculation regarding the role of sensory bias in the evolution of reproductive isolation. PMID:22957163

  11. Evidence for a bound H-dibaryon using lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Will Detmold

    2012-04-01

    The H-dibaryon, a J = 0 state with the valence quark content udsuds, has long been hypothesized to exist because of the attractive nature of color magnetic gluon exchange in the flavor- singlet channel. Using lattice QCD the NPLQCD collaboration have investigated this system and evidence is presented for the existence of a stable H-dibaryon, albeit at a quark mass somewhat larger than that in nature. This calculation is reviewed and combined with subsequent calculations by the HALQCD collaboration at the SU(3) flavor symmetric point to identify bounds on the H-dibaryon mass at the physical quark masses.

  12. Patterns of indirect protein interactions suggest a spatial organization to metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; McLysaght, Aoife; Conant, Gavin C

    2011-11-01

    It has long been believed that cells organize their cytoplasm so as to efficiently channel metabolites between sequential enzymes. This metabolic channeling has the potential to yield higher metabolic fluxes as well as better regulatory control over metabolism. One mechanism for achieving such channeling is to ensure that sequential enzymes in a pathway are physically close to each other in the cell. We present evidence that indirect protein interactions between related enzymes represent a global mechanism for achieving metabolic channeling; the intuition being that protein interactions between enzymes and non-enzymatic mediator proteins are a powerful means of physically associating enzymes in a modular fashion. By analyzing the metabolic and protein-protein interactions networks of Escherichia coli, yeast and humans, we are able to show that all three species have many more indirect protein interactions linking enzymes that share metabolites than would be expected by chance. Moreover, these interactions are distributed non-randomly in the metabolic network. Our analyses in yeast and E. coli show that reactions possessing such interactions also show higher flux than do those lacking them. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that an important role of protein interactions with mediator proteins is to contribute to the spatial organization of the cell. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that these mediator proteins are also enriched with annotations related to signal transduction, a system where scaffolding proteins are known to limit cross-talk by controlling spatial localization.

  13. Cardiac injury after 10 gy total body irradiation: indirect role of effects on abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Lam, Vy; Jensen, Eric; Fish, Brian L; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Komorowski, Richard A; Harmann, Leanne; Migrino, Raymond Q; Li, X Allen; Hopewell, John W; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced injury to the heart after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) is direct or indirect. Young male WAG/RijCmcr rats received a 10 Gy single dose using TBI, upper hemi-body (UHB) irradiation, lower hemi-body (LHB) irradiation, TBI with the kidneys shielded or LHB irradiation with the intestines shielded. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. The lipid profile, kidney injury, heart and liver morphology and cardiac function were determined up to 120 days after irradiation. LHB, but not UHB irradiation, increased the risk factors for cardiac disease as well as the occurrence of cardiac and kidney injury in a way that was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed after TBI. Shielding of the kidneys prevented the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. Shielding of the intestines did not prevent the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. There was no histological evidence of liver injury 120 days after irradiation. Injury to the heart from irradiation appears to be indirect, supporting the notion that injury to abdominal organs, principally the kidneys, is responsible for the increased risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after TBI and LHB irradiation.

  14. The mechanisms of action of flavonoids in the brain: Direct versus indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Rhodes, Justin S; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-01

    The projected increase in the incidence of dementia in the population highlights the urgent need for a more comprehensive understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle, in particular exercise and diet, may affect neural function and consequent cognitive performance throughout the life course. In this regard, flavonoids, found in a variety of fruits, vegetables and derived beverages, have been identified as a group of promising bioactive compounds capable of influencing different aspects of brain function, including cerebrovascular blood flow and synaptic plasticity, both resulting in improvements in learning and memory in mammalian species. However, the precise mechanisms by which flavonoids exert these actions are yet to be fully established, although accumulating data indicate an ability to interact with neuronal receptors and kinase signaling pathways which are key to neuronal activation and communication and synaptic strengthening. Alternatively or concurrently, there is also compelling evidence derived from human clinical studies suggesting that flavonoids can positively affect peripheral and cerebrovascular blood flow, which may be an indirect effective mechanism by which dietary flavonoids can impact on brain health and cognition. The current review examines the beneficial effects of flavonoids on both human and animal brain function and attempts to address and link direct and indirect actions of flavonoids and their derivatives within the central nervous system (CNS).

  15. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-11-06

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  16. Linking mother and youth parenting attitudes: indirect effects via maltreatment, parent involvement, and youth functioning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard; Jones, Deborah J; Litrownik, Alan J; English, Diana J; Kotch, Jonathan B; Lewis, Terri; Dubowitz, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting attitudes are transmitted within families. However, limited research has examined this prospectively. The current prospective study examined direct effects of early maternal attitudes toward parenting (as measured at child age 4 by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory [AAPI]) on later youth parenting attitudes (as measured by the AAPI at youth age 18). Indirect effects via child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment), parent involvement, and youth functioning (internalizing and externalizing problems) were also assessed. Analyses were conducted on data from 412 families enrolled in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). There were significant direct effects for three of the four classes of mother parenting attitudes (appropriate developmental expectations of children, empathy toward children, and appropriate family roles) on youth attitudes but not for rejection of punishment. In addition, the following indirect effects were obtained: Mother expectations influenced youth expectations via neglect; mother empathy influenced youth empathy via both parental involvement and youth externalizing problems; and mother rejection of punishment influenced youth rejection of punishment via youth internalizing problems. None of the child or family process variables, however, affected the link between mother and youth attitudes about roles.

  17. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin. PMID:25373416

  18. Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: Aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20th century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. ``warming hole''). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the ``warming hole''. We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed ``warming hole'' can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  19. Linking Mother and Youth Parenting Attitudes: Indirect Effects via Maltreatment, Parent Involvement, and Youth Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard; Jones, Deborah J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Lewis, Terri; Dubowitz, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting attitudes are transmitted within families. However, limited research has examined this prospectively. The current prospective study examined direct effects of early maternal attitudes toward parenting (as measured at child age 4 by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory [AAPI]) on later youth parenting attitudes (as measured by the AAPI at youth age 18). Indirect effects via child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment), parent involvement, and youth functioning (internalizing and externalizing problems) were also assessed. Analyses were conducted on data from 412 families enrolled in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). There were significant direct effects for three of the four classes of mother parenting attitudes (appropriate developmental expectations of children, empathy toward children, and appropriate family roles) on youth attitudes but not for rejection of punishment. In addition, the following indirect effects were obtained: Mother expectations influenced youth expectations via neglect; mother empathy influenced youth empathy via both parental involvement and youth externalizing problems; and mother rejection of punishment influenced youth rejection of punishment via youth internalizing problems. None of the child or family process variables, however, affected the link between mother and youth attitudes about roles. PMID:25113632

  20. Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: Aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20th century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. “warming hole”). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the “warming hole”. We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed “warming hole” can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin. PMID:25373416

  1. Mass spectrometric studies of SiO2 deposition in an indirect plasma enhanced LPCVD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.; Mcconica, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the low temperature deposition of SiO2 from silane and indirect plasma-excited oxygen-nitrogen mixtures are proposed based on experimental evidence gained from mass spectrometry in an indirect plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber. It was observed that about 80-85 percent of the silane was oxidized to byproduct hydrogen and only about 15-20 percent to water. Such conversion levels have led us to interpret that silanol (SiH3OH) could be the precursor for SiO2 film deposition, rather than siloxane /(SiH3)2O/ which has generally been cited in the literature. From mass spectrometry, we have also shown the effects of the plasma, and of mixing small amounts of N2 with the oxygen flow, in increasing the deposition rate of SiO2. Free radical reaction of nitric oxide, synthesized from the reaction of oxygen and nitrogen in the plasma chamber, and an *ncrease in atomic oxygen concentration, are believed to be the reasons for these SiO2 deposition rate increases. Through mass spectrometry we have, in addition, been able to identify products, presumably originating from terminating reactions, among a sequence of chemical reactions proposed for the deposition of SiO2.

  2. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  3. Weighting and indirect effects identify keystone species in food webs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Huayong; O'Gorman, Eoin J; Tian, Wang; Ma, Athen; Moore, John C; Borrett, Stuart R; Woodward, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Species extinctions are accelerating globally, yet the mechanisms that maintain local biodiversity remain poorly understood. The extinction of species that feed on or are fed on by many others (i.e. 'hubs') has traditionally been thought to cause the greatest threat of further biodiversity loss. Very little attention has been paid to the strength of those feeding links (i.e. link weight) and the prevalence of indirect interactions. Here, we used a dynamical model based on empirical energy budget data to assess changes in ecosystem stability after simulating the loss of species according to various extinction scenarios. Link weight and/or indirect effects had stronger effects on food-web stability than the simple removal of 'hubs', demonstrating that both quantitative fluxes and species dissipating their effects across many links should be of great concern in biodiversity conservation, and the potential for 'hubs' to act as keystone species may have been exaggerated to date. PMID:27346328

  4. Discriminating direct and indirect connectivities in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taek; Moore, Richard; Li, Yi; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

    2015-10-13

    Reverse engineering of biological pathways involves an iterative process between experiments, data processing, and theoretical analysis. Despite concurrent advances in quality and quantity of data as well as computing resources and algorithms, difficulties in deciphering direct and indirect network connections are prevalent. Here, we adopt the notions of abstraction, emulation, benchmarking, and validation in the context of discovering features specific to this family of connectivities. After subjecting benchmark synthetic circuits to perturbations, we inferred the network connections using a combination of nonparametric single-cell data resampling and modular response analysis. Intriguingly, we discovered that recovered weights of specific network edges undergo divergent shifts under differential perturbations, and that the particular behavior is markedly different between topologies. Our results point to a conceptual advance for reverse engineering beyond weight inference. Investigating topological changes under differential perturbations may address the longstanding problem of discriminating direct and indirect connectivities in biological networks. PMID:26420864

  5. Effects of pulse shape on indirect drive ICF capsule robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abe; Haan, Steve; Herrmann, Mark; Salmonson, Jay; Marinak, Michael

    2004-11-01

    The pulse shape incident on an ICF capsule plays an important role in determining the capsule's performance. Keeping the capsule on a low adiabat maximizes its compressibility and reduces the energy required for ignition. However, 2D studies of direct drive designs suggest that capsules with high adiabats are more robust with respect to the growth of perturbations than capsules with lower adiabats. The question arises, what is the optimal adiabat and pulse shape for an indirect drive inertial confinement fusion capsule? Is there any advantage in having the adiabat above the absolute minimum? To answer these questions we have developed an automated pulse shaper for the HYDRA computer codefootnote[2]Marinak, M. M. et. al. ``Three-dimensional HYDRA simulations of National Ignition Facility targets'' Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001). and used it to study the sensitivity of indirect drive capsules to various pulse shapes.

  6. NUMERICALLY PREDICTED INDIRECT SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dobinson, Jack; Carter, Philip J.; Lines, Stefan

    2015-06-10

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  7. General field and office procedures for indirect discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, M.A.; Dalrymple, Tate

    2001-04-01

    The discharge of streams is usually measured by the current-meter method. During flood periods, however, it is frequently impossible or impractical to measure the discharges by this method when they occur. Consequently, many peak discharges must be determined after the passage of the flood by indirect methods, such as slope-area, contracted-opening, flow-over-dam, and flow-through-culvert, rather than by direct current-meter measurement. Indirect methods of determining peak discharge are based on hydraulic equations which relate the discharge to the water-surface profile and the geometry of the channel. A field survey is made after the flood to determine the location and elevation of high-water marks and the characteristics of the channel. Detailed descriptions of the general procedures used in collecting the field data and in computing the discharge are given in this report. Each of the methods requires special procedures described in subsequent chapters.

  8. Theory and validity of indirect calorimetry during net lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Livesey, G

    1988-04-01

    A critical examination is made of the validity of indirect calorimetry when the nonprotein respiratory quotient is greater than 1. The different published stoichiometries for lipogenesis from glucose are excluded as a source of uncertainty in the interpretation of gaseous exchange measurements. The validity of indirect calorimetry is proved independently by an algebraic approach which, in contrast to previous attempts, makes minimal assumptions about stoichiometries. Although equations relating the respiratory quotient to the heat equivalent of oxygen are found valid, there is uncertainty in using these equations to predict accurately carbohydrate utilization and fat oxidized or synthesized. Reference tables interrelating respiratory data, the heat equivalent of oxygen, and net fuel utilization or synthesis for specified fuels are provided. A suggested framework for calculating energy expenditure in terms of ATP gain is given as an appendix. PMID:3281433

  9. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  10. Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies at VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, James; Finley, John P.; Zitzer, Ben

    2014-08-01

    Recent data and cosmological models point to a significant fraction of the Universe comprised of Cold Dark Matter (DM), though little is known about it directly. The most likely explanation for Dark Matter is a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) having a mass as low as 10 GeV to as high as 10 TeV. Many direct and indirect detection schemes have been proposed to search for the elusive particle. Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies (dSphs) orbiting the Milky Way Galaxy are suitable targets for indirect DM detection via gamma-rays because the ratio of their gravitational mass to luminous mass is high and their gamma-ray background from other astrophysical sources is low. We present preliminary results on the VERITAS observations of five dSphs. The thermally-averaged DM annihilation velocity-weighted cross-section can then computed from the gamma-ray flux upper limit.

  11. Weighting and indirect effects identify keystone species in food webs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Huayong; O'Gorman, Eoin J; Tian, Wang; Ma, Athen; Moore, John C; Borrett, Stuart R; Woodward, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Species extinctions are accelerating globally, yet the mechanisms that maintain local biodiversity remain poorly understood. The extinction of species that feed on or are fed on by many others (i.e. 'hubs') has traditionally been thought to cause the greatest threat of further biodiversity loss. Very little attention has been paid to the strength of those feeding links (i.e. link weight) and the prevalence of indirect interactions. Here, we used a dynamical model based on empirical energy budget data to assess changes in ecosystem stability after simulating the loss of species according to various extinction scenarios. Link weight and/or indirect effects had stronger effects on food-web stability than the simple removal of 'hubs', demonstrating that both quantitative fluxes and species dissipating their effects across many links should be of great concern in biodiversity conservation, and the potential for 'hubs' to act as keystone species may have been exaggerated to date.

  12. Indirect detections and analyses of GRBs by ionospheric response

    SciTech Connect

    Slosiar, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-05-25

    We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID--Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency), and discus its possible impact on GRB science and investigations in general. Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss examples of such VLF/SID detection of GRBs 060124A, GRB080319D a GRB080320A. A network of SID monitors has been created and is operated to detect more GRBs. The importance of these detections for GRB analyses and GRB science in general is still to be further and in full detail exploited. Some possible outcomes in this direction will be outlined and discussed.

  13. Indirect and direct tensile behavior of Devonian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.P.; Chen, J.L.; Dana, G.F.; Weber, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    Ultimate indirect tensile strengths of Devonian oil shales across the bedding planes is a mechanical property parameter important to predicting how oil shale will break. This is particularly important to in-situ fragmentation. The Split Cylinder Test was used to determine the indirect tensile strengths between the bedding planes. Test specimens, cored perpendicular to the bedding planes, representing oil shales of different oil yields taken from Silver Point Quad in DeKalb County, Tennessee and Friendship in Scioto County, Ohio, were subjected to the Split Cylinder Test. Linear regression equations relating ultimate tensile strength across the bedding planes to volume percent of organic matter in the rock were developed from the test data. In addition, direct tensile strengths were obtained between the bedding planes for the Tennessee oil shales. This property is important for the design of horizontal fractures in oil shales. Typical results were presented.

  14. Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Natalie

    2011-11-11

    The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated.

  15. A case of indirect exposure to cat at school.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Perfetti, L; Moscato, G

    2003-01-01

    Indirect exposure to cat allergens may exacerbate asthma in sensitized subjects. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl referred to our Unit for cough, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, nasal itching and obstruction during the past six months, with improvement during summer holidays. Skin prick tests were positive for cat and Alternaria alternata. She had no cats at home. Spirometry was normal and methacoline bronchial challenge was negative. PEF monitoring showed a mean value of 80% of the predicted value with a variability higher than 20% in a few occasions. At a follow up visit PEF recording showed an increase of 80 litres/min during a 2 weeks Christmas holidays, and a subsequent reduction after being back at school. At a further questioning we found that in her class there was a girl who owned 23 cats. It is likely that PEF and symptoms in our patient were affected by indirect cat exposure at school.

  16. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  17. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  18. Indirect-drive ablative Richtmyer Meshkov node scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, O. L.; Baker, K. L.; Clark, D. S.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hammel, B. A.; Ho, D. D.; Hurricane, O. A.; Lindl, J. D.; Loomis, E. N.; Masse, L.; Mauche, C.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Yi, S. A.; Velikovich, A. L.; Weber, C.

    2016-05-01

    The ablation front Rayleigh Taylor hydroinstability growth dispersion curve for indirect-drive implosions has been shown to be dependent on the Richtmyer Meshkov growth during the first shock transit phase. In this paper, a simplified treatment of the first shock ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (ARM) growth dispersion curve is used to extract differences in ablation front perturbation growth behavior as function of foot pulse shape and ablator material for comparing the merits of various ICF design option.

  19. An indirect basal ganglia pathway in anuran amphibians?

    PubMed

    Maier, Silke; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Luksch, Harald; Endepols, Heike

    2010-09-01

    The mammalian subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic cell group within the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. It receives input from the external globus pallidus (GP) and in turn projects to the internal GP and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). While the direct pathway from striatum to SNr is well established in anurans, it is unknown whether they possess an indirect pathway including a STN homologue. The subthalamic region comprises the dorsocaudal suprachiasmatic nucleus (dcSC), the posterior entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and the ventral part of the ventral thalamus (vVM/VL). In the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis we investigated whether one of these areas match the criteria established for the mammalian STN. We delineated the SNr in the midbrain tegmentum by labeling the striatonigral terminal field by means of GABA-, substance P-, and enkephalin immunohistochemistry and striatal tracer injections. Subsequently, we used double fluorescence tracing with injections into the SNr and GP to stain different parts of the indirect pathway. Confocal laser scan analysis revealed that dcSC, EP, and vVM/VL contain retrogradely labeled neurons projecting to the SNr, contacted by anterogradely labeled terminals arising in the GP. Immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against glutamate and the glutamate transporters EAAC1 and vGluT2 demonstrated that the investigated nuclei contain glutamatergic neurons. Our results suggest that all regions in the subthalamic region fulfill our morphological criteria, except the connection back to the GP. An indirect basal ganglia pathway seems to be present in anuran amphibians, although we cannot exclusively delineate an STN homologue.

  20. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Harihar, Vivek; Kothudum, Ashwini Rajareddy; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  1. Direct and indirect adhesive restorative materials: a review.

    PubMed

    Kugel, G

    2000-11-01

    Esthetic restorative materials require a bonding procedure in order to be durable and reliable. In order to accomplish this ideal, the bonding system must be biocompatible, bond indifferently to enamel and dentin, have sufficient strength to resist masticator forces, have mechanical properties close to those of tooth structures, be resistant to degradation in the oral environment and easy to use. This paper reviews the published literature on direct and indirect adhesive restorative materials.

  2. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. Method A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. Results The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government’s contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Conclusions Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. PMID:25512430

  3. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-09-10

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

  4. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  5. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  6. An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John; Coyne, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have found that girls may be just as aggressive as boys when manipulative forms of aggression, such as gossiping and spreading rumors, are included. These forms of aggression are known by 3 different names: indirect aggression, relational aggression, and social aggression. This review examines their commonalities and differences, and concludes that they are essentially the same form of aggression. We show that analogous forms are not found in other species. We offer a functional account: indirect aggression is an alternative strategy to direct aggression, enacted when the costs of direct aggression are high, and whose aim is to socially exclude, or harm the social status of, a victim. In this light, we consider sex differences and developmental trends and the impact of this aggression on victims. We conclude that indirect, relational, and social aggression are much more similar than they are different, and we suggest ways in which future research can be facilitated by integrating the three areas under an adaptive framework.

  7. Clothing increases the risk of indirect ballistic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. The objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation. Methods Twenty-five fresh red deer femora embedded in ballistic gelatine were shot with varying distances off their medial cortex with a 5.56 × 45 mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bullet while being filmed with a slow-motion video. We compared the effect of two different gelatine depths and the effect of denim cloth laid onto the impact surface of the moulds. Results Bullet passage in thinner moulds failed to cause fracture because the bullet exited the mould before a large expanding temporary cavity was produced. Clothing dramatically altered the size and depth of the expanding cavity, as well as increased lateral pressures, resulting in more severe fractures with greater bullet distances from the bone that can cause fracture. Conclusions Clothing increases the risk of indirect fracture and results in larger, more superficial temporary cavities, with greater lateral pressures than are seen in unclothed specimens, resulting in more comminuted fractures. Greater tissue depth affords the 5.56 × 45 mm NATO a chance to yaw and thus develop an enlarging temporary cavity that is sufficient to cause fracture. PMID:24267379

  8. Direct and indirect coupling mechanisms in a chiral plasmonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongkai; Wen, Xiaojing; Qu, Yu; Fu, Tong; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2016-10-01

    Artificial chiral plasmonic nanostructures (ACPNs) are widely studied and used in biological monitoring, analytical chemistry, and negative-refractive-index media. The mechanism of direct coupling between two twist metal nanorods has been obtained in usual ACPNs. In this work, we proposed a nanosystem of twist nanorods separated by a metal film (TNMF). By analyzing the charge distributions, a new indirect coupling mechanism is found. According to the equivalent LC resonant circuits, gold nanorods on the two sides of the gold film can be regarded as a receiver and an emitter. These components enhanced transmittance and provided direct and indirect coupling mechanisms for the circular dichroism (CD). The direct coupling mode cannot be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned monotonously by monotonously varying geometric dimensions. However, the CD signal of indirect coupling can be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned to its maximum by varying geometric dimensions when the impedances of both sides of the gold film match. These results can help design novel chiral optical structures and promote combined applications between photons and electrons when a gold film is powered on.

  9. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens.

  10. Tag-based indirect reciprocity by incomplete social information.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2007-03-01

    Evolution of altruistic behaviour in interacting individuals is accounted for by, for example, kin selection, direct reciprocity, spatially limited interaction and indirect reciprocity. Real social agents, particularly humans, often take actions based on similarity between themselves and others. Although tag-based indirect reciprocity in which altruism occurs exclusively among similar flocks is a natural expectation, its mechanism has not really been established. We propose a model of tag-based indirect reciprocity by assuming that each player may note strategies of others. We show that tag-based altruism can evolve to eradicate other strategies, including unconditional defectors for various initial strategy configurations and parameter sets. A prerequisite for altruism is that the strategy is sometimes, but not always, visible to others. Without visibility of strategies, policing does not take place and defection is optimal. With perfect visibility, what a player does is always witnessed by others and cooperation is optimal. In the intermediate regime, discriminators based on tag proximity, rather than mixture of generous players and defectors, are most likely to evolve. In this situation, altruism is realized based on homophily in which players are exclusively good to similar others.

  11. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Materials and Methods Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. Results The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 µSv and 37.8 µSv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 µSv, 27.6 µSv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 µSv, 15.9 µSv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. Conclusion To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom. PMID:23807930

  12. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Tavakoli, Maryam; Ullio, Piero

    2014-07-01

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  14. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Ullio, Piero; Tavakoli, Maryam E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov E-mail: maryam.tavakoli@desy.de

    2014-07-01

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow ≅ 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  15. Combined monitor for direct and indirect measurement of biofouling.

    PubMed

    Eguía, Emilio; Trueba, Alfredo; Río-Calonge, Belén; Girón, Alfredo; Amieva, Juan José; Bielva, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling is one of the most important problems associated with heat exchangers, leading to a loss of thermal performance in their cycle. To maintain them in optimum working condition, biofouling must be kept under control and, to do so, instrumentation is required for its monitoring. The development of the biofouling layer can be qualitatively followed, but only during maintenance shutdown periods is it possible to attain a quantitative assessment. The CMDIMB [Combined Monitor for Direct and Indirect Measurement of Biofouling] was conceived as a means of discovering the evolution of the frictional resistance (f) and the heat transfer resistance (R(f)) of a fluid because these are variables that indirectly define the biofouling deposited in the tubes of a seawater-cooled heat exchanger. They likewise serve to directly indicate its mass and thickness according to the total solid matter adhered over time. The results obtained allowed the values of the variables taken by the CMDIMB to be extrapolated to the heat exchanger that was set up in parallel. The CMDIMB is proposed as a highly useful tool for directly and indirectly monitoring biofouling growth in heat exchangers that do not possess the necessary instrumentation to monitor this phenomenon. PMID:18167032

  16. Pro-drugs for indirect cannabinoids as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John

    2008-10-01

    Medicinal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and other cannabinoids are currently in use or under clinical trial investigation for the control of nausea, emesis and wasting in patients undergoing chemotherapy, the control of neuropathic pain and arthritic pain, and the control of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. The further development of medicinal cannabinoids has been challenged with problems. These include the psychoactivity of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and the lack of availability of highly selective cannabinoid receptor full agonists (for the CB1 or CB2 receptor), as well as problems of pharmacokinetics. Global activation of cannabinoid receptors is usually undesirable, and so enhancement of local endocannabinoid receptor activity with indirect cannabimimetics is an attractive strategy for therapeutic modulation of the endocannabinoid system. However, existing drugs of this type tend to be metabolized by the same enzymes as their target endocannabinoids and are not yet available in a form that is clinically useful. A potential solution to these problems may now have been suggested by the discovery that paracetamol (acetaminophen) exerts its analgesic (and probably anti-pyretic) effects by its degradation into an anandamide (an endocannabinoid) reuptake inhibitor (AM404) within the body, thus classifying it as pro-drug for an indirect cannabimimetic. Given the proven efficacy and safety of paracetamol, the challenge now is to develop related drugs, or entirely different substrates, into pro-drug indirect cannabimimetics with a similar safety profile to paracetamol but at high effective dose titrations.

  17. Direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada, 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M D; Berka, C; Langlois, P; Detsky, A S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate the direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada. DESIGN: Cost-of-illness study. SETTING: Canada. PATIENTS: All Canadians receiving inpatient or outpatient care for asthma in 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct costs incurred by inpatient care, emergency services, physician and nursing services, ambulance use, drugs and devices, outpatient diagnostic tests, research and education. Indirect costs from productivity loss due to absence from work, inability to to perform housekeeping activities, need to care for children with asthma who were absent from school, time spent travelling and waiting for medical care, and premature death from asthma. All costs are in 1990 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Depending on assumptions, the total cost of asthma was estimated to be between $504 million and $648 million. Direct costs were $306 million. The single largest component of direct costs was the cost of drugs ($124 million). The largest component of indirect costs was illness-related disability ($76 million). CONCLUSIONS: Annual costs of treating asthma are comparable to the individual cost of infectious diseases, hematological diseases, congenital defects, perinatal illnesses, home care and ambulance services. Asthma costs may increase in the future, given current morbidity and mortality trends. Further evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available asthma interventions in addition to aggregate cost data are required to determine whether resource allocation for the treatment of asthma can be improved. PMID:8634960

  18. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  19. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    PubMed

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, p<0.05). Fractures patterns were found to be comparable to the PMHS for tests conducted with Synbones, however the input parameters were slightly varied to produce similar results. The fractures patterns with the Sawbones were not found to be as comparable to the PMHS. An ideal bone surrogate for ballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. PMID:26867672

  20. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of ‘image scores’ to summarize individuals’ past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work. PMID:26057241